Science.gov

Sample records for long-term hydrologic monitoring

  1. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 10 and 11, 2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, analyzed the samples. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and for tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  2. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  3. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 18, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method. The laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  4. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2012 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 8, 2012. The samples were shipped to GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry; tritium was analyzed using two methods. The conventional tritium method has a detection limit on the order of 400 pCi/L, and a select set of samples was analyzed for tritium using the enriched method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  5. Gasbuggy, New Mexico Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) that has been conducted since 1972 at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico underground nuclear detonation site. The nuclear testing was conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program, which is discussed in greater detail in Appendix A. The detonation at Gasbuggy took place in 1967, 4,240 feet below ground surface, and was designed to fracture the host rock of a low-permeability natural gas-bearing formation in an effort to improve gas production. The site has historically been managed under the Nevada Offsites Project. These underground nuclear detonation sites are within the United States but outside of the Nevada Test Site where most of the experimental nuclear detonations conducted by the U.S. Government took place. Gasbuggy is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM ).

  6. Long-term hydrologic monitoring program. Rulison Event Site, Grand Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Hydrologic Program Advisory Group reviewed the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program proposed for the Rulison site at their December 12, 1971, meeting. Samples are collected annually, at about the same dates each year. The hydraulic head, temperature in /sup 0/C, pH, and electrical conductance are recorded at the time of sample collection. Prior to October 1, 1979, each sample was analyzed for gamma emitters and tritium. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity measurements were made on all samples collected. After October 1, 1979, these analyses were discontinued in favor of high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a GeLi detector. For each sample location, samples of raw water and filtered and acidified watar are collected. The raw water samples are analyzed for tritium by the conventional method. Those samples with concentrations that are below the detection level for this method are then analyzed by the enrichment method. Portions of the filtered and acidified samples are analyzed for gamma emitters.

  7. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  8. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  9. Impacts of ditch blocking on peatland hydrology - the benefits of long-term monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Green, Sophie; Baird, Andy; Chapman, Pippa; Evans, Chris; Grayson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    A long-term field trial was conducted on a blanket peatland in North Wales. Twelve ditches were studied. After an initial monitoring period, eight of the ditches had peat dams installed a few metres apart along their entire length (dammed), four of these ditches were also partially infilled through bank reprofiling (reprofiled). Four ditches were left open with no dams or reprofiling (open). These 12 ditches and the surrounding peat were then monitored for a further 4 years. The effect of ditch blocking on local water tables was spatially highly variable but small overall (of the order of 2-3 cm) because the site, despite having ditches, already had relatively shallow water tables (medians within the upper 10 cm of the peat profile). An initial five-fold reduction in discharge occurred in ditches that had been dammed or reprofiled. However, there was evidence of a slow change over time in ditch flow at the site in subsequent years, with the overall volume of water leaving the dammed or reprofiled ditch weirs increasing per unit of rainfall to around twice that which occurred in the first year after the restoration. These changes were not observed in the open ditches. There was therefore clear evidence of the benefits of long-term monitoring as hydrological impacts in the first year after ditch blocking were very different from those in later years as the site conditions gradually changed. The additional water that flowed in later periods of the study from the blocked ditch catchments occurred in the form of a more continuously-flowing baseflow with fewer dry periods. The cause of this increase was related to changes in subsurface flow pathways in the peat in the aftermath of re-wetting. We show that these subsurface pathways mean that even in sloping blanket peatlands, the catchment areas for peatland ditches may be very different from that expressed by surface topography alone. Therefore, peatland studies that have estimated aerially-weighted water or carbon

  10. Statistical analysis of long-term hydrologic records for selection of drought-monitoring sites on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busciolano, Ronald J.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the sole source of water supply for more than 3 million people on Long Island, New York. Large-scale ground-water pumpage, sewering systems, and prolonged periods of below-normal precipitation have lowered ground-water levels and decreased stream-discharge in western and central Long Island. No method is currently (2004) available on Long Island that can assess data from the ground-water-monitoring network to enable water managers and suppliers with the ability to give timely warning of severe water-level declines.This report (1) quantifies past drought- and human-induced changes in the ground-water system underlying Long Island by applying statistical and graphical methods to precipitation, stream-discharge, and ground-water-level data from selected monitoring sites; (2) evaluates the relation between water levels in the upper glacial aquifer and those in the underlying Magothy aquifer; (3) defines trends in stream discharge and ground-water levels that might indicate the onset of drought conditions or the effects of excessive pumping; and (4) discusses the long-term records that were used to select sites for a Long Island drought-monitoring network.Long Island’s long-term hydrologic records indicated that the available data provide a basis for development of a drought-monitoring network. The data from 36 stations that were selected as possible drought-monitoring sites—8 precipitation-monitoring stations, 8 streamflow-gaging (discharge) stations, 15 monitoring wells screened in the upper glacial aquifer under water-table (unconfined) conditions, and 5 monitoring wells screened in the underlying Magothy aquifer under semi-confined conditions—indicate that water levels in western parts of Long Island have fallen and risen markedly (more than 15 ft) in response to fluctuations in pumpage, and have declined from the increased use of sanitary- and storm-sewer systems. Water levels in the central and eastern parts, in contrast, remain relatively

  11. Contradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Ribolzi, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Pierret, Alain; Latsachak, Keoudone; Silvera, Norbert; Pham Dinh, Rinh; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Robain, Henri; Taccoen, Adrien; Sengphaathith, Phouthamaly; Mouche, Emmanuel; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Tran Duc, Toan; Valentin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernisation of agriculture involving rapid and mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability which controls habitats, water resources, and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydrometeorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical southeast Asia since 2000. The GR2M water balance model, repeatedly calibrated over successive 1-year periods and used in simulation mode with the same year of rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses, and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal streamflow to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow led to intricate streamflow patterns: pluri-annual streamflow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual streamflow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantations. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas combined with patches of mix-trees plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration vs. planting) led to opposite changes in streamflow regime. Given that

  12. Understanding Biogeochemical and Hydrological Processes in a Reservoir, Kentucky Lake (USA), Using Long-term Monitoring and Real-time Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, S. P.; White, D.; Williamson, M.; Hooks, R.

    2010-12-01

    . Additional real-time monitoring sites will be located in each stream. We presently are evaluating calibration needs, issues, and performance in a continuous-measurement environment. Continuous, high-resolution water quality and meteorological data coupled with the long-term (16-day interval over 22 years) water quality monitoring program will be extremely valuable in helping us understand constituent and hydrological fluxes within Kentucky Lake and the influence of contrasting land-use watersheds in the Tennessee River basin.

  13. Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells ...

  14. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  15. Hydrological Interpretation of ERT Monitoring Data on active landslides by implementation of numerical modelling at sites of the LAMOND Long-Term Landslide Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert; Jochum, Birgit; Riegler, Monika; Scolobig, Anna; Pfeiler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Five landslides are monitored in the framework of the LAMOND Network using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), three of these are located in Austria, one in Italy and one in France. Hydrological interpretation of the collected ERT data is typically carried out qualitatively on a visual basis. In this study, numerical modelling in combination with parameter estimation is implemented to build a basis for an enhanced interpretation. Parameter estimation is carried out by Comsol Multiphysics using Richard's equation and the Optimization module. The result of the forward model (water saturation) is compared to the ERT section (resistivity) using Archies law. The study LAMOND is funded by the Austrian Academy of sciences.

  16. Development of a Long-term Sampling Network to Monitor Restoration Success in the Southwest Coastal Everglades: Vegetation, Hydrology, and Sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction and History Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm, crossed the southern Florida peninsula on the morning of August 24, 1992 (Fig. 1). Following the storm, the National Park Service conducted an environmental damage assessment to gauge the storm's impacts on the natural resources of south Florida Park Service holdings (Pimm et al., 1994). Although hurricanes have impacted Park Service lands such as the Everglades in the past (Houston and Powell, 2003), no systematic, permanent sampling scheme has been established to monitor long-term recovery (or lack thereof) following disturbance. In October 1992, vegetation monitoring plots were established in heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everlgades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers (Smith et al., 1994, see Fig. 2). As the permanent plot network was being established, funding was awarded for the South Florida Global Climate Change project (SOFL-GCC). This led to the establishment of a network of hydrological monitoring stations (Anderson and Smith, 2004). Finally, sediment elevation tables (SETs) were installed at many locations. SETs provide the means to measure very small changes (2 mm) in the sediment surface elevation accurately over time (Cahoon et al., 2002). We also set up marker horizons to measure accretion of sediment at each site (Smith and Cahoon, 2003). Sampling sites were located along three transects extending from upstream freshwater wetlands to downstream saltwater wetlands along the Shark, Lostmans and Chatham Rivers in Everglades National Park (Fig. 2). While we were developing our sampling network for basic scientific research needs, concern mounted over the health of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem and in particular over the influence of decreased freshwater flows (Smith et al., 1989). Ecosystem restoration planning was begun, resulting in the multi-agency, $8 billion Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Our co-located sampling networks

  17. Long-term monitoring for closed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  18. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  19. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  20. Afforestation by natural regeneration or by tree planting: examples of opposite hydrological impacts evidenced by long-term field monitoring in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, G.; Ribolzi, O.; de Rouw, A.; Pierret, A.; Latsachak, K.; Silvera, N.; Pham Dinh, R.; Orange, D.; Janeau, J.-L.; Soulileuth, B.; Robain, H.; Taccoen, A.; Sengphaathith, P.; Mouche, E.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Tran Duc, T.; Valentin, C.

    2015-12-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernization of agriculture involving rapid and highly-mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability controlling habitats, water resources and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydro-meteorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical Southeast Asia since 2001. The GR2M water balance model repeatedly calibrated over successive 1 year periods, and used in simulation mode with specific rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal flows to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow, led to intricate flow patterns: pluri-annual flow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual flow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantation. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas mixed with patches of tree plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration or planting) led to opposite changes in flow regime. Given that commercial tree plantations will continue to

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will also permit

  3. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  4. Using long-term lysimeter data to analyze hydrological trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetz, Thomas; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Roesseler, Anne-Kathrin; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the terrestrial water cycle. Recent studies based on analysis of experimental and observations-based data have shown that over the last decades the magnitude of evapotranspiration (both potential and actual) has been affected by global climate change although the sign and size of the change in ET differ strongly between regions around the globe, as well as between datasets (e.g. Teuling et al. 2009, Jung et al. 2010, Sheffield et al. 2012). Basically, there are two approaches that are available to measure actual evapotranspiration in situ (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2010): the measurement from micrometeorological approaches (in particular the Eddy Covariance method) and the determination of evapotranspiration by measuring the components of the soil water balance. Evett et al. (2012) showed that Eddy Covariance measurements of actual evapotranspiration obtained in irrigated cotton fields was 31 to 45% lower than estimates obtained from soil water balance measurements using lysimeters. Forcing the closure of the energy balance with more data than typically available at EC stations, the difference was still about 17%. Despite the fact that lysimeter systems, especially the weighing based systems, are ideal tools to determine actual evapotranspiration no global assessment has been made of available data at present that might be valuable to assess the impact of climate change on actual evapotranspiration. A screening of literature showed that many data are either not reported or made available through research reports rather than peer reviewed literature. Typically lysimeter studies have been used for well-designed experimental studies for the assessment of flow and transport processes in cropped systems that were limited in time. Still at present, we have lysimeter systems operational that have long term time series available on soil hydrological fluxes. Recently, a few studies were reported that analyzed long term series of

  5. Infrastructure and Components of a Long Term Hydrologic Observing System for the Susquehanna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A.; Barron, E. J.; Duffy, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    A number of recent Federal studies have expressed the need for new approaches to the study of environmental systems with an emphasis on developing regional approaches that include integrated environmental process monitoring, modeling, analysis, and information systems. Successful integrated environmental research requires a well-developed supporting infrastructure that provides a coordinated set of well-placed and well-timed observations, a carefully-designed research program focused on a the key issues in the region, and a comprehensive information system that allows access to observations and process study results. The recent formation of organizations like the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI) is indicative of this trend and provides a starting point for the development of the scientific infrastructure required to support integrated regional environmental research. CUAHSI is proposing to initiate the development of scientific infrastructure in three main areas: long term hydrologic observatories, hydrologic information systems, and hydrologic measurement technologies. This poster describes a conceptual approach for the implementation of a long-term hydrologic observatory in the Susquehanna River Basin that will combine the elements noted above into an integrated regional hydrologic science program. The SRB is the largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay and drains an area of 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. The impact of SRB water quality on the Chesapeake Bay environment as well as the unique hydrologic regime of the river basin has made it a focus of much environmental research in the past century, including a long-term study (the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment (SRBEX)) of the basin and its hydrologic and climatologic characteristics as part of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The SRB is a heavily human-impacted basin with significant water quality issues arising from agricultural

  6. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  7. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program procedures: fish monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliff, Eric N.; Glittinger, Eric J.; O'Hara, T. Matt; Ickes, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    This manual constitutes the second revision of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element Fish Procedures Manual. The original (1988) manual merged and expanded on ideas and recommendations related to Upper Mississippi River fish sampling presented in several early documents. The first revision to the manual was made in 1995 reflecting important protocol changes, such as the adoption of a stratified random sampling design. The 1995 procedures manual has been an important document through the years and has been cited in many reports and scientific manuscripts. The resulting data collected by the LTRMP fish component represent the largest dataset on fish within the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) with more than 44,000 collections of approximately 5.7 million fish. The goal of this revision of the procedures manual is to document changes in LTRMP fish sampling procedures since 1995. Refinements to sampling methods become necessary as monitoring programs mature. Possible refinements are identified through field experiences (e.g., sampling techniques and safety protocols), data analysis (e.g., planned and studied gear efficiencies and reallocations of effort), and technological advances (e.g., electronic data entry). Other changes may be required because of financial necessity (i.e., unplanned effort reductions). This version of the LTRMP fish monitoring manual describes the most current (2014) procedures of the LTRMP fish component.

  8. Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

  9. PLUME-SCALER-EVALUATING LONG-TERM MONITORING WELL NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...

  10. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  11. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  12. Non-intrusive long-term monitoring approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, D.; Mangan, D.

    1998-08-01

    In order to promote internatinal confidence that the US and Russia are disarming per their commitments under Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an international verification regime may be applied to US and Russian excess fissile materials. Initially, it is envisioned that this verification regime would be applied at storage facilities; however, it should be anticipated that the verificatino regime would continue throughout any material disposition activities, should such activities be pursued. once the materials are accepted into the verification regime, it is assumed that long term monitoring will be used to maintain continuity of knowledge. The requirements for long term storage monitoring include unattended operation for extended periods of time, minimal intrusiveness on the host nation`s safety and security activities, data collection incorporating data authentication, and monitoring redundancy to allow resolution of anomalies and to continue coverage in the event of equipment failures. Additional requirements include effective data review and analysis processes, operation during storage facility loading, procedure for removal of inventory items for safety-related surveillance, and low cost, reliable equipment. A monitoring system might include both continuous monitoring of storagecontainers and continuous area monitoring. These would be complemented with periodic on-site inspections. A fissile material storage facility is not a static operation. The initial studies have shown there are a number of volid reasions why a host nation may need them to remove material from the storage facility. A practical monitoring system must be able to accommodate necessary material movements.

  13. Detecting long-term hydrological patterns at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.; Silsbee, D.G.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    1999-01-01

    Tree-ring chronologies for mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) were used to reconstruct the water level of Crater Lake, a high-elevation lake in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon. Reconstructions indicate that lake level since the late 1980s has been lower than at any point in the last 300 years except the early 1930s to mid 1940s. Lake level was consistently higher during the Little Ice Age than during the late 20th century; during the late 17th century, lake level was up to 9 m higher than recent (1980s and 1990s) low levels, which is consistent with paleoclimalic reconstructions of regional precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, instrumental data available for the 20th century suggest that there are strong teleconnections among atmospheric circulation (e.g., Pacific Decadal Oscillation), tree growth, and hydrology in southern Oregon. Crater Lake is sensitive to interannual, interdecadal and intercentenary variation in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, and can be expected to track both short-term and longterm variation in regional climatic patterns that may occur in the future.

  14. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  15. Quantifiable long-term monitoring on parks and nature preserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, Scott; Moorman, Christopher; DePerno, Christopher S.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Herpetofauna have declined globally, and monitoring is a useful approach to document local and long-term changes. However, monitoring efforts often fail to account for detectability or follow standardized protocols. We performed a case study at Hemlock Bluffs Nature Preserve in Cary, NC to model occupancy of focal species and demonstrate a replicable long-term protocol useful to parks and nature preserves. From March 2010 to 2011, we documented occupancy of Ambystoma opacum(Marbled Salamander), Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander), Carphophis amoenus (Eastern Worm Snake), and Diadophis punctatus (Ringneck Snake) at coverboard sites and estimated breeding female Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander) abundance via dependent double-observer egg-mass counts in ephemeral pools. Temperature influenced detection of both Marbled and Red-backed Salamanders. Based on egg-mass data, we estimated Spotted Salamander abundance to be between 21 and 44 breeding females. We detected 43 of 53 previously documented herpetofauna species. Our approach demonstrates a monitoring protocol that accounts for factors that influence species detection and is replicable by parks or nature preserves with limited resources.

  16. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  17. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caughlan, L.; Oakley, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    For an ecological monitoring program to be successful over the long-term, the perceived benefits of the information must justify the cost. Financial limitations will always restrict the scope of a monitoring program, hence the program's focus must be carefully prioritized. Clearly identifying the costs and benefits of a program will assist in this prioritization process, but this is easier said than done. Frequently, the true costs of monitoring are not recognized and are, therefore, underestimated. Benefits are rarely evaluated, because they are difficult to quantify. The intent of this review is to assist the designers and managers of long-term ecological monitoring programs by providing a general framework for building and operating a cost-effective program. Previous considerations of monitoring costs have focused on sampling design optimization. We present cost considerations of monitoring in a broader context. We explore monitoring costs, including both budgetary costs--what dollars are spent on--and economic costs, which include opportunity costs. Often, the largest portion of a monitoring program budget is spent on data collection, and other, critical aspects of the program, such as scientific oversight, training, data management, quality assurance, and reporting, are neglected. Recognizing and budgeting for all program costs is therefore a key factor in a program's longevity. The close relationship between statistical issues and cost is discussed, highlighting the importance of sampling design, replication and power, and comparing the costs of alternative designs through pilot studies and simulation modeling. A monitoring program development process that includes explicit checkpoints for considering costs is presented. The first checkpoint occur during the setting of objectives and during sampling design optimization. The last checkpoint occurs once the basic shape of the program is known, and the costs and benefits, or alternatively the cost

  18. Long-term monitoring of marine gas leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickenbom, Kai; Faber, Eckhard; Poggenburg, Jürgen; Seeger, Christian; Furche, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations is one of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study. Although offshore operations are significantly more expensive than comparable onshore operations, the growing public resistance against onshore CCS projects makes sub-seabed storage a promising option. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is always the possibility of leakage from the reservoir. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. The basic design of the monitoring system builds on our experience in volcano monitoring. Early prototypes were composed of a raft floating on the surface of a mud volcano, carrying sensors for CO2 flux and concentration, data storage and transmission, and power supply by battery-buffered solar panels. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, connected by a flexible tube. This setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. A system for unattended long-term monitoring in a marine environment has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of a funnel-shaped gas collector, a sensor head and pressure housings for electronics and power supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data

  19. Long-term spectropolarimetric monitoring of the cool supergiant betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedecarrax, I.; Petit, P.; Aurière, M.; Grunhut, J.; Wade, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Donati, J.-F.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Perrin, G.

    2013-05-01

    We report on a long-term monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse, using the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters, respectively installed at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii). The data set, constituted of circularly polarized (Stokes V) and intensity (Stokes I) spectra, was collected between 2010 and 2012. We investigate here the temporal evolution of magnetic field, convection and temperature at photospheric level, using simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field component, the core emission of the Ca II infrared triplet, the line-depth ratio of selected photospheric lines and the radial velocity of the star.

  20. Monitor the Long-Term Stability of FGS 3 Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferys, William

    1992-06-01

    THIS PROPOSAL CONTAINS A SUBSET OF THE LONG-TERM STABILITY TEST. THIS PROPOSAL IS NOT TO BE RUN ON THE SPACECRAFT IN THIS FORM. THE TARGET LIST AND EXPOSURE LOGSHEET CONTAIN THE ASTROMETRYPART OF THIS TEST. THE REMAINDER OF THE PROPOSAL IS ADUMMY TO ALLOW IT TO PASS THROUGH RPSS VALIDATION. The goal of these measurements is to monitor the internal positional stability of the FGSs by measuring many stars in the M35 check field repeatedly over a one year period. The results of these measurements are the stability characteristics of the FGS to allow an estimate of differential corrections to OFAD and Plate Scale. This is an ecliptic field. During each of two primary orientations, we will secure observations over a 130 day span, roughly every 30 days. THIS IS AN FGS 3 TEST

  1. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators.

  2. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  3. Long-term optical spectral monitoring of NGC 7469

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalova, Alla I.; Popović, L. Č.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A.; Burenkov, A. N.; Kollatschny, W.; Spiridonova, O.; Valdes, J. R.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Carrasco, L.; Zhdanova, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of the long-term (20-year period, from 1996 to 2015) optical spectral monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469. The variation in the light-curves of the broad He II λ4686Å Hβ and Hα lines, and the continuum at 5100 Å and 6300 Å have been explored. The maximum of activity was in 1998, and the variability in the continuum and lines seems to have two periods of around 1200 and 2600 days, however these periodicities should be taken with caution because of the red-noise. Beside these periods, there are several short-term (1-5 days) flare-like events in the light-curves. There are good correlations between the continuum fluxes and Hα and Hβ line fluxes, but significantly smaller correlation between the He II and continuum. We found that the time-lags between the continuum and broad lines are different for Hβ (˜20 l.d.) and Hα (˜3 l.d.), and that He II also has a smaller lag (˜2-3 l.d.). The Hα and Hβ line profiles show a slight red asymmetry, and the broad line profiles did not changed in the 20-year period. Using the lags and widths of Hα and Hβ we estimated the central black hole mass and found that it is ˜(1 - 6) · 107 M⊙, which is in agreement with previous reverberation estimates.

  4. Long term landslide monitoring with Ground Based SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Luzi, Guido; Gili, Josep; Moya, Jose; Corominas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Ground-Based (GBSAR) has proven to be a reliable microwave Remote Sensing technique in several application fields, especially for unstable slopes monitoring. GBSAR can provide displacement measurements over few squared kilometres areas and with a very high spatial and temporal resolution. This work is focused on the use of GBSAR technique for long term landslide monitoring based on a particular data acquisition configuration, which is called discontinuous GBSAR (D-GBSAR). In the most commonly used GBSAR configuration, the radar is left installed in situ, acquiring data periodically, e.g. every few minutes. Deformations are estimated by processing sets of GBSAR images acquired during several weeks or months, without moving the system. By contrast, in the D-GBSAR the radar is installed and dismounted at each measurement campaign, revisiting a given site periodically. This configuration is useful to monitor slow deformation phenomena. In this work, two alternative ways for exploiting the D-GBSAR technique will be presented: the DInSAR technique and the Amplitude based Technique. The former is based on the exploitation of the phase component of the acquired SAR images and it allows providing millimetric precision on the deformation estimates. However, this technique presents several limitations like the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component that can make it non applicable in some cases, specially when working in natural environments. The second approach, that is based on the use of the amplitude component of GB-SAR images combined with a image matching technique, will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets avoiding two of the limitations commented above: the phase unwrapping and atmosphere contribution but reducing the deformation measurement precision. Two successful examples of D

  5. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  6. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  7. The long-term hydrological effect of forest stands on the stability of slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, T. A.; Meng, W.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-04-01

    Forest is widely known to improve slope stability as a result of mechanical and hydrological effects. While the mechanics underlying the stabilizing process of root reinforcement are well understood and quantified, the influence of forest on the occurrence of critical hydrological conditions in terms of suction or pore pressure remains uncertain. Due to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations, the stabilizing influence of evaporation and transpiration is difficult to isolate from the overall noise of the hydrological signal. More long-term effects of forest stands on soil development are highly variable and thus difficult to observe and quantify. Often these effects are ambivalent, having potentially a stabilizing or destabilizing influence on a slope under particular conditions (e.g., more structured soils leading to both rapid infiltration and drainage). Consequently, it can be postulated that forests will hydrologically influence the magnitude-frequency distribution of landsliding, not only at the stand level but also on a regional scale through the groundwater system. The overall aim of this research is to understand and quantify the stabilizing hydrological effect of forests on potentially unstable slopes. To this end, we focus on the changes in the magnitude-frequency distribution of landsliding that arise as a result of variations in evapotranspiration losses over the life cycle of stands. Temporal variations in evapotranspiration comprise first of all the interception that can account for an important amount of evaporation from a forest, and that changes with seasonal and annual variations in the interception capacity of the canopy and forest floor. Transpiration also represents an important loss that varies over the various growth stages of a forest stand. Based on a literature review of water consumption by tree species and water balance studies of forested catchments we defined the potential transpiration for different growth stages. This information we

  8. Influence of long-term variation in storage on hydrological drought characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huijgevoort, Marjolein; van Lanen, Henny; Teuling, Adriaan; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Characteristics of drought events in streamflow, like drought duration and deficit, are largely determined by catchment processes. Understanding and identification of these processes that affect drought development is important to ensure water availability in the future, especially because drought severity is projected to increase in many regions of the world. In this study, we analysed the influence of storage processes on drought characteristics to quantify the relationship between long-term variation in storage and drought characteristics. For this analysis, a large dataset with discharge observations from 1737 catchments (made available by GRDC and MOPEX) was used. The catchments are situated in Europe and the United States. The discharge time series were divided in three components with a Seasonal-Trend decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL). The long-term trend component derived with the STL method was used as a proxy for the long-term variation in storage. Hydrological drought events were identified from the observations with the variable threshold level method. The contribution of the trend component to the total discharge indicates the importance of the long-term storage variation for drought development in the catchment. A high contribution of the trend component was found in slowly-responding catchments compared to fast-responding catchments. Features of drought propagation (pooling, lag, lengthening and attenuation) were identified in slowly-responding catchments. The contribution of the trend component was linked to the mean drought duration. As expected the catchments with a high contribution experienced relatively long drought events as compared to catchments with a low contribution of the trend component. This relation was less clear for the mean standardized deficit volume. A high contribution of the trend component was only found in smaller catchments, which reflects the importance of storage processes in these catchments. With the STL

  9. Long-term hydrologic effects on marsh plant community structure in the southern Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, David E.; Loftus, W.F.; Bass, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Although large-scale transformation of Everglades landscapes has occurred during the past century, the patterns of association among hydrologic factors and southern Everglades freshwater marsh vegetation have not been well-defined. We used a 10-year data base on the aquatic biota of Shark Slough to classify vegetation and describe plant community change in intermediate- to long-hydroperiod Everglades marshes. Study area marsh vegetation was quantitatively grouped into associations dominated by 1) Cladium jamaicense, 2) a group of emergents including Eleocharis cellulosa, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Rhyncospora tracyi, 3) taxa associated with algal mats (Utricularia spp. and Bacopa caroliniana), and 4) the grasses Panicum hemitomon and Paspalidium geminatum. During the decade evaluated, the range of water depths that characterized our study sites approached both extremes depicted in the 40-year hydrologic record for the region. Water depths were near the long-term average during the mid-1980s, declined sharply during a late 1980s drought, and underwent a prolonged increase from 1991 through 1995. Overall macrophyte cover varied inversely with water depth, while the response of periphyton was more complex. An ordination analysis, based on plant species abundance, revealed that study area vegetation structure was associated with hydrologic patterns. Marsh plant community structure showed evidence of cyclic interannual variation corresponding to hydrologic change over the decade evaluated. Lower water depths, the occurrence of marl substrates, and high periphyton cover were correlated. These factors contributed to reduced macrophyte cover in portions of the study area from which water had been diverted.

  10. The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    The Cottonwood Lake study area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America; the other two are Orchid Meadows in South Dakota and St. Denis in Saskatchewan. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has, by far, the longest continuous data-collection record. Research was initiated at the study area in 1966, and intensive investigations of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of prairie pothole wetlands continue at the site today. This fact sheet describes the study area, provides an overview of wetland ecology research that has been conducted at the site in the past, and provides an introduction to current work being conducted at the study area by USGS scientists.

  11. A long-term national-scale hydrological simulation of river flows across Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Alison; Bell, Victoria; Kay, Alison; Davies, Helen

    2016-04-01

    The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's national-scale hydrological model, Grid-to-Grid, can be used to estimate river flows and soil moisture across Great Britain. It is used operationally at the flood forecasting centre and there have been a number of studies on floods and climate change using this model, however to date, low flows and droughts have been comparatively neglected. The launch of a five-year NERC-funded interdisciplinary research programme "UK Droughts and Water Scarcity" is allowing us to address this. Our work on one of these projects, MaRIUS (Managing the Risks, Impacts and Uncertainties of droughts and water Scarcity), uses the model to identify drought periods. The model is driven by a new long-term (1890 - 2012) precipitation dataset (CEH-GEAR) and estimates of potential evaporation. Model performance is assessed against observed river flows for both high and low flows. Gridded time series of monthly mean river flow and soil moisture from the model have been analysed to identify historic hydrological droughts across Great Britain using concepts such as severity and duration. We also investigate how drought occurrence and severity have changed over the last 100 years and identify regions that have been particularly susceptible to drought.

  12. Integration of Research with Long-Term Monitoring: Breeding Wood Ducks on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennamer, R.A.; Hepp, G.R.

    2000-10-01

    In 1981, long-term monitoring of breeding wood ducks was initiated. Females were marked and recaptured for 15 years and annual population parameters were developed. Precise parameter estimates were possible due to high capture rates. The results contribute to the long-term understanding of wood duck populations.

  13. Smartphone based monitoring system for long-term sleep assessment.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of sleep disorders, highly prevalent in Western countries, typically involves sophisticated procedures and equipment that are highly intrusive to the patient. The high processing capabilities and storage capacity of current portable devices, together with a big range of available sensors, many of them with wireless capabilities, create new opportunities and change the paradigms in sleep studies. In this work, a smartphone based sleep monitoring system is presented along with the details of the hardware, software and algorithm implementation. The aim of this system is to provide a way for subjects, with no pre-diagnosed sleep disorders, to monitor their sleep habits, and on the initial screening of abnormal sleep patterns.

  14. Simulating long-term landcover change and forest hydrology dynamics in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, R. S.; Zuuring, H. R.

    2008-05-01

    Snow is the dominant source of water in the Rocky Mountains. In forested watersheds, patterns of snow accumulation, melt and evapotranspiration are strongly influenced by canopy and other vegetation characteristics. Changes in the extent, composition, and configuration of the forest canopy over time due to succession or disturbance processes can lead to measurable changes in streamflow and water yield. Removal of forest cover generally increases streamflow due to reduced canopy interception and evapotranspiration. Water, yield increases and advanced peak discharge are attributed to increased snow accumulation, and enhanced melt rates in forest openings. Because knowledge of long-term watershed-level streamflow responses to landcover dynamics is limited by relatively short-term gauge data, a modeling approach that takes advantage of existing data and combines vegetation and hydrologic simulation systems to evaluate these interactions is presented. Time-series vegetation changes were simulated with the SIMPPLLE (Simulating Patterns and Processes at Landscape ScaLEs), and integrated into hydrologic simulations performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Results suggest that both vegetation and hydrologic characteristics of the research watershed are at the limits of their estimated natural ranges. Although simulated species composition remained fairly stable over time, the size and connectivity of current landcover patches are at the upper end of their estimated temporal distribution. The large proportion and continuous extent of forest cover associated with current conditions coincide with water yield, peak discharge rates, and flow variability that are at the low end of their modeled distributions. The integrated modeling approach described herein should be applicable in other ecosystems given knowledge of biophysical interactions and availability of appropriate data. By gaining an understanding of the possible range of variability due to natural

  15. Long-term environmental monitoring at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-11-01

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for over 45 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations (nuclear and nonnuclear) on air, surface and ground water, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils and vegetation. Data from monitoring efforts are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1988, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is increasing. The Hanford Site also serves as a refuge for Canada good (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyote (Canis latrans). 32 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Long term wireless ambient monitoring of heritage buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayong; Pozzi, Matteo; Zonta, Daniele; Zanon, Paolo; Ceriotti, Matteo; Mottola, Luca; Picco, Gian Pietro; Murphy, Amy L.; Guna, Stefan; Corrà, Michele

    2010-04-01

    Motivated by the preservation of an artistic treasure, the fresco of the "Cycle of the Months" on the second floor in an historic tower, Torre Aquila, a wireless sensor network (WSN) has been developed and installed for permanent health monitoring. The monitoring scheme covers both static and dynamic evaluation of the tower structural integrity from local to global scale and consists of 17 nodes, including 2 long length fiber optic sensors (FOS), 3 accelerometers and 12 environmental nodes. The system has been working for 1.5 years and has been debugged and updated both as to hardware and software. This paper focuses mainly on the ambient vibration analysis used to investigate the performance of the sensor nodes and structural properties of the tower. Initial ambient vibration monitoring shows that cyclic environmental factors, such as traffic flow, are not the dominant cause of tower vibration; and the vibration levels of the tower in different axes are not large enough to be a critical issue calling for attention under current conditions. It proves that the WSN is an effective tool, capable of providing information relevant to safety assessment of the tower.

  17. Long term monitoring of landslide: observation gravitational slope cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palis, Edouard; Lebourg, Thomas; Vidal, Maurin

    2016-04-01

    Since several years of studies on landslides, we realized the role and subtle interactions that existed between the structural complexity, masses dynamics and complex internal circulation of fluids. Thus, to gain a better understanding of the processes taking place during the evolution of an unstable slope, an observational study is necessary. In this perspective, our team currently monitors slow moving landslide zones. The aim of such a monitoring is to gain a better knowledge of the links between external forcing (meteorological, seismological) and signals going out of the slope (kinematic, vibrations, electrical resistivity). In December 2000, a dramatic event affected the sandy/clayey landslide in the Southern Alpes Maritimes (France). A 10 meters high scarp appeared at the foot of the landslide and affected private yards nearby. This area then became a major concern for local authorities and understand the processes taking place, a scientific challenge. In order to understand the land-sliding reactivations and to quantify the natural cycles of deformations, we analyse the main factors of this complex system. After 10 years of observation we are now able to highlight some of the complex behaviours by the measurement of physical parameters (geophysical monitoring). A permanent 115 m ERT line (5 meters electrode spacing) has been installed and provides an acquisition daily since 2006. The daily acquisitions are now accompanied by continuous measurements from boreholes (thermometers, piezometers, tiltmeters) and pluviometry. We are able to control the whole monitoring from the lab, and all these data are transmitted in real time. The analysis of these large amounts of data over large time series allows the detection of seasonal cycles of surface activity. The deformation taking place can be assimilated to a near-elastic deformation and show a lateral decoupling on both sides of the fault cutting the landslide. These deformation cycles can be associated with the

  18. Long Term Monitoring Program: Comparative Analysis of the 2014 LTM Collection, September 23, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NBH long-term monitoring data are analyzed by EPA's Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, to assess spatial & temporal chemical and biological data trends & to evaluate the effects & effectiveness of Site remedial activities.

  19. 2016 RFA for Great Lakes Long-Term Biology Monitoring Program: Phytoplankton Component

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue the long-term monitoring of phytoplankton in the open waters of the Great Lakes.

  20. Subsurface Remediation: Improving Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Systems Performance Conference Proceedings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the presentations and workshops of a conference on improving long-term monitoring (LTM) and remedial systems performance that was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 8th to 11th, 1999.

  1. AMMA-CATCH a Hydrological, Meteorological and Ecological Long Term Observatory on West Africa : Some Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, S.; Grippa, M.; Peugeot, C.; Bouzou Moussa, I.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Mougin, E.; Lebel, T.; Chaffard, V.

    2015-12-01

    AMMA-CATCH is a multi-scale observation system dedicated to long-term monitoring of the water cycle, the vegetation dynamics and their interaction with climate and water resources in West Africa. In the context of the global change, long-term observations are required to i) gain understanding in eco-hydrological processes over this highly contrasted region, ii) help their representation in Earth System Models, and iii) detect trends and infer their impacts on water resources and living conditions. It is made of three meso-scale sites (~ 1°x1°) in Mali, Niger and Benin, extending along the West African eco-climatic gradient. Within this regional window (5° by 9°), each of the three sites comprises a multi-scale set-up which helps documenting the components of the hydrologic budget and the evolutions of the surface conditions over a range of time scales: raingages, piezometers, river discharge stations, soil moisture and temperature profiles, turbulent fluxes measurements, LAI/biomass monitoring. This observation system has been continuously generating coherent datasets for 10 to 25 years depending on the datasets. It is jointly operated by French and African (Mali, Niger and Benin) research institutions. The data-base is available to the community through the website (www.amma-catch.org). AMMA-CATCH is a member of the French critical zone observatory network "Réseau des Bassins Versants", (RBV). AMMA-CATH participates to several global or regional observation networks, such as FluxNet, CarboAfrica, International Soil Moisture Networks (ISMN) and to calibration/validation campaigns for satellite missions such as SMOS (CNES, ESA), MEGHA-TROPIQUES (France/India) or SWAP(NASA). AMMA-CATCH fills a gap over a region, West Africa, where environmental data are largely lacking, and thus, it can usefully contribute to the international networking effort for environmental monitoring and research. Recent results on regional evolution of land cover, rainfall intensity and

  2. Long-term monitoring of Ark 120 with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, M.; Papadakis, I. E.; Grupe, D.; Brinkmann, W. P.; Räth, C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the results of a six-month Swift monitoring campaign of Ark 120, a prototypical `bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy. The lack of intrinsic absorption combined with the nearly contemporaneous coverage of the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray bands makes it possible to investigate the link between the accretion disc and the putative Comptonization corona. Our observations confirm the presence of substantial temporal variability, with the X-ray characterized by large-amplitude flux changes on time-scales of few days, while the variations in the UV bands are smoother and occur on time-scales of several weeks. The source also shows spectral variability with the X-ray spectrum steepening when the source is brighter. We do not detect any correlation between the UV flux and the X-ray spectral slope. A cross-correlation analysis suggests positive delays between X-rays and the UV emission, favouring a scenario of disc reprocessing. Although the strength of the correlation is moderate with a delay which is not well constrained (7.5 ± 7 d), it is nevertheless indicative of a very large disc reprocessing region, with a separation between the X-ray and the UV-emitting regions, which could be as large as 1000 rG. The Ark 120 correlation results are in agreement with those obtained in similar multiwavelength monitoring studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). When combined together, the observations so far can be well described by a linear relation between the X-ray/UV delays and the mass of the central black hole. Within the context of the simplest scenario, where these delays correspond to light-travel times, the implied distance between the X-ray source and the optical/UV disc reprocessing region in these AGN should be of the order of many hundreds of gravitational radii.

  3. Long-term hydrological changes of the Aral Sea observed by satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua; Guo, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The Aral Sea has been shrinking since the former Soviet Union constructed irrigation projects to divert water from its main rivers in the 1960s. The diminishing of the Aral Sea is "one of the worst environmental disasters in the world" (from United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon). In this study, 33 years of satellite observations from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and 21 years of satellite altimetry sea level data from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 are used to quantify the long-term hydrological changes in the Aral Sea. A simple algorithm with AVHRR channels 1 and 2 albedo is developed to identify and discriminate the water pixels from land and cloud. Thus, monthly water coverage in the region can be reliably generated. The water coverage maps since 1981 show constant decline of the Aral Sea. The coverage dropped from ˜4.7-4.8 × 104 km2 in 1981 to about ¼ of this value in the recent years. In fact, drastic hydrological change was observed in the main Aral Sea during the 2000s. In the South Aral Sea, sea level shows a steady decrease from 35 m above sea level to <26 m since 1993. Total loss of water storage since 1993 is estimated to be ˜2.0 × 102 km3 for the South Aral Sea with a rate of ˜16-20 km3/yr before 2002, and a smaller value after 2002. In 1990, the North Aral Sea was observed to separate from the main Aral Sea. Water coverage, sea level, and total water storage were kept relatively stable for the period between 1993 and 2013 in the North Aral Sea. A water level increase and coverage expansion occurred during the 2005-2006 period when a dam was built in 2005 between the North Aral Sea and the South-East Aral Sea.

  4. Do we need long term terrestrial glacier mass balance monitoring for the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slupetzky, H.

    2003-04-01

    Beginning with the International Geophysical Year 1958 and followed by other initiatives for world wide glacier observations such as the International Hydrological Decade, a distinctive increase of glacier research such as mass balance measurements was initiated. Some of the long term observations are not interrupted since then. However, because of various problems more and more of the long term series had to be given up. Is it possible to fully switch to air- and spaceborne techniques for glacier monitoring? For the mass balance series (and others glaciological series) we have by far not reached the length of meteorological records. There is an increasing need of longlasting observations for modelling and validation of remote-sensing of snow and ice. On Stubacher Sonnblick Kees, a small slope glacier (1,5 km2), in the Eastern Alps, Hohe Tauern, Province of Salzburg, a mass balance program is carried out. The mass balance has been measured for 39 years, with some extrapolations back to 1959, providing a record of 44 years. The glacier lost 12 Mio.m3 from 1964 to 2002, but had a period of mass gain between 1965 and 1981 of 9,8 Mio m3; since 1982 20,5 Mio m3 were lost. On another small glacier in the same area, the Oedenwinkel Kees, the mass gain period and the reaction of the glacier has been surveyed annualy showing a "kinematic wave". Some comperative measurements have been done on the Cathedral Massif Glacier, B.C., Canada 1977 to 1979 and 1998 and by using data from Storglaciaeren, Sweden, to evaluate the AAR ratio to estimate the net mas balances. There are some substantial reasons to carry on with direct mass balance measurements and not to interrupt or even abandon long series. There has been a great effort to sustain long term series. There is a great demand for new international initiatives to ensure the continuation of the world wide terrestrial glacier monitoring net. On Stubacher Sonnblickkees, it can be expected that the glacier will disappear within

  5. Long-term trends in climate and hydrology in an agricultural headwater watershed of central Pennsylvania, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change has emerged as a key issue facing agriculture and water resources in the US. Long-term (1968-2012) temperature, precipitation and streamflow data from a small (7.3 km2) watershed in east-central Pennsylvania was used to examine climatic and hydrologic trends in the context of recent c...

  6. Long term monitoring system integrated in an elevational gradient in NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilla, J.; Malizia, A.; Osinaga, O.; Blundo, C.; Grau, R.; Malizia, L.; Aráoz, E.

    2013-05-01

    Ecological trends and ranges of variability are poorly known in the tropical and subtropical Andes. Long term studies are powerful tools to detect the response of vegetation dynamics, biodiversity and hydrological cycle to these trends. We present a long term monitoring system in NW Argentinean mountains, including forest permanent plots at different elevations and high elevation grasslands, encompassing more than 3.000 m elevation range. Long term studies include: 1) 66 ha of mountain forest permanent plots along the Yungas elevational gradient from c. 400 to 2500 masl , and latitudinal gradient (22-28S) with 45 plots in mature forests and 28 in secondary forests originated in grazing, agriculture and selective logging. Some of these permanent plots have achieved 20 years of monitoring and all of them are included in the "Red de Bosques Andinos" a network created recently, together with c. 10 institutions and more than 130 (c. 120 ha) forest permanent plots from Argentina to Colombia Andes. 2) Two GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) sites, above 4000 masl with more than 170 species recorded, including one re-measurement. This system is included in GLORIA network (www.gloria.ac.at) and in GLORIA Andes (http://www.condesan.org/gloria), and 3) more than 15 satellite monitored high Andean lakes and a wide extension of vegas (75800 ha in Argentinean puna). A digital database is being implemented to organize and provide access to the information generated by these three systems coordinated by the Instituto de Ecología Regional (http://www.iecologia.com.ar). These monitoring data are analyzed together with instrumental and dendrochronological data to describe the dynamics of these ecosystems over an area of 20 million hectares distributed between 22 and 28°S. Some of the most significant results to date include: 1) secondary mountain forests are expanding over grasslands and agriculture lands, and tend to converge toward mature forest

  7. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Ahmed E.

    2003-09-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  8. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  9. Long-term soil monitoring at U.S. Geological Survey reference watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the environment by making repeated measurements through time is essential to evaluate and track the health of ecosystems (fig. 1). Long-term datasets produced by such monitoring are indispensable for evaluating the effectiveness of environmental legislation and for designing mitigation strategies to address environmental changes in an era when human activities are altering the environment locally and globally.

  10. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from ground water monitoring ...

  11. Development of an Innovative Direct Push Sensor System for Long Term Monitoring of Environmental Waste Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C. A.; Riha, B. D.; Bosze, S.; Rossabi, J.

    2001-12-01

    As the focus of environmental restoration in the federal complex moves from active characterization and remediation to long term monitoring, the costs of long-term monitoring will escalate and eventually dominate ongoing environmental restoration budgets. Most of the major DOE sites including the Savannah River Site have a documented need for some type of long term monitoring system that does not rely on the use of standard groundwater monitoring wells. We have developed and installed a prototype monitoring system that can be used to measure and/or sample multiple parameters appropriate for long term monitoring of environmental waste sites. This system is designed to function as a sentinel system that detects when a significant change in water quality parameters or contaminant concentration occurs in a well characterized system. The sensor drive configuration is flexible and the sensor system is installed using direct push methods. Site specific monitoring scenarios will be need to be developed to address the specific long term monitoring objectives at a given site. The drive point has a sample port (soil gas or groundwater) and windows/ports for additional sensors. A prototype system was installed and has been monitored at the D-area at the Savannah River Site since July. The probes are located in an area where multiple contaminant plumes dominated by volatile organic compounds, metals and tritium are currently monitored using standard groundwater wells. Currently, the prototype system measures temperature, resisitivity, ORP and pH on a continuous basis. In addition, concetrations of volatile organic compounds and tritium are measured periodically by laboratory analysis of diffusion bag samples deployed in the sample ports of the prototype system. Results will be reported from a three-month monitoring interval. The results will be compared with baseline analyses of samples collected from the adjacent groundwater well.

  12. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term hydrological data sets: Constraints of the Budyko framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2013-04-01

    An accurate estimate of the climatological land water balance is essential for a wide range of socio-economical issues. Despite the simplicity of the underlying water balance equation, its individual variables are of complex nature. Global estimates, either derived from observations or from models, of precipitation (P ) and especially evapotranspiration (ET) are characterized by high uncertainties. This leads to inconsistent results in determining conditions related to the land water balance and its components. In this study, we consider the Budyko framework as a constraint to evaluate long-term hydrological data sets within the period from 1984 to 2005. The Budyko framework is a well established empirically based relationsship between ET-P and Ep-P , with Ep being the potential evaporation. We use estimates of ET associated with the LandFlux-EVAL initiative (Mueller et. al., 2012), either derived from observations, CMIP5 models or land-surface models (LSMs) driven with observation-based forcing or atmospheric reanalyses. Data sets of P comprise all commonly used global observation-based estimates. Ep is determined by methods of differing complexity with recent global temperature and radiation data sets. Based on this comprehensive synthesis of data sets and methods to determine Ep, more than 2000 possible combinations for ET-P in conjunction with Ep-P are created. All combinations are validated against the Budyko curve and against physical limits within the Budyko phase space. For this purpose we develop an error measure based on the root mean square error which combines both constraints. We find that uncertainties are mainly induced by the ET data sets. In particular, reanalysis and CMIP5 data sets are characterized by low realism. The realism of LSMs is further not primarily controlled by the forcing, as different LSMs driven with the same forcing show significantly different error measures. Our comprehensive approach is thus suitable to detect uncertainties

  14. Long-Term Fuid Flow Measurements From Widely Varied Oceanic Settings Elucidate Near-Surface Hydrologic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2003-12-01

    The quantification of aqueous flux rates from various ocean floor environments has been a goal of numerous scientific programs for more than a decade with increasing focus on gas hydrate regions. Six years ago we developed the Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter to collect long-term temporal records of low to moderate aqueous flow rates in sedimented ocean floor environments and, more specifically, to quantify to mass flux associated with the formation of gas hydrates. Since that time thirty of these instruments have been built and over a hundred deployments accomplished in a variety of hydrate and non-hydrate settings. We present here an overview of the results of these deployments and compare and contrast the flow records from these varied hydrological environments. Specific environments include: Gas Hydrates (Hydrate Ridge and the Eel River area on the Cascadia convergent margin, and Bush Hill in northern Gulf of Mexico), Hydrothermal (Japan's Sagami Bay and the incoming plate offshore Costa Rica's Nicoya Peninsula, TicoFlux area), and the tectonically active convergent margin off Nicoya and Osa. One of the most important outcomes of this research is the realization that fluid flow across the seabed/ocean interface is often dominated by shallow subsurface and oceanographic processes which vary significantly over time. These processes can be as simple as the diurnal pressure gradients caused by the rise and fall of tides to highly complex processes associated with the formation and transport of subsurface free gas. These processes have been both a boon and a bane to our research. Tidal oscillations have tended to mask the net flow in many very low flux settings. The high degree of spatial and temporal variation in some environments have revealed the extreme difficulty of quantifying the more widespread mass flux associated with the underlying tectonic processes. Yet, the nature of these variations have allowed us to better constrain the fundamental

  15. A Practical Data Recovery Technique for Long-Term Strain Monitoring of Mega Columns during Construction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Kwon, EunMi; Kim, Yousok; Hong, Kappyo; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    A practical data recovery method is proposed for the strain data lost during the safety monitoring of mega columns. The analytical relations among the measured strains are derived to recover the data lost due to unexpected errors in long-term measurement during construction. The proposed technique is applied to recovery of axial strain data of a mega column in an irregular building structure during construction. The axial strain monitoring using the wireless strain sensing system was carried out for one year and five months between 23 July 2010 and 22 February 2012. During the long-term strain sensing, three different types of measurement errors occurred. Using the recovery technique, the strain data that could not be measured at different intervals in the measurement were successfully recovered. It is confirmed that the problems that may occur during long-term wireless strain sensing of mega columns during construction could be resolved through the proposed recovery method. PMID:23966189

  16. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  17. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  18. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  19. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground-water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from studies conducted over ...

  20. Long-term monitoring of a large landslide by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Gerald; Schraml, Klaus; Mansberger, Reinfried; Hübl, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Currently UAVs become more and more important in various scientific areas, including forestry, precision farming, archaeology and hydrology. Using these drones in natural hazards research enables a completely new level of data acquisition being flexible of site, invariant in time, cost-efficient and enabling arbitrary spatial resolution. In this study, a rotary-wing Mini-UAV carrying a DSLR camera was used to acquire time series of overlapping aerial images. These photographs were taken as input to extract Digital Surface Models (DSM) as well as orthophotos in the area of interest. The "Pechgraben" area in Upper Austria has a catchment area of approximately 2 km². Geology is mainly dominated by limestone and sandstone. Caused by heavy rainfalls in the late spring of 2013, an area of about 70 ha began to move towards the village in the valley. In addition to the urgent measures, the slow-moving landslide was monitored approximately every month over a time period of more than 18 months. A detailed documentation of the change process was the result. Moving velocities and height differences were quantified and validated using a dense network of Ground Control Points (GCP). For further analysis, 14 image flights with a total amount of 10.000 photographs were performed to create multi-temporal geodata in in sub-decimeter-resolution for two depicted areas of the landslide. Using a UAV for this application proved to be an excellent choice, as it allows short repetition times, low flying heights and high spatial resolution. Furthermore, the UAV acts almost weather independently as well as highly autonomously. High-quality results can be expected within a few hours after the photo flight. The UAV system performs very well in an alpine environment. Time series of the assessed geodata detect changes in topography and provide a long-term documentation of the measures taken in order to stop the landslide and to prevent infrastructure from damage.

  1. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan

    2003-09-02

    The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an expensive and time-consuming process, and the design approach should be based on a solid foundation. As such, a thorough literature review of monitoring network design is first presented. Monitoring well networks can be designed for a number of objectives including aquifer characterization, parameter estimation, compliance monitoring, detection monitoring, ambient monitoring, and research monitoring, to name a few. Design methodologies also range from simple hydrogeologic intuition-based tools to sophisticated statistical- and optimization-based tools. When designing the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA, a number of issues are carefully considered. These are the uncertainty associated with the subsurface environment and its implication for monitoring design, the cost associated with monitoring well installation and operation, the design criteria that should be used to select well locations, and the potential conflict between different objectives such as early detection versus impracticality of placing wells in the vicinity of the test cavity. Given these considerations and the literature review of monitoring design studies, a multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed. This multi-staged approach will proceed in parallel with the validation efforts for the groundwater flow and transport model of CNTA. Two main stages are identified as necessary for the development of the final long-term monitoring well network for the site. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model

  2. Andra Environmental Specimen Bank: archiving the environmental chemical quality for long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Elisabeth; d'Arbaumont, Maëlle; Verron, Jean-Patrick; Goldstein, Céline; Cesar, Frédérique; Dewonck, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Andra Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) was established in 2010 as a part of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE), ongoing Long-Term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System located next to the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Bure, Meuse/Haute-Marne, France. The URL is used to study the deep geological disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste. Andra ESB is designed to archive during at least 100 years samples collected to define the initial state of environmental quality of the local area before the construction of industrial facilities and to ensure the traceability of long-term series of samples collected by the OPE ( http://www.andra.fr/ope ), using safe long-term conservation practices. Samples archived in the bank include some local food chain products (milk, cheese, honey, cereals, grass, cherry plum…) and specimen usually archived internationally to monitor the environmental quality (soil, sediment, water, fish, tree leaves, wild life, etc.). Regarding the different samples and analytical issues, three conservation modalities and facilities were designed: dry conservation under controlled temperature and humidity, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor phase freezers (-150 °C) and in deep-freezing at -80 °C for temporary storage and raw samples before preparation. Andra ESB is equipped with a sample preparation clean room, certified ISO Class 5, dedicated to cryopreservation. This paper describes this first French experiment of long-term chemical quality monitoring and samples cryopreservation of different ecosystems and environmental compartments.

  3. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

    2015-09-01

    The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

  4. Long-term dynamics emerging in floodplains and deltas from the interactions between hydrology and society in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-05-01

    Economic losses and fatalities associated to flood events have increased dramatically over the past decades. This situation might worsen in the near future because of rapid urbanization of many floodplains and deltas, along with enhancement of flood water levels as a result of human interventions, climate variability or sea level rise. To explore future dynamics, we developed a novel approach, which takes into account the dynamic nature of flood risk by an explicit treatment of the interactions and feedbacks between the hydrological and social components of flood risk (i.e. probability of flooding, and potential adverse consequences). In particular, we developed a socio-hydrological model that allows considering how the frequency and magnitude of flooding shapes the evolution of societies, while, at the same time, dynamic societies shape the frequency and magnitude of flooding. We then use this model to simulate long-term dynamics of different types of societies under hydrological change, e.g. increasing flood frequency. Based on the study of long-term dynamics of different floodplains and deltas around the world (e.g. Netherlands, Bangladesh), we identify two main typologies of flood-shaped societies: i) techno-societies, which "fight floods", and typically deal with risk by building and strengthening flood protection structures, such as levees or dikes; and ii) green-societies, which "lives with floods", and mainly cope with risk via adaptation measures, such as resettling out of flood prone areas. The outcomes of this study are relevant for the management of deltas and floodplains as they allow a comparison of long-term dynamics between diverse types of societies in terms of robustness to hydrological change.

  5. Flood effects on an Alaskan stream restoration project: the value of long-term monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Roseann V.; Karle, Kenneth F.

    2009-01-01

    On a nationwide basis, few stream restoration projects have long-term programs in place to monitor the effects of floods on channel and floodplain configuration and floodplain vegetation, but long-term and event-based monitoring is required to measure the effects of these stochastic events and to use the knowledge for adaptive management and the design of future projects. This paper describes a long-term monitoring effort (15 years) on a stream restoration project in Glen Creek in Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. The stream channel and floodplain of Glen Creek had been severely degraded over a period of 80 years by placer mining for gold, which left many reaches with unstable and incised streambeds without functioning vegetated floodplains. The objectives of the original project, initiated in 1991, were to develop and test methods for the hydraulic design of channel and floodplain morphology and for floodplain stabilization and riparian habitat recovery, and to conduct research and monitoring to provide information for future projects in similar degraded watersheds. Monitoring methods included surveyed stream cross-sections, vegetation plots, and aerial, ground, and satellite photos. In this paper we address the immediate and outlying effects of a 25-year flood on the stream and floodplain geometry and riparian vegetation. The long-term monitoring revealed that significant channel widening occurred following the flood, likely caused by excessive upstream sediment loading and the fairly slow development of floodplain vegetation in this climate. Our results illustrated design flaws, particularly in regard to identification and analysis of sediment sources and the dominant processes of channel adjustment.

  6. Assessing the long-term hydrological services provided by wetlands under changing climate conditions: A case study approach of a Canadian watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossey, M.; Rousseau, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    The water content of wetlands represents a key driver of their hydrological services and it is highly dependent on short- and long-term weather conditions, which will change, to some extent, under evolving climate conditions. The impact on stream flows of this critical dynamic component of wetlands remains poorly studied. While hydrodynamic modelling provide a framework to describe the functioning of individual wetland, hydrological modelling offers the opportunity to assess their services at the watershed scale with respect to their type (i.e., isolated or riparian). This study uses a novel approach combining hydrological modelling and limited field monitoring, to explore the effectiveness of wetlands under changing climate conditions. To achieve this, two isolated wetlands and two riparian wetlands, located in the Becancour River watershed within the St Lawrence Lowlands (Quebec, Canada), were monitored using piezometers and stable water isotopes (δD - δ18O) between October 2013 and October 2014. For the watershed hydrology component of this study, reference (1986-2015) and future meteorological data (2041-2070) were used as inputs to the PHYSITEL/HYDROTEL modelling platform. Results obtained from in-situ data illustrate singular hydrological dynamics for each typology of wetlands (i.e., isolated and riparian) and support the hydrological modelling approach used in this study. Meanwhile, simulation results indicate that climate change could affect differently the hydrological dynamics of wetlands and associated services (e.g., storage and slow release of water), including their seasonal contribution (i.e., flood mitigation and low flow support) according to each wetland typology. The methodological framework proposed in this paper meets the requirements of a functional tool capable of anticipating hydrological changes in wetlands at both the land management scale and the watershed management scale. Accordingly, this framework represents a starting point towards

  7. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2016-06-01

    A surface barrier is a commonly used technology for isolation of subsurface contaminants. Surface barriers for isolating radioactive waste are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few data for field-scale surface barriers for periods approaching a decade or longer. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) with a design life of 1000 years was constructed over an existing radioactive waste site in 1994 to demonstrate its long-term performance. The primary element of the PHB is an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier in which precipitation water is stored in a fine-textured soil layer and later released to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration. To address the barrier performance under extreme conditions, this study included an enhanced precipitation stress test from 1995 to 1997 to determine barrier response to extreme precipitation events. During this period a 1000 year 24 h return rainstorm was simulated in March every year. The loss of vegetation on barrier hydrology was tested with a controlled fire test in 2008. The 19 year monitoring record shows that the store-and-release mechanism worked as well as or better than the design criterion. Average drainage from the ETC barrier amounted to an average of 0.005 mm yr-1, which is well below the design criterion of 0.5 mm yr-1. After a simulated wildfire, the naturally reestablished vegetation and increased evaporation combined to release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere such that drainage did not occur in the 5 years subsequent to the fire.

  8. Using remote sensing and spatial analysis of trees characteristics for long-term monitoring in arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, low humidity and small amount of precipitation. Trees In arid environments such an Acacia are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species. Long term monitoring of acacia tree population in those areas is thus essential tool to estimate the overall ecosystem condition. We suggest a new remote sensing data analysis technique that can be integrated with field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments and improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. In this work we have studied the contribution of remote sensing methods to long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid environments. In order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey, we implemented two different approaches: (1) Trees individual based change detection using Corona satellite images and (2) Spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. A map of individual acacia trees that was extracted from a color infra-red (CIR) aerial photographs taken at 2010 allowed us to examine the distribution pattern of the trees size and foliage health status (NDVI). Comparison of the tree sizes distribution and NDVI values distribution enabled us to differentiate between long-term (decades) and short-term (months to few years) processes that brought the population to its present state. The spatial analysis revealed that both tree size and NDVI distribution patterns were significantly clustered, suggesting that the processes responsible for tree size and tree health status (i.e., flash-floods spatial spreading) have a spatial expression. The distribution of the trees in the Wadi (ephemeral river) was divided into three distinct parts: large trees with high NDVI values, large trees with low NDVI values and small trees with

  9. Long-term real-time structural health monitoring using wireless smart sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Shinae; Mensah-Bonsu, Priscilla O.; Li, Jingcheng; Dahal, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    Improving the safety and security of civil infrastructure has become a critical issue for decades since it plays a central role in the economics and politics of a modern society. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure using wireless smart sensor network has emerged as a promising solution recently to increase structural reliability, enhance inspection quality, and reduce maintenance costs. Though hardware and software framework are well prepared for wireless smart sensors, the long-term real-time health monitoring strategy are still not available due to the lack of systematic interface. In this paper, the Imote2 smart sensor platform is employed, and a graphical user interface for the long-term real-time structural health monitoring has been developed based on Matlab for the Imote2 platform. This computer-aided engineering platform enables the control, visualization of measured data as well as safety alarm feature based on modal property fluctuation. A new decision making strategy to check the safety is also developed and integrated in this software. Laboratory validation of the computer aided engineering platform for the Imote2 on a truss bridge and a building structure has shown the potential of the interface for long-term real-time structural health monitoring.

  10. Long-term gage reliability for structural health monitoring of steel bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Vasilis A.; Fasl, Jeremiah; Reichenbach, Matt; Helwig, Todd; Wood, Sharon; Frank, Karl

    2012-04-01

    Real-time monitoring of fracture critical steel bridges can potentially enhance inspection practices by tracking the behavior of the bridge. Significant advances have occurred in recent years on the development of robust hardware for field monitoring applications. These systems can monitor, process, and store data from a variety of sensors (e.g. strain gages, crack propagation gages etc.) to track changes in the behavior of the bridge. Thus, for a long-term monitoring system to be successful, the reliability of gages that are to be monitored for several years is very important. This paper focuses on the results of a research study focused on developing a wireless monitoring system with a useful life of more than 10 years. An important aspect of the study is to identify strain gages and installation procedures that result in long lives as well as characterizing the effect of temperature fluctuations and other environmental factors on the sensor drift and noise. In long-term monitoring applications, slight sensor drift and noise can build up over time to produce misleading results. Thus, a wide variety of gages that can be used to monitor bridges have been tested for over a year through environmental tests. The environmental tests were developed to determine the durability of the gages and their protective coatings (e.g. zinc-based spray, wax and silicon, etc.) against humidity, sun exposure and other environmental effects that are expected in long-term bridge monitoring applications. Moreover, fatigue tests were performed to determine the fatigue category of the weldable gages and to reveal any debonding issues of the bondable gages. This paper focuses on the results of laboratory tests on gage durability that were conducted as part of a research project sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  11. Observing Campaign to Monitor Magnetically-Active Dwarfs for Long-Term Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-10-01

    Dr. Styliani (Stella) Kafka of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, requests AAVSO observers to perform long-term photometric monitoring on a number of magnetically active dwarf stars, with an observing frequency of one observation every three days taken with one or more filters. When multiple filters are available, the preferred observations are (in order of precedence): Rc, V, Ic, and B. Please observe such that you obtain a signal to noise of at least 50 (100 or higher is preferred). These objects are all nearby dwarfs known or suspected to have magnetic activity, primarily of the UV Ceti (flare star) or BY Draconis subtypes. Long-term photometric monitoring of these objects will be used in conjunction with other multiwavelength observations from ground-based facilities including the Magellan 6.5-meter and DuPont 2.5-meter telescopes in Chile to understand the long-term magnetic activity cycles of these stars. Such a study can reveal information about the physical natures of these stars, but also about their near space environments and habitability for life. These objects are red, and the variability amplitudes are low, often well below 0.1 magnitudes. The long-term variability due to stellar activity cycles may be much lower. Photometric accuracy rather than the number of observations are key to the success of this project. Unaccounted-for atmospheric effects such as extinction will likely overwhelm any long-term signal from these stars. Observers are strongly urged to fully calibrate their systems and to carefully reduce and transform their photometry to standard photometric passbands, including corrections for airmass/atmospheric extinction. Parameters for 40 objects are given. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  12. 3D Holographic Observatory for Long-term Monitoring of Complex Behaviors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Sun, Yaning; Zou, Sige; Hong, Jiarong

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously. This technique can image complicated leg and wing motions of flies at a resolution, which allows capturing specific landing responses from the same data set. Overall, this system provides a unique opportunity for high throughput screenings of behavioral changes in 3D over a long term in Drosophila. PMID:27605243

  13. 3D Holographic Observatory for Long-term Monitoring of Complex Behaviors in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Sun, Yaning; Zou, Sige; Hong, Jiarong

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously. This technique can image complicated leg and wing motions of flies at a resolution, which allows capturing specific landing responses from the same data set. Overall, this system provides a unique opportunity for high throughput screenings of behavioral changes in 3D over a long term in Drosophila.

  14. 3D Holographic Observatory for Long-term Monitoring of Complex Behaviors in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Santosh; Sun, Yaning; Zou, Sige; Hong, Jiarong

    2016-09-08

    Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously. This technique can image complicated leg and wing motions of flies at a resolution, which allows capturing specific landing responses from the same data set. Overall, this system provides a unique opportunity for high throughput screenings of behavioral changes in 3D over a long term in Drosophila.

  15. Changes in the long-term hydrological regimes and the impacts of human activities in the main Wei River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Lei; Chen, Keyu; Yu, Qijun

    2016-03-01

    Under the combined influence of climate changes and human activities, the hydrological regime of the Wei River shows remarkable variations which have caused many issues in the Wei River in recent decades, such as a lack of freshwater, water pollution, disastrous flooding and channel sedimentation. Hence, hydrological regime changes and potential human-induced impacts have been drawing increasing attention from local government and hydrologists. This study investigates hydrological regime changes in the natural and measured runoff series at four hydrological stations on the main Wei River and quantifies features of their long-term change by analysing their historical annual and seasonal runoff data using several approaches, i.e., continuous wavelet transform, cross-wavelet, wavelet coherence, trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test and detrended fluctuation analysis. By contrasting two different analysis results between natural and measured river runoff series, the impacts of human activities on the long-term hydrological regime were investigated via the changes of spatio-temporal distribution in dominant periods, the trends and long-range memory of river runoff. The results show : (a) that periodic properties of the streamflow changes are the result of climate, referring to precipitation changes in particular, while human activities play a minor role; (b) a significant decreasing trend can be observed in the natural streamflow series along the entire main stream of the Wei River and the more serious decrease emerging in measured flow should result from human-induced influences in recent decades; and (c) continuous decreasing streamflow in the Wei River will trigger serious shortages of freshwater in the future, which may challenge the sustainability and safety of water resources development in the river basin, and should be paid great attention before 2020.

  16. Long-term environmental drivers of DOC fluxes: Linkages between management, hydrology and climate in a subtropical coastal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regier, Peter; Briceño, Henry; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    Urban and agricultural development of the South Florida peninsula has disrupted historic freshwater flow in the Everglades, a hydrologically connected ecosystem stretching from central Florida to the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Current system-scale restoration efforts aim to restore natural hydrologic regimes to reestablish pre-drainage ecosystem functioning through increased water availability, quality and timing. Aquatic transport of carbon in this ecosystem, primarily as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling and food-web dynamics, and will be affected both by water management policies and climate change. To better understand DOC dynamics in South Florida estuaries and how hydrology, climate and water management may affect them, 14 years of monthly data collected in the Shark River estuary were used to examine DOC flux dynamics in a broader environmental context. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to long-term datasets for hydrology, water quality and climate to untangle the interconnected environmental drivers that control DOC export at monthly and annual scales. DOC fluxes were determined to be primarily controlled by hydrology but also by seasonality and long-term climate patterns and episodic weather events. A four-component model (salinity, rainfall, inflow, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) capable of predicting DOC fluxes (R2 = 0.84, p < 0.0001, n = 155) was established and applied to potential climate change scenarios for the Everglades to assess DOC flux response to climate and restoration variables. The majority of scenario runs indicated that DOC export from the Everglades is expected to decrease due to future changes in rainfall, water management and salinity.

  17. A new method for monitoring long term calibration of the SBUV and TOMS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Seftor, C.; Wellemeyer, C.

    1994-01-01

    A new method has been developed to monitor the long-term calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. It is based on the fact that the radiance in one channel can be expressed as a linear sum of the radiances in neighboring channels. Using simulated radiances for the SBUV and TOMS instruments, various scenarios of changes in instrument calibration are investigated. Results from sample processing of SBUV data are also presented.

  18. Using larval fish community structure to guide long-term monitoring of fish spawning activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; Ross, Jason E.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Larval fishes provide a direct indication of spawning activity and may therefore be useful for long-term monitoring efforts in relation to spawning habitat restoration. However, larval fish sampling can be time intensive and costly. We sought to understand the spatial and temporal structure of larval fish communities in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Michigan–Ontario, to determine whether targeted larval fish sampling can be made more efficient for long-term monitoring. We found that larval fish communities were highly nested, with lower river segments and late-spring samples containing the highest genus richness of larval fish. We created four sampling scenarios for each river system: (1) using all available data, (2) limiting temporal sampling to late spring, (3) limiting spatial sampling to lower river segments only, and (4) limiting both spatial and temporal sampling. By limiting the spatial extent of sampling to lower river sites and/or limiting the temporal extent to the late-spring period, we found that effort could be reduced by more than 50% while maintaining over 75% of the observed and estimated total genus richness. Similarly, limiting the sampling effort to lower river sites and/or the late-spring period maintained between 65% and 93% of the observed richness of lithophilic-spawning genera and invasive genera. In general, community composition remained consistent among sampling scenarios. Targeted sampling offers a lower-cost alternative to exhaustive spatial and temporal sampling and may be more readily incorporated into long-term monitoring.

  19. Artifact reduction in long-term monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinette, Sarah A.; Dunn, Jeff F.; Slone, Edward; Federico, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique used to assess cerebral hemodynamics. Its portability, ease of use, and relatively low operational cost lend itself well to the long-term monitoring of hemodynamic changes, such as those in epilepsy, where events are unpredictable. Long-term monitoring is associated with challenges including alterations in behaviors and motion that can result in artifacts. Five patients with epilepsy were assessed for interictal hemodynamic changes and alterations in behavior or motion. Based on this work, visual inspection was used to identify NIRS artifacts during a period of interest, specifically prior to seizures, in four patients. A motion artifact reduction algorithm (MARA, also known as the spline interpolation method) was tested on these data. Alterations in the NIRS measurements often occurred simultaneously with changes in motion and behavior. Occasionally, sharp shift artifacts were observed in the data. When artifacts appeared as sustained baseline shifts in the data, MARA reduced the standard deviation of the data and the appearance improved. We discussed motion and artifacts as challenges associated with long-term monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with epilepsy and our group’s approach to circumvent these challenges and improve the quality of the data collected. PMID:26158008

  20. Long-term meteorological and hydrological dryness and wetness conditions in the Zhujiang River Basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Gemmer, M.; Su, B.; Scholten, T.

    2012-09-01

    Floods and droughts are frequently causing large economic losses in China. These conditions vary in space, time, and magnitude. In this study, long-term meteorological and hydrological dryness and wetness conditions are analyzed for the Xijiang River Basin which is the largest tributary of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River. A very similar inter-annual course of precipitation and discharge can be observed. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) is used to show dryness and wetness pattern in the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River. The SPI-24 correlates high with the standardized discharge index (SDI-24) for Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of Xijiang River. Distinct long-term dryness and wetness sequences are found in the time series for the SPI-24 and SDI-24. The principal component analysis reveals many spatial interdependencies in dryness and wetness conditions for the sub-basins and explains some spatio-temporal disparities. Moderate dryness conditions have a larger spatial impact than moderate wetness conditions in the sub-basins. The loading pattern of the first principal component shows that the correlation with the entire Xijiang River Basin is highest in the eastern and lowest in the western sub-basins. Further spatial dipole conditions explain the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of dryness and wetness conditions. Accordingly, the precipitation in the eastern sub-basins contributes more to the hydrological wetness conditions than in the western sub-basins, which mainly contribute to dryness patterns. The spectral analysis for the SPI-24 (entire Xijiang River Basin) and SDI-24 shows similar peaks for periods of 11-14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4-3.7 yr, and 6.3-7.3 yr. The same periods can be found for the SPI-24 of Xijiang River's six sub-basins with some variability in the magnitude. The wavelet analysis shows that the most significant periods are stable over time since the 1980s. The extrapolations of the reconstructed time series do not suggest any spatial or

  1. Long-term fish monitoring in large rivers: Utility of “benchmarking” across basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Casper, Andrew F.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Waite, Ian R.; Kosovich, John J.; Chapman, Colin; Irwin, Elise R.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Ickes, Brian; McKerrow, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    In business, benchmarking is a widely used practice of comparing your own business processes to those of other comparable companies and incorporating identified best practices to improve performance. Biologists and resource managers designing and conducting monitoring programs for fish in large river systems tend to focus on single river basins or segments of large rivers, missing opportunities to learn from those conducting fish monitoring in other rivers. We briefly examine five long-term fish monitoring programs in large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Tallapoosa rivers) and identify opportunities for learning across programs by detailing best monitoring practices and why these practices were chosen. Although monitoring objectives, methods, and program maturity differ between each river system, examples from these five case studies illustrate the important role that long-term monitoring programs play in interpreting temporal and spatial shifts in fish populations for both established objectives and newly emerging questions. We suggest that deliberate efforts to develop a broader collaborative network through benchmarking will facilitate sharing of ideas and development of more effective monitoring programs.

  2. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  3. Monitoring programme revision highlights long-term salinity changes in selected South African rivers and the value of comprehensive long-term data sets.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, H; Silberbauer, M J; Hohls, B C

    2009-07-01

    Determination of data adequacy for detection of long-term salinity changes was an important task in the revision of the South African National Chemical Monitoring Programme (NCMP). The NCMP has been running for more than 30 years with several hundred active monitoring sites. Twenty-five sites on major rivers had sufficient continuous data for the estimation of salinity changes over a 25-year period and statistically significant upward or downward trends occurred at 17 of the 25 sites. Most sites were too far apart for detailed analysis of whole river systems, though an upward trend is apparent in the Lower Orange River and a downward trend in the Great Fish River. Salinity in the Tugela River remained stable, well below the 70 mS m( - 1) guideline for drinking water. The results underline the importance of long-term data sets for assessing and managing aquatic systems and provide the impetus to continue building and maintaining long-term sampling programmes.

  4. Tuning Into Brown Dwarfs: Long-Term Radio Monitoring of Two Very Low Mass Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Linge, Russell; Burgasser, Adam J.; Melis, Carl; Williams, Peter K. G.

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs, with effective temperatures T < 3000 K, exhibit mixed magnetic activity trends, with H-alpha and X-ray emission that declines rapidly beyond type M7/M8, but persistent radio emission in roughly 10-20% of sources. The dozen or so VLM radio emitters known show a broad range of emission characteristics and time-dependent behavior, including steady persistent emission, periodic oscillations, periodic polarized bursts, and aperiodic flares. Understanding the evolution of these variability patterns, and in particular whether they undergo solar-like cycles, requires long-term monitoring. We report the results of a long-term JVLA monitoring program of two magnetically-active VLM dwarf binaries, the young M7 2MASS 1314+1320AB and older L5 2MASS 1315-2649AB. On the bi-weekly cadence, 2MASS 1314 continues to show variability by revealing regular flaring while 2MASS 1315 continues to be a quiescent emitter. On the daily time scale, both sources show a mean flux density that can vary significantly just over a few days. These results suggest long-term radio behavior in radio-emitting VLM dwarfs is just as diverse and complex as short-term behavior.

  5. Improving Long-term Post-wildfire hydrologic simulations using ParFlow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural hydrologic processes within a watershed. After vegetation is burned, the combustion of organic material and debris settles into the soil creating a hydrophobic layer beneath the soil surface with varying degree of thickness and depth. Vegetation regrowth rates vary as a function of radiative exposure, burn severity, and precipitation patterns. Hydrologic models used by the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams use input data and model calibration constraints that are generally either one-dimensional, empirically-based models, or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models estimate runoff measurements at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide a distributed hydrologic simulation at each point within the watershed. This work uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to (1) correlate burn severity with hydrophobicity, (2) evaluate vegetation recovery rate on water components, and (3) improve flood prediction for managers to help with resource allocation and management operations in burned watersheds. ParFlow is applied to Devil Canyon (43 km2) in San Bernardino, California, which was 97% burned in the 2003 Old Fire. The model set-up uses a 30m-cell size resolution over a 6.7 km by 6.4 km lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 30 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness. Variable subsurface thickness allows users to explicitly consider the degree of recovery throughout the stages of regrowth. Burn severity maps from remotely sensed imagery are used to assign initial hydrophobic layer parameters and thickness. Vegetation regrowth is represented with satellite an Enhanced Vegetation Index. Pre and post-fire hydrologic response is evaluated using runoff measurements at the watershed outlet, and using water component (overland flow, lateral flow, baseflow) measurements.

  6. Monitoring of patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Laurence; Petersen, Irene; Nazareth, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    About 1% of the general population receives long-term systemic glucocorticoids. The monitoring provided to these patients is unknown. We conducted a population-based cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. A total of 100,944 adult patients prescribed systemic glucocorticoids for >3 months between January 2000 and December 2012 were studied. The monitoring done before prescribing glucocorticoid therapy and during exposure to the drug was examined. This included measurement of body weight, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and potassium levels, referrals for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA-scan) or to an ophthalmologist/optician, and vaccinations. We assessed factors associated with the odds of being monitored before and during exposure. Before glucocorticoid initiation, weight and blood pressure were monitored in < 20% and < 50% of patients, respectively. Glucose and lipid levels were monitored in less than one-third of the patients, while DEXA-scan and eye monitoring were offered to <15% of them. Vaccination against flu and pneumococcus was given to 57% and 46% of the patients, respectively. During exposure to the drug, <60% of patients who were prescribed the drug for more than a year had their weight, glucose, or lipid levels recorded at least once and <25% of patients were referred at least once for DEXA-scan or screening for eye diseases. Overall, the odds of being monitored were higher in older patients and in those with comorbidities. There were variations in the level of monitoring provided across the UK, but the monitoring has improved over the last 12 years. Although the extent of monitoring of people on long-term glucocorticoids has improved over time, the overall monitoring provided is not satisfactory, particularly in young patients and those without comorbidities.

  7. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I.; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-12-01

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987-1990 and 2000-2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time.

  8. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-12-08

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987-1990 and 2000-2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time.

  9. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-01-01

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987–1990 and 2000–2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time. PMID:26647085

  10. “State of the Estuary” - Developing a long term monitoring ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the lower Saint Louis River moves closer and closer to delisting as an Area of Concern, it is incumbent that we measure, assess and report on our success. Going forward, It’s equally important that we continue monitoring to protect and sustain the healthy ecosystems we’ve worked so hard to attain. We propose here the development of a long term systematic monitoring, assessment and reporting framework to help highlight and publicize the successful recovery of the lower Saint Louis River. Such a framework should outline methods for regularly measuring, monitoring and assessing the current health of the river and its ecosystems into the future followed with a periodic reporting of the “State of the Estuary”. This framework should be developed by the stakeholder community over a series of meetings, leading to a collaborative, partner-driven approach. To the extent possible, existing sampling and monitoring programs should be incorporated, along with additional metrics needed to tell the complete story on the “State of the Estuary”. These additional metrics might include economic, social science and human health indicators, contaminants of emerging concern, long term restoration effectiveness and other monitoring needs not yet recognized. Examples of other “State of the Ecosystem” efforts will be discussed as possible models to follow. This abstract is for a presentation at the St. Louis River Summit. The talk will discuss the need for a “S

  11. Gastric bypass patients' goal-strategy-monitoring networks for long-term dietary management.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Amanda; Bisogni, Carole A

    2014-10-01

    Following gastric bypass surgery, patients must make dramatic dietary changes, but little is known about patients' perspectives on long-term dietary management after this surgery. This grounded theory, qualitative study sought to advance conceptual understanding of food choice by examining how gastric bypass patients constructed personal food systems to guide food and eating behaviors 12 months post-surgery. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each of 16 adults, purposively sampled from bariatric support groups. Using constant comparative analysis of verbatim interview transcripts, researchers identified participants' goal-strategy-monitoring networks representing how participants used specific food and eating behaviors towards their main goals of: Weight Management, Overall Health, Avoiding Negative Reactions to Eating, and Integrating Dietary Changes with Daily Life. Linked to each main goal was a hierarchy of intermediary goals, strategies, and tactics. Participants used monitoring behaviors to assess strategy effectiveness towards goal achievement. Individuals' Weight Management networks were compared to uncover similarities and differences among strategy use and monitoring methods among those who maintained weight loss and those who regained weight. The complex, multilevel goal-strategy-monitoring networks identified illustrate the "work" involved in constructing new personal food systems after surgery, as well as advance understanding of strategies as a component of people's personal food systems. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with insight into the long-term dietary issues that gastric bypass patients face and a potential method for representing how people relate deliberate dietary behaviors to their goals.

  12. Long Term, Operational Monitoring Of Enhanced Oil Recovery In Harsh Environments With INSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Henschel, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, MDA GSI has provided ground deformation measurements for an oil field in northern Alberta, Canada using InSAR technology. During this period, the monitoring has reliably shown the slow rise of the oil field due to enhanced oil recovery operations. The InSAR monitoring solution is essentially based on the observation of point and point-like targets in the field. Ground conditions in the area are almost continuously changing (in their reflectivity characteristics) making it difficult to ob- serve coherent patterns from the ground. The extended duration of the oil operations has allowed us to continue InSAR monitoring and transition from RADARSAT-1 to RADARSAT-2. With RADARSAT-2 and the enhancement of the satellite resolution capability has provided more targets of opportunity as identified by a differential coherence method. This poster provides an overview of the long term monitoring of the oil field in northern Alberta, Canada.

  13. Long-term surface EMG monitoring using K-means clustering and compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present an advanced K-means clustering algorithm based on Compressed Sensing theory (CS) in combination with the K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method for Clustering of long-term recording of surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The long-term monitoring of sEMG signals aims at recording of the electrical activity produced by muscles which are very useful procedure for treatment and diagnostic purposes as well as for detection of various pathologies. The proposed algorithm is examined for three scenarios of sEMG signals including healthy person (sEMG-Healthy), a patient with myopathy (sEMG-Myopathy), and a patient with neuropathy (sEMG-Neuropathr), respectively. The proposed algorithm can easily scan large sEMG datasets of long-term sEMG recording. We test the proposed algorithm with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Correlation Coefficient (LCC) dimensionality reduction methods. Then, the output of the proposed algorithm is fed to K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifiers in order to calclute the clustering performance. The proposed algorithm achieves a classification accuracy of 99.22%. This ability allows reducing 17% of Average Classification Error (ACE), 9% of Training Error (TE), and 18% of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The proposed algorithm also reduces 14% clustering energy consumption compared to the existing K-Means clustering algorithm.

  14. Long-term post-wildfire monitoring of phenology and recovery using a MODIS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, S.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2012-12-01

    Disturbance severity in forests or grasslands is generally conceptualized as the difference between the state before and immediately after a disturbance event. This approach fails to capture slow-acting disturbances that take years to materialize, secondary disturbance effects such as delayed mortality, or variable rates of recovery. Remotely sensed data can provide a multi-seasonal baseline and long-term post-disturbance record of recovery that also captures associated disturbances, such as post event salvage logging or restoration efforts. Here we track the MODIS satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index or NDVI of several large wildfires that occurred early in the last decade to measure fire and associated disturbance severity with multi-seasonal and multi-year contexts. Large fires analyzed included Oregon's Biscuit Fire, Colorado's Hayman Fire, Arizona's Rodeo-Chediski Fire, and Georgia's Okefenokee Fire among others. Short-term results were generally consistent with prior post-fire estimates of short-term wildfire severity, but long-term fire effects diversified. Both short and long-term severity varied by topography and vegetation types, as measured by changes in seasonal NDVI, not just single-season NDVI. This broadened monitoring technique provides a moderate resolution record of recovery that can inform questions related to cumulative impacts and ecological resilience.

  15. Time-series modeling of long-term weight self-monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Helander, Elina; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    Long-term self-monitoring of weight is beneficial for weight maintenance, especially after weight loss. Connected weight scales accumulate time series information over long term and hence enable time series analysis of the data. The analysis can reveal individual patterns, provide more sensitive detection of significant weight trends, and enable more accurate and timely prediction of weight outcomes. However, long term self-weighing data has several challenges which complicate the analysis. Especially, irregular sampling, missing data, and existence of periodic (e.g. diurnal and weekly) patterns are common. In this study, we apply time series modeling approach on daily weight time series from two individuals and describe information that can be extracted from this kind of data. We study the properties of weight time series data, missing data and its link to individuals behavior, periodic patterns and weight series segmentation. Being able to understand behavior through weight data and give relevant feedback is desired to lead to positive intervention on health behaviors.

  16. A long-term data set for hydrologic modeling in a snow-dominated mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, Michele L.; Marks, Danny; Seyfried, Mark; Winstral, Adam; Kumar, Mukesh; Flerchinger, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    A modeling data set (meteorological forcing data, geographic information system data, and validation data) is presented for water years 1984 through 2008 for a snow-dominated mountain catchment. The forcing data include hourly precipitation, wind speed and direction, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, and incoming solar and thermal radiation from two sites. Validation data include stream discharge, snow water equivalent, snow depth, soil moisture, and groundwater elevation. These data will improve the development, testing, and application of the next generation of hydrologic models.

  17. Regional and temporal differences in nitrate trends discerned from long-term water quality monitoring data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Riverine nitrate (NO3) is a well-documented driver of eutrophication and hypoxia in coastal areas. The development of the elevated river NO3 concentration is linked to anthropogenic inputs from municipal, agricultural, and atmospheric sources. The intensity of these sources has varied regionally, through time, and in response to multiple causes such as economic drivers and policy responses. This study uses long-term water quality, land use, and other ancillary data to further describe the evolution of river NO3 concentrations at 22 monitoring stations in the United States (U.S.). The stations were selected for long-term data availability and to represent a range of climate and land-use conditions. We examined NO3 at the monitoring stations, using a flow-weighting scheme meant to account for interannual flow variability allowing greater focus on river chemical conditions. River NO3 concentration increased strongly during 1945-1980 at most of the stations and have remained elevated, but stopped increasing during 1981-2008. NO3 increased to a greater extent at monitoring stations in the Midwest U.S. and less so at those in the Eastern and Western U.S. We discuss 20th Century agricultural development in the U.S. and demonstrate that regional differences in NO3 concentration patterns were strongly related to an agricultural index developed using principal components analysis. This unique century-scale dataset adds to our understanding of long-term NO3 patterns in the U.S.

  18. Long-Term Monitoring of Hydraulic Characteristics of LHD Poloidal Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Kazuya; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Ooba, Kouki; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku

    We present a fourteen-year data summary of the hydraulic characteristics of the large helical device (LHD) poloidal coils. The superconductors of the poloidal coils are cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) cooled by circulated supercritical helium. The long-term operation of the LHD demonstrates that the initial hydraulic characteristics can be maintained without flow obstruction. Fine mesh filters installed at the inlet trapped impurities during cool-down of the coils, confirmed by monitoring the pressure drop of the filters. The filters have an important role in removing particles of impurities in the helium and maintaining the hydraulic characteristics of the coils.

  19. Long-term flow rates and biomat zone hydrology in soil columns receiving septic tank effluent.

    PubMed

    Beal, C D; Gardner, E A; Kirchhof, G; Menzies, N W

    2006-07-01

    Soil absorption systems (SAS) are used commonly to treat and disperse septic tank effluent (STE). SAS can hydraulically fail as a result of the low permeable biomat zone that develops on the infiltrative surface. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the hydraulic properties of biomats grown in soils of different textures, to investigate the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR) from prolonged application of STE, and to assess if soils were of major importance in determining LTAR. The STE was applied to repacked sand, Oxisol and Vertisol soil columns over a period of 16 months, at equivalent hydraulic loading rates of 50, 35 and 8L/m(2)/d, respectively. Infiltration rates, soil matric potentials, and biomat hydraulic properties were measured either directly from the soil columns or calculated using established soil physics theory. Biomats 1 to 2 cm thick developed in all soils columns with hydraulic resistances of 27 to 39 d. These biomats reduced a 4 order of magnitude variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) between the soils to a one order of magnitude variation in LTAR. A relationship between biomat resistance and organic loading rate was observed in all soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the rate and extent of biomat development. However, once the biomat was established, the LTAR was governed by the resistance of the biomat and the sub-biomat soil unsaturated flow regime induced by the biomat. Results show that whilst initial soil K(s) is likely to be important in the establishment of the biomat zone in a trench, LTAR is determined by the biomat resistance and the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity, not the K(s) of a soil. The results call into question the commonly used approach of basing the LTAR, and ultimately trench length in SAS, on the initial K(s) of soils.

  20. Design and Field Test of a WSN Platform Prototype for Long-Term Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lazarescu, Mihai T.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term wildfire monitoring using distributed in situ temperature sensors is an accurate, yet demanding environmental monitoring application, which requires long-life, low-maintenance, low-cost sensors and a simple, fast, error-proof deployment procedure. We present in this paper the most important design considerations and optimizations of all elements of a low-cost WSN platform prototype for long-term, low-maintenance pervasive wildfire monitoring, its preparation for a nearly three-month field test, the analysis of the causes of failure during the test and the lessons learned for platform improvement. The main components of the total cost of the platform (nodes, deployment and maintenance) are carefully analyzed and optimized for this application. The gateways are designed to operate with resources that are generally used for sensor nodes, while the requirements and cost of the sensor nodes are significantly lower. We define and test in simulation and in the field experiment a simple, but effective communication protocol for this application. It helps to lower the cost of the nodes and field deployment procedure, while extending the theoretical lifetime of the sensor nodes to over 16 years on a single 1 Ah lithium battery. PMID:25912349

  1. A Concept for a Long Term Hydrologic Observatory in the South Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    patterns in the region. Government programs, to help manage natural resources in the region, have fractured jurisdiction over the area. With a detailed integration of data sets the South Platte Hydrologic Observatory will address the above water issues, which are representative of many of the scientific hydrologic issues facing the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains interface watersheds, advancing the science of hydrology and producing sound science findings to assist natural resource decision making in the region.

  2. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: Signatures of catchment co-evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.; Sivapalan, M.; Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.

    2013-12-01

    Budyko (1974) postulated that long-term catchment water balance is controlled to first order by the available water and energy. This leads to the interesting question of how do landscape characteristics (soils, geology, vegetation) and climate properties (precipitation, potential evaporation, number of wet and dry days) interact at the catchment scale to produce such a simple and predictable outcome of hydrological partitioning? Here we use a physically-based hydrologic model separately parameterized in 12 US catchments across a climate gradient to decouple the impact of climate and landscape properties to gain insight into the role of climate-vegetation-soil interactions in long-term hydrologic partitioning. The 12 catchment models (with different paramterizations) are subjected to the 12 different climate forcings, resulting in 144 10-year model simulations. The results are analyzed per catchment (one catchment model subjected to 12 climates) and per climate (one climate filtered by 12 different model parameterization), and compared to water balance predictions based on Budyko's hypothesis (E/P=φ(Ep/P); E: evaporation, P: precipitation, Ep: potential evaporation). We find significant anti-correlation between average deviations of the evaporation index (E/P) computed per catchment vs. per climate, compared to that predicted by Budyko. Catchments that on average produce more E/P have developed in climates that on average produce less E/P, when compared to Budyko's prediction. Water and energy seasonality could not explain these observations, confirming previous results reported by Potter et al. (2005). Next, we analyze which model (i.e., landscape filter) characteristics explain the catchment's tendency to produce more or less E/P. We find that the time scale that controls subsurface storage release explains the observed trend. This time scale combines several geomorphologic and hydraulic soil properties. Catchments with relatively longer subsurface storage

  3. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Wagener, T.; Sawicz, K.

    2013-06-01

    Budyko (1974) postulated that long-term catchment water balance is controlled to first order by the available water and energy. This leads to the interesting question of how do landscape characteristics (soils, geology, vegetation) and climate properties (precipitation, potential evaporation, number of wet and dry days) interact at the catchment scale to produce such a simple and predictable outcome of hydrological partitioning? Here we use a physically-based hydrologic model separately parameterized in 12 US catchments across a climate gradient to decouple the impact of climate and landscape properties to gain insight into the role of climate-vegetation-soil interactions in long-term hydrologic partitioning. The 12 catchment models (with different paramterizations) are subjected to the 12 different climate forcings, resulting in 144 10 yr model simulations. The results are analyzed per catchment (one catchment model subjected to 12 climates) and per climate (one climate filtered by 12 different model parameterization), and compared to water balance predictions based on Budyko's hypothesis (E/P = ϕ (Ep/P); E: evaporation, P: precipitation, Ep: potential evaporation). We find significant anti-correlation between average deviations of the evaporation index (E/P) computed per catchment vs. per climate, compared to that predicted by Budyko. Catchments that on average produce more E/P have developed in climates that on average produce less E/P, when compared to Budyko's prediction. Water and energy seasonality could not explain these observations, confirming previous results reported by Potter et al. (2005). Next, we analyze which model (i.e., landscape filter) characteristics explain the catchment's tendency to produce more or less E/P. We find that the time scale that controls subsurface storage release explains the observed trend. This time scale combines several geomorphologic and hydraulic soil properties. Catchments with relatively longer subsurface storage

  4. Long-term synchronized electrophysiological and behavioral wireless monitoring of freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Laszlo; Ftomov, Sergiu; Timofeev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Parallel electrophysiological recording and behavioral monitoring of freely moving animals is essential for a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper we describe a novel wireless recording technique, which is capable of synchronously recording in vivo multichannel electrophysiological (LFP, MUA, EOG, EMG) and activity data (accelerometer, video) from freely moving cats. The method is based on the integration of commercially available components into a simple monitoring system and is complete with accelerometers and the needed signal processing tools. LFP activities of freely moving group-housed cats were recorded from multiple intracortical areas and from the hippocampus. EMG, EOG, accelerometer and video were simultaneously acquired with LFP activities 24-h a day for 3 months. These recordings confirm the possibility of using our wireless method for 24-h long-term monitoring of neurophysiological and behavioral data of freely moving experimental animals such as cats, ferrets, rabbits and other large animals. PMID:23099345

  5. Structural condition assessment of long-span suspension bridges using long-term monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng; Youliang, Ding; Aiqun, Li

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on developing an online structural condition assessment technique using long-term monitoring data measured by a structural health monitoring system. The seasonal correlations of frequency-temperature and beam-end displacement-temperature for the Runyang Suspension Bridge are performed, first. Then, a statistical modeling technique using a six-order polynomial is further applied to formulate the correlations of frequency-temperature and displacement-temperature, from which abnormal changes of measured frequencies and displacements are detected using the mean value control chart. Analysis results show that modal frequencies of higher vibration modes and displacements have remarkable seasonal correlations with the environmental temperature and the proposed method exhibits a good capability for detecting the micro damage-induced changes of modal frequencies and displacements. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from frequency and displacement time series and is well suited for online condition monitoring of long-span suspension bridges.

  6. Long-term linkages between glaciers, permafrost and hydrology at two glacierized watersheds in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaedeke, A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Gatesman, T.; Campbell, S. W.; Hock, R.; Oneel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to have considerable impact on the regional water balance of high latitude Arctic and sub-Arctic glacerized watersheds. In this study we combine field observations and the physically based Water Balance Simulation Model WaSiM to refine our understanding of the linkages between glaciers, permafrost and hydrology at two nearby basins with contrasting precipitation regimes: Jarvis Cr. watershed (630 km2) on the north (rain-shadow) side of Eastern Alaska Range and the south facing Phelan Cr. (32 km2), which include the US Geological Survey benchmark site Gulkana Glacier. Both are characterized by a semi-arid climate and are sub-watersheds of the Tanana River basin (12,000 km2). Our research questions include: How has glacier water storage and release varied in the past and how are they expected to change in the future? And what are the subsequent effects on lowland runoff and regional groundwater recharge? Our analyses show i) an increase in air temperature and summer warmth index (the sum of all mean monthly air temperature above 0 °C) in recent decades and ii) a continued negative glacier mass balance. Our findings suggest that, on the larger spatial scale (Tanana River basin), the reduced glacier coverage and increased glacier wastage has, in combination with limited changes in precipitation, lead to (i) increased mean annual and (ii) late winter (March) runoff. We postulate that this is due to increased groundwater recharge, which has been fueled by the 20% reduction in glacier coverage of the Tanana River basin. Here we aim to assess the combined effect of climate change, glacier shrinkage and thawing permafrost on the regional sub-arctic mountain- to lowland hydrologic system, which may transition into a regime with less surface and more subsurface water availability.

  7. The Role of Global Hydrologic Processes in Interannual and Long-Term Climate Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.

    1997-01-01

    The earth's climate and its variability is linked inextricably with the presence of water on our planet. El Nino / Southern Oscillation-- the major mode of interannual variability-- is characterized by strong perturbations in oceanic evaporation, tropical rainfall, and radiation. On longer time scales, the major feedback mechanism in CO2-induced global warming is actually that due to increased water vapor holding capacity of the atmosphere. The global hydrologic cycle effects on climate are manifested through influence of cloud and water vapor on energy fluxes at the top of atmosphere and at the surface. Surface moisture anomalies retain the "memory" of past precipitation anomalies and subsequently alter the partitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the surface. At the top of atmosphere, water vapor and cloud perturbations alter the net amount of radiation that the earth's climate system receives. These pervasive linkages between water, radiation, and surface processes present major complexities for observing and modeling climate variations. Major uncertainties in the observations include vertical structure of clouds and water vapor, surface energy balance, and transport of water and heat by wind fields. Modeling climate variability and change on a physical basis requires accurate by simplified submodels of radiation, cloud formation, radiative exchange, surface biophysics, and oceanic energy flux. In the past, we m safely say that being "data poor' has limited our depth of understanding and impeded model validation and improvement. Beginning with pre-EOS data sets, many of these barriers are being removed. EOS platforms with the suite of measurements dedicated to specific science questions are part of our most cost effective path to improved understanding and predictive capability. This talk will highlight some of the major questions confronting global hydrology and the prospects for significant progress afforded by EOS-era measurements.

  8. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program was established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the composition, structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots were chosen according to specific selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. Transition characteristics from one mature forest community type to another is strongly modified by different environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation. During climate change, the transition depends on the rate and extent of the forcing factors, the speed of migration and the stability of the communities as they become increasingly maladapted to local climates. It is unknown whether all systems will stabilize in a new equilibrium, and, some forest species may be unable to keep pace with shifts in climatic zones. To assess these risks, FORSUM, a forest succession model for Central Europe, is applied to explain the forest succession on the Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Continuous model improvement based on an increasing number of site specific data-series for model parameterization will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forests, currently at risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  9. The value of long-term environmental monitoring programs: an Ohio River case study.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Timothy W; Dixon, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    As a subset of environmental monitoring, fish sampling programs have been an important part of assessing the potential impacts of water withdrawals and effluent discharges on fish populations for many years. New environmental regulations often require that adverse environmental impacts to fish populations be minimized. Without long-term field data, population evaluations may incorrectly indicate adverse impacts where none exist or no impact where one is likely to occur. Several electric utility companies have funded the Ohio River Ecological Research Program, which has been in existence for over 40 years and consists of fish, habitat, and water quality studies at multiple power plant sites on the mainstem Ohio River. Sampling includes seasonal night-time electrofishing and daytime beach seining at three upstream and three downstream locations near each plant. The long-term nature of the program allows for the establishment of aquatic community indices to support evaluations of technology performance, the collaborative development of compliance metrics, and the assessment of fish population trends. Studies have concluded that the Ohio River fish community has improved in response to better water quality and that power plant fish entrainment and impingement and thermal discharges have had little or no measureable impact. Through collaboration and the use of long-term data, $6.3 million in monitoring costs have been saved during recent fish impingement studies. The ability to access a multiyear fish abundance database, with its associated data on age, growth, and fecundity, improves the quality of such evaluations and reduces the need for extensive field sampling at individual locations.

  10. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate, climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program has been established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots have been chosen according to different selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. To assess these risks, FORSUM a forest succession model for Central Europe is applied to analyze the forest succession on the LTFER plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Forest succession models can be used to evaluate climate change impacts on forest ecosystems, even though some parameters are highly uncertain or are even unknown. Detailed analysis of the 15 case studies will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forest, currently at a risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  11. Analysis options for estimating status and trends in long-term monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Beyer, Hawthorne L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes methods for estimating long-term trends in ecological parameters. Other chapters in this volume discuss more advanced methods for analyzing monitoring data, but these methods may be relatively inaccessible to some readers. Therefore, this chapter provides an introduction to trend analysis for managers and biologists while also discussing general issues relevant to trend assessment in any long-term monitoring program. For simplicity, we focus on temporal trends in population size across years. We refer to the survey results for each year as the “annual means” (e.g. mean per transect, per plot, per time period). The methods apply with little or no modification, however, to formal estimates of population size, other temporal units (e.g. a month), to spatial or other dimensions such as elevation or a north–south gradient, and to other quantities such as chemical or geological parameters. The chapter primarily discusses methods for estimating population-wide parameters rather than studying variation in trend within the population, which can be examined using methods presented in other chapters (e.g. Chapters 7, 12, 20). We begin by reviewing key concepts related to trend analysis. We then describe how to evaluate potential bias in trend estimates. An overview of the statistical models used to quantify trends is then presented. We conclude by showing ways to estimate trends using simple methods that can be implemented with spreadsheets.

  12. CNT/PDMS composite flexible dry electrodes for long-term ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha-Chul; Moon, Jin-Hee; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Joung-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite-based dry ECG electrode that can be readily connected to conventional ECG devices, and showed its long-term wearable monitoring capability and robustness to motion and sweat. While the dispersion of CNTs in PDMS is challenging, we optimized the process to disperse untreated CNTs within PDMS by mechanical force only. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the CNT/PDMS electrode were tested according to the concentration of CNTs and its thickness. The performances of ECG electrodes were evaluated by using 36 types of electrodes which were fabricated with different concentrations of CNTs, and with a differing diameter and thickness. The ECG signals were obtained by using electrodes of diverse sizes to observe the effects of motion and sweat, and the proposed electrode was shown to be robust to both factors. The CNT concentration and diameter of the electrodes were critical parameters in obtaining high-quality ECG signals. The electrode was shown to be biocompatible from the cytotoxicity test. A seven-day continuous wearability test showed that the quality of the ECG signal did not degrade over time, and skin reactions such as itching or erythema were not observed. This electrode could be used for the long-term measurement of other electrical biosignals for ubiquitous health monitoring including EMG, EEG, and ERG.

  13. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management [Special Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Ham, Kenneth; Kszos, Lynn A; Loar, James M; McCracken, Kitty; Morris, Gail Wright; Peterson, Mark J; Ryon, Michael G; Smith, John G; Southworth, George R; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  14. Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Adams, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  15. Long-term flow forecasts based on climate and hydrologic modeling: Uruguay River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Carlos Eduardo Morelli; Clarke, Robin Thomas; Collischonn, Walter; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a procedure for predicting seasonal flow in the Rio Uruguay drainage basin (area 75,000 km2, lying in Brazilian territory), using sequences of future daily rainfall given by the global climate model (GCM) of the Brazilian agency for climate prediction (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Clima, or CPTEC). Sequences of future daily rainfall given by this model were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model appropriate for large drainage basins. Forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay were made for the period 1995-2001 of the full record, which began in 1940. Analysis showed that GCM forecasts underestimated rainfall over almost all the basin, particularly in winter, although interannual variability in regional rainfall was reproduced relatively well. A statistical procedure was used to correct for the underestimation of rainfall. When the corrected rainfall sequences were transformed to flow by the hydrologic model, forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay basin were better than forecasts based on historic mean or median flows by 37% for monthly flows and by 54% for 3-monthly flows.

  16. Highly Resolved Long-term 3D Hydrological Simulation of a Forested Catchment with Litter Layer and Fractured Bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.; Bogena, H. R.; Kollet, S. J.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content plays a key role in the water and energy balance in soil, vegetation and atmosphere systems. According to Wood et al. (2011) there is a grand need to increase global-scale hyper-resolution water-energy-biogeochemistry land surface modelling capabilities. However, such a model scheme should also recognize the epistemic uncertainties, as well as the nonlinearity and hysteresis in its dynamics. Unfortunately, it is not clear how to parameterize hydrological processes as a function of scale and how to test deterministic models with regard to epistemic uncertainties. In this study, high resolution long-term simulations were conducted in the highly instrumented TERENO hydrological observatory, the Wüstebach catchment. Soil hydraulic parameters were derived using inverse modeling with the Hydrus-1D model using the global optimization scheme SCE-UA and soil moisture data from a wireless soil moisture sensor network. The estimated parameters were then used for 3D simulations using the integrated parallel simulation platform ParFlow-CLM. The simulated soil water content, as well as evapotranspiration and runoff, were compared with long-term field observations to illustrate how well the model was able to reproduce the water budget dynamics. With variable model setup scenarios in boundary conditions and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity, we investigated how lateral flow processes above the underlying fractured bedrock affects the simulation results. Furthermore, we explored the importance of the litter layer and the heterogeneity of the forest soil in the simulation of flow processes and model performance. For the analysis of spatial patterns of simulated and observed soil water content we applied the method of empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The results suggest that strong anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity may be the reason for the fast lateral flow observed in Wüstebach. Introduction of heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties in the

  17. Low-power wireless electronic capsule for long-term gastrointestinal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Yan, Guozheng; Lu, Li; Xu, Fei

    2015-02-01

    Combining ASIC and multiple microsensors low-power wireless electronic capsule was developed for the long-term monitoring of the entire human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. To meet the system requirements, several low-power designs were used in the wireless electronic capsule. The capsule measured 11 × 22 mm including batteries (45mAh). The capsule system's lifetime was 233 h, and it could meet the requirements of almost all clinical applications. A wireless electronic capsule, portable data recorder, and workstation comprised the human GI physiological parameters monitoring system. In this paper, this system was used in a clinical trial to compare colon peristaltic pressure between patients with constipation and healthy people.

  18. An ultra-high input impedance ECG amplifier for long-term monitoring of athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Gaetano; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Ruffo, Mariano; Romano, Maria; Calvo, Rafael A; Jin, Craig; van Schaik, André

    2010-01-01

    We present a new, low-power electrocardiogram (ECG) recording system with an ultra-high input impedance that enables the use of long-lasting, dry electrodes. The system incorporates a low-power Bluetooth module for wireless connectivity and is designed to be suitable for long-term monitoring during daily activities. The new system using dry electrodes was compared with a clinically approved ECG reference system using gelled Ag/AgCl electrodes and performance was found to be equivalent. In addition, the system was used to monitor an athlete during several physical tasks, and a good quality ECG was obtained in all cases, including when the athlete was totally submerged in fresh water. PMID:22915916

  19. Automatic modal identification of cable-supported bridges instrumented with a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Fan, K. Q.; Zheng, G.; Chan, T. H. T.; Ko, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    An automatic modal identification program is developed for continuous extraction of modal parameters of three cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong which are instrumented with a long-term monitoring system. The program employs the Complex Modal Indication Function (CMIF) algorithm to identify modal properties from continuous ambient vibration measurements in an on-line manner. By using the LabVIEW graphical programming language, the software realizes the algorithm in Virtual Instrument (VI) style. The applicability and implementation issues of the developed software are demonstrated by using one-year measurement data acquired from 67 channels of accelerometers deployed on the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. With the continuously identified results, normal variability of modal vectors caused by varying environmental and operational conditions is observed. Such observation is very helpful for selection of appropriate measured modal vectors for structural health monitoring applications.

  20. Long-term monitoring of social behavior in a grouping of six female tigers (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Miller, Angela; Kuhar, Christopher W

    2008-03-01

    Although literature on the reproduction of captive tigers is plentiful, there is little information on other social behaviors, particularly within large social groupings. Here we report on the long-term monitoring of social behaviors in six female tigers (Panthera tigris). Over a period of 6 years, behavioral data were collected on spraying, vocalizations, non-contact aggression, and contact aggression during outdoor observations, as well as nearest neighbors in the morning, as a proxy measure of affiliation. Regression analyses showed that non-contact aggression and vocalizing were increasing, whereas spraying and social proximity were decreasing over the 6 years of the study. Paired t-tests showed no seasonal differences in aggression, but animals had higher social proximity scores during the mornings of the colder winter months. Correlations showed that spraying was positively related to contact aggression whereas social proximity was negatively correlated with non-contact aggression. In addition to documenting levels of contact and non-contact aggression over time, this study showed these behaviors correlated with behaviors that were more easily scored (spraying and social proximity). Behavioral monitoring has played a key role in the management and husbandry of this large social grouping of female tigers. In addition to providing keepers with the opportunity to observe their animals in regularly scheduled sessions, behavioral monitoring has provided baseline information on social relationships in this grouping over time. If future research validates the relationship between aggression and spraying/social proximity, this can be a valuable tool for long-term monitoring of groups of tigers. Zoo Biol 27:89-99, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Linking archival and remotely sensed data for long-term environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamandawana, Hamisai; Eckardt, Frank; Chanda, Raban

    2005-12-01

    The broad objective of this paper is to illustrate how archival, historical and remotely sensed data can be used to complement each other for long-term environmental monitoring. One of the major constraints confronting scientific investigation in the area of long-term environmental monitoring is lack of data at the required temporal and spatial scales. While remotely sensed data have provided dependable change detection databases since 1972, long-term changes such as those associated with typical climate scenarios often require longer time series data. The lack of data in readily accessible and usable formats for periods predating commercial satellite products has for a long time restricted the scope of environmental studies to temporally brief, synoptic overviews covering short time scales, thereby compromising our understanding of complex environmental processes. One way to improve this understanding is by cross-linking different forms of data at different temporal scales. However, most remote sensing based change research has tended to marginalize the utility of archival and historical sources in environmental monitoring. While the accuracy of data from non-instrumental records is often source-specific and varies from place to place, carefully conducted searches can yield useful information that can be effectively used to extend the temporal coverage of projects dependant on time series data. This paper is based on an ongoing project on environmental monitoring in the world's largest Ramsar site, the Okavango Delta, located on the northeastern fringes of Southern Africa's Kalahari-Namib desert in northern Botswana. With a database covering over 150 years between 1849 and 2001, the primary objectives of this paper are to: (1) outline how modern remotely sensed data (i.e., CORONA and Landsat) can be complemented by historical in situ observations (i.e., travellers' records and archival maps) to extend temporal coverage into the historical past, (2) illustrate that

  2. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  3. 2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm. The meeting format

  4. Long-term bridge health monitoring focusing on the Mahalanobis Distance of modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Woo; Morita, Tomoaki; Wang, Ziran; Sugiura, Kunitomo

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining civil infrastructure, including bridges, has been a keen technical issue in developed countries and will surely be one in developing countries in the near future. An effective maintenance strategy strongly depends on timely decisions on the health condition of the structure. Bridge health monitoring (BHM) using vibration data is widely recognized to be one of the effective technologies that aid decision-making on bridge maintenance. This research focuses on long-term BHM expecting that changes in physical properties of the bridge subject to aged-deterioration progress slowly. In the practical application of the long-term BHM, one of the difficulties is that the observed vibration data includes environmental influences such as temperature change. In order to achieve high accuracy in evaluating modal parameters of the bridge, other influencing variables have to be taken into consideration. In this study, temperature is considered as the main environmental factor by means of a regression analysis. The Mahalanobis distance (MD), a multivariate statistical distance, is adopted to emphasize potential changes in the identified modal parameters. The validity of the proposed approach is investigated utilizing vibration data measured at a real bridge in service.

  5. Long-term limnological research and monitoring at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Collier, R.; Buktenica, M.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is located in the caldera of Mount Mazama in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. The lake has a surface area of about 53 km2at an elevation of 1882 m and a maximum depth of 594 m. Limited studies of this ultraoligotrophic lake conducted between 1896 and 1981, lead to a 10-year limnological study to evaluate any potential degradation of water quality. No long-term variations in water quality were observed that could be attributed to anthropogenic activity. Building on the success of this study, a permanent limnological program has been established with a long-term monitoring program to insure a reliable data base for use in the future. Of equal importance, this program serves as a research platform to develop and communicate to the public a better understanding of the coupled biological, physical, and geochemical processes in the lake and its surrounding environment. This special volume represents our current state of knowledge of the status of this pristine ecosystem including its special optical properties, algal nutrient limitations, pelagic bacteria, and models of the inter-relationships of thermal properties, nutrients, phytoplankton, deep-water mixing, and water budgets. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Rangeland monitoring reveals long-term plant responses to precipitation and grazing at the landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.

  7. Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures

  8. A Microfluidic Platform for Long-Term Monitoring of Algae in a Dynamic Environment.

    PubMed

    Luke, Chung Sze; Selimkhanov, Jangir; Baumgart, Leo; Cohen, Susan E; Golden, Susan S; Cookson, Natalie A; Hasty, Jeff

    2016-01-15

    Culturing cells in microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices for time lapse microscopy has become a valuable tool for studying the dynamics of biological systems. Although microfluidic technology has been applied to culturing and monitoring a diverse range of bacterial and eukaryotic species, cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae present several challenges that have made them difficult to culture in a microfluidic setting. Here, we present a customizable device for the long-term culturing and imaging of three well characterized strains of cyanobacteria and microalgae. This platform has several advantages over agarose pads and demonstrates great potential for obtaining high quality, single-cell gene expression data of cyanobacteria and algae in precisely controlled, dynamic environments over long time periods.

  9. An RFID-based on-lens sensor system for long-term IOP monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Liao, Yu-Te; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an RFID-based on-lens sensor system is proposed for noninvasive long-term intraocular pressure monitoring. The proposed sensor IC, fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS process, consists of capacitive sensor readout circuitry, RFID communication circuits, and digital processing units. The sensor IC is integrated with electroplating capacitive sensors and a receiving antenna on the contact lens. The sensor IC can be wirelessly powered, communicate with RFID compatible equipment, and perform IOP measurement using on-lens capacitive sensor continuously from a 2cm distance while the incident power from an RFID reader is 20 dBm. The proposed system is compatible to Gen2 RFID protocol, extending the flexibility and reducing the self-developed firmware efforts.

  10. INTEGRAL long-term monitoring results on persistently bright NS LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savolainen, P.; Hannikainen, D. C.; Paizis, A.; Farinelli, R.; Kuulkers, E.; Vilhu, O.

    2010-07-01

    We present long-term spectral and timing results from an INTEGRAL monitoring program of persistently bright neutron star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, i.e. the three bright Atoll sources GX 3+1, GX 9+1 and GX 9+9, and the Z sources GX 5-1, GX 17+2, GX 340+0 and GX 349+2. From the available observing periods between 2003 and 2009, each lasting ~2 months, we have selected a few sample periods for each source, and analyzed all JEM-X and IBIS/ISGRI data with offsets <4 degrees. We seek an explanation for the dichotomy between the hard X-ray tails or lack thereof in the (otherwise very similar) X-ray spectra of Z sources and bright Atolls, respectively.

  11. Long-term monitoring of the Sedlec Ossuary - Analysis of hygrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Balík, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Sedlec Ossuary is one of the twelve UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic. Although the ossuary is listed among the most visited Czech tourist attractions, its technical state is almost critical and a radical renovation is necessary. On this account, hygrothermal performance of the ossuary is experimentally researched in the presented paper in order to get information on moisture sources and to get necessary data for optimized design of renovation treatments and reconstruction solutions that will allow preserve the historical significance of this attractive heritage site. Within the performed experimental analysis, the interior and exterior climatic conditions are monitored over an almost three year period together with relative humidity and temperature profiles measured in the most damage parts of the ossuary chapel. On the basis of measured data, the long-term hygrothermal state of the ossuary building is accessed and the periods of possible surface condensation are identified.

  12. Long-term monitoring of soil gas radon and permeability at two reference sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Falcomer, Renato; Ly, Jim; Wierdsma, Jessica; Bergman, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The long-term monitoring of soil radon variations was conducted at two reference sites in Ottawa. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single soil radon survey could provide a representative soil radon characteristic of the site. Results showed that during the normal field survey period from June to September in Canada, a single field survey with multiple measurements of soil gas radon concentrations at a depth of 80 cm can characterise the soil radon level of a site within a deviation of +/-30%. Direct in situ soil permeability measurements exhibited, however, large variations even within an area of only 10 x 10 m(2). Considering such large variations and the weight of the equipment, soil permeability can be determined by direct measurements whenever possible or by other qualitative evaluation methods for sites that are hard to access with heavy equipment.

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Mini-Split Ductless Heat Pumps in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Loomis, H.

    2015-06-01

    Transformations, Inc. has extensive experience building their high performance housing at a variety of Massachusetts locations, in both a production and custom home setting. The majority of their construction uses mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs) for space conditioning. This research covered the long-term performance of MSHPs in Zone 5A; it is the culmination of up to 3 years' worth of monitoring in a set of eight houses. This research examined electricity use of MSHPs, distributions of interior temperatures and humidity when using simplified (two-point) heating systems in high-performance housing, and the impact of open-door/closed-door status on temperature distributions. The use of simplified space conditioning distribution (through use of MSHPs) provides significant first cost savings, which are used to offset the increased investment in the building enclosure.

  14. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Wagener, T.; Sawicz, K.

    2013-03-01

    Catchment hydrologic partitioning, regional vegetation composition and soil properties are strongly affected by climate, but the effects of climate-vegetation-soil interactions on river basin water balance are still poorly understood. Here we use a physically-based hydrologic model separately parameterized in 12 US catchments across a climate gradient to decouple the impact of climate and landscape properties to gain insight into the role of climate-vegetation-soil interactions in long-term hydrologic partitioning. The 12 catchment models (with different parameterizations) are subjected to the 12 different climate forcings, resulting in 144 10-yr model simulations. The results are analyzed per catchment (one catchment model subjected to 12 climates) and per climate (one climate filtered by 12 different model parameterization), and compared to water balance predictions based on Budyko's hypothesis (E/P = φ (EP/P); E: evaporation, P: precipitation, EP: potential evaporation). We find significant anti-correlation between average deviations of the evaporation index (E/P) computed per catchment vs. per climate, compared to that predicted by Budyko. Catchments that on average produce more E/P have developed in climates that on average produce less E/P, when compared to Budyko's prediction. Water and energy seasonality could not explain these observations, confirming previous results reported by Potter et al. (2005). Next, we analyze which model (i.e., landscape filter) characteristics explain the catchment's tendency to produce more or less E/P. We find that the time scale that controls perched aquifer storage release explains the observed trend. This time scale combines several geomorphologic and hydraulic soil properties. Catchments with relatively longer aquifer storage release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis

  15. Distributed simulation of long-term hydrological processes in a medium-sized periurban catchment under changing land use and rainwater management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbas, Mériem; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Kralisch, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Growing urbanization and related anthropogenic processes have a high potential to influence hydrological process dynamics. Typical consequences are an increase of surface imperviousness and modifications of water flow paths due to artificial channels and barriers (combined and separated system, sewer overflow device, roads, ditches, etc.). Periurban catchments, at the edge of large cities, are especially affected by fast anthropogenic modifications. They usually consist of a combination of natural areas, rural areas with dispersed settlements and urban areas mostly covered by built zones and spots of natural surfaces. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Floods Directive (2007), integrated and sustainable solutions are needed to reduce flooding risks and river pollution at the scale of urban conglomerations or whole catchments. Their thorough management requires models able to assess the vulnerability of the territory and to compare the impact of different rainwater management options and planning issues. To address this question, we propose a methodology based on a multi-scale distributed hydrological modelling approach. It aims at quantifying the impact of ongoing urbanization and stormwater management on the long-term hydrological cycle in medium-sized periurban watershed. This method focuses on the understanding and formalization of dominant periurban hydrological processes from small scales (few ha to few km2) to larger scales (few hundred km2). The main objectives are to 1) simulate both urban and rural hydrological processes and 2) test the effects of different long-term land use and water management scenarios. The method relies on several tools and data: a distributed hydrological model adapted to the characteristics of periurban areas, land use and land cover maps from different dates (past, present, future) and information about rainwater management collected from local authorities. For the application of the method, the

  16. In vivo wireless biodiagnosis system for long-term bioactivity monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuang; Wu, Wen-Jong; Yu, Shih-An; Huang, Jhen-Gang; Lin, Yun-Han; Chen, Yih-Fan; Jin, Ming-Hui; Wen, Chih-Min; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chii-Wann; Yen, Jia-Yush; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chen, Chi-An; Liao, Fang-Jen; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chien, Chia-Nan; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2004-07-01

    Attempts to develop a Wireless Health Advanced Mobile Bio-diagnostic System (abbreviated as WHAM-BioS) have arisen from the need to monitor the health status of patients under long-term care programs. The proposed WHAM-BioS as presented here was developed by integrating various technologies: nano/MEMS technology, biotechnology, network/communication technology, and information technology. The biochips proposed not only detect certain diseases but will also report any abnormal status readings on the patient to the medical personnel immediately through the network system. Since long-term home care is typically involved, the parameters monitored must be analyzed and traced continuously over a long period of time. To minimize the intrusion to the patients, a wireless sensor embedded within a wireless network is highly recommended. To facilitate the widest possible use of various biochips, a smart sensor node concept was implemented. More specifically, various technologies and components such as built-in micro power generators, energy storage devices, initialization processes, no-waste bio-detection methodologies, embedded controllers, wireless warning signal transmissions, and power/data management were merged and integrated to create this novel technology. The design methodologies and the implementation schemes are detailed. Potential expansions of this newly developed technology to other applications regimes will be presented as well.

  17. Long-term monitoring of gully erosion in Udmurt Republic, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysin, Ivan; Grigoriev, Ivan; Zaytseva, Mariya; Golosov, Valentin; Sharifullin, Aidar

    2017-03-01

    This article presents results from the long term-monitoring of gully headcut retreat rates (GHRR) between 1959 and 2015 in different parts of the Udmurt Republic and is based on the use of historical aerial photographs and field observations (measuring the distance from the gully head to a fixed reference point) (Vanmaercke et al., 2016). It was determined that GHRR decreased from 2.4 to 0.3 m yr-1 during the 1959-1997 observation period and the 1998-2015 period, respectively. Measurements of GHRR were made once per year for most of the monitoring sites, and twice per year (after snow-melt in May, and after the rainy season, October-November) for gullies located in the eastern part of the study area that contain high proportions of arable land. 80 % of GHRR occurred during the snowmelt period (1978-1997), and decreased to 53 % since 1997. Spatial patterns of GHRR resulting from changing hydro-climatic factors for different regions of the Udmurt Republic, as a whole, were determined based on the analysis of long-term observations at 6 meteorological stations and 4 gauging stations. The main reason for decreasing GHRR appears to be due to reductions in winter frozen soil depth. The influence of stormwater runoff more clearly occurred within the east and north parts of the Vyatka-Kama interfluve, whereas higher correlations between GHRR and frozen soil depth were found for the western parts of the Republic. The most significant increases in GHRR appear to have occurred during the warm part of the year (June-July), after > 40 mm rainstorms.

  18. Deformations of Pournari I dam (Greece) based on long-term geodetic monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Pytharouli, Stella

    2014-05-01

    A big number of large earth fill dams worldwide are expected to exceed their design lifespan until 2020. This number is becoming larger when taking into account predictions that dam infrastructure is not expected to withstand future natural disasters, with severe consequences to public safety and significant economic losses. Systematic monitoring and analysis is an important tool that enables the evaluation of the on-going performance of a dam, the validation of laboratory models and the assessment of different engineering designs. Currently, relationships describing the long-term evolution of dam deformations are based on only a few studies and mainly focused on the magnitude of crest settlements and the downstream horizontal deflections of the dam. This study presents the post-construction analysis of the behaviour of one of the largest earth fill dams in Greece, based on long-term monitoring data. The 29 year long dataset consisted of geodetic measurements of vertical and horizontal deformations from the crest and the body of the dam, reservoir level fluctuations, in addition to rainfall records of the dam area. Our analysis shows that the settlement of the crest remains within normal limits while the rate of deformations was stabilised almost seven years after the completion of the dam, which is longer than the period suggested by previous studies. The impoundment of the reservoir had a significant effect on the horizontal deflections of the body of the dam: an upwards and upstream movement in part of the downstream shoulder was detected. We compare our results with those obtained from the analysis of one of the highest earth fill dams in Europe, the Kremasta dam. We suggest that this pattern, though rarely mentioned in the international literature, is neither uncommon nor abnormal (when the horizontal deflections are still within safety limits) and is related to changes in the water pressure within the dam along with the on-going consolidation of the dam clay

  19. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2014 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langenbach, James

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2014 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The goals of the 2014 annual LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient and to monitor the vertical and downgradient horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at the site. The LTM activities consisted of an annual groundwater sampling event in December 2014, which included the collection of water levels from the LTM wells. During the annual groundwater sampling event, depth to groundwater was measured and VOC samples were collected using passive diffusion bags (PDBs) from 30 monitoring wells. In addition to the LTM sampling, additional assessment sampling was performed at the site using low-flow techniques based on previous LTM results and assessment activities. Assessment of monitoring well MW0052DD was performed by collecting VOC samples using low-flow techniques before and after purging 100 gallons from the well. Monitoring well MW0064 was sampled to supplement shallow VOC data north of Hot Spot 2 and east of Hot Spot 4. Monitoring well MW0089 was sampled due to its proximity to MW0090. MW0090 is screened in a deeper interval and had an unexpected detection of trichloroethene (TCE) during the 2013 LTM, which was corroborated during the March 2014 verification sampling. Monitoring well MW0130 was sampled to provide additional VOC data beneath the semi-confining clay layer in the Hot Spot 2 area.

  20. Long-term CO2 fertilization increases vegetation productivity and has little effect on hydrological partitioning in tropical rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall J.; McVicar, Tim R.; Roderick, Michael L.; Beck, Hylke E.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforests respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) is essential for predicting Earth's carbon, water, and energy budgets under future climate change. Here we use long-term (1982-2010) precipitation (P) and runoff (Q) measurements to infer runoff coefficient (Q/P) and evapotranspiration (E) trends across 18 unimpaired tropical rainforest catchments. We complement that analysis by using satellite observations coupled with ecosystem process modeling (using both "top-down" and "bottom-up" perspectives) to examine trends in carbon uptake and relate that to the observed changes in Q/P and E. Our results show there have been only minor changes in the satellite-observed canopy leaf area over 1982-2010, suggesting that eCO2 has not increased vegetation leaf area in tropical rainforests and therefore any plant response to eCO2 occurs at the leaf level. Meanwhile, observed Q/P and E also remained relatively constant in the 18 catchments, implying an unchanged hydrological partitioning and thus approximately conserved transpiration under eCO2. For the same period, using a top-down model based on gas exchange theory, we predict increases in plant assimilation (A) and light use efficiency (ɛ) at the leaf level under eCO2, the magnitude of which is essentially that of eCO2 (i.e., 12% over 1982-2010). Simulations from 10 state-of-the-art bottom-up ecosystem models over the same catchments also show that the direct effect of eCO2 is to mostly increase A and ɛ with little impact on E. Our findings add to the current limited pool of knowledge regarding the long-term eCO2 impacts in tropical rainforests.

  1. Long Term Geoelectrical Monitoring of Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic Deep-water Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf Coast, opportunities exist to study the evolution of fresh crude oil contamination in beach sediments and marshes. Grand Terre 1 Island, off the coast of Grand Isle in southern Louisiana, is an uninhabited barrier island, heavily impacted by the DWH spill, and ideal for undisturbed long term monitoring of crude oil degradation processes. A 10 channel Syscal-Pro resistivity / IP instrument (IRIS Instruments, France) is the heart of the fully autonomous geoelectrical monitoring system; the system, which is housed in a weatherproof container, relies solely on solar power, is controlled by an energy efficient PC and can be accessed remotely via web tools. The monitoring scheme involves collecting bi-daily resistivity measurements from surface and shallow boreholes, ranging from January 2011 to the present; environmental parameters, such as T, are continuously recorded at several depths. During regular field trips we perform larger scale geophysical surveys, and geochemical measurements (pH, DO, T, fluid C) to support the continuous geophysical monitoring. The contaminated layer on site is a visually distinctive layer of crude oil, isolated by cleaner sands above and below which is identified by a clear and obvious resistive anomaly in preliminary surveys. Early results show a decrease in average of the resistance values of each dataset over time. Further processing of the data yields a linearly shaped resistive anomaly, which coincides with the location of the oil layer. The changes in subsurface resistivity appear to be focused within this anomaly. Time filtering of the data by the time that they were collected, morning or evening, reveals a diurnal variation. While both time frames follow the same overall trend, the measurements in the morning are slightly more resistive than those in the evening. This indicates that there are environmental factors, such as temperature, that need to be

  2. Lessons learned from long-term ecosystem research and monitoring in alpine and subalpine basins of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term ecosystem research and monitoring was begun in the Loch Vale watershed of Rocky Mountain National Park in 1983, after extensive survey work to identify the best location. Then, as now, our scientific objectives were to understand natural biogeochemical cycles and variability, so that we could differentiate ecosystem changes from human-caused disturbances, such as atmospheric deposition of pollutants and climate change. We have learned many lessons, often through our mistakes, that are worth passing on. Clear scientific objectives, even for long-term monitoring, are essential. Standardized methods, including rigorous quality assurance procedures should be adhered to from the beginning of the program. All data, even those collected routinely for background records, should be scrutinized and summarized at least once a year. Freely share basic information such as weather, hydrologic, chemical, and descriptive records with other researchers who can build upon your efforts. Use many tools when asking complex ecological questions, in order to minimize bias toward specific results. Publish frequently; long-term studies do not imply there are no interim conclusions or interesting findings. Interpret findings frequently to policy makers and citizens; increased understanding of the environment and human-caused changes may improve natural resource management, and build support for ecological research. And finally, be persistent. Long-term ecological research can be frustrating and difficult to maintain, yet is often the best way to observe and understand ecological change on a meaningful time scale.

  3. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  4. Long-term and transient forcing of the low ionosphere monitored by SAVNET

    SciTech Connect

    Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Bertoni, Fernando C. P.; Gavilan, Hernan R.; Samanes, Jorge C.

    2010-10-20

    In this paper we present the main findings obtained by the South America VLF NETwork since its installation in the South America territory. In particular we show the capability of the VLF technique to monitor the long-term solar activity and transient solar and geomagnetic disturbances. On long timescales they are indices on the possibility of monitoring the Lyman-{alpha} solar radiation. On shorter timescales we show that the VLF technique is a very sensitive mean of detecting solar X-ray flares. Those small events with a peak power {>=}5x10{sup -7} W/m{sup 2} are detected with a 100% probability. A lower limit for the X-ray power of {approx}2.7 10{sup -7} W/m{sup 2} has been found in order to produce a ionospheric disturbance, and we confirm the important role of the Lyman-{alpha} radiation to form and maintain the low ionospheric D-region. SAVNET has also observed for the first time the ionospheric disturbances produced by outbursts from the magnetar SGR 1550-5408. This genuine detection suggests the possibility of monitoring on a routine basis these objects of fundamental importance in high-energy astrophysics. Finally, we show that SAVNET is well suited for participating to the search for seismo-ionospheric disturbances in order to study the possibility of earthquake events prediction.

  5. Monitored natural attenuation of a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a case study.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Ravi; Nandy, Subhas; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kumar, R P; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu; Chen, Zuliang; Bowman, Mark

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remedial option for groundwater at a long-term petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site in Australia. Source characterization revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as the major contaminant of concern in the smear zone and groundwater. Multiple lines of evidence involving the geochemical parameters, microbiological analysis, data modelling and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis all demonstrated natural attenuation of hydrocarbons occurring in the groundwater via intrinsic biodegradation. Groundwater monitoring data by Mann-Kendall trend analysis using properly designed and installed groundwater monitoring wells shows the plume is stable and neither expanding nor shrinking. The reason for stable plume is due to the presence of both active source and natural attenuation on the edge of the plume. Assuming no retardation and no degradation the contaminated plume would have travelled a distance of 1,096 m (best case) to 11,496 m (worst case) in 30 years. However, the plume was extended only up to about 170 m from its source. The results of these investigations provide strong scientific evidence for natural attenuation of TPH in this contaminated aquifer. Therefore, MNA can be applied as a defensible management option for this site following significant reduction of TPH in the source zone.

  6. Stable Microwave Radiometry System for Long Term Monitoring of Deep Tissue Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain on-axis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3–5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of ∓0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  7. Stable microwave radiometry system for long term monitoring of deep tissue temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-02-01

    Background: There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods: We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain onaxis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results: We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of +0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions: A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  8. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.

    2012-12-01

    outside of the contaminated location exhibit relatively uniform resistivity or show clear evidence of seasonal effect. Temperature-corrected resistivity changes show no direct correlation with pore fluid specific conductance changes, suggesting that specific conductance changes (e.g. due to tides) have little influence on imaged resistivity structure. Microbial data suggest that resistivity changes within the contaminated location resulted from biodegradation, showing the presence of native populations capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons at salinities ranging from 6 to 15 % NaCl within the contaminated location. Aqueous geochemical measurements performed on samples from the site further indicate that at depth intervals coincident with the resistivity anomaly, marked increases in the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were observed suggesting biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon although other DIC generating processes such as organic matter degradation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction were also prominent. This experiment demonstrates the potential viability of long-term autonomous electrical monitoring as a means of decreasing the frequency of more costly and invasive chemical analysis of natural attenuation.

  9. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-07-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies.

  10. Hydrodynamic trapping of Tetrahymena thermophila for the long-term monitoring of cell behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Itsuka; Hosoda, Kazufumi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Hirata, Katsuki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2012-09-21

    Microfluidic trapping technology has been widely applied for single-cell observation in order to reveal characteristic cell behaviors. However, this strategy has yet to be tested for monitoring highly motile cells, which are often biologically important. In this paper, we seek the conditions that enable effective and long-term trapping of a prominent model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila within a hydrodynamic microfluidic device. Although motility and flexibility of T. thermophila make it difficult to avoid escaping from the trap, we show that tuning some key parameters in the hydrodynamic circuit was effective to achieve approximately 40 h cell retention, which is long enough to monitor cell behaviors over several generations. Here, we demonstrate the real-time observation of cell division and phagocytic digestion, revealing interesting phenomena such as a wide distribution in doubling time in a poor synthetic medium and heterogeneous time courses in digestion processes. Our results present a strategy for trapping highly motile ciliate cells in order to study the dynamic behaviors of single cells.

  11. Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring with a Long-Term Subconjunctival Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the feasibility of an implantable subconjunctival glucose monitoring system (SGMS) for long-term glucose monitoring, we investigated the in vivo performance of the system. Method The SGMS consists of an implantable ocular mini implant (OMI) and a handheld fluorescence photometer. A clinical study was performed on 47 diabetes patients split into two cohorts. Two different types of OMI were used, with and without a biocompatible surface coating. Duration of the study was 1 year. Correlation between capillary blood glucose and SGMS-derived interstitial fluid glucose was investigated during the first 6 months of the study. Results Both OMI types were tolerated well in the eyes of the patients. At the beginning of the study, the SGMS of both cohorts revealed a high accuracy with mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values of 7–12%. The performance of the uncoated OMIs deteriorated within 3 months of wearing time, exhibiting a MARD value of 20%. The performance of the surface-coated OMIs was preserved longer. Glucose correlation measurement with reasonable results (MARD of 14%) could be performed for up to 6 months of wear. Conclusions The biocompatible surface coating on the OMIs enabled a longer duration of action of up to 6 months compared with 3 months for uncoated implants in a clinical trial. PMID:23439157

  12. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Bowerman, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  13. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long- Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and is beginning to fit spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has gotten the site's Modflow model working and is developing a transport model that will be used to generate artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, has performed a literature review on inverse modeling and is receiving training on the software that will be used in this project (D2K). He has also created two models of user preferences and successfully implemented them with an interactive genetic algorithm on test functions. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has created an interactive genetic algorithm code and initial user interface in D2K. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected and analyzed data from the phytoremediation systems at the 317/319 site. She has found good correlations between concentrations in the ground water and in branches of the trees, which indicates excellent promise for using the trees as cost-effective long-term monitoring of the contaminants.

  14. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  15. Long-term monitoring of change in Tropical grasslands- GLORIA network in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, F. X.; Muriel, P.; Halloy, S.; Beck, S.; Meneses, R. I.; Irazabal, J.; Aguirre, N.; Viñas, P.; Suarez, D.; Becerra, M. T.; Gloria-Andes Network

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that predicted warming and increased frequency of extreme weather events increase with altitude in the Andean mountains. Combined with enormous topographic (and hence precipitation) heterogeneity, poverty and intensive land use, creates in the region a situation of high vulnerability to global change. Since 2005 the network Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environment (GLORIA) sites have been progressively installed in Andean countries to monitor changes, document the type and magnitude of impacts and provide guidance to develop adaptation strategies for biodiversity, humans, and productive systems. We report the preliminary results from 10 of those sites, in addition to new sites planned in South America. These sites provide baseline data and identify processes and patterns in plant biodiversity across different geographic contexts. These preliminary results show the tremendous singularity of the vegetation and flora patterns in the study sites, suggesting high sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate anomalies. It is expected that the consolidation of this network will support and strengthen long-term observation and monitoring research programs to enable the documentation and understanding of climate change impacts on the Andean biota. Our research considers complementary modules of investigation (e.g. carbon stocks and fluxes, plant responses to experimental manipulation) that contextualize the challenges and opportunities of adaptation for biodiversity and socio-economic components, providing measures of trends as well as effectiveness of adaptive management strategies.

  16. Long-term home monitoring of hypermotor seizures by patient-worn accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Van de Vel, Anouk; Cuppens, Kris; Bonroy, Bert; Milosevic, Milica; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vanrumste, Bart; Lagae, Lieven; Ceulemans, Berten

    2013-01-01

    Long-term home monitoring of epileptic seizures is not feasible with the gold standard of video/electro-encephalography (EEG) monitoring. The authors developed a system and algorithm for nocturnal hypermotor seizure detection in pediatric patients based on an accelerometer (ACM) attached to extremities. Seizure detection is done using normal movement data, meaning that the system can be installed in a new patient's room immediately as prior knowledge on the patient's seizures is not needed for the patient-specific model. In this study, the authors compared video/EEG-based seizure detection with ACM data in seven patients and found a sensitivity of 95.71% and a positive predictive value of 57.84%. The authors focused on hypermotor seizures given the availability of this seizure type in the data, the typical occurrence of these seizures during sleep, i.e., when the measurements were done, and the importance of detection of hypermotor seizures given their often refractory nature and the possible serious consequences. To our knowledge, it is the first detection system focusing on this type of seizure in pediatric patients.

  17. Long-term monitoring of stable isotopic compositions of precipitation over volcanic island, Jeju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Hee; Koh, Dong-Chan; Park, Won-Bae; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of precipitation can be widely used to understand moisture transport in the atmosphere, proxies for paleoclimate and interactions between groundwater and precipitation. Over Jeju volcanic island, located southwest of the Korean Peninsula, precipitation penetrated directly into the highly permeable aquifer is the main source of groundwater. In this study, long-term stable isotopic compositions of precipitation over Jeju Island are characterized to describe spatial and temporal patterns for hydrology and paleoclimate. At fifteen sites from September 2000 to December 2003, precipitation samples were collected and analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer at the Korea Basic Science Institute. Compared to Lee et al. (2003), the two seasonal local meteoric water lines widen, which may change the relative contributions of winter and summer season precipitation to the groundwater recharge. The precipitation isotopes are inversely correlated with precipitation amount in summer, whereas they do not show a strong correlation with surface air temperature. The precipitation isotopes monthly averaged relatively show a periodic function (R2=0.63 and 0.40 for hydrogen and oxygen, respectively), and deuterium excess (d-excess=δD-8×δ18O) shows a strong pattern of quadratic function (R2=0.97), which is related to a seasonal change of air masses. Altitude effect of precipitation isotopes, which can be a clue to reveal sources of groundwater, can be observed in every aspect of the volcanic island (for the oxygen isotope, -0.14‰ for east and west, -0.18‰ for north and -0.085‰ for south per 100 m). Our analysis of precipitation isotopes will be helpful to provide limitations and opportunities for paleoclimate reconstruction using isotopic proxies and water movement from atmosphere to subsurface.

  18. Long-term impact of hydrological regime on structure and functions of microbial communities in riverine wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Foulquier, Arnaud; Volat, Bernadette; Neyra, Marc; Bornette, Gudrun; Montuelle, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    In a context of global change, alterations in the water cycle may impact the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands are particularly at risk because hydrological regime has a major influence on microbially mediated biogeochemical processes in sediments. While the influence of water availability on wetland biogeochemical processes has been comprehensively studied, the influence of hydrological regime on microbial community structure has been overlooked. We tested for the effect of hydrological regime on the structure and functions of microbial communities by comparing sediments collected at multiple sites in the Ain département (Eastern France). Each site consisted of two plots, one permanently and one seasonally inundated. At the time of sampling, all plots were continuously inundated for more than 6 months but still harboured distinct bacterial communities. This change in community structure was not associated with marked modifications in the rates of microbial activities involved in the C and N cycles. These results suggest that the observed structural change could be related to bacterial taxa responding to the environmental variations associated with different hydrological regimes, but not strongly associated with the biogeochemical processes monitored here.

  19. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2015 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2015 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objectives of the 2015 LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient, to monitor the vertical and horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs; including the upgradient and sidegradient extents, which are monitored every five years), and to monitor select locations internal to the dissolved groundwater plume. The 2015 LTM event included several upgradient and sidegradient monitoring wells that are not sampled annually to verify the extent of VOCs in this portion of the site. The December 2015 LTM groundwater sampling event included, depth to groundwater measurements, 40 VOC samples collected using passive diffusion bags, and one VOC sample collected using low-flow techniques. Additionally, monitoring well MW0052DD was overdrilled and abandoned using rotasonic drilling techniques. The following conclusions can be made based on the 2015 LTM results: groundwater flow is generally to the west with northwest and southwest flow components from the water table to approximately 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS); peripheral monitoring wells generally delineate VOCs to groundwater cleanup target levels (GCTLs) except for monitoring wells MW0088, MW0090, MW0095, and NPSHMW0039, which had vinyl chloride (VC) concentrations near the GCTL and MW0062, which had trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethenen (cDCE), and VC concentrations above natural attenuation default concentrations (NADCs); VOCs in interior downgradient wells generally fluctuate within historic ranges except for monitoring wells in the north-northwest portion of the site, which have increasing VC concentrations indicating potential plume migration and expansion; Historically, the vertical extents of the VOCs were delineated by monitoring wells

  20. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Ginat, Hanan; Shalmon, Benny

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel. The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Therefore, acacia trees in arid zones are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species, i.e., biodiversity. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since 2000, a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava (established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority). The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of 2010. A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools (ground and air-based) along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia

  1. Highly Sensitive and Long Term Stable Electrochemical Microelectrodes for Implantable Glucose Monitoring Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Liangliang

    A miniature wireless implantable electrochemical glucose system for continuous glucose monitoring with good selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and long term stability was developed. First, highly sensitive, long-term stable and reusable planar H2O2 microelectrodes have been fabricated by microlithography. These electrodes composed of a 300 nm Pt black layer situated on a 5 um thick Au layer, provide effective protection to the underlying chromium adhesion layer. Using repeated cyclic voltammetric sweeps in flowing buffer solution, highly sensitive Pt black working electrodes were realized with five-decade linear dynamic range and low detection limit (10 nM) for H2O2 at low oxidation potentials. Second, a highly sensitive, low cost and flexible microwire biosensor was described using 25-mum thick gold wire as working electrode together with 125-mum thick Pt/Ir and Ag wires as counter and reference electrode, embedded within a PDMS-filled polyethylene tube. Surface area and activity of sensor was enhanced by converting gold electrode to nanoporous configuration followed by electrodeposition of platinum black. Glucose oxidase based biosensors by electrodeposition of poly(o-phenylenediamine) and glucose oxidase on the working electrode, displayed a higher glucose sensitivity (1.2 mA mM-1 cm-2) than highest literature reported. In addition it exhibits wide detection range (up to 20 mM) and selectivity (>95%). Third, novel miniaturized and flexible microelectrode arrays with 8 of 25 mum electrodes displayed the much needed 3D diffusion profiles similar to a single 25 mum microelectrode, but with one order increase in current levels. These microelectrode arrays displayed a H2O2 sensitivity of 13 mA mM-1 cm-2, a wide dynamic range of 100 nM to 10 mM, limit of detection of 10 nM. These microwire based edge plane microsensors incorporated flexibility, miniaturization and low operation potential are an promising approach for continuous in vivo metabolic monitoring. Fourth

  2. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and monitoring air. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.; Gross, K.

    1998-06-01

    'The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for: (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes, and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team has been assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment. As of June 1, 1998, the UC/ANL Team has: (1) made significant progress toward characterizing the fluid transfer process which is the basis for this detector development project and (2) evaluated several radiation detectors and several potential pulse processing schemes. The following discussion describes the progress made during the first year of this project and the implications of this progress.'

  3. An Optical Oxygen Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Perfused Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, F. G.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Anderson, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    For long-term growth of man1ITlalian cells in perfused bioreactors, it is essential to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium to quantitate and control level of DO. Continuous measurement of the amount of DO in the cell culture medium in-line under sterile conditions in NASA's perfused bioreactor requires that the oxygen sensor provide increased sensitivity and be sterilizable and nontoxic. Additionally, long-term cell culture experiments require that the calibration be maintained several weeks or months. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An optical oxygen sensor (BOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. Tris( 4,7 -diphenyl-l, 1 O-phenanthroline )ruthenium(II) chloride is employed as the fluorescent dye indicator. The sensing element consists of a glass capillary (OD 4.0 mm; ID 2.0 mm) coated internally with a thin layer of the fluorescent dye in silicone matrix and overlayed with a black shielding layer. Irradiation of the sensing element with blue light (blue LED with emission maximum at 475 nm) generates a red fluorescence centered at 626 nm. The fluorescence intensity is correlated to the concentration of DO present in the culture medium, following the modified non-linear Stern-Volmer equation. By using a pulsed irradiating light source, the problem of dye-bleaching, which is often encountered in long-term continuous measurements of tIns type, 'is minimized. To date we achieved sensor resolution of 0.3 mmHg at 50 mmHg p02, and 0.6 mmHg at 100 mmHg p02, with a response time of about one minute. Calibration was accomplished in sterile phosphate-buffered saline with a blood-gas analyzer (BGA) measurement as reference. Stand-alone software was also developed to control the sensor and bioreactor as well as to

  4. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related

  5. Re-establishment of long-term glacier monitoring in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzle, M.; Azisov, E.; Barandun, M.; Hagg, W.; Huss, M.; Kriegel, D.; Machguth, H.; Mandychev, A.; Merkushkin, A.; Moldobekov, B.; Schöne, T.; Thoss, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Zemp, M.

    2012-04-01

    Glacier mass balance is an important indicator of climate change. The internationally recommended multi-level strategy for monitoring mountain glaciers combines in-situ measurements (mass balance, front variations) with remote sensing (inventories) and numerical modelling. This helps to bridge the gap between detailed local process-oriented studies and global coverage. Several glaciers in Central Asia, i.e. Abramov and Golubina Glacier were some of the most important reference glaciers in the world-wide glacier monitoring program representing important mountain ranges, such as the Pamir-Alay and the Tien Shan mountains. For these glaciers long-term series of more than 20 years are available. After the break-down of the former Soviet Union, most of the measurements were abandoned. In a cooperative effort between the countries Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Germany and Switzerland, the measurement series are currently re-initiated and will be continued within the next years. This study shows the measurement strategy and network, and discusses new installations, which have been set up at Abramov in summer 2011 and Golubina Glacier in summer 2010. The research strategy is composed of three main components. The first component is based on mass balance measurements using the glaciological method, the second relies on snow line observations with installed automatic cameras taking several pictures per day in order to document the snow line evolution on the glaciers during the summer months. The third is the application of a mass balance model driven by a nearby automatic weather station. The advantage of this strategy is that the three different components can be used to test them against each other, or to use them for calibration purposes. A second objective of the re-established glacier monitoring programs is to reconstruct the mass balance for the time period, where no measurements are available. Continuous mass balance series for each glacier will be derived based on a well

  6. [Ophthalmological monitoring protocol for patients treated with long-term antimalarials or vigabatrin].

    PubMed

    Ingster-Moati, I; Orssaud, C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment with the antimalarials chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine rarely causes retinopathy. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine toxicity are untreatable and can progress to legal blindness. Since 1957, there has been a consensus on the need to monitor patients on long-term chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine therapy. Currently, the procedure for follow-up includes collection of patient information, complete ophthalmological exam with automated central perimetry, and retinal electrophysiology. Screening should take place before treatment or no more than 6 months after initiation of antimalarial therapy. During treatment, monitoring relative to the baseline should be at a frequency determined by whether there are risk factors for development of toxicity, such as a cumulative dose greater than 1.8 kg, a daily dose greater than 6.5mg of hydroxychloroquine/kg/day, concurrent or past ophthalmological diseases, hepatic or renal insufficiency, age older than 65 years, and chloroquine intake. Retinopathy can occur in the absence of risk factors. The risk/benefit ratio favors therapy despite the time and expense of screening. Vigabatrin (VGB) is an effective drug for treatment of epilepsy and has been used in the treatment of West syndrome and epilepsy resistant to other drugs. VGB treatment improves quality of life, but it can induce characteristic bilateral nasal visual field defects and changes in retinal electrophysiology. Currently, the recommended procedure is to screen these patients before treatment, if possible, with a complete ophthalmological exam including perimetry and retinal electrophysiology every 6 months. It may be necessary to rely on retinal electrophysiology since some patients may not be able to undergo perimetry. The risk/benefit ratio sill clearly favors VGB treatment. Patients whose seizure incidence is reduced and have only minimal visual changes could continue VGB with strict monitoring. The others must discontinue VGB.

  7. Long-term monitoring experiences at the HADES underground lab and its relevance for radwaste repository monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Verstricht, Jan

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of its radwaste disposal research programme, SCK-CEN started the construction of the HADES underground research facility in 1980. Including several extensions and a comprehensive experimental programme, it has provided a lot of experience on monitoring. Monitoring is performed for many reasons: construction follow-up, field characterisation, investigation of phenomena, and model validations - in which the underground lab offers the opportunity for up-scaling conventional laboratory set-ups. Construction monitoring has allowed to develop and optimise the underground construction techniques in a previously poorly known environment, resulting in a well-mastered application of mechanised methods for gallery construction with minimal damage to the host formation. Access to this formation also allows its characterisation, both geotechnical, geological and geochemical, and the detailed investigation of phenomena such as fracturing and oxidation. Finally, instrumented set-ups allow to test various numerical models by comparing the observations with the predicted behaviour. The specific conditions of the underground laboratory put particular requirements to the sensors. These conditions include the long-term nature of many set-ups - typically several years to decades, the inaccessibility of many sensors after installation, high mechanical and water pressures, and corrosion. Combined with the fact that many sensors are custom made, obtaining and maintaining a fully functional instrumented set-up can be challenging. A lot of experience has therefore been gained which is very valuable when designing the monitoring of radwaste repositories - and it has allowed us to determine the critical success factors for monitoring. Engineers tend to look at this first from a technical viewpoint - and there are many technical aspects indeed that determine the reliability of monitoring. A first one is the combination of different observations ('redundancy') which can be

  8. From hydrodynamic to hydrological modelling: Investigating long-term hydrological regimes of key wetlands in the Macquarie Marshes, a semi-arid lowland floodplain in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li; Macdonald, Rohan; Morrison, Tim; Hameed, Tahir; Saintilan, Neil; Ling, Joanne

    2013-09-01

    The Macquarie Marshes is an intermittently flooded wetland complex covering nearly 200,000 ha. It is one of the largest semi-permanent wetland systems in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, and portions of the Marshes are listed as internationally important under the Ramsar Convention. Previous studies indicate that the Marshes have undergone accelerated ecological degradation since the 1980s. The ecological degradation is documented in declining biodiversity, encroaching of terrestrial species, colonisation of exotic species, and deterioration of floodplain forests. There is strong evidence that reduction in river flows is the principal cause of the decrease in ecological values. Although the streams are relatively well gauged and modelled, the lack of hydrological records within the Marshes hampers any attempts to quantitatively investigate the relationship between hydrological variation and ecosystem integrity. To enable a better understanding of the long-term hydrological variations within the key wetland systems, and in particular, to investigate the impacts of the different water management policies (e.g. environmental water) on wetlands, a river system model including the main wetland systems was needed. The morphological complex nature of the Marshes means that the approximation of hydrological regimes within wetlands using stream hydrographs would have been difficult and inaccurate. In this study, we built a coupled 1D/2D MIKE FLOOD floodplain hydrodynamic model based on a 1 m DEM derived from a LiDAR survey. Hydrological characteristics of key constituent wetlands such as the correlation between water level and inundation area, relationships between stream and wetlands and among wetlands were estimated using time series extracted from hydrodynamic simulations. These relationships were then introduced into the existing river hydrological model (IQQM) to represent the wetlands. The model was used in this study to simulate the daily behaviours of inflow

  9. Long-Term Marine Traffic Monitoring for Environmental Safety in the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, T.; Gyftakis, S.; Charou, E.; Perantonis, S.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Koromila, I.; Makrygiorgos, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean Sea is characterized by an extremely high marine safety risk, mainly due to the significant increase of the traffic of tankers from and to the Black Sea that pass through narrow straits formed by the 1600 Greek islands. Reducing the risk of a ship accident is therefore vital to all socio-economic and environmental sectors. This paper presents an online long-term marine traffic monitoring work-flow that focuses on extracting aggregated vessel risks using spatiotemporal analysis of multilayer information: vessel trajectories, vessel data, meteorological data, bathymetric / hydrographic data as well as information regarding environmentally important areas (e.g. protected high-risk areas, etc.). A web interface that enables user-friendly spatiotemporal queries is implemented at the frontend, while a series of data mining functionalities extracts aggregated statistics regarding: (a) marine risks and accident probabilities for particular areas (b) trajectories clustering information (c) general marine statistics (cargo types, etc.) and (d) correlation between spatial environmental importance and marine traffic risk. Towards this end, a set of data clustering and probabilistic graphical modelling techniques has been adopted.

  10. Developing a Long-term Monitoring Program with Undergraduate Students in Marine Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, T. M.; Boryta, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    A goal of our growing marine geoscience program at Mt. San Antonio College is to involve our students in all stages of developing and running an undergraduate research project. During the initial planning phase, students develop and test their proposals. Instructor-set parameters were chosen carefully to help guide students toward manageable projects but to not limit their creativity. Projects should focus on long-term monitoring of a coastal area in southern California. During the second phase, incoming students will critique the initial proposals, modify as necessary and continue to develop the project. We intend for data collection opportunities to grow from geological and oceanographic bases to eventually include other STEM topics in biology, chemistry, math and GIS. Questions we will address include: What makes this a good research project for a community college? What are the costs and time commitments involved? How will the project benefit students and society? Additionally we will share our initial results, challenges, and unexpected pitfalls and benefits.

  11. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  12. A long-term Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data record for climate studies and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estilow, T. W.; Young, A. H.; Robinson, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the long-term, satellite-based visible snow cover extent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climate data record (CDR) currently available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation. This environmental data product is developed from weekly Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data that have been digitized from snow cover maps onto a Cartesian grid draped over a polar stereographic projection. The data have a spatial resolution of 190.6 km at 60° latitude, are updated monthly, and span the period from 4 October 1966 to the present. The data comprise the longest satellite-based CDR of any environmental variable. Access to the data is provided in Network Common Data Form (netCDF) and archived by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) under the satellite Climate Data Record Program (doi:10.7289/V5N014G9). The basic characteristics, history, and evolution of the data set are presented herein. In general, the CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability to its widely used predecessor product. Key refinements included in the CDR improve the product's grid accuracy and documentation and bring metadata into compliance with current standards for climate data records.

  13. Long-term arsenic monitoring with an Enterobacter cloacae microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-12-01

    A microbial fuel cell was constructed with biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae grown on the anode. Bioelectrocatalysis was observed when the biofilm was grown in media containing sucrose as the carbon source and methylene blue as the mediator. The presence of arsenic caused a decrease in bioelectrocatalytic current. Biofilm growth in the presence of arsenic resulted in lower power outputs whereas addition of arsenic showed no immediate result in power output due to the short term arsenic resistance of the bacteria and slow transport of arsenic across cellular membranes to metabolic enzymes. Calibration curves plotted from the maximum current and maximum power of power curves after growth show that this system is able to quantify both arsenate and arsenate with low detection limits (46 μM for arsenate and 4.4 μM for arsenite). This system could be implemented as a method for long-term monitoring of arsenic concentration in environments where arsenic contamination could occur and alter the metabolism of the organisms resulting in a decrease in power output of the self-powered sensor.

  14. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  15. Long term monitoring for oil in the Exxon Valdez spill region.

    PubMed

    Payne, James R; Driskell, William B; Short, Jeffrey W; Larsen, Marie L

    2008-12-01

    In the aftermath of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, a Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program (LTEMP) has been regularly sampling mussels (and some sediments) for polycyclic aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons (PAH and SHC) at sites in Port Valdez, Prince William Sound, and the nearby Gulf of Alaska region. After 1999, a decreasing trend appears in total PAH (TPAH) in tissues at all sites with current values below 100 ng/g dry weight (many below 50 ng/g). Currently, most samples reflect a predominantly dissolved-phase signal. This new low in TPAH likely represents ambient background levels. Synchrony in TPAH time-series and similarities in the hydrocarbon signatures portray regional-scale dynamics. The five inner Prince William Sound sites show similar composition and fluctuations that are different from the three Gulf of Alaska sites. The two Port Valdez sites represent a unique third region primarily influenced by the treated ballast water discharge from the Alyeska Marine Terminal. Prince William Sound has reverted to a stable environment of extremely low level contamination in which local perturbations are easily detected.

  16. Long-term X-ray and Optical Monitoring of RZ2109

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dage, Kristen C.; Zepf, Steve E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Peacock, Mark; Kundu, Arunav

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term monitoring of the X-ray and optical emission from the black hole in the extragalactic globular cluster RZ2109 aimed at determining the origin and nature of this accreting globular cluster black hole. We include analysis of three years of new Chandra X-ray data and Gemini and SOAR optical spectroscopy, along with archival X-ray and optical data. Previous work has shown that RZ2109 hosts a bright (L$_X \\simeq 4 \\times 10^{39}$ ergs/s) and moderately variable X-ray source, along with strong, broad [OIII] 5007 line emission. We use the extensive new data to quantify the variability in both the X-rays and bright [OIII]5007 emission line, and any potential relationship between these two.It is possible this should give (L$_{5007} X \\times 10^{37}$ ergs/s, with a velocity FWHM of $\\simeq X$ km/s).

  17. Searching for a Relationship Between Forest Water Use and Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Concentration with Long-Term Hydrologic Data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Amthor, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Increases in atmospheric C02 concentration from mid-1956 through mid-1997 were compared with hydrologic records from five forested, gaged watersheds in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, U.S.A. The purpose of the comparison was to assess whether a relationship between increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and whole-ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) could be determined. The HBEF is particularly well suited to this type of study because of the length of the hydrologic record and the physical properties of the watersheds. This analysis is based on HBEF water years (which begin 1 June and end the following 31 May) rather than calendar years. Hydrologic records from individual watersheds used in this analysis ranged from 28 to 41 water years. During the full 41-water-year period, it is estimated that water-year mean atmospheric CO2 concentration increased more than 15% (from about 314 to 363 ppm). In one south-facing watershed (i.e., HBEF watershed 3), there was a statistically significant negative relationship between atmospheric C02 concentration and ET. This translated into a nearly 77 rnndyear reduction in ET as a result of a 50 ppm increase in atmospheric C02 concentration, a result of practical significance. Evapotranspiration from the other watersheds was also negatively related to atmospheric CO2 concentration, but with smaller (and statistically insignificant) magnitudes. Evapotranspiration from the three south-facing (but not the two north-facing) watersheds included in the analysis was "abnormally" low during the most recent 2 years (i.e., water years beginning in 1995 and 1996), and this affected the trends in ET. This recent and abrupt, reduction in ET deserves further analysis, most importantly by an extension of the hydrologic record through continued long-term monitoring in the HBEF (which is ongoing). If ET remains relatively low during the coming years in south-facing watersheds, studies of the physical and/or biological

  18. Long-term air quality monitoring at the South Pole by the NOAA program Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.; Rodhaine, B.A.; Komhyr, W.D.; Oltmans, S.J.; Steele, L.P.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of the NOAA program of Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) for the South Pole include measurements of atmospheric changes which can potentially impact climate. This paper discusses the long-term GMCC South Pole air chemistry data for carbon dioxide, total ozone, surface ozone, methane, halocarbons, nitrous oxide, and aerosol concentrations, comparing the findings with GMCC data for other regions. Special consideration is given to the results of recent GMCC ozonesonde operations and to an asessment of Dobson ozone spectrophotometer data taken at South Pole by NOAA since 1964. Data are discussed in the framework of Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon. 49 references.

  19. Assem : Array of Sensors For Long Term Seabed Monitoring of Geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandin, J.; Person, R.; Strout, J. M.; Briole, P.; Etiope, G.; Masson, M.; Golightly, C. R.; Lykousis, V.; Ferentinos, G.

    The European continental margins are the focus of increasing human activities that are moving towards deeper waters. They are witnessing the greatest technological ad- vances in the world for deep-water development, in which European industries and academic institutions are at the forefront. Some of these margins are also a place where drastic phenomena like slope failures occur, hence questioning the safety of people and installations. Long term monitoring of gashydrate deposits is required. In other respects, some shallow water areas in Europe, surrounded by densely populated belts and associated infrastructures are located in seismic zones where the seafloor is also unstable. In both cases, there is a need to better understand the phenomena lead- ing to these instabilities. This understanding can be widely enabled by measuring a set of geotechnical, geodetic or chemical parameters of the sediment and seafloor. A site must be surveyed in several locations along failure lines, near a fluid expulsion zone or on a line of change of slope or a possible presence of gas hydrates. In addition, long term slow variations of the measured parameters must be detected, making nec- essary to have access to both spatial and temporal variability. This project proposes to develop, deploy and assess a seafloor monitoring system, aiming at watching areas of up to one kilometer by one kilometer, or up to 200 meters down an existing borehole, during at most two years. The proposed system will be modular enough to fit the par- ticular topology of a given site of interest. It will allow near real time data retrieval. The basic principle of the ASSEM project is to deploy instrument packages at differ- ent locations, the sensors being either installed in available boreholes, or pushed into the unconsolidated sediment, or simply laid down on the seafloor. The various sensors of a package are linked to a local data logging and communication unit, forming a monitoring node. The various

  20. Implementing CUAHSI and SWE observation data models in the long-term monitoring infrastructure TERENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. The challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR. TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes the data available through standard web services. Data are stored following the CUAHSI observation data model in combination with the 52° North Sensor Observation Service data model. The data model was implemented using the PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS. Especially in a long-term project, such as TERENO, care has to be taken in the data model. We chose to adopt the CUAHSI observational data model because it is designed to store observations and descriptive information (metadata

  1. Monitoring Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem wetlands: Can long-term monitoring help us understand their future?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra; Thoma, David; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), changes in the drying cycles of wetlands have been documented. Wetlands are areas where the water table is at or near the land surface and standing shallow water is present for much or all of the growing season. We discuss how monitoring data can be used to document variation in annual flooding and drying patterns of wetlands monitored across Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks, investigate how these patterns are related to a changing climate, and explore how drying of wetlands may impact amphibians. The documented declines of some amphibian species are of growing concern to scientists and land managers alike, in part because disappearances have occurred in some of the most protected places. These disappearances are a recognized component of what is being described as Earth’s sixth mass extinction.

  2. Long-term monitoring of rock mass properties in the underground excavation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    It is generally agreed today that hazardous waste should be placed in repositories hundreds of meters below the Earth's surface. In our research we deal with the long-term monitoring of the underground excavation by seismic and electrical resistivity measurements. Permanent measuring system was developed and installed at the Bedřichov gallery test site (northern Bohemia). The gallery was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) in granitic rocks. Realized repeated measurements include ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The seismic measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The main emphasis is devoted to P-waves; however, recording of full waveform enables analyzing of S- waves and other types of waves as well. The comparison of repeated measurements is used for an assessment of changes in seismic velocities with very high-accuracy. The repetition rate of measurements can be selected from seconds; however such fast changes in the rock mass are unexpected. The ERT measurement is performed on the same rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. The conductivity of undisturbed granitic rocks is extremely low. Therefore the observed local increase of conductivity can be associated with joints and fractures saturated with water, resulting in their ionic conductivity. Repeated ERT measurement can reveal some changes in the rock mass. Due to time requirements of ERT measurement the repetition rate can be about three hours. The data collected by measuring system is transferred by means of computer network and can be accessed via internet. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained so far during the testing of developed monitoring system. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  4. Stability and long term continuity of satellite data for rapid land surface monitoring of vegetation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. F.; Howard, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index, or NDVI, is a commonly used index in applications that require consistent and timely data, including monitoring drought, tracking vegetation phenological transitions, and assessing crop progress and condition. Although many other indices have been developed, the NDVI remains popular in the monitoring community. One reason is the value of NDVI for use in long-term studies necessitating multiple sensor data sources. It is calculated using a standard formula, red minus near-infrared divided by red plus near-infrared. But, this does not mean that all NDVI data are the same. Many factors, ranging from sensor design and raw satellite data ingest to initial data manipulation and post-processing, influence end-product quality and consistency. The purpose of this study was to perform a statistical scientific comparison between multiple NDVI data sources. The NDVI data analyzed in this study were derived from 8-day 250 meter (m) standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua surface reflectance composites (Collection 5, MOD09Q1), 7-day 250 m expedited MODIS (eMODIS) Terra and Aqua NDVI products, and 14-day 1000 m Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI products of central U.S. over the 2003 - 2012 timeframe. Only composites falling within the growing season (between April and October) and temporally coincident were included. All composites were consistently post-processed using standard MODIS quality assurance data and evaluated to calculate spatial statistics (e.g. means and standard deviations) for 160 uniform 150 kilometer2 tiles. The results for seasonal, period-specific and overall correlations indicated the highest agreement was between standard MODIS Terra and Aqua composites, with a Pearson's coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.98, and the lowest agreement was between eMODIS Terra and AVHRR, with a R2 value of 0.84. There was evidence of slight Terra sensor

  5. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  6. Long-term stability of a TLD-based individual monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Abrantes, J N; Margo, O; Rangel, S; Santos, L

    2006-01-01

    The thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system at the Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) of the Nuclear Technology Institute (ITN) at the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) comprises two 6600 Harshaw readers and the Harshaw 8814 TL card and the holder containing two LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosemeters for the evaluation of H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). The readers are calibrated on a monthly basis and as part of the quality assurance programme implemented at the IMS a set of dosemeters is issued monthly to the DPRSN's Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for linearity measurements. The results obtained since November 2001 are presented. Fading and sensitivity change experiments are carried out every month covering 8 week periods so that enough time is given to simulate issuing, integrating and receiving times and respective delays. A set of 96 dosemeters organised in eight subsets of 12 are used. In each subset, four dosemeters are irradiated and stored at room temperature (RT), four are not irradiated at all and the last four are irradiated after storage. The 12 dosemeters of each subset are readout at the same time, one per week, covering the 8 week period. The results from the sets irradiated and stored at different periods allowed for the evaluation of fading and sensitivity changes experienced over the whole monitoring period and respective preparation time and readout delays. Time evolution charts of the reader calibration factors, of the linearity parameters and of the evolution of the integrated area in the region of dosimetric interest with storage at RT were obtained. This paper aims to quantify the long-term stability of the TLD system in use at the IMS.

  7. Connecting process to high resolution paleorecords: long term investigations of linked Arctic climate-hydrology-lacustrine sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoureux, S. F.; Normandeau, A.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution lacustrine sedimentary sequences hold substantial potential for paleoenvironmental analyses, particularly in regions where few alternatives are available. Increased attention to quantifying processes that generate sedimentary facies has yielded increasingly detailed environmental interpretations but these efforts have been limited by available field data. The Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO) was initiated in 2003 to develop a long term site to evaluate the controls over sediment transport and the formation of clastic sedimentary records. This program in the Canadian Arctic has supported 13 years of research in paired watersheds and lakes, both of which contain clastic varves. Results from 2003-14 demonstrate how multiple climatic factors delivery sediment in a complex manner. This comparatively simple hydroclimatic system is dominated by runoff and sediment transport from spring snowmelt, with clear associations between catchment snow water equivalence (or total runoff) and sediment yield, with discharge limited by snow exhaustion as the season progresses. Major rainfall can constitute a dominant contribution to seasonal sediment yield, but antecedent conditions can significantly reduce runoff markedly. Hence, these results indicate two primary competing hydroclimatic factors that control catchment sediment yield, both with independent climatic and hydrological factors. Additionally, the impact of landscape disturbance on downstream sediment yield has been evaluated following a major episode of permafrost thaw in 2007. Results show that localized slope disturbances resulted in enhanced erosion but downstream fluvial storage reduced the magnitude of transport. Sediment from disturbances will be gradually released and may generate decadal-scale sediment delivery changes in the downstream record. Collectively, this research indicates multiple controls over the formation of clastic varves. Advances in high resolution sedimentary

  8. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; Grippo, Mark A.; Smith, Karen P.

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  9. Strategy for Long-Term Stewardship and Monitoring of Amchitka Island - 12190

    SciTech Connect

    Kautsky, Mark; Nguyen, Jason; Darr, Paul S.; Picel, Mary

    2012-07-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for Amchitka details how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at and around the sites on Amchitka Island. The LTSMP calls for monitoring to be performed every 5 years, at least in the initial phase of the project. The purpose of the monitoring is to develop a baseline of activity concentrations for selected radionuclides in biota, water, and soil, both on Amchitka and at the reference location on Adak Island, approximately 322 km (200 miles) northeast of Amchitka. Data compiled by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP, 2006) are being included as part of the baseline data set. The specific biological, water, and sediment samples collected during the 2011 sampling event were developed through close coordination with the primary stakeholders, including the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Amchitka is managed by the USFWS as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Two plans were developed to address specific needs of the biological- and the terrestrial-monitoring programs. Results from these monitoring programs will help determine whether the environment is being impacted by radionuclide migration and uptake, and if subsistence and commercial-catch seafood is safe for human consumption. The RESRAD-BIOTA code is being used to evaluate ecological health relative to the radionuclide levels determined from this sampling event. The samples were sent to three laboratories for analysis. With the exception of the seawater samples, most of the samples were sent to the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A smaller subset of rock-weed samples, Star reindeer lichen samples, and soil samples collected from beneath the lichen were sent

  10. Landslide detection and long-term monitoring in urban area by means of advanced interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Liguori, Vincenzo; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    This work aims at illustrating the potential of advanced interferometric techniques for detection and long-term monitoring of landslide ground deformations at local scale. Space-born InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been successfully exploited in recent years to measure ground deformations associated to processes with slow kinematics, such as landslides, tectonic motions, subsidence or volcanic activity, thanks to both the standard single-interferogram approach (centimeter accuracy) and advanced time-series analyses of long temporal radar satellite data stacks (millimeter accuracy), such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques. In order to get a complete overview and an in-depth knowledge of an investigated landslide, InSAR satellite measures can support conventional in situ data. This methodology allows studying the spatial pattern and the temporal evolution of ground deformations, improving the spatial coverage and overcoming issues related to installation of ground-based instrumentation and data acquisition in unstable areas. Here we describe the application of the above-mentioned methodology on the test area of Agrigento, Sicily (Italy), affected by hydrogeological risk. The town is located in Southern Sicily, at edge of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt, on the Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene sediments of the Gela Nappe. Ground instabilities affect the urban area and involve the infrastructures of its NW side, such as the Cathedral, the Seminary and many private buildings. An integration between InSAR analyses and conventional field investigations (e.g. structural damages and fractures surveys) was therefore carried out, to support Regional Civil Protection authorities for emergency management and risk mitigation. The results of InSAR analysis highlighted a general stability of the whole urban area between 1992 and 2007. However, very high deformation rates (up to 10-12 mm/y) were identified in 1992-2000 in the W slope of the

  11. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  12. Short-term and long-term Vadose zone monitoring: Current technologies, development, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1999-05-01

    At Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and other DOE sites, field vadose zone observations have shown complex water seepage and mass transport behavior in a highly heterogeneous, thick vadose zone on a variety of scales. Recent investigation showed that severe contamination of soils and groundwater by organic contaminant and nuclear waste occurred because of water seepage and contaminant transport along localized, preferential, fast flow within the heterogeneous vadose zone. However, most of the existing characterization and monitoring methods are not able to locate these localized and persistent preferential pathways associated with specific heterogeneous geologic features, such as clastic dikes, caliche layers, or fractures. In addition, changes in the chemical composition of moving and indigenous solutes, particularly sodium concentration, redox conditions, biological transformation of organic materials, and high temperature, may significantly alter water, chemicals, and bio-transformation exchange between the zones of fast flow and the rest of the media. In this paper, using the data from Hanford and INEEL sites, we will (1) present evidence that central problems of the vadose zone investigations are associated with preferential, fast flow phenomena and accelerated migration of organic and radioactive elements, (2) identify gaps in current characterization and monitoring technologies, and (3) recommend actions for the development of advanced vadose zone characterization and monitoring methods using a combination of hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical techniques.

  13. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  14. Documenting the Use of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Element’s Fish Monitoring Methodologies Throughout the Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.

    2016-08-16

    The Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program’s Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element is designed to monitor and assess long term trends in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). To accomplish this, standardized methods are used that allow for comparisons across pools and rivers. In recent years, other projects and other agencies have adopted the LTRM fish methodologies for use outside the UMRR. To determine how widespread the use of the Fish Component’s methods are, a twelve question survey was delivered via SurveyMonkey.com through the states comprising the American Fisheries Society (AFS) North Central Division and the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee. Approximately 2,000 professionals were reached with ≈11 percent participating. Results indicate that nearly all (95 percent) respondents use standardized methods in their sampling and 48 percent are familiar with the LTRM fish methodologies. Roughly one-third (35 percent) of all respondents have used the methods in the past and most (78 percent) of those have modified the methods to suit the information needs specific to their fishery. Results indicate that the LTRM methods have indeed spread outside the UMRR and are now a well-known and potentially widely used technique to sample fish communities.

  15. Long-term, high-frequency water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment: insights from spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Alice; Kirchner, James; Faucheux, Mikael; Merot, Philippe; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    The choice of sampling frequency is a key issue in the design and operation of environmental observatories. The choice of sampling frequency creates a spectral window (or temporal filter) that highlights some timescales and processes, and de-emphasizes others (1). New online measurement technologies can monitor surface water quality almost continuously, allowing the creation of very rich time series. The question of how best to analyze such detailed temporal datasets is an important issue in environmental monitoring. In the present work, we studied water quality data from the AgrHys long-term hydrological observatory (located at Kervidy-Naizin, Western France) sampled at daily and 20-minute time scales. Manual sampling has provided 12 years of daily measurements of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chloride and sulfate (2), and 3 years of daily measurements of about 30 other solutes. In addition, a UV-spectrometry probe (Spectrolyser) provides one year of 20-minute measurements for nitrate and DOC. Spectral analysis of the daily water quality time series reveals that our intensively farmed catchment exhibits universal 1/f scaling (power spectrum slope of -1) for a large number of solutes, confirming and extending the earlier discovery of universal 1/f scaling in the relatively pristine Plynlimon catchment (3). 1/f time series confound conventional methods for assessing the statistical significance of trends. Indeed, conventional methods assume that there is a clear separation of scales between the signal (the trend line) and the noise (the scatter around the line). This is not true for 1/f noise, since it overestimates the occurrence of significant trends. Our results raise the possibility that 1/f scaling is widespread in water quality time series, thus posing fundamental challenges to water quality trend analysis. Power spectra of the 20-minute nitrate and DOC time series show 1/f scaling at frequencies below 1/day, consistent with the longer-term daily

  16. Long-term population monitoring: Lessons learned from an endangered passerine in Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Luanne; Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    interpretation were regeneration of trees in response to reduced numbers of introduced browsing mammals, seasonally variable rates of vocalization, non-territoriality, and resource-tracking along an elevation gradient. We believe our adaptive approach to analysis and interpretation of 25 years of annual variable circular plot data could help guide similar long-term monitoring efforts.

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Water Dynamics in the Sahel Region Using the Multi-Sar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, A.; Wendleder, A.; Schmitt, A.; Huber, M.

    2016-06-01

    Fresh water is a scarce resource in the West-African Sahel region, seasonally influenced by droughts and floods. Particularly in terms of climate change, the importance of wetlands increases for flora, fauna, human population, agriculture, livestock and fishery. Hence, access to open water is a key factor. Long-term monitoring of water dynamics is of great importance, especially with regard to the spatio-temporal extend of wetlands and drylands. It can predict future trends and facilitate the development of adequate management strategies. Lake Tabalak, a Ramsar wetland of international importance, is one of the most significant ponds in Niger and a refuge for waterbirds. Nevertheless, human population growth increased the pressure on this ecosystem, which is now degrading for all uses. The main objective of the study is a long-term monitoring of the Lake Tabalak's water dynamics to delineate permanent and seasonal water bodies, using weather- and daytime-independent multi-sensor and multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data available for the study area. Data of the following sensors from 1993 until 2016 are used: Sentinel-1A, TerraSARX, ALOS PALSAR-1/2, Envisat ASAR, RADARSAT-1/2, and ERS-1/2. All SAR data are processed with the Multi-SAR-System, unifying the different characteristics of all above mentioned sensors in terms of geometric, radiometric and polarimetric resolution to a consistent format. The polarimetric representation in Kennaugh elements allows fusing single-polarized data acquired by older sensors with multi-polarized data acquired by current sensors. The TANH-normalization guarantees a consistent and therefore comparable description in a closed data range in terms of radiometry. The geometric aspect is solved by projecting all images to an earth-fixed coordinate system correcting the brightness by the help of the incidence angle. The elevation model used in the geocoding step is the novel global model produced by the TanDEM-X satellite

  18. The New Bedford Harbor Superfund site long-term monitoring program (1993-2009).

    PubMed

    Nelson, William G; Bergen, Barbara J

    2012-12-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), located in southeastern Massachusetts, was designated as a marine Superfund site in 1983 due to sediment contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on risks to human health and the environment, the first two phases of the site cleanup involved dredging PCB-contaminated sediments from the harbor. Therefore, a long-term monitoring program (LTM) was developed to measure spatial and temporal chemical and biological changes in sediment, water, and biota to assess the effects and effectiveness of the remedial activities. A systematic, probabilistic sampling design was used to select sediment sampling stations. This unbiased design allowed the three segments of the harbor to be compared spatially and temporally to quantify changes resulting from dredging the contaminated sediments. Sediment was collected at each station, and chemical (e.g., PCBs and metals), physical (e.g., grain size), and biological (e.g., benthic community) measurements were conducted on all samples. This paper describes the overall NBH-LTM approach and the results from the five rounds of sample collections. There is a decreasing spatial gradient in sediment PCB concentrations from the northern boundary (upper harbor) to the southern boundary (outer harbor) of the site. Along this same transect, there is an increase in biological condition (e.g., benthic community diversity). Temporally, the contaminant and biological gradients have been maintained since the 1993 baseline collection; however, since the onset of full-scale remediation, PCB concentrations have decreased throughout the site, and one of the benthic community indices has shown significant improvement in the lower and outer harbor areas.

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Glacier Change at GÖSSNITZKEES (austria) Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, V.; Seier, G.

    2016-06-01

    Gössnitzkees is a small heavily debris-covered cirque glacier (49.8 ha) located in the Schober Mountains, Hohe Tauern Range, Austrian Alps. Glacier nourishment is mainly due to avalanches descending from its surrounding headwalls. Gössnitzkees is the largest glacier in the Schober Mountains and is highly representative of the other 25 glaciers of this mountain group. All glaciers of this mountain group have receded continuously since 1850. Ongoing atmospheric warming sustains excessive glacier melt. In 1988 a long-term monitoring program was started at Gössnitzkees using terrestrial photogrammetry in order to document and quantify glacier change. The surveys have been repeated from time to time using different types of cameras. Recent surveys date from 2009, 2012, and 2015. The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, to investigate whether or not the rather complex photogrammetric evaluation process using a conventional photogrammetric workstation (mostly with a limited degree of automation for terrestrial applications) can be replaced by modern fully automated Structure-from-Motion (SfM) based approaches, and secondly, to document and quantify the glacier change at Gössnitzkees based on available information augmented by results obtained from the most recent surveys mentioned. Over the last 27 years (1988-2015) the terminus of Gössnitzkees has receded by 179 m and the glacier ice has melted at a mean annual rate of about 1.5 m/year. The Schober Mountains are in the process of deglaciation and the glaciers will likely disappear within the next two decades. Based on our practical investigations we found out that SfM-based software is in general capable of handling terrestrial photographs in a fully automatic mode supporting challenging glacier studies.

  20. Usefulness of Long-term Urban Greenhouse Gas monitoring: the London record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of CH4 at Egham, SW London, shows reduction in the source input since the mid 1990s. There is a distinct seasonal cycle, in part reflecting background variation, tracked by comparison with the Mace Head Atlantic record. Local emissions, led by higher fossil fuel consumption in the winter months, also contribute to the cycle. Inter-annual variability is in part meteorological. The urban increment can be estimated by comparing specific wind sectors (e.g. incoming SSW Atlantic air compared to easterly urban air). Ratios of CH4 to CO2, calculated from the continuous records, allow relative emissions of CH4 and CO2 to be quantified, providing immediate tests of inventories. Ratios of excess over background of CH4 to CO2 for periods of 7 consecutive days of easterly air flow to the Egham site (from London) indicate a reduction in CH4 emissions of 11% relative to CO2 over the period 1999-2007. Isotopes discriminate sharply between methane sources. Diurnal (Keeling plot) δ13CCH4 campaigns identify source mixes. For London, both CO2 and CH4 annual emissions are cited to 0.1 ton (i.e. to 9 significant figures of CO2, and to 6 figures for methane). However, it can be difficult to reconcile isotopic measurements of local methane increments with declared emissions budgets (Lowry et al., 2001). Rapid, inexpensive, small-sample isotopic techniques (Fisher et al., 2006) allow simple tests of the veracity of emissions declarations. Local emissions can be detected, by geographic location, given known background patterns. Moreover, seasonal variation can be tracked. This makes it potentially possible cheaply to audit emissions in populated areas. Lowry, D., et al. (2001) J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7427-48 Fisher, R., et al. (2006) Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrometry, 20, 200-208.

  1. Understanding Ecosystem Response to Perturbation: The Need to Combine Long-Term Monitoring with Process-Based Research Across Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudon, H.

    2014-12-01

    The societal needs for understanding ecosystems response to environmental perturbation have never been greater. Most research on the mechanisms that regulate long-term changes in water quality is based either on individual well-studied catchments, or regional monitoring datasets. While the advantage of research catchments often is the large amount of ancillary information that can provide mechanistic explanations, the results are often difficult to extrapolate because of limited statistical and geographic representation. Conversely, environmental monitoring sites often lack the process-based designed data collection, which instead makes it difficult to infer causal relationships. Here I will discuss the value of field research infrastructures sites that combine the best of long-term monitoring time-series with the exclusivity of process-based research infrastructures across multiple spatial and temporal scales. The basis for this presentation will be on the Krycklan Catchment Study (www.slu.se/Krycklan) located in northern Sweden that provides a unique field experimental platform for hillslope to landscape-scale research on long-term ecosystem dynamics in the boreal landscape. The site is designed for processes-based research needed to assess the role of external drivers such as forest management, climate change, and long-range transport of pollutants on forests, mires, soils, streams, lakes and groundwater. In my presentation I will discuss some examples of how Krycklan has succeeded to construct a state-of-the-art field infrastructure for experimental and hypothesis driven research, maintain the long-term climatic, biogeochemical, hydrological and environmental data collection of highest quality, and how this has supported the development of new models and guidelines for research, policy and management.

  2. Long-term monitoring of a cable stayed bridge using a SCADA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbol, Marco; Kim, Sehwan; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    DuraMote is a MEMS-based remote sensing system, which is developed for the NIST TIP project, Next Generation SCADA for Prevention and Mitigation of Water System Infrastructure Disaster. It is designed for supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) of pipe ruptures in water distribution systems. In this project, a method is developed to detect the pipe ruptures by analyzing the acceleration data gathered by DuraMote which consists of two primary components; the first, "Gopher" contains the accelerometers and are attached to the water pipe surface noninvasively, and the second, "Roocas" is placed above ground supplying the power to, and retrieving the data from the multiple Gophers, and then transmit the data through Wi-Fi to a base station. The relays support the Wi-Fi network to facilitate the transmission. A large scale bridge provides an ideal test-bet to validate the performance of such a complex monitoring system as DuraMote for its accuracy, reliability, robustness, and user friendliness. This is because a large bridge is most of the time subjected to susceptible level of ambient vibration due to passing loads, wind, etc. DuraMote can record the acceleration time history arising from the vibration making it possible to estimate the frequency values of various bridge vibration modes. These estimated frequency values are then compared with the values computed from analytical model of the bridge for the verification of the accuracy of DuraMote. It is noted that such a verification method cannot be used practically by deploying DuraMote on a water distribution network since the dynamic behavior of a pipe network, either above or underground, is too complex to model analytically for this purpose, and in addition, the network generally lacks conveniently recordable ambient vibration. In this experiment, the performance of DuraMote system was tested being installed on the Hwamyung Bridge, a 500 m long RC cable stayed bridge in Korea for long term monitoring. In

  3. Long term structural health monitoring by distributed fiber-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persichetti, G.; Minardo, A.; Testa, G.; Bernini, R.

    2012-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems allow to detect unusual structural behaviors that indicate a malfunction in the structure, which is an unhealthy structural condition. Depending on the complexity level of the SHM system, it can even perform the diagnosis and the prognosis steps, supplying the required information to carry out the most suitable actuation. While standard SHM systems are based on the use of point sensors (e.g., strain gauges, crackmeters, tiltmeters, etc.), there is an increasing interest towards the use of distributed optical fiber sensors, in which the whole structure is monitored by use of a single optical fiber. In particular, distributed optical fiber sensors based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) permit to detect the strain in a fully distributed manner, with a spatial resolution in the meter or submeter range, and a sensing length that can reach tens of km. These features, which have no performance equivalent among the traditional electronic sensors, are to be considered extremely valuable. When the sensors are opportunely installed on the most significant structural members, this system can lead to the comprehension of the real static behaviour of the structure rather than merely measuring the punctual strain level on one of its members. In addition, the sensor required by Brillouin technology is an inexpensive, telecom-grade optical fiber that shares most of the typical advantages of other fiber-optic sensors, such as high resistance to moisture and corrosion, immunity to electromagnetic fields and potential for long-term monitoring. In this work, we report the result of a test campaign performed on a concrete bridge. In particular, the tests were performed by an portable prototype based on Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA) [1,2]. This type of analysis makes use of a pulsed laser light and a frequency-shifted continuous-wave (CW) laser light, launched simultaneously at the two opposite ends of an optical fiber

  4. Long Term 2 Second Round Source Water Monitoring and Bin Placement Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) applies to all public water systems served by a surface water source or public water systems served by a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water.

  5. Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Lee, Joseph H W; Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul J

    2011-11-01

    In many coastal cities around the world, marine outfalls are used for disposal of partially treated wastewater effluent. The combined use of land-based treatment and marine discharge can be a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable sewage strategy. Before 2001, screened sewage was discharged into Victoria Harbour through many small outfalls. After 2001, the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) was implemented to improve the water quality in Victoria Harbour and surrounding waters. Stage I of HATS involved the construction of a 24 km long deep tunnel sewerage system to collect sewage from the densely populated urban areas of Hong Kong to a centralized sewage treatment plant at Stonecutters Island. A sewage flow of 1.4 million m3 d(-1) receives Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) followed by discharge via a 1.2 km long outfall 2 km west of the harbor. The ecosystem recovery in Victoria Harbour and the environmental response to sewage abatement after the implementation of HATS was studied using a 21-year data set from long term monthly water quality monitoring. Overall, the pollution control scheme has achieved the intended objectives. The sewage abatement has resulted in improved water quality in terms of a significant reduction in nutrients and an increase in bottom DO levels. Furthermore, due to the efficient tidal mixing and flushing, the impact of the HATS discharge on water quality in the vicinity of the outfall location is relatively limited. However, Chl a concentrations have not been reduced in Victoria Harbour where algal growth is limited by hydrodynamic mixing and water clarity rather than nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus removal in the summer is suggested to reduce the risk of algal blooms in the more weakly-flushed and stratified southern waters, while nutrient removal is less important in other seasons due to the pronounced role played by hydrodynamic mixing. The need for disinfection of the effluent to reduce bacterial (E

  6. The New Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA) for Remote and Long-Term Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Mànuel, Antoni; Condal, Fernando; Guillén, Jorge; Nogueras, Marc; del Rio, Joaquin; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Toma, Daniel; Palanques, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A suitable sampling technology to identify species and to estimate population dynamics based on individual counts at different temporal levels in relation to habitat variations is increasingly important for fishery management and biodiversity studies. In the past two decades, as interest in exploring the oceans for valuable resources and in protecting these resources from overexploitation have grown, the number of cabled (permanent) submarine multiparametric platforms with video stations has increased. Prior to the development of seafloor observatories, the majority of autonomous stations were battery powered and stored data locally. The recently installed low-cost, multiparametric, expandable, cabled coastal Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA), located 4 km off of Vilanova i la Gertrú, Barcelona, at a depth of 20 m, is directly connected to a ground station by a telecommunication cable; thus, it is not affected by the limitations associated with previous observation technologies. OBSEA is part of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO) infrastructure, and its activities are included among the Network of Excellence of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET). OBSEA enables remote, long-term, and continuous surveys of the local ecosystem by acquiring synchronous multiparametric habitat data and bio-data with the following sensors: Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensors for salinity, temperature, and pressure; Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) for current speed and direction, including a turbidity meter and a fluorometer (for the determination of chlorophyll concentration); a hydrophone; a seismometer; and finally, a video camera for automated image analysis in relation to species classification and tracking. Images can be monitored in real time, and all data can be stored for future studies. In this article, the various components of OBSEA are described, including its hardware (the sensors and the network of marine and land nodes

  7. The new Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA) for remote and long-term coastal ecosystem monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Mànuel, Antoni; Condal, Fernando; Guillén, Jorge; Nogueras, Marc; del Rio, Joaquin; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Toma, Daniel; Palanques, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A suitable sampling technology to identify species and to estimate population dynamics based on individual counts at different temporal levels in relation to habitat variations is increasingly important for fishery management and biodiversity studies. In the past two decades, as interest in exploring the oceans for valuable resources and in protecting these resources from overexploitation have grown, the number of cabled (permanent) submarine multiparametric platforms with video stations has increased. Prior to the development of seafloor observatories, the majority of autonomous stations were battery powered and stored data locally. The recently installed low-cost, multiparametric, expandable, cabled coastal Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA), located 4 km off of Vilanova i la Gertrú, Barcelona, at a depth of 20 m, is directly connected to a ground station by a telecommunication cable; thus, it is not affected by the limitations associated with previous observation technologies. OBSEA is part of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO) infrastructure, and its activities are included among the Network of Excellence of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET). OBSEA enables remote, long-term, and continuous surveys of the local ecosystem by acquiring synchronous multiparametric habitat data and bio-data with the following sensors: Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensors for salinity, temperature, and pressure; Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) for current speed and direction, including a turbidity meter and a fluorometer (for the determination of chlorophyll concentration); a hydrophone; a seismometer; and finally, a video camera for automated image analysis in relation to species classification and tracking. Images can be monitored in real time, and all data can be stored for future studies. In this article, the various components of OBSEA are described, including its hardware (the sensors and the network of marine and land nodes

  8. Seismicity rates of slow, intermediate, and fast spreading ridges: Insights from long-term hydroacoustic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Goslin, J.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean basin earthquakes recorded on NOAA/OSU and U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays are used to evaluate long-term volcano-tectonic seismicity levels from segments of the fast-spreading rate East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 20° S-20° N, intermediate-spreading rate Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) from 39° -52° N and Galapagos Rift (GR) from 90° -103° W, and the slow-spreading northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from 5° -60° N. The hydrophones record the acoustic energy of seafloor earthquakes that propagate along the ocean sound channel with little attenuation over large distances. Frequency-magnitude relationships (Bohnenstiehl et al., 2002; Dziak et al., 2004) indicate the hydrophone catalogs are complete in these regions to body-wave magnitude ˜2.5 (EPR and GR), 2.5 (JdFR), and 3.0 (MAR), an improvement of 1.5 to 2 units over the land-based seismic catalogs for mid-ocean ridge systems. Using the hydrophone earthquake catalog, we will compare seismicity rates of the JdFR (12 years of data), to seismicity rates along the GR (6 years) and EPR (6 years) and MAR (4 years of data from 5° -39° N; 16 months from 39° -60° N). During these monitoring periods, five confirmed seafloor spreading events (four of which were associated with magmatic activity) were recorded on discrete JdFR segments, while 6 possible magmatic events were observed on the EPR, one on the GR, and one on the MAR. Empirical orthogonal functions will be used to elucidate the space-time patterns of seismicity and compare between the various spreading rates ridges, as well as to investigate the recurrence rate of seafloor spreading events present. In addition, single-link cluster analysis (SLC; Frolich and Davis, 1990) will be used to de-cluster the earthquake databases to reduce the effects of aftershock sequences and magmatic swarms, allowing us to evaluate how overall plate motion and changes in spreading rate effect levels of seismicity between ridge segments and different ridge systems. Preliminary

  9. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    PubMed

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales.

  10. Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable

  11. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  12. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when

  13. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently

  14. Evaluation of the Macroinvertebrate Component of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    3 Data Management and Delivery ......................................................................... 5 Workshop Overview and Survey...models. The work stems from the management focus of the Workshop Overview and Survey Results LTRMP. Resource managers are concemed with the abundance of... Overview . Department of Commerce. McDonald L., T. McDonald, and D. Robertson. 55 pp. 1998. Review of the Denali National Park and Preserve (DENA) Long-Term

  15. Long-term watershed research and monitoring to understand ecosystem change in parks and equivalent reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, R.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated watershed ecosystem studies in National Parks or equivalent reserves suggest that effects of external processes on 'protected' resources are subtle, chronic, and long-term. Ten years of data from National Park watersheds suggests that temperature and precipitation changes are linked to nitrogen levels in lakes and streams. We envision measurable biotic effects in these remote watersheds, if expected climate trends continue. The condition of natural resources within areas set aside for preservation are difficult to ascertain, but gaining this knowledge is the key to understanding ecosystem change and of processes operating among biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. There is increasing evidence that understanding the magnitude of variation within and between such processes can provide an early indication of environmental change and trends attributable to human-induced stress. The following four papers are case studies of how this concept has been implemented. These long-term studies have expanded our knowledge of ecosystem response to natural and human-induced stress. The existence of these sites with a commitment to gathering 'long-term' ecosystem-level data permits research activities aimed at testing more important hypotheses on ecosystem processes and structure.

  16. Long-term changes in flood event patterns due to changes in hydrological distribution parameters in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Goro; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2011-07-01

    This article describes the principal control parameters of flood events and precipitation and the relationships between corresponding hydrologic and climatologic parameters. The long-term generation of runoff and associated processes is important in understanding floods and droughts under changes in climate and land use. This study presents detailed analyses of flood events in a coastal amphitheatre catchment with a total area of 445 km 2 in western Japan, followed by analyses of flood events in both urban and forest areas. Using long-term (1962 to 2002) hydrological and climatological data from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan, the contributions of precipitation, river discharge, temperature, and relative humidity to flood events were analysed. Flood events could be divided into three types with respect to hydrologic and climatologic principal control parameters: the long-term tendency; medium-term changes as revealed by hydrographs and hyetographs of high-intensity events such as the relative precipitation, river discharge, and temperature; and large events, as shown by the flow-duration curve, with each cluster having particular characteristics. River discharge showed a decreasing tendency of flow quantity during small rainfall events of less than 100 mm/event from the 1980s to the present. An approximately 7% decrease from 44.8 to 37.3% occurred in the percentage of river water supplied by precipitation in the years after the 1980s. For the medium-term changes, no marked change occurred in the flow quantity of the peak point over time in event hydrographs. However, flow quantities before and after the peak tended to decrease by 1 to 2 m 3/s after the 1980s. Theoretical considerations with regard to the influence of hydrologic and climatologic parameters on flood discharge are discussed and examined in terms of observational data. These findings provide a sound foundation for use in hydrological catchment modelling.

  17. GUMNET - A new long-term monitoring initiative in the Guadarrama Mountains, Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Volker; Fidel González Rouco, J.; Yagüe Anguis, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    We are announcing a new monitoring network in the Guadarrama Mountains north of Madrid, which is planned to be operational in early 2015. This network integrates atmospheric measurements as well as subsurface observations. It aims at improving the characterization of atmosphere-ground interactions in mountainous terrain, the hydrometeorology of the region, climatic change, and related research lines. It will also provide the meteorological and climate data which form the necessary background information for biological, agricultural and hydrological investigations in this area. Currently, the initiative is supported by research groups from the Complutense and Polytechnical Universities of Madrid (UCM and UPM), the Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), the Spanish National Meteorological Agency (AEMET), and finally the Parque Nacional de la Sierra de Guadarrama (PNSG). This infrastructure forms part of the Campus of Excellence Moncloa, and is supposed to become a focus of local as well as of international research. However, it is not associated with a particular project: data will in principle be available to the scientific and public communities. Also, the integration of new instruments (long or short term) will be welcome. The starting setup is as following: A group of WMO-compatible meteorological station in the central area of the massif will be installed, which include also a subsurface component of boreholes (≡20 m depth), where temperature and moisture will be measured. This core group is complemented by a reference site near El Escorial (including a fixed and a mobile tower for micrometeorological investigations). This setup is embedded in a network of meteorological stations run partly by AEMET and partly by the PNSG, which will provide the information necessary for the characterization of regional meteorology and climate. Finally, part of the data will be made available quasi-online on a central web server in

  18. Improving Aquifer Imaging and Long-term Monitoring with Oscillating Signals: Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiff, M. A.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Pumping tests provide direct information about hydrologic properties - especially hydraulic conductivity (K) - that can be used to understand 3-D spatial heterogeneity and improve aquifer flow and transport predictions. A state-of-the-art method for analyzing pumping tests, Hydraulic Tomography (HT), uses information from sets of constant-rate pumping tests to tomographically estimate K throughout an aquifer. In this presentation, we discuss a modified version of HT, multi-frequency Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT), in which the pressure responses from a series of oscillating pumping tests of varying frequency are analyzed. In particular, we present a computationally efficient framework for tomographic analysis of data from such tests, which: 1) Compresses data and extracts relevant information using signal processing routines 2) Performs inversion using a fast-running and physically-based steady-periodic forward model and 3) Jointly analyzes multi-frequency data in order to reduce uncertainty associated with parameter estimates. We demonstrate many of the benefits of the multi-frequency OHT concept using a 3D transient synthetic application. While the transient forward model requires 10s of minutes to generate each pumping test's synthetic data, we show that this data can effectively be inverted using a separate, steady-periodic inverse model that requires only seconds to run. Thus, large datasets from many pumping tests can be analyzed, and large problem domains can be studied, using an inversion framework that requires only modest computational resources. Because OHT involves no net water extraction, it can also be used in a "passive" configuration over long time-periods to monitor changes in aquifer properties over time (e.g., due to infiltration of a high-viscosity NAPL). Forward modeling of signal response changes due to such processes will be presented in a separate synthetic application, which tests the ability of OHT signals of various magnitudes and

  19. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): A Long-Term Remote Sensing, Hydrologic, Ecologic, and Socio-Economic Assessment with Management Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto-Orta, M.; Ortiz, J.; Santiago, L.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Detres, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Coral reefs, for instance, have been impacted by sedimentation, increased eutrophication, and coastal water contamination. Here we present an overview of a new NASA project to study human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project uses an interdisciplinary approach that includes historic and recent remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change in coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and sandy beaches. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. Methods include assessments of coral reefs benthic communities cover, monitoring of short- and long-term beach geomorphological changes associated with riverine and sediment input, calculation of the economical value of selected CMEs, establish permanent monitoring transects in never before studied coral reef areas, provide recommendations to enhance current coastal policy management practices, and disseminate the results to local stakeholders. This project will include imagery from the Operational Land Imager of Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Our results and the generality of the methodology will provide for its application to other similar tropical locations.

  20. A capacitive, biocompatible and adhesive electrode for long-term and cap-free monitoring of EEG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jeong Hun; Byeon, Hang Jin; Choi, Yoon Young; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring broadens EEG applications to various areas, but it requires cap-free recording of EEG signals. Our objective here is to develop a capacitive, small-sized, adhesive and biocompatible electrode for the cap-free and long-term EEG monitoring. Approach. We have developed an electrode made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and adhesive PDMS for EEG monitoring. This electrode can be attached to a hairy scalp and be completely hidden by the hair. We tested its electrical and mechanical (adhesive) properties by measuring voltage gain to frequency and adhesive force using 30 repeat cycles of the attachment and detachment test. Electrode performance on EEG was evaluated by alpha rhythm detection and measuring steady state visually evoked potential and N100 auditory evoked potential. Main results. We observed the successful recording of alpha rhythm and evoked signals to diverse stimuli with high signal quality. The biocompatibility of the electrode was verified and a survey found that the electrode was comfortable and convenient to wear. Significance. These results indicate that the proposed EEG electrode is suitable and convenient for long term EEG monitoring.

  1. A Long-term Reach-Scale Monitoring Network for Riparian Evapotranspiration, Rock Creek, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, H.; Solis, J. A.; Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J.; Reboulet, E.; Knobbe, S.; Dealy, M.

    2011-12-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (RET) is an important component of basin-wide evapotranspiration (ET), especially in subhumid to semi-arid regions, with significant impact on water management and conservation. In narrow riparian zones, typical of much of the subhumid to semi-arid U.S., direct measurement of RET by eddy correlation is precluded by the limited fetch distance of riparian vegetation. Alternative approaches based on water balance analyses have a long history, but their accuracy is not well understood. Factors such as heterogeneity in soil properties and root distributions, and sparse measurements, introduce uncertainties in RET estimates. As part of a larger effort aimed at improving understanding of basin-wide RET using scaling theories, we installed a continuous monitoring system for water balance estimation at the scale of a single (~100 m long) reach along Rock Creek in the Whitewater Basin in central Kansas. The distinguishing features of this site include a vadose zone with fine-grained soils underlain by a phreatic zone of coarse gravel embedded in clay, overlying karst bedrock. Across the width (~40 m) of the riparian zone, we installed one transect of four wells screened at the bottom of the alluvium (6-7 m depth), each accompanied by a soil moisture profiler with capacitance sensors at 4 vertical levels above the local water-table elevation (~2.5 m depth) and a shallow well screened just below the water table. All wells were instrumented with pressure transducers for monitoring water levels. Additional sets of all sensors were installed at the upstream and downstream ends of the study reach. Initial results from the monitoring network suggest significant complexities in the behavior of the subsurface system at the site, including a high degree of heterogeneity. All deep wells show a rapid response to streamflow variations and nearby pumping. However, the shallow water-table wells do not respond rapidly to either. Both the shallow wells and soil

  2. LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GROWTH OF PINUS PALUSTRIS AND PINUS ELLIOTTII GROWING ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land-use change and urbanization has led to changes in the hydrologic regime in wet central Florida, with a trend toward lowered water table levels. These hydrologic changes are having environmental consequences in wetlands, where shifts in species composition and fire frequency...

  3. Long term laboratory corrosion monitoring of calcine bin set materials exposed to zirconia calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk, W.J.

    1994-06-01

    Corrosion testing of Type 1025 carbon steel, 405, 304, 304L, 316L, and 347 stainless steels, and 6061-T6 aluminum were conducted in synthetic zirconia calcine to model long term corrosion performance of bin set material. Testing was conducted over a period of 17 years. The existing calcine bin set {number_sign}1 is constructed of Type 405 stainless steel, 2 through 4 are constructed of Type 304 stainless steel and 5 through 7 are constructed of Type 304L stainless steel. The highest rate observed for Type 304L stainless steel was 8.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} inches per month. This would equal a wall thickness loss of about 5 mils after 500 years of storage. Currently, the established schedule for removal of corrosion test coupons from the calcine storage bins is at the end of the 10th, 100th, 250th, and 450th year of solid storage service. Very low corrosion rates and metal oxide data determined from the long term laboratory test, in conjunction with corrosion rates from the coupon assessment of the second bin set, indicate this schedule should be revised from 10 years to 50 years for the first assessment.

  4. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life: HYDROLOGY OF A 1000 YEAR ETC BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2016-06-01

    A surface barrier (or cover) is a commonly used technology for subsurface remediation. A key function of the barrier is to reduce or eliminate the movement of meteoric precipitation into the underlying waste zone, where it could mobilize and transport contaminants. Surface barriers are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few examples of performance for periods longer than a decade. The Prototype Hanford Barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site to demonstrate its long-term performance for a design period of 1000 years. This barrier is a field-scale evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier. In this design, the storage layer consists of 2-m-thick silt loam. The 19-year monitoring results show that the store-and-release mechanism for the ETC barrier worked efficiently as the storage layer was recharged in the winter season (November to March) and the stored water was released to the atmosphere in the summer season (April to October) via soil evaporation and plant transpiration. The capillary break functioned normally in improving the storage capacity and minimizing drainage. The maximum drainage observed through the ET barrier at any of the monitoring stations was only 0.178 mm yr-1 (under an enhanced precipitation condition), which is less than the design criterion. A very small amount (2.0 mm yr-1 on average) of runoff was observed during the 19-year monitoring period. The observed storage capacity of the storage layer was considerably (39%) larger than the estimated value based on the method of equilibrium of water pressure. After a controlled fire in 2008, the newly grown vegetation (primarily shallow-rooted grasses) could still release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere via transpiration. The findings are useful for predicting water storage and ET under different precipitation conditions and for the design of future barriers.

  5. The use of long term monitoring data for the extension of the service duration of existing wind turbine support structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loraux, C.; Brühwiler, E.

    2016-09-01

    Actual wind energy converter (WEC) are designed for a relatively short service life of 20 years and the limiting criterion is the fatigue safety. However, effective fatigue loading endured by the structural components of the wind turbines (WT) is likely to be much below design assumptions provided by current codes. This paper describes a simple but efficient long term monitoring system that allows owners to verify the fatigue safety of their existing WTs. The monitored data will also help to drastically extend the service life of existing wind turbine support structure and will thus reduce the global environmental footprint of WTs.

  6. Development of Download System for Waveform Data Observed at Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System installed in the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, H.; Takaesu, M.; Sueki, K.; Araki, E.; Sonoda, A.; Takahashi, N.; Tsuboi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Nankai Trough in southwest Japan is one of most active subduction zone in the world. Great mega-thrust earthquakes repeatedly occurred every 100 to 150 years in this area, it's anticipated to occur in the not distant future. For the purpose of elucidation of the history of mega-splay fault activity, the physical properties of the geological strata and the internal structure of the accretionary prism, and monitoring of diastrophism in this area, we have a plan, Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiments (NanTroSEIZE), as a part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).We have a plan to install the borehole observation system in a few locations by the NanTroSEIZE. This system is called Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System, it consists of various sensors in the borehole such as a broadband seismometer, a tiltmeter, a strainmeter, geophones and accelerometer, thermometer array as well as pressure ports for pore-fluid pressure monitoring. The signal from sensors is transmitted to DONET (Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis) in real-time. During IODP Exp. 332 in December 2010, the first Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System was installed into the C0002 borehole site located 80 km off the Kii Peninsula, 1938 m water depth in the Nankai Trough.We have developed a web application system for data download, Long-Term Borehole Monitoring Data Site (*1). Based on a term and sensors which user selected on this site, user can download monitoring waveform data (e.g. broadband seismometer data, accelerometer data, strainmeter data, tiltmeter data) in near real-time. This system can make the arbitrary data which user selected a term and sensors, and download it simply. Downloadable continuous data is provided in seed format, which includes sensor information. In addition, before data download, user can check that data is available or not by data check function.In this presentation, we briefly introduce NanTroSEIZE and then show our web

  7. LONG-TERM X-RAY MONITORING OF THE YOUNG PULSAR PSR B1509-58

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-11-20

    It has long been thought that the pulsed X-ray properties of rotation-powered pulsars are stable on long timescales. However, long-term, systematic studies of individual sources have been lacking. Furthermore, dramatic X-ray variability has now been observed from two pulsars having inferred sub-critical dipole magnetic fields. Here we present an analysis of the long-term pulsed X-ray properties of the young, energetic pulsar PSR B1509-58 using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We measured the 2-50 keV pulsed flux for 14.7 yr of X-ray observations and found that it is consistent with being constant on all relevant timescales, and place a 3{sigma} upper limit on day-to-week variability of <28%. In addition, we searched for magnetar-like X-ray bursts in all observations and found none, which we use to constrain the measurable burst rate to less than one per 750 ks of observations. We also searched for variability in the pulse profile and found that it is consistent with being stable on timescales of days to decades. This supports the hypothesis that X-ray properties of rotation-powered X-ray pulsars can be stable on decade-long timescales. In addition, we extend the existing timing solution by 7.1 yr to a total of 28.4 yr and report updated values of the braking index, n = 2.832 {+-} 0.003, and the second braking index, m = 17.6 {+-} 1.9.

  8. Publication of sensor data in the long-term environmental monitoring infrastructure TERENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.; Klump, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also publishes time series of environmental sensor data through the online research data publication platform DataCite. The metadata required by DataCite are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML to create ISO 19115 compliant metadata. The GFZ data management tool kit panMetaDocs is used to register Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) and preserve file based datasets. In addition to DOI, the International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN) is used to uniquely identify research specimens.

  9. A comparison of the temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems and Adirondack Long Term-Monitoring programs in the Adirondack Mountain region of New Yrok

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares lake chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York measured by the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) and Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) programs by examining the data from six lakes common to both programs. Both programs were initi...

  10. Development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Theanh; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Thambiratnam, David P.; King, Les

    2015-12-01

    In the structural health monitoring (SHM) field, long-term continuous vibration-based monitoring is becoming increasingly popular as this could keep track of the health status of structures during their service lives. However, implementing such a system is not always feasible due to on-going conflicts between budget constraints and the need of sophisticated systems to monitor real-world structures under their demanding in-service conditions. To address this problem, this paper presents a comprehensive development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous SHM of a newly constructed institutional complex with a special focus on the main building. First, selections of sensor type and sensor positions are scrutinized to overcome adversities such as low-frequency and low-level vibration measurements. In order to economically tackle the sparse measurement problem, a cost-optimized Ethernet-based peripheral DAQ model is first adopted to form the system skeleton. A combination of a high-resolution timing coordination method based on the TCP/IP command communication medium and a periodic system resynchronization strategy is then proposed to synchronize data from multiple distributed DAQ units. The results of both experimental evaluations and experimental-numerical verifications show that the proposed DAQ system in general and the data synchronization solution in particular work well and they can provide a promising cost-effective and flexible alternative for use in real-world SHM projects. Finally, the paper demonstrates simple but effective ways to make use of the developed monitoring system for long-term continuous structural health evaluation as well as to use the instrumented building herein as a multi-purpose benchmark structure for studying not only practical SHM problems but also synchronization related issues.

  11. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  12. Effects of ungulate disturbance and weather variation on Pediocactus winkleri: insights from long-term monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Deborah J.; Clark, Thomas O.; Duniway, Michael C.; Flagg, Cody B.

    2015-01-01

    Population dynamics and effects of large ungulate disturbances on Winkler cactus (Pediocactus winkleri K.D. Heil) were documented annually over a 20-year time span at one plot within Capitol Reef National Park, Utah. This cactus species was federally listed as threatened in 1998. The study began in 1995 to gain a better understanding of life history aspects and threats to this species. Data were collected annually in early spring and included diameter, condition, reproductive structures, mortality, recruitment, and disturbance by large ungulates. We used odds ratio and probability model analyses to determine effects of large ungulate trampling and weather on these cacti. During the study, plot population declined by 18%, with trampling of cactus, low precipitation, and cold spring temperatures implicated as causal factors. Precipitation and temperature affected flowering, mortality, and recruitment. Large ungulate disturbances increased mortality and reduced the probability of flowering. These results suggest that large ungulate disturbances and recent climate regimes have had an adverse impact on long-term persistence of this cactus.

  13. Reagent-free ultrasensitive spectroscopic probes for long term diabetes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingari, N. C.; Barman, I.; Kang, J. W.; Horowitz, G.; Rao Dasari, Ramachandra

    2012-02-01

    Long-term glycemic control is essential in developing therapeutics for diabetics. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin have been increasingly accepted as a functional metric of glycemic control over the past two to three months and three weeks, respectively. In this talk, we present the first demonstration of non-enhanced Raman spectroscopy as a novel analytical method for quantitative detection of HbA1c and glycated albumin. Using the drop coating deposition Raman technique, we observe that the non-enzymatic glycosylation of these proteins results in subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate the glycated proteins from their unglycated variants with 100%. Additionally, the developed multivariate calibration models show a high degree of prediction accuracy even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. The excellent accuracy and reproducibility achieved in this proof-of-concept study opens substantive avenues for basic investigations of glycated proteins as well as in high-throughput glycemic marker sensing in multi-component mixtures and potentially even in serum and whole blood samples.

  14. Home Blood Pressure Monitoring: How Good a Predictor of Long-Term Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Samia; Sinha, Arjun D.

    2011-01-01

    Most management decisions for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension are made using blood pressure (BP) measurements made in the clinic. However, home BP recordings may be of superior prognostic value. In this review, we show that home BP recordings are generally superior to clinic BP measurements in predicting long-term prognosis. Home BP has been shown to significantly predict important end points including all-cause mortality, progression of chronic kidney disease, and functional decline in the elderly. In addition, home BP recordings significantly and strongly predict cardiovascular events. These findings are robust, as they concur despite having been studied in disparate populations, using heterogeneous methods of clinic and home BP measurement, and with varied methods of statistical analysis. The advantages of home BP recordings are not due solely to a larger number of measurements, and they extend to the elderly, patients with chronic kidney disease, and those on hemodialysis. Because home BP recordings combine improved accuracy with the advantages of low cost and easy implementation, most patients with known or suspected hypertension should have their BP assessed and managed by means of home BP recordings. PMID:21327567

  15. Microautologous Fat Transplantation for Primary Augmentation Rhinoplasty: Long-Term Monitoring of 198 Asian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Wen-Pin; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lin, Tsung-Ying; Huang, Yu-Hao; Chou, Chih-Kang; Takahashi, Hidenobu; Shieh, Tung-Ying; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lee, Su-Shin; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw; Lin, Tsai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous techniques and materials are available for increasing the dorsal height and length of the nose. Microautologous fat transplantation (MAFT) may be an appropriate strategy for augmentation rhinoplasty. Objectives The authors sought to determine the long-term results of MAFT with the so-called one-third maneuver in Asian patients who underwent augmentation rhinoplasty. Methods A total of 198 patients who underwent primary augmentation rhinoplasty with MAFT were evaluated in a retrospective study. Fat was harvested by liposuction and was processed and refined by centrifugation. Minute parcels of purified fat were transplanted to the nasal dorsum with a MAFT-Gun. Patient satisfaction was scored with a 5-point Likert scale, and aesthetic outcomes were validated with pre- and postoperative photographs. Results The mean age of the patients was 45.5 years. The mean operating time for MAFT was 25 minutes, and patients underwent 1-3 MAFT sessions. The mean volume of fat delivered per session was 3.4 mL (range, 2.0-5.5 mL). Patients received follow-up for an average of 19 months (range, 6-42 months). Overall, 125 of 198 patients (63.1%) indicated that they were satisfied with the results of 1-3 sessions of MAFT. There were no major complications. Conclusions The results of this study support MAFT as an appropriate fat-transfer strategy for Asian patients undergoing primary augmentation rhinoplasty. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:26764261

  16. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin A; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D; Yost, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Mobile monitoring has provided a means for broad spatial measurements of air pollutants that are otherwise impractical to measure with multiple fixed site sampling strategies. However, the larger the mobile monitoring route the less temporally dense measurements become, which may limit the usefulness of short-term mobile monitoring for applications that require long-term averages. To investigate the stationarity of short-term mobile monitoring measurements, we calculated long term medians derived from a mobile monitoring campaign that also employed 2-week integrated passive sampler detectors (PSD) for NOx, Ozone, and nine volatile organic compounds at 43 intersections distributed across the entire city of Baltimore, MD. This is one of the largest mobile monitoring campaigns in terms of spatial extent undertaken at this time. The mobile platform made repeat measurements every third day at each intersection for 6-10 minutes at a resolution of 10 s. In two-week periods in both summer and winter seasons, each site was visited 3-4 times, and a temporal adjustment was applied to each dataset. We present the correlations between eight species measured using mobile monitoring and the 2-week PSD data and observe correlations between mobile NOx measurements and PSD NOx measurements in both summer and winter (Pearson's r = 0.84 and 0.48, respectively). The summer season exhibited the strongest correlations between multiple pollutants, whereas the winter had comparatively few statistically significant correlations. In the summer CO was correlated with PSD pentanes (r = 0.81), and PSD NOx was correlated with mobile measurements of black carbon (r = 0.83), two ultrafine particle count measures (r =0.8), and intermodal (1-3 μm) particle counts (r = 0.73). Principal Component Analysis of the combined PSD and mobile monitoring data revealed multipollutant features consistent with light duty vehicle traffic, diesel exhaust and crankcase blow by. These features were more consistent

  17. Detecting environmental change: science and society-perspectives on long-term research and monitoring in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Parr, T W; Sier, A R J; Battarbee, R W; Mackay, A; Burgess, J

    2003-07-01

    Widespread concern over the state of the environment and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on ecosystem services and functions has highlighted the need for high-quality, long-term datasets for detecting and understanding environmental change. In July 2001, an international conference reviewed progress in the field of long-term ecosystem research and monitoring (LTERM). Examples are given which demonstrate the need for long-term environmental monitoring and research, for palaeoecological reconstructions of past environments and for applied use of historical records that inform us of past environmental conditions. LTERM approaches are needed to provide measures of baseline conditions and for informing decisions on ecosystem management and environmental policy formulation. They are also valuable in aiding the understanding of the processes of environmental change, including the integrated effects of natural and anthropogenic drivers and pressures, recovery from stress and resilience of species, populations, communities and ecosystems. The authors argue that, in order to realise the full potential of LTERM approaches, progress must be made in four key areas: (i) increase the number, variety and scope of LTERM activities to help define the operational range of ecosystems; (ii) greater integration of research, monitoring, modelling, palaeoecological reconstruction and remote sensing to create a broad-scale early warning system of environmental change; (iii) development of inter-disciplinary approaches which draw upon social and environmental science expertise to understand the factors determining the vulnerability and resilience of the nature-society system to change; and (iv) more and better use of LTERM data and information to inform the public and policymakers and to provide guidance on sustainable development.

  18. Development of a long-term post-closure radiation monitor: Phase 2, Topical report, March 1994--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.E.

    1995-07-01

    The long-term monitoring of a hazardous waste site for migration of radionuclides requires installation of radiation sensors at a large number of subsurface locations. The concept under development employs a passive in-ground measurement probe which contains a scintillator coupled to an optical lightguide. The overall goal of the Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitor System (LPRMS) development program is to configure a long-term radiation monitor using commercially available, demonstrated components to the largest extent possible. The development program is planned as a three phase program spanning a total time of 53 months. The problems to be solved during Phase 1 were primarily those associated with selection of the most appropriate components (scintillator, coupling optics, optical fiber, and opto-electronics) to maximize the signal reaching the detectors and thereby minimizing the integration time required to obtain a reliable measure of radiation. Phase 2 (the current Phase) encompassed the fabrication and testing of the prototype LPRMS probe at a contaminated DOE site, the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in southwestern Ohio. Uranium isotopes are the primary contaminants of concern at this site. The single probe and opto-electronic device were used to made measurements in-situ at relatively shallow subsurface depths. The end objective of Phase 2 was the design of a full-scale prototype system which incorporates all the features expected to be necessary on a commercial system, including 50 meter depth of measurement, multiplexing of multiple probes, and remote transmission of data. This full-scale prototype will be fabricated and field tested for 12 months during Phase 3, and a commercial design will be developed based upon the data gathered and experience gained during the entire program.

  19. Report of the Director-General on the Long-Term Programme in the Field of Hydrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    The report describes the principal orientations of the International Hydrological Programme, as well as the procedures suggested for its execution. The origin and justification of the programme are presented. The objectives of the 1975 programme are stated and the contents, which include the activities, themes, application of new techniques in…

  20. Summary of preliminary step-trend analysis from the Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-termMonitoring Program—2004-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legg, Kristin; Shanahan, Erin; Daley, Rob; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In mixed and dominant stands, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) occurs in over two million acres within the six national forests and two national parks that comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Currently, whitebark pine, an ecologically important species, is impacted by multiple ecological disturbances; white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), wildfire, and climate change all pose significant threats to the persistence of whitebark pine populations. Substantial declines in whitebark pine populations have been documented throughout its range.Under the auspices of the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (GYCC), several agencies began a collaborative, long-term monitoring program to track and document the status of whitebark pine across the GYE. This alliance resulted in the formation of the Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group (GYWPMWG), which consists of representatives from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU). This groundbased monitoring program was initiated in 2004 and follows a peer-reviewed protocol (GYWPMWG 2011). The program is led by the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network (GRYN) of the National Park Service in coordination with multiple agencies. More information about this monitoring effort is available at: http://science. nature.nps.gov/im/units/gryn/monitor/whitebark_pine.cfm. The purpose of this report is to provide a draft summary of the first step-trend analysis for the interagency, long-term monitoring of whitebark pine health to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) as part of a synthesis of the state of whitebark pine in the GYE. Due to the various stages of the analyses and reporting, this is the most efficient way to provide these results to the IGBST.

  1. [The structure of intestinal dysbioses in children of preschool age during long-term period of monitoring].

    PubMed

    Nemchenko, U M; Rakova, E B; Popkova, S M; Savelkaeva, M V; Ivanova, E I; Kungurtseva, E A; Serduk, L V; Shabanova, N M

    2015-02-01

    The study was organized to examine long-term (1990-2011) structure of intestinal dysbioses in children of preschool age residing in Irkutsk. The significant decrease of expression of micro-ecological shifts (IV and III degrees) to the end of period of monitoring and almost total lacking of cases of eubiosis and statistically reliable (p ≤ 0.05) increasing of rate of dysbioses of I and II degrees were established. The given circumstance can be related to ongoing on the territory ecological pressure on organism of negative factors of environment including factors of anthropogenic character.

  2. Meeting Report: Long Term Monitoring of Global Vegetation using Moderate Resolution Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Heinsch, Fath Ann; Running, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    The international community has long recognized the need to coordinate observations of Earth from space. In 1984, this situation provided the impetus for creating the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), an international coordinating mechanism charged with coordinating international civil spaceborne missions designed to observe and study planet Earth. Within CEOS, its Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) is tasked with coordinating satellite-based global observations of vegetation. Currently, several international organizations are focusing on the requirements for Earth observation from space to address key science questions and societal benefits related to our terrestrial environment. The Global Vegetation Workshop, sponsored by the WGCV and held in Missoula, Montana, 7-10 August, 2006, was organized to establish a framework to understand the inter-relationships among multiple, global vegetation products and identify opportunities for: 1) Increasing knowledge through combined products, 2) Realizing efficiency by avoiding redundancy, and 3) Developing near- and long-term plans to avoid gaps in our understanding of critical global vegetation information. The Global Vegetation Workshop brought together 135 researchers from 25 states and 14 countries to advance these themes and formulate recommendations for CEOS members and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The eighteen oral presentations and most of the 74 posters presented at the meeting can be downloaded from the meeting website (www.ntsg.umt.edu/VEGMTG/). Meeting attendees were given a copy of the July 2006 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Special Issue on Global Land Product Validation, coordinated by the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV). This issue contains 29 articles focusing on validation products from several of the sensors discussed during the workshop.

  3. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon–nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Miller, Todd R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) speciation and inorganic carbon (C) availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the “toxic phase.” Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P) to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment. PMID:26029192

  4. Development of a novel ultrasonic temperature probe for long-term monitoring of dry cask storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, S.; Wang, K.; Elmer, T. W.; Koehl, E.; Raptis, A. C.

    2013-01-25

    With the recent cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository and the limited availability of wet storage utilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), more attention has been directed toward dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for long-term storage of SNF. Consequently, more stringent guidelines have been issued for the aging management of dry storage facilities that necessitate monitoring of the conditions of DCSSs. Continuous health monitoring of DCSSs based on temperature variations is one viable method for assessing the integrity of the system. In the present work, a novel ultrasonic temperature probe (UTP) is being tested for long-term online temperature monitoring of DCSSs. Its performance was evaluated and compared with type N thermocouple (NTC) and resistance temperature detector (RTD) using a small-scale dry storage canister mockup. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the UTP system developed at Argonne is able to achieve better than 0.8 Degree-Sign C accuracy, tested at temperatures of up to 400 Degree-Sign C. The temperature resolution is limited only by the sampling rate of the current system. The flexibility of the probe allows conforming to complex geometries thus making the sensor particularly suited to measurement scenarios where access is limited.

  5. Development of a novel ultrasonic temperature probe for long-term monitoring of dry cask storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Wang, K.; Elmer, T. W.; Koehl, E.; Raptis, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository and the limited availability of wet storage utilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), more attention has been directed toward dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for long-term storage of SNF. Consequently, more stringent guidelines have been issued for the aging management of dry storage facilities that necessitate monitoring of the conditions of DCSSs. Continuous health monitoring of DCSSs based on temperature variations is one viable method for assessing the integrity of the system. In the present work, a novel ultrasonic temperature probe (UTP) is being tested for long-term online temperature monitoring of DCSSs. Its performance was evaluated and compared with type N thermocouple (NTC) and resistance temperature detector (RTD) using a small-scale dry storage canister mockup. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the UTP system developed at Argonne is able to achieve better than 0.8 °C accuracy, tested at temperatures of up to 400 °C. The temperature resolution is limited only by the sampling rate of the current system. The flexibility of the probe allows conforming to complex geometries thus making the sensor particularly suited to measurement scenarios where access is limited.

  6. Assessing the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact of Land Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, B.; Engel, B.; Harbor, J.; Jones, D.; Lim, K.J.

    1999-09-22

    Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is important for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of land use changes such as urban sprawl, most planners, government agencies and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools that can be used with readily available data. Before investing in sophisticated analyses and customized data collection, it is desirable to be able to run initial screening analyses using data that are already available. In response to this need, we developed a long-term hydrologic impact assessment technique (L-THIA) using the popular Curve Number (CN) method that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data. Initially developed as a spreadsheet application, the technique allows a user to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Consequently, a NPS pollution module was incorporated to develop the L-THWNPS model. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GE by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. Manipulation of the land use layer, or provision of multiple land use layers (for different scenarios), allows for rapid and

  7. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  8. Development of Download System for Waveform Data Observed at Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System installed in the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Seiji; Horikawa, Hiroki; Takaesu, Morifumi; Sueki, Kentaro; Araki, Eiichiro; Sonoda, Akira; Takahashi, Narumi

    2016-04-01

    The Nankai Trough in southwest Japan is one of most active subduction zone in the world. Great mega-thrust earthquakes repeatedly occurred every 100 to 150 years in this area, it's anticipated to occur in the not distant future. For the purpose of elucidation of the history of mega-splay fault activity, the physical properties of the geological strata and the internal structure of the accretionary prism, and monitoring of diastrophism in this area, we have a plan, Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiments (NanTroSEIZE), as a part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). We have a plan to install the borehole observation system in a few locations by the NanTroSEIZE. This system is called Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System, it consists of various sensors in the borehole such as a broadband seismometer, a tiltmeter, a strainmeter, geophones and accelerometer, thermometer array as well as pressure ports for pore-fluid pressure monitoring. The signal from sensors is transmitted to DONET (Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis) in real time. During IODP Exp. 332 in December 2010, the first Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System was installed into the C0002 borehole site located 80 km off the Kii Peninsula, 1938 m water depth in the Nankai Trough. We have developed a web application system for data download, Long-Term Borehole Monitoring Data Site. Based on a term and sensors which user selected on this site, user can download monitoring waveform data (e.g. broadband seismometer data, accelerometer data, strainmeter data, tiltmeter data) in near real-time. This system can make the arbitrary data which user selected a term and sensors, and download it simply. Downloadable continuous data is provided in seed format, which includes sensor informations. In addition, before data download, user can check that data is abailable or not by data check function. In this presentation, we show our web application system and discuss our future plans for

  9. Long-term changes in the benthic communities of the Sea of Azov related to the sedimentation and hydrological regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Shokhin, I. V.; Nabozhenko, M. V.; Pol'Shin, V. V.

    2008-06-01

    The following periods reflected in the composition and distribution of benthic communities are distinguished in the development of the Sea of Azov during the last 80 years: (1) prior to the regulation of the Don River discharge, (2) after its regulation, (3) stabilization of the Don River hydrological regime, and (4) desalination of the sea. The distribution of benthic communities in the Sea of Azov is characterized by concentric patterns, which are distorted due to the changes in the hydrological and oxygen regimes after oxygen depletion. The basic factors that influence the distribution of macrozoobenthic communities are the aeration regime of the sea and the character of the sediment accumulation. The steady distribution of benthic communities composed largely of euryhaline species adapted to the conditions of an unstable salinity in the Sea of Azov shows no correlation with the salinity fluctuations from 9 to 14‰ during the 80-year-long period.

  10. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  11. A Framework for Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Olympic National Park: Prototype for the Coniferous Forest Biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Ed

    2003-01-01

    This report is the result of a five-year collaboration between scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Olympic Field Station, and the natural resources staff of Olympic National Park to develop a comprehensive strategy for monitoring natural resources of Olympic National Park. Olympic National Park is the National Park Serviceʼs prototype monitoring park, representing parks in the coniferous forest biome. Under the umbrella of the National Park Serviceʼs prototype parks program, U.S. Geological Survey and Olympic National Park staffs are obligated to:develop strategies and designs for monitoring the long-term health and integrity of national park ecosystems with a significant coniferous forest component.design exportable monitoring protocols that can be used by other parks within the coniferous forest biome (i.e., parks having similar environments), andcreate a demonstration area and ʻcenter of excellenceʼ for assisting other parks in developing ecological monitoring programs.Olympic National Park is part of the North Coast and Cascades Network, a network of seven Pacific Northwestern park units created recently by the National Park Serviceʼs Inventory and Monitoring Program to extend the monitoring of ʻvital signsʼ of park health to all National Park Service units. It is our intent and hope that the monitoring strategies and conceptual models described here will meet the overall purpose of the prototype parks monitoring program in proving useful not only to Olympic National Park, but also to parks within the North Coast and Cascades Network and elsewhere. Part I contains the conceptual design and sampling framework for the prototype long-term monitoring program in Olympic National Park. In this section, we explore key elements of monitoring design that help to ensure the spatial, ecological, and temporal integration of monitoring program elements and discuss approaches used to design an ecosystem

  12. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  13. Twenty years of long-term Atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in Western Germany (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Vonberg, D.; Putz, T.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Atrazine, one of the most frequent applied pesticides worldwide, was banned in Germany in 1991 due to exceeded threshold values in ground- and drinking waters. Monitoring of atrazine was hence introduced in the Zwischenscholle aquifer, exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells were monitored since 1991, of which 11 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the 'regression on order statistics' (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the concentrations in groundwater are on a constant level without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with observation wells exhibiting constantly concentrations above the threshold on the one hand and observation wells where concentrations are frequently below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the monitoring dataset and relationships of triazine compounds became obvious. Accordingly the metabolite desisopropylatrazine was exclusively associated with the occurrence of the parent compound simazine and not atrazine, whereas deethylatrazine was clearly related to atrazine.

  14. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  15. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Miller, Scott; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Archer, Erik; Roper, Brett B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual models are an integral facet of long-term monitoring programs. Proposed linkages between drivers, stressors, and ecological indicators are identified within the conceptual model of most mandated programs. We empirically evaluate a conceptual model developed for a regional aquatic and riparian monitoring program using causal models (i.e., Bayesian path analysis). We assess whether data gathered for regional status and trend estimation can also provide insights on why a stream may deviate from reference conditions. We target the hypothesized causal pathways for how anthropogenic drivers of road density, percent grazing, and percent forest within a catchment affect instream biological condition. We found instream temperature and fine sediments in arid sites and only fine sediments in mesic sites accounted for a significant portion of the maximum possible variation explainable in biological condition among managed sites. However, the biological significance of the direct effects of anthropogenic drivers on instream temperature and fine sediments were minimal or not detected. Consequently, there was weak to no biological support for causal pathways related to anthropogenic drivers’ impact on biological condition. With weak biological and statistical effect sizes, ignoring environmental contextual variables and covariates that explain natural heterogeneity would have resulted in no evidence of human impacts on biological integrity in some instances. For programs targeting the effects of anthropogenic activities, it is imperative to identify both land use practices and mechanisms that have led to degraded conditions (i.e., moving beyond simple status and trend estimation). Our empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning the long-term monitoring program provided an opportunity for learning and, consequently, we discuss survey design elements that require modification to achieve question driven monitoring, a necessary step in the practice of

  16. Long term real-time monitoring of large alpine rockslides by GB-InSAR: mechanisms, triggers, scenario assessment and Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G. B.; Agliardi, F.; Sosio, R.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.; Dei Cas, L.

    2012-04-01

    Large rockslides in alpine valleys can undergo catastrophic evolution, posing extraordinary risks to settlements, lives and critical infrastructures. These phenomena are controlled by a complex interplay of lithological, structural, hydrological and meteo-climatic factors, which eventually result in: complex triggering mechanisms and kinematics, highly variable activity, regressive to progressive trends with superimposed acceleration and deceleration periods related to rainfall and snowmelt. Managing large rockslide risk remains challenging, due the high uncertainty related to their geological model and dynamics. In this context, the most promising approach to constrain rockslide kinematics, establish correlations with triggering factors, and predict future displacements, velocity and acceleration, and eventually possible final collapse is based on the analysis and modelling of long-term series of monitoring data. More than traditional monitoring activities, remote sensing represents an important tool aimed at describing local rockslide displacements and kinematics, at distinguishing rates of activity, and providing real time data suitable for early warning. We analyze a long term monitoring dataset collected for a deep-seated rockslide (Ruinon, Lombardy, Italy), actively monitored since 1997 through an in situ monitoring network (topographic and GPS, wire extensometers and distometer baselines) and since 2006 by a ground based radar (GB-InSAR). Monitoring allowed to set-up and update the geological model, identify rockslide extent and geometry, analyze its sensitivity to seasonal changes and their impact on the reliability and EW potential of monitoring data. GB-InSAR data allowed to identify sub-areas with different behaviors associated to outcropping bedrock and thick debris cover, and to set-up a "virtual monitoring network" by a posteriori selection of critical locations. Resulting displacement time series provide a large amount of information even in debris

  17. Assessment of the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term watershed monitoring in an urban slough system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at eight sites within the Buffalo Slough, near Portland, Oregon, to (1) measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and organochlorine (OC) compounds in the slough, (2) assess the usefulness of SPMDs as a tool for investigating and monitoring hydrophobic compounds throughout the Columbia Slough system, and (3) evaluate the utility of SPMDs as a tool for measuring the long-term effects of watershed improvement activities. Data from the SPMDs revealed clear spatial and seasonal differences in water quality within the slough and indicate that for hydrophobic compounds, this time-integrated passive-sampling technique is a useful tool for long-term watershed monitoring. In addition, the data suggest that a spiking rate of 2-5 ??g/SPMD of permeability/performance reference compounds, including at least one compound that is not susceptible to photodegradation, may be optimum for the conditions encountered here. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  18. Demonstration/Validation of Long-Term Monitoring Using Wells Installed by Direct-Push Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    conditions as well as a cross-section of regulatory domains (e.g., EPA regions and states ). Direct- push wells have been installed adjacent to, in...compliance monitoring including chemical concentrations, oxidation - reduction potential (ORP), pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity , and dissolved...Engineering Service Center NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Unit ORP Oxidation /Reduction Potential OU Operational

  19. Developments toward a Low-Cost Approach for Long-Term, Unattended Vapor Intrusion Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, William K.

    2014-01-01

    There are over 450,000 sites contaminated by chemicals in the US. This large number of contaminated sites and the speed of subsurface migration of chemicals pose considerable risk to nearby residences and commercial buildings. The high costs for monitoring around these site stem from the labor involved in placing and replacing the passive sorbent vapor samplers and the resultant laboratory analysis. This monitoring produces sparse data sets that do not track temporal changes well. To substantially reduce costs and better track exposures, less costly, unattended systems for monitoring soil gases and vapor intrusion into homes and businesses are desirable to aid in the remediation of contaminated sites. This paper describes progress toward the development of an inexpensive system specifically for monitoring vapor intrusion; the system can operate repeatedly without user intervention with low detection limits (1 × 10−9, or 1 part-per-billion). Targeted analytes include chlorinated hydrocarbons (dichloroethylene, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene) and benzene. The system consists of a trap-and-purge preconcentrator for vapor collection in conjunction with a compact gas chromatography instrument to separate individual compounds. Chemical detection is accomplished with an array of chemicapacitors and a metal-oxide semiconductor combustibles sensor. Both the preconcentrator and the chromatography column are resistively heated. All components are compatible with ambient air, which serves as the carrier gas for the gas chromatography and detectors. PMID:24903107

  20. Developments toward a low-cost approach for long-term, unattended vapor intrusion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay V; Tolley, William K

    2014-08-07

    There are over 450 000 sites contaminated by chemicals in the US. This large number of contaminated sites and the speed of subsurface migration of chemicals pose considerable risk to nearby residences and commercial buildings. The high costs for monitoring around these sites stem from the labor involved in placing and replacing the passive sorbent vapor samplers and the resultant laboratory analysis. This monitoring produces sparse data sets that do not track temporal changes well. To substantially reduce costs and better track exposures, less costly, unattended systems for monitoring soil gases and vapor intrusion into homes and businesses are desirable to aid in the remediation of contaminated sites. This paper describes progress toward the development of an inexpensive system specifically for monitoring vapor intrusion; the system can operate repeatedly without user intervention with low detection limits (1 × 10(-9), or 1 part-per-billion). Targeted analytes include chlorinated hydrocarbons (dichloroethylene, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene) and benzene. The system consists of a trap-and-purge preconcentrator for vapor collection in conjunction with a compact gas chromatography instrument to separate individual compounds. Chemical detection is accomplished with an array of chemicapacitors and a metal-oxide semiconductor combustibles sensor. Both the preconcentrator and the chromatography column are resistively heated. All components are compatible with ambient air, which serves as the carrier gas for the gas chromatography and detectors.

  1. AUTOMATED LONG-TERM REMOTE MONITORING OF SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACIAL FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advective flux across the sediment-water interface is temporally and spatially heterogeneous in nature. For contaminated sediment sites, monitoring spatial as well as temporal variation of advective flux is of importance to proper risk management. This project was conducted to ...

  2. Wireless system for long-term EEG monitoring of absence epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Ashok, B. H.; Kumaar, R. V.; Saurkesi, K.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2002-11-01

    Absence epilepsy is a form of epilepsy common mostly in children. The most common manifestations of Absence epilepsy are staring and transient loss of responsiveness. Also, subtle motor activities may occur. Due to the subtle nature of these symptoms, episodes of absence epilepsy may often go unrecognized for long periods of time or be mistakenly attributed to attention deficit disorder or daydreaming. Spells of absence epilepsy may last about 10 seconds and occur hundreds of times each day. Patients have no recollections of the events that occurred during those seizures and will resume normal activity without any postictal symptoms. The EEG during such episodes of Absence epilepsy shows intermittent activity of 3 Hz generalized spike and wave complexes. As EEG is the only way of detecting such symptoms, it is required to monitor the EEG of the patient for a long time and thus remain only in bed. So, effectively the EEG is being monitored only when the patient is stationary. The wireless monitoring sys tem described in this paper aims at eliminating this constraint and enables the physicial to monitor the EEG when the patient resumes his normal activities. This approach could even help the doctor identify possible triggers of absence epilepsy.

  3. Connecting long-term monitoring data from vegetation plots and remote sensing in the Southwestern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding vegetation response to changing climate patterns is an important element of rangeland management and supports the use and development of ecological site descriptions. Monitoring of rangeland conditions with remote sensing can be misleading if ground measurements are not used to interpr...

  4. Impact of long-term flooding on the hydrology and carbon biogeochemistry of a northern bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Welchering, Lieselotte; Kasparbauer, Klaus; Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and impoundment construction may lead to rising water tables in many northern peatlands. In this study the hydrological and biogeochemical effects of flooding were analyzed at a peatland in southern Ontario, Canada, that was partly flooded 60 years ago. By a comparison of sites of increasing distance to the lake, the effects of inundation on the peatland biogeochemistry were identified. The approximate range of lake water intrusion into the peatland was determined using 18O in water. Furthermore the local hydrology was analyzed by quantifying distributions of hydraulic conductivity and small-scale groundwater flow patterns. By measuring nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, sulfate and DIC, CH4 and DOC in the lake and groundwater the chemical and biogeochemical influence of the inundation was determined. Gas fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at the site were quantified using a static chamber approach. The findings indicate that the infiltration of water from the lake at these sites occurred in time periods of higher lake levels. During summer these locations were only fed by precipitation and the previously infiltrated surface water was diluted or replaced. Nutrient concentrations in the lake water were generally lower compared to the peat pore water. The main solute entering the peatland with the intrusion was sulfate, which also influenced methane concentration patterns. Vertical flow seemed to be an important hydraulic process and control on solute transport at the study site, which has not been described to this extent previously. Additionally, indications for a discharge of groundwater into the peat during a flow reversal were found, though the assumed low permeability of underlying layers should not allow for this process. While the impact of reservoir creation on hydrologic processes appeared to be limited, the changes in water table, soil moisture and vegetation patterns had large impacts on trance gas fluxes to the atmosphere, especially on methane, whose

  5. Spatio-temporal validation of long-term 3D hydrological simulations of a forested catchment using empirical orthogonal functions and wavelet coherence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhufeng; Bogena, Heye; Kollet, Stefan; Koch, Julian; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-10-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in the water and energy balance in soil, vegetation and atmosphere systems. According to Wood et al. (2011) there is a grand need to increase global-scale hyper-resolution water-energy-biogeochemistry land surface modelling capabilities. These modelling capabilities should also recognize epistemic uncertainties, as well as the nonlinearity and hysteresis in its dynamics. Unfortunately, it is not clear how to parameterize hydrological processes as a function of scale, and how to test deterministic models with regard to epistemic uncertainties. In this study, high resolution long-term simulations were conducted in the highly instrumented TERENO hydrological observatory of the Wüstebach catchment. Soil hydraulic parameters were derived using inverse modelling with the Hydrus-1D model using the global optimization scheme SCE-UA and soil moisture data from a wireless soil moisture sensor network. The estimated parameters were then used for 3D simulations of water transport using the integrated parallel simulation platform ParFlow-CLM. The simulated soil moisture dynamics, as well as evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff, were compared with long-term field observations to illustrate how well the model was able to reproduce the water budget dynamics. We investigated different anisotropies of hydraulic conductivity to analyze how fast lateral flow processes above the underlying bedrock affect the simulation results. For a detail investigation of the model results we applied the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and wavelet coherence methods. The EOF analysis of temporal-spatial patterns of simulated and observed soil moisture revealed that introduction of heterogeneity in the soil porosity effectively improves estimates of soil moisture patterns. Our wavelet coherence analysis indicates that wet and dry seasons have significant effect on temporal correlation between observed and simulated soil moisture and ET. Our study demonstrates the

  6. Detecting state changes for ecosystem conservation with long-term monitoring of species composition.

    PubMed

    Mason, T J; Keith, D A; Letten, A D

    2017-03-01

    Effective conservation requires an understanding not only of contemporary vegetation distributions in the landscape, but also cognizance of vegetation transitions over time with the goal of maintaining persistence of all states within the landscape. Using a state and transition model framework, we investigated temporal transitions over 31 years in species composition among five upland swamp vegetation communities in southeastern Australia. We applied fuzzy clustering to document transitions across communities; evaluated the resilience and resistance of communities to change; and explored the relationship between ecosystem states and major environmental factors posited to structure the system. We also evaluated the predictive ability of an established vegetation dynamics model. We found that community composition remained stable or underwent reversible or directional transitions depending on the vegetation type. Wetter communities (Ti-tree thicket and Cyperoid heath) were more stable (i.e., resistant) while drier communities showed a greater propensity to transition (i.e., had lower resistance) under the observed disturbance regime (low variance fire intervals). The resilience of drier communities differed under this regime, with Banksia thicket showing reversible compositional change, while Restioid heath and Sedgeland showed directional change. In accord with an established conceptual model, we found that communities were distributed along a hydrological gradient. In addition, vegetation structure, along with light penetration to ground level, differentiated communities. However, internal dynamics of drier communities were complex: differences in fire regime (penultimate fire interval in 2014 and number of fires since 1965) were unable to predict differences in community membership among sites. Aspects of the fire regime are expected to be more important predictors if fire intervals vary more strongly among sites in the future. Fuzzy clustering of compositional

  7. Long-Term Monitoring of Desert Land and Natural Resources and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; Rollins, Katherine E.

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring environmental impacts over large, remote desert regions for long periods of time can be very costly. Remote sensing technologies present a promising monitoring tool because they entail the collection of spatially contiguous data, automated processing, and streamlined data analysis. This report provides a summary of remote sensing products and refinement of remote sensing data interpretation methodologies that were generated as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Solar Energy Program. In March 2015, a team of researchers from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected field data of vegetation and surface types from more than 5,000 survey points within the eastern part of the Riverside East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ). Using the field data, remote sensing products that were generated in 2014 using very high spatial resolution (VHSR; 15 cm) multispectral aerial images were validated in order to evaluate potential refinements to the previous methodologies to improve the information extraction accuracy.

  8. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  9. The long-term monitoring of the spectrophotometric IUE standard stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Oliversen, N.; Garhart, M.; Teays, T.

    1990-01-01

    For more than twelve years the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite has consistently monitored about 44 spectrophotometric standard stars. This monitoring program was set up mostly to fit some particular needs of the IUE mission, such as the study of the detector linearity, sensitivity, degradation, and scattered light profiles. The impressive body of data accumulated over the years of about 7000 images, is unique and particularly suited for stellar studies on the stars themselves. The most frequently observed early type stars used as baseline calibration standards are studied. Part of what has been learnt about the cameras from studies of these spectral images and which has indirectly affected most of the published studies is presented. Possible improvements in flux accuracy which will be incorporated in the IUE final archives are discussed.

  10. Embroidered Electrode with Silver/Titanium Coating for Long-Term ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Weder, Markus; Hegemann, Dirk; Amberg, Martin; Hess, Markus; Boesel, Luciano F.; Abächerli, Roger; Meyer, Veronika R.; Rossi, René M.

    2015-01-01

    For the long-time monitoring of electrocardiograms, electrodes must be skin-friendly and non-irritating, but in addition they must deliver leads without artifacts even if the skin is dry and the body is moving. Today's adhesive conducting gel electrodes are not suitable for such applications. We have developed an embroidered textile electrode from polyethylene terephthalate yarn which is plasma-coated with silver for electrical conductivity and with an ultra-thin titanium layer on top for passivation. Two of these electrodes are embedded into a breast belt. They are moisturized with a very low amount of water vapor from an integrated reservoir. The combination of silver, titanium and water vapor results in an excellent electrode chemistry. With this belt the long-time monitoring of electrocardiography (ECG) is possible at rest as well as when the patient is moving. PMID:25599424

  11. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-10-27

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability.

  12. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  13. Results of a Long-Term Demonstration of an Optical Multi-Gas Monitor on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Previously at SAMAP we reported on the development of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based instruments for measuring small gas molecules in real time. TDLS technology has matured rapidly over the last 5 years as a result of advances in low power diode lasers as well as better detection schemes. In collaboration with two small businesses Vista Photonics, Inc. and Nanoracks LLC, NASA developed a 4 gas TDLS based monitor for an experimental demonstration of the technology on the International Space Station (ISS). Vista invented and constructed the core TDLS sensor. Nanoracks designed and built the enclosure, and certified the integrated monitor as a payload. The device, which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, is called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM). MGM measures the 4 gases every few seconds and records a 30 second moving average of the concentrations. The relatively small unit draws only 2.5W. MGM was calibrated at NASA-Johnson Space Center in July 2013 and launched to ISS on a Soyuz vehicle in November 2013. Installation and activation of MGM occurred in February 2014, and the unit has been operating nearly continuously ever since in the Japanese Experiment Module. Data is downlinked from ISS about once per week. Oxygen and carbon dioxide data is compared with that from the central Major Constituents Analyzer. Water vapor data is compared with dew point measurements made by sensors in the Columbus module. The ammonia channel was tested by the crew using a commercial ammonia inhalant. MGM is remarkably stable to date. Results of 18 months of operation are presented and future applications including combustion product monitoring are discussed.

  14. Long-Term Environmental Monitoring of an Operating Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.; Kirchner, Th.; Monk, J.; Sage, S.

    2008-07-01

    In the present energy dilemma in which we find ourselves, the magnitude of humanity's energy needs requires that we embrace a multitude of various energy sources and applications. Nuclear energy must be a major portion of the distribution. One often-cited strategic hurdle to the commercial production of nuclear energy is the apparent lack of an acceptable nuclear waste repository. This issue has been quietly addressed at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP; see http://www.wipp.energy.gov), the closest population center of significant size being Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP has been operating for about nine years, disposing of over 250,000 drum-equivalents of nuclear waste. From the standpoint of addressing operational and environmental risk, as well as public fear, WIPP has had extensive human health and environmental monitoring. The Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center is in the Institute for Energy and the Environment, in the College of Engineering at New Mexico State University. Located in Carlsbad, NM, CEMRC has been the independent monitoring facility for the area around WIPP from 1993 to the present, i.e., from six years before disposal operations began to nine years of waste disposal operations (www.cemcr.org). Based on the radiological analyses of monitoring samples completed to date for area residents and site workers, and for selected aerosols, soils, sediments, drinking water and surface waters, there is no evidence of increases in radiological contaminants in the region of WIPP that could be attributed to releases from WIPP. Levels of radiological and non-radiological analytes measured since operations began in 1999 have been within the range of baseline levels measured previously, and are within the ranges measured by other entities at the State and local levels since well before disposal phase operations began in 1999. (authors)

  15. Bridge reliability assessment based on the PDF of long-term monitored extreme strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Meiju; Sun, Limin

    2011-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can provide valuable information for the evaluation of bridge performance. As the development and implementation of SHM technology in recent years, the data mining and use has received increasingly attention and interests in civil engineering. Based on the principle of probabilistic and statistics, a reliability approach provides a rational basis for analysis of the randomness in loads and their effects on structures. A novel approach combined SHM systems with reliability method to evaluate the reliability of a cable-stayed bridge instrumented with SHM systems was presented in this paper. In this study, the reliability of the steel girder of the cable-stayed bridge was denoted by failure probability directly instead of reliability index as commonly used. Under the assumption that the probability distributions of the resistance are independent to the responses of structures, a formulation of failure probability was deduced. Then, as a main factor in the formulation, the probability density function (PDF) of the strain at sensor locations based on the monitoring data was evaluated and verified. That Donghai Bridge was taken as an example for the application of the proposed approach followed. In the case study, 4 years' monitoring data since the operation of the SHM systems was processed, and the reliability assessment results were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity and accuracy of the novel approach compared with FORM was discussed.

  16. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Biological monitoring of iodine, a water disinfectant for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zareba, G.; Cernichiari, E.; Goldsmith, L. A.; Clarkson, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    In order to establish guidelines for exposure of astronauts to iodine, used as a water disinfectant in space, we studied the usefulness of hair, saliva, and urine for biological monitoring in humans and in the human hair/nude mouse model. The monitoring of iodine in patients that received 150 mCi of Na131I (carrier-free) showed similar patterns of elimination for blood, saliva, and urine. The mean correlation coefficient (r) between iodine elimination for blood/saliva was 0.99, for blood/urine, 0.95, and for saliva/urine, 0.97. The absolute value of iodine concentrations in urine revealed marked variability, which was corrected by adjusting for creatinine levels. The autoradiographic studies of human hair demonstrated that iodine is rapidly incorporated into external layers of the hair root and can be removed easily during washing. These data were confirmed after iodine exposure using the human hair/nude mouse model. Hair does not provide satisfactory information about exposure due to unstable incorporation of iodine. The most useful medium for biological monitoring of astronauts exposed to high doses of iodine in drinking water is urine, when adjusted for creatinine, and saliva, if quantitative evaluation of flow rate is provided.

  18. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  19. Long-term stability of a new EFPI stress monitoring sonde installed in a brown coal mine in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloetzl, Rainer; Krywult, J.; Schneider-Gloetzl, J.; Dynowska, M.

    2006-03-01

    In the Polish brown coal mine Belchatow deformation and stress behaviour are investigated to learn in early stage any reaction of this surface coal mine pit. These values are critical in regard of landslide risks as also important for the most economic excavation geometry. As already reported in GTMM 2002 conference in Karlsruhe, a standard stress monitoring station has been installed and first results have been reported. An important task is to get confident values not in high-precision but in long-term stability. In cooperation with my Polish colleagues and the BAM (German Federal Institute for Material Testing), Berlin, a new EFPI Stress Monitoring Station has been installed in this coal mine and first experiences and results have been reported.

  20. Do you think you have what it takes to set up a long-term video monitoring unit?

    PubMed

    Smith, Sheila L

    2006-03-01

    The single most important factor when setting up a long-term video monitoring unit is research. Research all vendors by traveling to other sites and calling other facilities. Considerations with equipment include the server, acquisition units, review units, cameras, software, and monitors as well as other factors including Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance. Research customer support including both field and telephone support. Involve your Clinical Engineering Department in your investigations. Be sure to obtain warranty information. Researching placement of the equipment is essential. Communication with numerous groups is vital. Administration, engineers, clinical engineering, physicians, infection control, environmental services, house supervisors, security, and all involved parties should be involved in the planning.

  1. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  2. An electrical sensor for long-term monitoring of ultrafine particles in workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanki, Timo; Tikkanen, Juha; Janka, Kauko; Taimisto, Pekka; Lehtimäki, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Pegasor Oy Ltd. (Finland) has developed a diffusion charging measurement device that enables continuous monitoring of fine particle concentration at a low initial and lifecycle cost. The innovation, for which an international process and apparatus patent has been applied for, opens doors for monitoring nanoparticle concentrations in workplaces. The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) operates by electrostatically charging particles passing through the sensor and then measuring the current caused by the charged particles as they leave the sensor. The particles never touch the sensor and so never accumulate on its surfaces or need to be cleaned off. The sensor uses an ejector pump to draw a constant sample flow into the sensing area where it is mixed with the clean, charged pump flow air (provided by an external source). The sample flow containing charged particles passes through the sensor. The current generated by the charge leaving the detection volume is measured and related to the particle surface area. This system is extremely simple and reliable - no contact, no moving parts, and all critical parts of the sensor are constantly cleaned by a stream of fresh, filtered air. Due to the ejector pump, the sample flow, and respectively the sensor response is independent of the flow and pressure conditions around the sampling inlet. Tests with the Pegasor Particle Sensor have been conducted in a laboratory, and at a workplace producing nanoparticles for glass coatings. A new measurement protocol has been designed to ensure that process workers are not exposed to unusually high nanoparticle concentrations at any time during their working day. One sensor is placed inside the process line, and a light alarm system indicates the worker not to open any protective shielding or ventilation systems before concentration inside has reached background levels. The benefits of PPS in industrial hygiene are that the same monitoring technology can be used at the source as well as at the

  3. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure.

    PubMed

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  4. Long Term Monitoring of the Io Plasma Torus During the Galileo Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 1999, the Galileo spacecraft made four passes into the Io plasma torus, obtaining the best in situ measurements ever of the particle and field environment in this densest region of the Jovian magnetosphere. Supporting observations from the ground are vital for understanding the global and temporal context of the in situ observations. We conducted a three-month-long Io plasma torus monitoring campaign centered on the time of the Galileo plasma torus passes to support this aspect of the Galileo mission. The almost-daily plasma density and temperature measurements obtained from our campaign allow the much more sparse but also much more detailed Galileo data to be used to address the issues of the structure of the Io plasma torus, the stability mechanism of the Jovian magnetosphere, the transport of material from the source region near Io, and the nature and source of persistent longitudinal variations. Combining the ground-based monitoring data with the detailed in situ data offers the only possibility for answering some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of the Io plasma torus.

  5. Decreasing trend of Legionella isolation in a long-term microbial monitoring program in Greek hospitals.

    PubMed

    Velonakis, Emanouil; Karanika, Maria; Mouchtouri, Varavara; Thanasias, Efthimios; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Vatopoulos, Alkis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a known cause of severe pneumonia in a nosocomial setting. This study examined Legionella isolation in Greek hospitals. Water samples and swabs of showerheads from 41 hospitals were collected over a four-year period (2004-2007) from hot and cold water systems and cooling towers in Greece. In total, 1058 samples were examined for the presence of Legionella. From the hot water samples examined, 166 out of 607 (27.3%) were positive for Legionella, including 111 (18.3%) positive for Legionella pneumophila sg1 samples. The temperature of hot water samples less than 55°C was statistically significant, associated with Legionella spp. isolation (RR 4.01, 95%CI 2.33-6.92). Ten out of 17 (58.8%) hospital cooling towers required remedial actions due to Legionella colonization. Reemergence of Legionella spp. colonization was evident in more than half of the hospitals where frequent monitoring and appropriate risk assessment plans were absent or lacking. Hospitals that were monitored continuously over the study period presented a decreasing trend of Legionella colonization. Environmental risk assessment together with Legionella isolation should be enforced systematically in hospitals.

  6. A Wearable Patch to Enable Long-Term Monitoring of Environmental, Activity and Hemodynamics Variables

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T.; Heller, J. Alex; Hersek, Sinan; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo

    2015-01-01

    We present a low power multi-modal patch designed for measuring activity, altitude (based on high-resolution barometric pressure), a single-lead electrocardiogram, and a tri-axial seismocardiogram (SCG). Enabled by a novel embedded systems design methodology, this patch offers a powerful means of monitoring the physiology for both patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases, and the general population interested in personal health and fitness measures. Specifically, to the best of our knowledge, this patch represents the first demonstration of combined activity, environmental context, and hemodynamics monitoring, all on the same hardware, capable of operating for longer than 48 hours at a time with continuous recording. The three-channels of SCG and one-lead ECG are all sampled at 500 Hz with high signal-to-noise ratio, the pressure sensor is sampled at 10 Hz, and all signals are stored to a microSD card with an average current consumption of less than 2 mA from a 3.7 V coin cell (LIR2450) battery. In addition to electronic characterization, proof-of-concept exercise recovery studies were performed with this patch, suggesting the ability to discriminate between hemodynamic and electrophysiology response to light, moderate, and heavy exercise. PMID:25974943

  7. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  8. A Wearable Patch to Enable Long-Term Monitoring of Environmental, Activity and Hemodynamics Variables.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T; Heller, J Alex; Hersek, Sinan; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-04-01

    We present a low power multi-modal patch designed for measuring activity, altitude (based on high-resolution barometric pressure), a single-lead electrocardiogram, and a tri-axial seismocardiogram (SCG). Enabled by a novel embedded systems design methodology, this patch offers a powerful means of monitoring the physiology for both patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases, and the general population interested in personal health and fitness measures. Specifically, to the best of our knowledge, this patch represents the first demonstration of combined activity, environmental context, and hemodynamics monitoring, all on the same hardware, capable of operating for longer than 48 hours at a time with continuous recording. The three-channels of SCG and one-lead ECG are all sampled at 500 Hz with high signal-to-noise ratio, the pressure sensor is sampled at 10 Hz, and all signals are stored to a microSD card with an average current consumption of less than 2 mA from a 3.7 V coin cell (LIR2450) battery. In addition to electronic characterization, proof-of-concept exercise recovery studies were performed with this patch, suggesting the ability to discriminate between hemodynamic and electrophysiology response to light, moderate, and heavy exercise.

  9. Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys for Baseline Permafrost Mapping and Potential Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Walvoord, M. A.; Cannia, J. C.; Voss, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Concerns over the impacts of climate change have recently energized research on permafrost and the potential impacts that thawing permafrost may have on groundwater flow, infrastructure, ecosystems, and contaminant transport. There is typically little known at watershed or regional scales about the three-dimensional distribution of permafrost, including its thickness and the distribution of taliks (unfrozen zones), and other permafrost features thereby impeding the assessment of consequences of permafrost degradation. Airborne remote sensing methods for mapping permafrost are attractive, particularly in arctic and subarctic studies where ground access is difficult and ecosystems are fragile. As part of its Climate Effect Network (CEN) research and observation effort in the Yukon River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has initiated an effort to map permafrost using airborne geophysics to complement hydrologic and biogeochemical studies in the study area. Interpretation of airborne geophysical data will be integrated with other remotely sensed data to supply critical hydrogeologic information needed for refining groundwater flow models in the Yukon Flats Basin. Airborne surveys also provide baseline data for estimating 3D permafrost distribution that can be compared to future permafrost surveys to estimate a volumetric change over time. In June 2010, the USGS conducted a helicopter frequency domain electromagnetic (HFEM) survey in the area of Fort Yukon, Alaska to map permafrost distribution. Flight line data processing has been completed that includes data leveling and a simple transformation to resistivity-depth along the flight lines. Preliminary resistivity-depth images from the survey can be qualitatively compared with known permafrost features and used to establish new permafrost features. Electrical properties of earth materials are impacted by temperature and the presence of ice causing them to become substantially more resistive when frozen. The area

  10. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  11. Solar Diameter Monitor: an instrument to measure long-term changes.

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Elmore, D F; Lacey, L; Hull, H

    1982-10-01

    Analyses of historical data suggest that the solar diameter may vary with time with an amplitude of a few tenths of a second of arc. The High Altitude Observatory has constructed a special purpose telescope, the Solar Diameter Monitor, designed to detect any such changes. The telescope is an f/50 transit instrument with an aperture of 10 cm and is almost completely automated to avoid observer bias. Each day at solar noon, it measures the sun's horizontal diameter by timing the solar disk transit time and the vertical diameter by comparing the image size to that of a stable length standard. Preliminary estimates suggest that these observations will allow a test of the solar diameter's constancy at the 1-sec of arc/century level in an observing time of 3-5 years.

  12. Measuring and Monitoring Long Term Disaster Recovery Using Remote Sensing: A Case Study of Post Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Reginald S.

    This research focuses on measuring and monitoring long term recovery progress from the impacts of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, LA. Remote sensing has frequently been used for emergency response and damage assessment after natural disasters. However, techniques for analysis of long term disaster recovery using remote sensing have not been widely explored. With increased availability and lower costs, remote sensing offers an objective perspective, systematic and repeatable analysis, and provides a substitute to multiple site visits. In addition, remote sensing allows access to large geographical areas and areas where ground access may be disrupted, restricted or denied. This dissertation addressed the primary difficulties involved in the development of change detection methods capable of detecting changes experienced by disaster recovery indicators. Maximum likelihood classification and post-classification change detection were applied to multi-temporal high resolution aerial images to quantitatively measure the progress of recovery. Images were classified to automatically identify disaster recovery indicators and exploit the indicators that are visible within each image. The spectral analysis demonstrated that employing maximum likelihood classification to high resolution true color aerial images performed adequately and provided a good indication of spectral pattern recognition, despite the limited spectral information. Applying the change detection to the classified images was effective for determining the temporal trajectory of indicators categorized as blue tarps, FEMA trailers, houses, vegetation, bare earth and pavement. The results of the post classification change detection revealed a dominant change trajectory from bluetarp to house, as damaged houses became permanently repaired. Specifically, the level of activity of blue tarps, housing, vegetation, FEMA trailers (temporary housing) pavement and bare earth were derived from aerial image processing to

  13. Long term monitoring of methane in the atmosphere by multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Phillips, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Methane is of interest in the study of the Earth's atmosphere because of its implication in the future global warming of the surface. This warming is produced by the absorption of infrared energy by trace gases. It has been estimated that in the next 40 to 50 years, methane could contribute 20 to 25 pct. as much atmospheric warming as that expected from carbon dioxide increases. Studies to examine sources, sinks, and cycles of methane will require analytical methods capable of continuous unattended measurement with temporal resolution of an hour or less for weeks at a time. Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most practical methods available to conduct the analysis of air, but limitations in this technique still exist which can be alleviated with multiplex GC (MGC). MGC is a technique where many samples are pseudo-randomly introduced to the chromatograph without regard to the length of time required for an analysis. The resulting data must then be reduced using computational methods such as cross correlation. In the technique reported, a tube packed with silver oxide was used at the inlet of the GC column to create concentration pulses of methane in a sample stream of air. By using only one carrier, i.e., ambient air, an effective and accurate method to monitor the variations in concentration of methane in the atmosphere over long periods of time was developed. Methane in ambient air was monitored for an eight day period and an interesting temporal variability was found. This work has shown the utility of a relatively simple MGC for the analysis of a real environmental sample.

  14. Long-term environmental monitoring at two US Department of Energy Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site was established in southeastern Washington during the 1940s to produce plutonium during World War II. The Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle was originally used by the U.S. Army for loading conventional ammunition shells and bombs. The Plant was rehabilitated and enhanced in the 1950s to assemble nuclear weapons. Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at both locations for several decades. Monitoring objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of facility operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils, and vegetation. Currently, measured concentrations of airborne radionuclides around the perimeters of both sites are below applicable guidelines. The low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in some onsite Hanford wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from onsite and offsite at both locations are typical of those attributable to naturally occurring radioactivity and to worldwide fallout. Ironically, by virtue of its size (1,450 km{sup 2} [560 mi{sup 2})], restricted public access, and conservative use of undeveloped land, the Hanford Site has provided a sanctuary for plant and animal populations that have been eliminated from, or greatly reduced on, surrounding agricultural and range lands. Ongoing studies will determine if this is also true at Pantex Plant. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and its islands and the Pantex Plant with its playas both serve as refuges for raptorial birds and migratory waterfowl. In addition, the Hanford Reach serves as a migration route for several species of salmon, and chinook salmon and steelhead trout spawn there. Bald eagles congregate along the Hanford Reach in the fall and winter to feed on the spawned-out carcasses of salmon and on wintering waterfowl.

  15. Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ER-200830) Development of More Cost-Effective Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using...Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Using Quantitative Passive Diffusive-Adsorptive Sampling Techniques W912HQ-08-C...volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sites with potential human health risks. These risks were attributable to subsurface vapor intrusion to indoor air by

  16. Development of an adaptive monitoring framework for long-term programs: An example using indicators of fish health.

    PubMed

    Arciszewski, Tim J; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-10-01

    Detecting unwanted changes associated with localized human activities in aquatic ecosystems requires defining the value of an indicator expected at a site in the absence of development. Ideally, adequate and comparable baseline data will be collected at an exposure location before that development, but this is rarely done. Instead, comparisons are made using various designs to overcome the inadequate or missing baseline data. Commonly these comparisons are done over short periods, using information from local reference sites to estimate variability expected at the exposed site. Results of these truncated designs are often evaluated using p values that may have little bearing on ecologically relevant changes. To remedy the reliance of studies on small datasets collected at reference sites, other designs emphasize regional analyses, but these may be insensitive to site-specific changes. Some designs also may forego discussing the consequences of detecting any differences. A new monitoring framework has been proposed to use existing solutions, simplify analysis, and focus on the detection of meaningful changes. It is illustrated here by using data on fish health from a large-scale, long-term program in the Moose River basin in northern Ontario. This framework advocates interpretation of data at multiple scales: within-site, locally, and regionally. The primary focus is on estimating a range from a probability distribution of historical data collected at a specific location where 95% of future observations are predicted to occur. Changes at the exposed site are also compared with historical and contemporary expectations from proximate and regional reference sites. Critical effect sizes also can be derived from regional reference data to evaluate the magnitude of differences observed between any 2 sites. Any unexpected changes inform future monitoring decisions provided by a priori guidance. Adoption of this framework extends the utility of monitoring programs in which

  17. Integrated microdevice for long-term automated perfusion culture without shear stress and real-time electrochemical monitoring of cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Chen, Shi-Jing; Guo, Shi-Shang; Français, Olivier; Cheng, Jie-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2011-12-15

    Electrochemical techniques based on ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) play a significant role in real-time monitoring of chemical messengers' release from single cells. Conversely, precise monitoring of cells in vitro strongly depends on the adequate construction of cellular physiological microenvironment. In this paper, we developed a multilayer microdevice which integrated high aspect ratio poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device for long-term automated perfusion culture of cells without shear stress and an independently addressable microelectrodes array (IAMEA) for electrochemical monitoring of the cultured cells in real time. Novel design using high aspect ratio between circular "moat" and ring-shaped micropillar array surrounding cell culture chamber combined with automated "circular-centre" and "bottom-up" perfusion model successfully provided continuous fresh medium and a stable and uniform microenvironment for cells. Two weeks automated culture of human umbilical endothelial cell line (ECV304) and neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have been realized using this device. Furthermore, the quantal release of dopamine from individual PC12 cells during their culture or propagation process was amperometrically monitored in real time. The multifunctional microdevice developed in this paper integrated cellular microenvironment construction and real-time monitoring of cells during their physiological process, and would possibly provide a versatile platform for cell-based biomedical analysis.

  18. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30 years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and evaluate their applicability for agricultural drought evaluation when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in-situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite-based precipitation estimates. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite-based estimates. Nine statistics were used to evaluate the performance of satellite products to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to

  19. Accessing SAFOD data products: Downhole measurements, physical samples and long-term monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, C.; Zoback, M.; Hickman, S. H.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2005-12-01

    Many different types of data were collected during SAFOD Phases 1 and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope program as well as from the SAFOD Pilot Hole, drilled in 2002 and funded by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). Both SAFOD and the SAFOD Pilot Hole are being conducted as a close collaboration between NSF, the U.S. Geological Survey and the ICDP. SAFOD data products include cuttings, core and fluid samples; borehole geophysical measurements; and strain, tilt, and seismic recordings from the multilevel SAFOD borehole monitoring instruments. As with all elements of EarthScope, these data (and samples) are openly available to members of the scientific and educational communities. This paper presents the acquisition, storage and distribution plan for SAFOD data products. Washed and unwashed drill cuttings and mud samples were collected during Phases 1 and 2, along with three spot cores at depths of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.1 km. A total of 52 side-wall cores were also collected in the open-hole interval between 2.5 and 3.1 km depth. The primary coring effort will occur during Phase 3 (2007), when we will continuously core up to four, 250-m-long multilaterals directly within and adjacent to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Drill cuttings, core, and fluid samples from all three Phases of SAFOD drilling are being curated under carefully controlled conditions at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Gulf Coast Repository in College Station, Texas. Photos of all physical samples and a downloadable sample request form are available on the ICDP website (http://www.icdp-online.de/sites/sanandreas/index/index.html). A suite of downhole geophysical measurements was conducted during the first two Phases of SAFOD drilling, as well as during drilling of the SAFOD Pilot Hole. These data include density, resistivity, porosity, seismic and borehole image logs and are also available via the ICDP website. The SAFOD monitoring program

  20. Long term Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has recently finallized their reprocessing campaign, using all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2014. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodeticstudies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stationsat or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recentimprovements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) atthe University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow anevaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-yearcombination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes.

  1. [Individual peculiarities of adaptation to long-term space flights: 24-hour heart rhythm monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevskii, R. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Gol'dberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.; Charl'z, D. B.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Charles, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Presented are results of studying 24-hr variability of the cardiac rhythm which characterizes individual difference in reactions of two crew members to the same set of stresses during a 115-day MIR mission. Spacelab (USA) cardiorecorders were used. Data of monitoring revealed significantly different baseline health statuses of the cosmonauts. These functional differences were also observed in the mission. In one of the cosmonauts, the cardiac regulation changed over to a more economic functioning with the autonomous balance shifted towards enhanced sympathetic activity. After 2-3 months on mission he had almost recovered pre-launch level of regulation. In the other, the regulatory system was appreciably strained at the beginning of the mission as compared with preflight baseline. Later on, on flight months 2-3, this strain kept growing till a drastic depletion of the functional reserve. On return to Earth, this was manifested by a strong stress reaction with a sharp decline in power of high-frequency and grow in power of very low frequency components of the heart rhythm. The data suggest that adaptation to space flight and reactions in the readaptation period are dependent on initial health status of crew members, and functional reserve.

  2. Enabling long term monitoring of dopamine using dimensionally stable ultrananocrystalline diamond microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Gaurab; Tan, Chao; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Arumugam, Prabhu U.

    2016-09-01

    Chronic dopamine (DA) monitoring is a critical enabling technology to identify the neural basis of human behavior. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFM), the current gold standard electrode for in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), rapidly loses sensitivity due to surface fouling during chronic neural testing. Periodic voltage excursions at elevated anodic potentials regenerate fouled CFM surfaces but they also chemically degrade the CFM surfaces. Here, we compare the dimensional stability of 150 μm boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BDUNCD) microelectrodes in 1X PBS during ‘electrochemical cleaning’ with a similar-sized CFM. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirm the exceptional dimensional stability of BDUNCD after 40 h of FSCV cycling (∼8 million cycles). The fitting of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data to an appropriate circuit model shows a 2x increase in charge transfer resistance and an additional RC element, which suggests oxidation of BDUNCD electrode surface. This could have likely increased the DA oxidation potential by ∼34% to +308 mV. A 2x increase in BDUNCD grain capacitance and a negligible change in grain boundary impedance suggests regeneration of grains and the exposure of new grain boundaries, respectively. Overall, DA voltammogram signals were reduced by only ∼20%. In contrast, the CFM is completely etched with a ∼90% reduction in the DA signal using the same cleaning conditions. Thus, BDUNCD provides a robust electrode surface that is amenable to repeated and aggressive cleaning which could be used for chronic DA sensing.

  3. The PULSE@Parkes Project: a New Observing Technique for Long-Term Pulsar Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, G.; Hollow, R.; Champion, D.; Khoo, J.; Yardley, D.; Carr, M.; Keith, M.; Jenet, F.; Amy, S.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Chapman, J.; Danaia, L.; Homewood, B.; Kovacevic, A.; Mao, M.; McKinnon, D.; Mulcahy, M.; Oslowski, S.; van Straten, W.

    2009-11-01

    The PULSE@Parkes project has been designed to monitor the rotation of radio pulsars over time spans of days to years. The observations are obtained using the Parkes 64-m and 12-m radio telescopes by Australian and international high school students. These students learn the basis of radio astronomy and undertake small projects with their observations. The data are fully calibrated and obtained with the state-of-the-art pulsar hardware available at Parkes. The final data sets are archived and are currently being used to carry out studies of 1) pulsar glitches, 2) timing noise, 3) pulse profile stability over long time scales and 4) the extreme nulling phenomenon. The data are also included in other projects such as gamma-ray observatory support and for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. In this paper we describe the current status of the project and present the first scientific results from the Parkes 12-m radio telescope. We emphasise that this project offers a straightforward means to enthuse high school students and the general public about radio astronomy while obtaining scientifically valuable data sets.

  4. Long term monitoring of extragalactic sources in the framework of the Gaia ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TARIS, François

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia astrometric mission of the European Space Agency has been launched the 19th December 2013. It will provide an astrometric catalogue of 500.000 extragalactic sources that could be the basis of a new optical reference frame after the Hipparcos satellite one. On the other hand, the current International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is based on the observations of extragalactic sources at radio wavelength. The astrometric coordinates of sources in these two reference systems will have roughly the same uncertainty. It is then mandatory to observe a set of common targets at both optical and radio wavelength to link the ICRF with what could be called the GCRF (Gaia Celestial Reference Frame).This poster presents the set of optical telescopes used to observe the targets chosen for the link of the two reference systems.It also presents some results obtained with the Lomb-Scargle method and CLEAN algorithm applied to optical magnitude monitoring of extragalactic sources suitable for the GCRF-ICRF link. These two methods allow to show that some periodic (or quasi-periodic) phenomena could be present and could be at the origin of the observed light curves. This could have an important impact on the photocenter's position of a particular target which is relevant for the link of the reference systems.

  5. Ichthyoplankton abundance and variance in a large river system concerns for long-term monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.; Dewey, Michael R.; Zigler, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    System-wide spatial patterns of ichthyoplankton abundance and variability were assessed in the upper Mississippi and lower Illinois rivers to address the experimental design and statistical confidence in density estimates. Ichthyoplankton was sampled from June to August 1989 in primary milieus (vegetated and non- vegetated backwaters and impounded areas, main channels and main channel borders) in three navigation pools (8, 13 and 26) of the upper Mississippi River and in a downstream reach of the Illinois River. Ichthyoplankton densities varied among stations of similar aquatic landscapes (milieus) more than among subsamples within a station. An analysis of sampling effort indicated that the collection of single samples at many stations in a given milieu type is statistically and economically preferable to the collection of multiple subsamples at fewer stations. Cluster analyses also revealed that stations only generally grouped by their preassigned milieu types. Pilot studies such as this can define station groupings and sources of variation beyond an a priori habitat classification. Thus the minimum intensity of sampling required to achieve a desired statistical confidence can be identified before implementing monitoring efforts.

  6. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Response Inhibition in the Conflict-monitoring Stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of high-altitude exposure on response inhibition, event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were measured in Go/NoGo task. The participants included an 'immigrant' high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but born at low altitude) and a low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although the behavioural data showed no significant differences between the two groups, a delayed latency of NoGo-N2 was found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group. Moreover, larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes were found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group, for both the Go and NoGo conditions. These findings suggest that high-altitude exposure affects response inhibition with regard to processing speed during the conflict monitoring stage. In addition, high altitude generally increases the neural activity in the matching step of information processing and attentional resources. These results may provide some insights into the neurocognitive basis of the effects on high-altitude exposure on response inhibition.

  7. [Individual peculiarities of adaptation to long-term space flights: 24-hour heart rhythm monitoring].

    PubMed

    Baevskiĭ, R M; Bogomolov, V V; Gol'dberger, A L; Nikulina, G A; Charl'z, D B

    2000-01-01

    Presented are results of studying 24-hr variability of the cardiac rhythm which characterizes individual difference in reactions of two crew members to the same set of stresses during a 115-day MIR mission. Spacelab (USA) cardiorecorders were used. Data of monitoring revealed significantly different baseline health statuses of the cosmonauts. These functional differences were also observed in the mission. In one of the cosmonauts, the cardiac regulation changed over to a more economic functioning with the autonomous balance shifted towards enhanced sympathetic activity. After 2-3 months on mission he had almost recovered pre-launch level of regulation. In the other, the regulatory system was appreciably strained at the beginning of the mission as compared with preflight baseline. Later on, on flight months 2-3, this strain kept growing till a drastic depletion of the functional reserve. On return to Earth, this was manifested by a strong stress reaction with a sharp decline in power of high-frequency and grow in power of very low frequency components of the heart rhythm. The data suggest that adaptation to space flight and reactions in the readaptation period are dependent on initial health status of crew members, and functional reserve.

  8. Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a

  9. Long term monitoring of rock surface temperature and rock cracking in temperate and desert climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppes, M. C.; Warren, K.; Hinson, E.; Dash, L.

    2012-12-01

    The extent to which diurnal cycling of temperature results in the mechanical breakdown of rock cannot be clearly defined until direct connections between rock surface temperatures and rock cracking are identified under natural conditions. With this goal, we have developed a unique instrumentation system for monitoring spatial (N-, S-, E-, W-, up- and down-facing) and temporal (per minute) temperature variability in natural boulders while simultaneously monitoring cracking via acoustic emission sensors. To date, we have collected 11 and 12 months of data respectively for ~30 cm diameter granite boulders placed in North Carolina (near Charlotte) and New Mexico (Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge). These data allow us 1) to compare and contrast spatial and temporal trends in surface temperatures of natural boulders at high temporal resolution over unprecedentedly long time scales in two contrasting environments and 2) to make direct correlations between boulder surface temperatures and periods of microcracking as recorded by acoustic emissions in both environments. Preliminary analysis of both data sets indicates that there is no obvious single high or low threshold in surface temperature or rate of surface temperature change (measurable at a per minute scale) beyond which cracking occurs for either locality. For example, for the New Mexico rock, overall rock surface temperatures ranged from -27 C to 54 C throughout the year, and rock surface temperatures during the times of peak cracking event clusters ranged from -14 C to 46 C. The majority of events occur during winter months in North Carolina and in summer in New Mexico. The majority of events occurred in the late afternoon/early evening for both localities, although the overall numbers of cracking events was significantly higher in the New Mexico locality. In both cases, the key temperature factor that appears to most often correlate with cracking is the rate of change of temperature difference across the rock

  10. Long-Term Monitoring of Thermocouple Stability with Miniature Fixed-Point Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. J.; Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Sadli, M.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme ENG08 "MetroFission" project, two National Measurement Institutes, LNE-Cnam (France) and NPL (UK), have cooperatively developed methods of in situ validation of thermocouple output for application in next-generation nuclear fission power plants. Miniature fixed-point cells for use at three temperatures were constructed in the first step of this project: at the freezing point of silver (), the freezing point of copper (), and the melting point of the iron-carbon eutectic (). This paper reports the results of a second step in the study, where the robustness of the self-validation method has been investigated. Typical industrial Type N thermocouples have been employed with each of the miniature fixed-point devices installed, and repeatedly thermally cycled through the melting and freezing transitions of the fixed-point ingots. The devices have been exposed to a total of up to 90 h in the molten state. Furthermore, the LNE-Cnam devices were also subjected to fast cool-down rates, on five occasions, where the rate is estimated to have been between and . The devices are shown to be repeatable, reliable, and robust over the course of these tests. The drift of the Type N thermocouple has been identified separately to the behavior of the device. A reliable method for improving thermocouple performance and process control is therefore demonstrated. Requirements for implementation and the advantages of each approach for monitoring and correcting thermocouple drift are discussed, and an uncertainty budget for self-validation is presented.

  11. Observations from Long-Term Performance Monitoring of the TOPEX Radar Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1998-01-01

    From its August 1992 launch to the present, we have performed performance analysis and engineering assessment for the TOPEX radar altimeter. We continually update databases containing: (1) on-board engineering parameters such as temperatures, voltages, and currents; (2) internal calibration mode indications of bias changes in range and power estimates; and (3) global over-ocean averages of geophysical quantities such as significant waveheight (SWH) and ocean surface radar backscattering cross-section (sigmaO). For some time now we have seen an apparent increase in the TOPEX cycle-average SWH, amounting now to an increase of about 10% from our earlier mission value of about 2.8 m. Recently several investigators have reported that the TOPEX SWH is increasing relative to ERS-2 and to ocean buoy measurements. We examined the past six years of waveform data from an internal calibration mode (Cal 1) which samples the altimeter's point target response (ptr), and found that the ptr sidelobes are apparently greater now than at start of mission. Modeling studies indicate that the sidelobe enhancement can account for most of the increase in the TOPEX SWH estimate; that is, the SWH increase is not real but result of some drift within the altimeter. Our modeling indicates that the TOPEX range estimates will change less than a centimeter for ptr changes seen to date. An approximate recipe for correcting the TOPEX SWH values will be made available on our web site (http://topex.wffnasa.gov/). We emphasize that a radar altimeter is a complex system requiring continuing calibration and monitoring throughout its entire lifetime.

  12. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Z.-Y.; Ip, W.-H.; Lara, L. M. E-mail: lara@iaa.csic.es

    2013-07-01

    We report the spectrophotometric, photometric, and imaging monitoring results of comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at the Lulin (1 m), Calar Alto (2.2 m), and Beijing Astronomical (2.16 m) observatories from 2010 April to December. We found that a dust feature in the sunward direction was detected starting from the end of September until the beginning of December (our last observation from the Lulin and Calar Alto observatories). Two distinct sunward jet features in the processed images were observed on October 11 and after October 29 until November 2. In parallel, the CN images reveal two asymmetrical jet features which are nearly perpendicular to the Sun-nucleus direction, these asymmetrical features imply that the comet was in a nearly side-on view in late October and early November. In addition to the jet features, the average result of the C{sub 2}-to-CN production rate ratio ranges from 0.7 to 1.5, consistent with 103P/Hartley 2 being of typical cometary chemistry. We found that the r{sub h} dependence for the dust production rate, Af{rho} (5000 km), is -3.75 {+-} 0.45 before perihelion and -3.44 {+-} 1.20 during the post-perihelion period. We detected higher dust reddening around the optocenter and decreased reddening along the sunward jet feature. We concluded that higher dust reddening could be associated with strong jet activity while lower dust reddening could be associated with the outburst or might imply changes in the optical properties. The average dust color did not appear to vary significantly as the comet passed through perihelion.

  13. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  14. Long-term monitoring of ULF electromagnetic fields at Parkfield, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Kappler, K.N.; Morrison, H.F.; Egbert, G.D.

    2009-08-01

    Electric and magnetic fields in the (10{sup -4}-1.0) Hz band were monitored at two sites adjacent to the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield and Hollister, California from 1995 to present. A data window [2002-2005], enclosing the September 28, 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake, was analyzed to determine if anomalous electric or magnetic fields, or changes in ground conductivity, occurred before the earthquake. The data were edited, removing intervals of instrument malfunction leaving 875 days in the four-year period. Frequent, spike-like disturbances were common, but were not more frequent around the time of the earthquake; these were removed before subsequent processing. Signal to noise amplitude spectra, estimated via magnetotelluric processing showed the behavior of the ULF fields to be remarkably constant over the period of analysis. These first-order plots make clear that most of the recorded energy is coherent over the spatial extent of the array. Three main statistical techniques were employed to separate local anomalous electrical or magnetic fields from the dominant coherent natural fields: transfer function estimates between components at each site were employed to subtract the dominant field, and look deeper at the 'residual' fields; the data were decomposed into principal components to identify the dominant coherent array modes; and the technique of canonical coherences was employed to distinguish anomalous fields which are spatially broad from anomalies which occur at a single site only, and furthermore to distinguish anomalies which are present in both the electric and magnetic fields from those which are present in only one field type. Standard remote reference apparent resistivity estimates were generated daily at Parkfield. A significant seasonal component of variability was observed suggesting local distortion due to variations in near surface resistance. In all cases, high levels of sensitivity to subtle electromagnetic effects were demonstrated, but no

  15. Stability of Caribbean coral communities quantified by long-term monitoring and autoregression models.

    PubMed

    Gross, Kevin; Edmunds, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Tropical coral reefs exemplify ecosystems imperiled by environmental change. Anticipating the future of reef ecosystems requires understanding how scleractinian corals respond to the multiple environmental disturbances that threaten their survival. We analyzed the stability of coral reefs at three habitats at different depths along the south shore of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, using multivariate autoregression (MAR) models and two decades of monitoring data. We quantified several measures of ecosystem stability, including the magnitude of typical stochastic fluctuations, the rate of recovery following disturbance, and the sensitivity of coral cover to hurricanes and elevated sea temperature. Our results show that, even within a -4 km shore, coral communities in different habitats display different stability properties, and that the stability of each habitat corresponds with the habitat's known synecology. Two Orbicella-dominated habitats are less prone to annual stochastic fluctuations than coral communities in shallower water, but they recover slowly from disturbance, and one habitat has suffered recent losses in scleractinian cover that will not be quickly reversed. In contrast, a shallower, low-coral-cover habitat is subject to greater stochastic fluctuations, but rebounds more quickly from disturbance and is more robust to hurricanes and seawater warming. In some sense, the shallower community is more stable, although the stability arguably arises from having little coral cover left. Our results sharpen understanding of recent changes in coral communities at these habitats, provide a more detailed understanding of how these habitats may change in future environments, and illustrate how MAR models can be used to assess stability of communities founded upon long-lived species.

  16. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John G.; Brandt, Craig C.; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    2011-06-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  17. Long-term monitoring of PKS 0537-441 with Fermi-LAT and multiwavelength observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Antolini, E.; Tosti, G.; Finke, J.; Ciprini, S.; Larsson, S.; Ajello, M.; Covino, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gurwell, M.; Hauser, M.; Romano, P.; Schinzel, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Impiombato, D.; Perri, M.; Persic, M.; Pian, E.; Polenta, G.; Sbarufatti, B.; Treves, A.; Vercellone, S.; Wehrle, A.; Zook, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report on multiwavelength observations of the blazar PKS 0537-441 (z = 0.896) obtained from microwaves through γ-rays by Submillimeter Array, Rapid Eye Mounting, Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM), Swift and Fermi mostly during 2008 August-2010 April. Strong variability has been observed in γ-rays, with two major flaring episodes (2009 July and 2010 March) and a harder-when-brighter behaviour, quite common for flat spectrum radio quasars and low-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), in 2010 March. In the same way, the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source cannot be modelled by a simple synchrotron self-Compton model, as opposed to many BL Lacs, but the addition of an external Compton component of seed photons from a dust torus is needed. The 230 GHz light curve showed an increase simultaneous with the γ-ray one, indicating co-spatiality of the mm and γ-ray emission region likely at large distance from the central engine. The low, average, and high activity SED of the source could be fit changing only the electron distribution parameters, but two breaks in the electron distribution are necessary. The ensuing extra spectral break, located at near-infrared (NIR)-optical frequencies, together with that in γ-rays seem to indicate a common origin, most likely due to an intrinsic feature in the underlying electron distribution. An overall correlation between the γ-ray band with the R band and K band has been observed with no significant time lag. On the other hand, when inspecting the light curves on short time-scales some differences are evident. In particular, flaring activity has been detected in NIR and optical bands with no evident γ-ray counterparts in 2009 September and November. Moderate variability has been observed in X-rays with no correlation between flux and photon index. An increase of the detected X-ray flux with no counterpart at the other wavelengths has been observed in 2008 October, suggesting once more a

  18. Assessment of groundwater-surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, 222Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by 222Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20-70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8-50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long-term

  19. Spatiotemporal distribution of algal and nutrient, and their correlations based on long-term monitoring data in Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Shafer, D. S.; Zhu, J.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication in Lake Taihu - China’s third largest freshwater lake - has led to deterioration of water quality and caused more frequent cyanobacteria blooms at many lake locations in recent years. Eutrophication is thought to be fueled by increased nutrient loading, a consequence of rapid population and economic growth in the region. To understand the spatiotemporal distribution of algal blooms, a database was developed that includes long-term meteorological, hydrological, water quality, and socioeconomic data from the Lake Taihu watershed. The data were collected through various field observations, and augmented with information from local and provincial agencies, and universities. Based on the data, spatiotemporal distributions of, and correlations between, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and water temperature (WT) were analyzed. Results revealed a high degree of correlation between TP and Chl-a concentrations during warm seasons, with high concentrations of both substances present in the northern and northwest portions of the lake. During winter months, Chl-a concentrations were more strongly correlated with WT. Spatial trends in TP and TN concentrations corresponded to observed nutrient fluxes from adjoining rivers in densely populated areas, demonstrating the influence of watershed pollutant loads on lake water quality. Among important questions to be answered is whether wind-driven resuspension of existing nutrients in sediments in this shallow (< 3 m) lake may cause cyanobacteria blooms to begin. This study identifies other questions, data gaps, and research needs, and provides a foundation for improving lake management strategies.

  20. A New Framework for Adptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Yonas Demissie, a research assistant supported by the project, has successfully created artificial data and assimilated it into coupled Modflow and artificial neural network models. His initial findings show that the neural networks help correct errors in the Modflow models. Abhishek Singh has used test cases from the literature to show that performing model calibration with an interactive genetic algorithm results in significantly improved parameter values. Meghna Babbar, the third research assistant supported by the project, has found similar results when applying an interactive genetic algorithms to long-term monitoring design. She has also developed new types of interactive genetic algorithms that significantly improve performance. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has shown that sampling branches of phytoremediation trees is an accurate approach to estimating soil and groundwater contaminations in areas surrounding the trees at the Argonne 317/319 site.

  1. Launch Complex 39 Observation Gantry Area (SWMU# 107) Annual Long-Term Monitoring Report (Year 1) Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jill W.; Towns, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This document has been prepared by Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. (Geosyntec) to present and discuss the findings of the 2014 and 2015 Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) activities that were completed at the Launch Complex 39 (LC39) Observation Gantry Area (OGA) located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida (Site). The remainder of this report includes: (i) a description of the Site location; (ii) summary of Site background and previous investigations; (iii) description of field activities completed as part of the annual LTM program at the Site; (iv) groundwater flow evaluation; (v) presentation and discussion of field and analytical results; and (vi) conclusions and recommendations. Applicable KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting minutes are included in Attachment A. This Annual LTM Letter Report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under contract number NNK12CA13B, Delivery Order NNK13CA39T project number PCN ENV2188.

  2. Long-term noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography monitoring of perfusional changes after EC-IC bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Di Piero, V; Lenzi, G L; Collice, M; Triulzi, F; Gerundini, P; Perani, D; Savi, A R; Fieschi, C; Fazio, F

    1987-01-01

    The rCBF was evaluated using I-123 HIPDM and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 14 patients undergoing extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery because of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Before surgery, all patients showed cortical areas of hypoperfusion over the affected cerebral hemisphere. Shortly after EC-IC bypass a rCBF increase was observed in six patients. However, at the 6 and 12 month follow-ups, with angiographic control of bypass patency, rCBF studies did not show any significant rCBF change. Long-term noninvasive tomographic monitoring of perfusion changes occurring after EC-IC bypass surgery failed to show a long-lasting improvement in perfusion. Images PMID:3498800

  3. Complex measurement system for long-term monitoring of prestressed railway bridges of the new Lehrter Bahnhof in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Hofmann, Detlef; Kohlhoff, H.; Knapp, J.; Brandes, K.; Haenichen, H.; Inaudi, Daniele

    2002-07-01

    A new central railway station - Lehrter Bahnhof - is being built in Berlin. Because of construction activities in immediate vicinity and because of difficult soil conditions, different vertical displacements have to be expected. In order to avoid damage to the bridges and to a widely spanned glass roof which will be supported by two concrete bridges these two bridges have to be monitored with regard to their deformation performance right from the beginning of construction until commissioning as well as later on for several years. For this purpose, a monitoring concept has been developed and sensors with excellent long-term stability have been chosen. This paper describes the system for monitoring settlements and heaves by means of laser-based optics and hydrostatic leveling. Additionally, strain and inclination of the prestressed concrete bridges are redundantly monitored by embedded long-gage length fiber-optic strain sensors as well as resistive strain gages, and inclinometers. Measurements on-site are referenced by measurements on two test beams well-defined loaded under laboratory and field conditions. The paper also describes the measuring concept and the sensor techniques as well as installation of the sensor system and first results.

  4. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  5. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Schaedler, Martin; Schima, Robert; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  6. Integration of long-term fish kill data with ambient water quality monitoring data and application to water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trim, Alan H.; Marcus, James M.

    1990-05-01

    Almost half (354) of all fish kills (805) in South Carolina, USA, between 1978 and 1988 occurred in the coastal zone. These kills were analyzed for causative, spatial, and temporal associations as a distinct data set and as one integrated with ambient water quality monitoring data. Estuarine kills as a result of natural causes accounted for 42.8% followed by man-induced (35.1%) and undetermined causes (22.1%). Although general pesticide usage was responsible for 53.9% of man-induced kills, weed control activities around resorts and municipal areas accounted for slightly more kills (20.9%) than did agricultural (19.8%) or vector control (13.2%) uses. A dramatic decline in agricultural-related kills has been observed since 1986 as the integrated pest management approach was adopted by many farmers. When taken with the few kills (12.0%) resulting from wastewaters, this suggests that these two land-use activities have been successfully managed via existing programs (IPM and NPDES, respectively) to minimize their contributions to estuarine fish kills. Ambient trend monitoring data demonstrated no coastal-wide dispersion of pesticide pollution. These data confirmed the nature of fish kills to be site-specific, near-field events most closely associated with the contiguous land-use practices and intensities. Typically, fish kill data are considered as event-specific data limited to the bounds of that event only. Our analysis has shown, however, that a long-term data set, when integrated with ambient water quality data, can assist in regulatory and resource management decisions for both short- and long-term planning and protection applications.

  7. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  8. Improving Budyko curve-based estimates of long-term water partitioning using hydrologic signatures from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Kuai; Shen, Chaopeng; Fisher, Joshua B.; Niu, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The Budyko hypothesis provides a first-order estimate of water partitioning into runoff (Q) and evapotranspiration (E). Observations, however, often show significant departures from the Budyko curve; moreover, past improvements to Budyko curve tend to lose predictive power when migrated between regions or to small scales. Here to estimate departures from the Budyko curve, we use hydrologic signatures extracted from Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies. The signatures include GRACE amplitude as a fraction of precipitation (A/P), interannual variability, and 1-month lag autocorrelation. We created a group of linear models embodying two alternate hypotheses that departures can be predicted by (a) Taylor series expansion based on the deviation of physical characteristics (seasonality, snow fraction, and vegetation index) from reference conditions and (b) surrogate indicators covarying with E, e.g., A/P. These models are fitted using a mesoscale USA data set (HUC4) and then evaluated using world data sets and USA basins <1 × 105 km2. The model with A/P could reduce error by 50% compared to Budyko itself. We found that seasonality and fraction of precipitation as snow account for a major portion of the predictive power of A/P, while the remainder is attributed to unexplained basin characteristics. When migrated to a global data set, type b models performed better than type a. This contrast in transferability is argued to be due to data set limitations and catchment coevolution. The GRACE-based correction performs well for USA basins >1000 km2 and, according to comparison with other global data sets, is suitable for data fusion purposes, with GRACE error as estimates of uncertainty.

  9. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Anna M; Wikert, J D; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E; Hinkelman, Travis M; Weber, Peter K; Whitman, George E; Glessner, Justin J; Johnson, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87)Sr/(86)Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  10. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Wikert, J. D.; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hinkelman, Travis M.; Weber, Peter K.; Whitman, George E.; Glessner, Justin J.; Johnson, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith 87Sr/86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25992556

  11. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Wikert, J. D.; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hinkelman, Travis M.; Weber, Peter K.; Whitman, George E.; Glessner, Justin J.; Johnson, Rachel C.

    2015-05-20

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith 87Sr/86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  12. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes

    DOE PAGES

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Wikert, J. D.; Heyne, Timothy; ...

    2015-05-20

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith 87Sr/86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning tomore » the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.« less

  13. Time-series analysis of the long-term hydrologic impacts of afforestation in the Águeda watershed of North-Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawtree, D.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.; Jacinto, R.; Santos, J.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Boulet, A.-K.; Tavares-Wahren, F.; Feger, K.-H.

    2014-11-01

    The north-central region of Portugal has undergone significant afforestation of the species Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus since the early 1900s; however, the long-term hydrologic impacts of this land cover change are not fully understood. To contribute to a better understanding of the potential hydrologic impacts of this land cover change, this study examines the temporal trends in 7 years of data from the Águeda watershed (part of the Vouga Basin) over the period of 1936 to 2010. Meteorological and hydrological records were analysed using a combined Thiel-Sen/Mann-Kendall trend testing approach, to assess the magnitude and significance of patterns in the observed data. These trend tests indicated that there had been no significant reduction in streamflow yield over either the entire test period, or during sub-record periods, despite the large-scale afforestation which had taken place. This lack of change is attributed to both the characteristics of the watershed and the nature of the land cover change. By contrast, a number of significant trends were found for baseflow index, which showed positive trends in the early data record (primarily during Pinus pinaster afforestation), followed by a reversal to negative trends later in the data record (primarily during Eucalyptus globulus afforestation). These changes are attributed to vegetation impacts on streamflow generating processes, both due to the species differences and to alterations in soil properties (i.e. promoting water repellency of the topsoil). These results highlight the importance of considering both vegetation types/dynamics and watershed characteristic when assessing hydrologic impacts, in particular with respect to soil properties.

  14. Long-term monitoring for conservation management: Lessons from a case study integrating remote sensing and field approaches in floodplain forests.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; Albuquerque, António; Martínez-Almarza, Miguel; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo

    2017-02-09

    Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures. In the present study, we evaluate the initial results of a decade (2004-2014) of floodplain forest monitoring. We adopted the DPSIR framework to summarize the main drivers in land use and environmental change, analyzed the effects on biological indicators of foundation trees and compared the consistency of the main drivers and their effects at two spatial scales. The monitoring program was conducted in one of the largest and best preserved floodplain forests in SW Europe located within Doñana National Park (Spain) which is dominated by Salix atrocinerea and Fraxinus angustifolia. The program combined field (in situ) surveys on a network of permanent plots with several remote sensing sources. The accuracy obtained in spectral classifications allowed shifts in species cover across the whole forest to be detected and assessed. However, remote sensing did not reflect the ecological status of forest populations. The field survey revealed a general decline in Salix populations, especially in the first five years of sampling -a factor probably associated with a lag effect from past human impact on the hydrology of the catchment and recent extreme climatic episodes (drought). In spite of much reduced seed regeneration, a resprouting strategy allows long-lived Salix individuals to persist in complex spatial dynamics. This suggests the beginning

  15. Ultrafine particles in four European urban environments: Results from a new continuous long-term monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, J.; Staelens, J.; Cordell, R.; Stroobants, C.; Zikova, N.; Hama, S. M. L.; Wyche, K. P.; Kos, G. P. A.; Van Der Zee, S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, P. S.; Roekens, E.

    2016-07-01

    To gain a better understanding on the spatiotemporal variation of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban environments, this study reports on the first results of a long-term UFP monitoring network, set up in Amsterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE), Leicester (UK) and London (UK). Total number concentrations and size distributions were assessed during 1-2 years at four fixed urban background sites, supplemented with mobile trailer measurements for co-location monitoring and additional short-term monitoring sites. Intra- and interurban spatiotemporal UFP variation, associations with commonly-monitored pollutants (PM, NOx and BC) and impacts of wind fields were evaluated. Although comparable size distributions were observed between the four cities, source-related differences were demonstrated within specific particle size classes. Total and size-resolved particle number concentrations showed clear traffic-related temporal variation, confirming road traffic as the major UFP contributor in urban environments. New particle formation events were observed in all cities. Correlations with typical traffic-related pollutants (BC and NOx) were obtained for all monitoring stations, except for Amsterdam, which might be attributable to UFP emissions from Schiphol airport. The temporal variation in particle number concentration correlated fairly weakly between the four cities (rs = 0.28-0.50, COD = 0.28-0.37), yet improved significantly inside individual cities (rs = 0.59-0.77). Nevertheless, considerable differences were still obtained in terms of particle numbers (20-38% for total particle numbers and up to 49% for size-resolved particle numbers), confirming the importance of local source contributions and the need for careful consideration when allocating UFP monitoring stations in heterogeneous urban environments.

  16. Parameterization and calibration of a hydrologic model for long-term simulations of a small un-gauged basin in the Malian Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warms, M.; Ramirez, J. A.; Kaptue, A.; Hanan, N. P.; Sigdel-Phuyal, M.; Giree, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Sahelian region of Africa is the geographic belt directly south of the Sahara, connecting the desert to the wetter Sudanian and Guinean savannas to the South. The region is semi-arid, receiving only 300-600 mm of precipitation on average annually, and experiencing severe dry seasons (7-9 months) with little to no rain. In parts of the Sahel, a remarkable expansion of ephemeral lakes extending longer in the dry season and a recent hydrologic regime shift such that some of the previously ephemeral lakes in the region have become perennial have been observed. To test hypotheses of how this regime shift occurred, or whether this trend will continue, a coupled hydrological, ecological, and social processes model is being developed. In this paper we focus on the parameterization and calibration of the physical hydrologic model--a task that is difficult given the lack of high-resolution datasets for this region. While soils and land cover datasets exist for the entire globe, for the Sahel they are typically too coarse to adequately characterize variability for hydrologic modeling of the small watersheds associated with these lakes. In addition, climate forcing data at a daily scale are scarce. Lastly, streamflow and other gauged data typically used for calibration and validation of hydrologic models are unavailable. To address these issues, anecdotal data and in-situ observations were combined with remotely sensed data to capture as much spatial and temporal variability as possible in the watershed at the highest resolution, including 30-meter land cover data derived from Landsat imagery to infer soil information in the watershed. In order to produce long-term daily climate forcings, the coarse Climate Research Unit (CRU) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets were downscaled both spatially and temporally. Using Landsat imagery of lake sizes over time in conjunction with fractal descriptions of watershed topography and open water evaporation estimates

  17. Long term photometric monitoring of comet 103P/Hartley2 with the new robotic TRAPPIST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.; Magain, P.

    2011-10-01

    We report on a long term monitoring of comet 103P/Hartley2 with six cometary narrow band filters using the TRAPPIST 0.60m telescope installed recently at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. This new robotic telescope is dedicated to exoplanet and solar system research. The comet was observed with the cometary filters during 4 months, from Oct. 29 to Feb. 22. Since then the monitoring continues but only through the BVRI filters and about two times per week. Those observations allowed us to make a detailed light curve of the comet after its perihelion passage and derive production rates of the 4 main species (OH, CN, C2, C3) as well as the dust production rate (Afρ) over that period. The high sampling of our monitoring allowed us to find a periodicity in the gaseous light curves and to deduce a rotation period of 18.4h early November, slowing down to about 19h by the end of December.

  18. Reliable long-term continuous blood glucose monitoring for patients in critical care using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.

    2006-02-01

    For clinical research, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an ongoing important topic to improve glycemic control in patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation. Critically ill patients received much interest, since the intensive insulin therapy treatment, as established for diabetics, reduces mortality significantly. Despite the existence of commercially available, mainly amperometric biosensors, continued interest is in infrared spectroscopic techniques for reagent-free glucose monitoring. For stable long-term operation, avoiding also sensor recalibration, a bed-side device coupled to a micro-dialysis probe was developed for quasi-continuous glucose monitoring. Multivariate calibration is required for glucose concentration prediction due to the complex composition of dialysates from interstitial body fluid. Measurements were carried out with different test persons, each experiment lasting for more than 8 hours. Owing to low dialysis recovery rates, glucose concentrations in the dialysates were between 0.83 and 4.44 mM. Standard errors of prediction (SEP) obtained with Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration and different cross-validation strategies were mainly between 0.13 and 0.18 mM based on either full interval data or specially selected spectral variables.

  19. Monitoring of malolactic fermentation in wine using an electrochemical bienzymatic biosensor for L-lactate with long term stability.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2016-01-28

    L-lactic acid is monitored during malolactic fermentation process of wine and its evolution is strongly related with the quality of the final product. The analysis of L-lactic acid is carried out off-line in a laboratory. Therefore, there is a clear demand for analytical tools that enabled real-time monitoring of this process in field and biosensors have positioned as a feasible alternative in this regard. The development of an amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination showing long-term stability is reported in this work. The biosensor architecture includes a thin-film gold electrochemical transducer selectively modified with an enzymatic membrane, based on a three-dimensional matrix of polypyrrole (PPy) entrapping lactate oxidase (LOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. The experimental conditions of the biosensor fabrication regarding the pyrrole polymerization and the enzymes entrapment are optimized. The biosensor response to L-lactate is linear in a concentration range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10(-7) M and a sensitivity of - (13500 ± 600) μA M(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor shows an excellent working stability, retaining more than 90% of its original sensitivity after 40 days. This is the determining factor that allowed for the application of this biosensor to monitor the malolactic fermentation of three red wines, showing a good agreement with the standard colorimetric method.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of long-term groundwater monitoring network design under uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q.; Wu, J.; Yang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm (PPGA) for long-term groundwater monitoring network design under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity field of aquifers. The PPGA integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely improved niched Pareto genetic algorithm (INPGA) with a probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and probabilistic niche technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity data. The PPGA is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal sampling network design of a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem and a three-dimensional field problem in Indiana (USA) involving four objectives: (i) minimization of total sampling and analysis costs for contaminant plume monitoring, (ii) minimization of mass estimation error of the plume, (iii) minimization of the first moment estimation error of the plume, and (iv) minimization of the second moment estimation error of the plume. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. All of the Pareto-optimal solutions lie on the Pareto band of the MC analysis. Moreover, the root mean square errors of the second and third objectives between the Pareto-optimal solutions by the PPGA and the average values of optimal solutions by the MC analysis are quite small, at 0.0426 and 0.0149 for the hypothetical test problem and at 0.0167 and 0.0094 for the Indiana field application, respectively, but that of the fourth objective is notably larger at 0.9819 for the hypothetical test problem and at 1.2980 for the field application. The higher values of the second moment estimation errors can be attributed to the significant variation of plume shape caused by the variability in the hydraulic conductivity field

  1. Remediation and its effect represented on long term monitoring data at a chlorinated ethenes contaminated site, Wonju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    A research for the contamination of chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea, was carried out based on 17 rounds of groundwater quality data collection from 2009 to 2015. Remediation technologies such as soil vapor extraction, soil flushing, biostimulation, and pump-and-treat have been applied to eliminate the contaminant sources of trichloroethylene (TCE) and to prevent the migration of TCE plume from remediation target zones to groundwater discharge area like a stream. The remediation efficiency according to the remedial actions was evaluated by tracing a time-series of plume evaluation and temporal mass discharge at three transects (Source, Transect-1, Transect-2) which was assigned along the groundwater flow path. Also, based on long term monitoring data, dissolved TCE concentration and mass of residual TCE in the initial stage of disposal were estimated to evaluate the efficiency of in situ remediation. The results of temporal and spatial monitoring before remedial actions showed that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. However, from the end of intensive remedial actions from 2012 to 2013, the aqueous concentrations of TCE plume present at and around the main source areas decreased significantly. Especially, during the intensive remediation period, the early average mass discharge (26.58 g/day) at source transect was decreased to average 4.99 g/day. Estimated initial dissolved concentration and residual mass of TCE in the initial stage of disposal decreased rapidly after an intensive remedial action in 2013 and it is expected to be continuously decreased from the end of remedial actions to 2020. This study demonstrates that long term monitoring data are useful in assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions at chlorinated ethenes contaminated site. Acknowledgements This project is supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment under "The GAIA

  2. Long-term effects of climate change on the hydrological system of a lowland area at the German North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeff, Thomas; Baroni, Gabriele; Krause, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In particular for the winter season, global sea level rise is expected to be combined with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency. During summer, due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration with an increase of groundwater intrusion has been observed. It is expected that the salinization of the surface will rise under drier conditions by upward seeping groundwater. Coastal water resource management requires a better understanding and predictions of these dynamic systems. Therefore, a long-term monitoring programme has been established at the German North Sea coast, located at the estuary of the River Ems. The research area is dominated by a dense canal system that is regulated by pumping stations and tidal gates. Landuse of the area is mainly dairy farming with 30 % of the area below sea level. The underlying aquifer is confined and brackish, and it is connected to the surface water by geological faults of old paleo-channels. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. This study investigates the effects of climate change on water balance and salt transport by applying regional climate models (RCMs) based on the IPCC emission scenarios for the period until 2100 as drivers for a hydrological and solute transport model. To investigate the impact of different meteorological scenarios, the RCM results for the climate scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 are used to cover an increase of future temperature between 1 and 3.5 K. As changes in water level and salinity are expected to influence vegetation patterns (and water management aims to guaranty agricultural use) two alternative landuse scenarios are considered. The first scenario assumes that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration

  3. Sensitivity of Glacier Mass Balance to Climate Change at High Latitudes: Implications for Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    In addition to the Greenland ice sheet there are other large glacier masses at high latitudes, e.g. in the arctic territories of Canada and Russia and on Svalbard. Any large scale melting of these glaciers will have profound impact on the global environment, especially global sea level and oceanic circulation. We should therefore monitor these glaciers for any signs of large volume changes under a warmer climate. However, both observations on glacier mass balance and modeling show that the mass balances of arctic glaciers have relatively low sensitivity to climatic change. Much greater sensitivity is found for glaciers around the arctic, e.g. Kamchatka, coastal North America and Iceland, and in Patagonia in the Southern Hemisphere. This is because mass balance sensitivity depends on precipitation regime, e.g. mass balance amplitude, and arctic glacier are relatively dry in global terms. Long-term monitoring programs need to take account of these differences in climatic sensitivity. The paper concludes with a proposed climatic classification of glaciers that attempts to put the mass balances of high latitude glaciers into context.

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Chi, Baoliang; Oenema, Oene

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0–200 cm) was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m3. Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i) limited rainfall, (ii) low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii) poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE. PMID:24302987

  5. Loch Vale Watershed Long-Term Ecological Research and Monitoring Program: Quality Assurance Report, 2003-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richer, Eric E.; Baron, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    The Loch Vale watershed project is a long-term research and monitoring program located in Rocky Mountain National Park that addresses watershed-scale ecosystem processes, particularly as they respond to atmospheric deposition and climate variability. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality are made within the watershed and elsewhere in Rocky Mountain National Park. As data collected for the program are used by resource managers, scientists, policy makers, and students, it is important that all data collected in Loch Vale watershed meet high standards of quality. In this report, data quality was evaluated for precipitation, discharge, and surface-water chemistry measurements collected during 2003-09. Equipment upgrades were made at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring site to improve precipitation measurements and evaluate variability in precipitation depth and chemistry. Additional solar panels and batteries have been installed to improve the power supply, and data completeness, at the NADP site. As a result of equipment malfunction, discharge data for the Loch Outlet were estimated from October 18, 2005, to August 17, 2006. Quality-assurance results indicate that more than 98 percent of all surface-water chemistry measurements were accurate and precise. Records that did not meet quality criteria were removed from the database. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality were all sufficiently complete and consistent to support project data needs.

  6. Long term global scale root zone soil moisture monitoring at ECMWF using a surface-only land data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergel, Clement; de Rosnay, Patricia; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Dutra, Emanuel; Kral, Tomas; Munoz-Sabater, Joaquin; Isaksen, Lars; Boussetta, Souhail; Massari, Christian; Brocca, Luca

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the H-SAF (Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management) project of EUMETSAT, ECMWF is developing a re-analysis of soil moisture that will cover 1992-2014 and will make use of satellite derived surface soil moisture (SSM) from ERS-1&2, ASCAT. This study presents the first steps toward the conception of this long term global scale root zone soil moisture; a surface-only Land Data Assimilation System (so-LDAS) able to ingest satellite-derived SSM observations is tested at global scale to increase prediction accuracy for surface and root zone soil moisture. The so-LDAS is defined as an offline sequential data assimilation system (simplified Extended Kalman Filter) based on a Land Surface Model (HTESSEL) uncoupled with the atmosphere, it is driven by ERA-Interim observations based atmospheric forcing. Its impact is assessed over 2010-2013 (1) using local in situ measurements of surface and root zone soil moisture and (2) at a basin scale initialising an event based Rainfall-Runoff hydrological model. Additionally to an open loop experiment (OL no analysis) three data assimilation experiments are used with different specification of the error matrices. The first one (Asc1) has been set up to test the so-LDAS with a soil moisture standard deviation of σb=0.01 m3m-3 for the first three layers of soil analysed and σo=0.02 m3m-3 for ASCAT SSM. σb was then doubled (Asc2) and σo set to 0.05 m3m-3 to be more consistent with satellite derived SSM errors deduced from previous independent studies. In a third experiment (Asc3), σo is set to 0.05 m3m-3, σb, is set to 0.1 × (wfc - wwilt), where wfc and wwilt are the volumetric water content at field capacity and at permanent wilting point, which depend on soil texture.

  7. Long-term assessment of an autonomous wireless structural health monitoring system at the new Carquinez Suspension Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Kim, Junhee; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome P.; van der Linden, G. W.; Jacob, Vince; Thometz, Ed; Hipley, Pat; Sheng, Li-Hong

    2011-04-01

    A dense network of sensors installed in a bridge can continuously generate response data from which the health and condition of the bridge can be analyzed. This approach to structural health monitoring the efforts associated with periodic bridge inspections and can provide timely insight to regions of the bridge suspected of degradation or damage. Nevertheless, the deployment of fine sensor grids on large-scale structures is not feasible using wired monitoring systems because of the rapidly increasing installation labor and costs required. Moreover, the enormous size of raw sensor data, if not translated into meaningful forms of information, can paralyze the bridge manager's decision making. This paper reports the development of a large-scale wireless structural monitoring system for long-span bridges; the system is entirely wireless which renders it low-cost and easy to install. Unlike central tethered data acquisition systems where data processing occurs in the central server, the distributed network of wireless sensors supports data processing. In-network data processing reduces raw data streams into actionable information of immediate value to the bridge manager. The proposed wireless monitoring system has been deployed on the New Carquinez Suspension Bridge in California. Current efforts on the bridge site include: 1) long-term assessment of a dense wireless sensor network; 2) implementation of a sustainable power management solution using solar power; 3) performance evaluation of an internet-enabled cyber-environment; 4) system identification of the bridge; and 5) the development of data mining tools. A hierarchical cyber-environment supports peer-to-peer communication between wireless sensors deployed on the bridge and allows for the connection between sensors and remote database systems via the internet. At the remote server, model calibration and damage detection analyses that employ a reduced-order finite element bridge model are implemented.

  8. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco site for the LTHMP on May 16 and 17, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method, because the laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  9. Improving Holocene Climate Reconstructions from Galápagos Lake Sediments: New Insights From Long-Term Lake Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, J. L.; Thompson, D. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Bush, M. B.; Cole, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Lake sediment records from the Galápagos Islands have provided valuable information on Holocene climate variability in the eastern tropical Pacific on interannual to millennial timescales. However, many uncertainties remain, such as the seasonal bias of climate reconstructions, how seasonal and mean state changes relate to changes in interannual climate variability, and the degree of spatial variability within this unique region, where many different ocean currents converge. One key source of these uncertainties is the lack of modern calibration studies between lake sediment variables and instrumental climate data. At present, only one lake sediment record has a quantitative relationship with instrumental climate data, and there has been no long term monitoring of Galápagos lakes to see how they respond to local climate variability, such as El Niño, La Niña, and the seasonal cycle. To improve our understanding of the climatic controls on Galápagos lake sediments, we have embarked on a long-term limnologic monitoring project. Since 2009, we have continuously collected weather data, limnologic measurements and sediment samples from Laguna El Junco, Bainbridge Crater Lake, and Genovesa Crater Lake. Our initial analysis of the first six months of data spanning the 2009-2010 El Niño show that the three lakes responded to warmer temperatures and increased precipitation during the event, which peaked during the warm/wet season in the archipelago. Both Genovesa and Bainbridge Crater Lakes warmed and freshened during peaks in air temperature and precipitation, without substantial changes in lake level. El Junco water temperature peaked several weeks later than water temperature at Genovesa and Bainbridge, and the increase in temperature was accompanied by water column stratification. The moderate El Niño event in 2009-2010 led to the deposition of brown-green, organic-rich sediment in Bainbridge and Genovesa, with minor amounts of authigenic calcium carbonate. Thus

  10. Long-term monitoring at multiple trophic levels suggests heterogeneity in responses to climate change in the Canadian Arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël; Cadieux, Marie-Christine; Legagneux, Pierre; Doiron, Madeleine; Chevallier, Clément; Lai, Sandra; Tarroux, Arnaud; Berteaux, Dominique

    2013-08-19

    Arctic wildlife is often presented as being highly at risk in the face of current climate warming. We use the long-term (up to 24 years) monitoring records available on Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic to examine temporal trends in population attributes of several terrestrial vertebrates and in primary production. Despite a warming trend (e.g. cumulative annual thawing degree-days increased by 37% and snow-melt date advanced by 4-7 days over a 23-year period), we found little evidence for changes in the phenology, abundance or productivity of several vertebrate species (snow goose, foxes, lemmings, avian predators and one passerine). Only primary production showed a response to warming (annual above-ground biomass of wetland graminoids increased by 123% during this period). We nonetheless found evidence for potential mismatches between herbivores and their food plants in response to warming as snow geese adjusted their laying date by only 3.8 days on average for a change in snow-melt of 10 days, half of the corresponding adjustment shown by the timing of plant growth (7.1 days). We discuss several reasons (duration of time series, large annual variability, amplitude of observed climate change, nonlinear dynamic or constraints imposed by various rate of warming with latitude in migrants) to explain the lack of response by herbivores and predators to climate warming at our study site. We also show how length and intensity of monitoring could affect our ability to detect temporal trends and provide recommendations for future monitoring.

  11. Long-term monitoring at multiple trophic levels suggests heterogeneity in responses to climate change in the Canadian Arctic tundra

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël; Cadieux, Marie-Christine; Legagneux, Pierre; Doiron, Madeleine; Chevallier, Clément; Lai, Sandra; Tarroux, Arnaud; Berteaux, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Arctic wildlife is often presented as being highly at risk in the face of current climate warming. We use the long-term (up to 24 years) monitoring records available on Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic to examine temporal trends in population attributes of several terrestrial vertebrates and in primary production. Despite a warming trend (e.g. cumulative annual thawing degree-days increased by 37% and snow-melt date advanced by 4–7 days over a 23-year period), we found little evidence for changes in the phenology, abundance or productivity of several vertebrate species (snow goose, foxes, lemmings, avian predators and one passerine). Only primary production showed a response to warming (annual above-ground biomass of wetland graminoids increased by 123% during this period). We nonetheless found evidence for potential mismatches between herbivores and their food plants in response to warming as snow geese adjusted their laying date by only 3.8 days on average for a change in snow-melt of 10 days, half of the corresponding adjustment shown by the timing of plant growth (7.1 days). We discuss several reasons (duration of time series, large annual variability, amplitude of observed climate change, nonlinear dynamic or constraints imposed by various rate of warming with latitude in migrants) to explain the lack of response by herbivores and predators to climate warming at our study site. We also show how length and intensity of monitoring could affect our ability to detect temporal trends and provide recommendations for future monitoring. PMID:23836788

  12. Assessing the long term impact of power plant emissions on regional air pollution using extensive monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Yuval; Broday, David M

    2009-02-01

    In spite of the recent increasing interest in energy production from renewable sources, polluting hydrocarbon-fueled power plants will continue to provide most of the electricity to the world's population in the coming decades. This work studies the long term impact on the regional ambient air which can be attributable to three plants with different power outputs, fuel types, and stack heights. The study is carried out in an area with relatively flat topography and typical coastal meteorology. A dense air pollution monitoring network, operating for many years, makes this area a real life laboratory for studying the pollution routes, the impact of the sources at different directions and distances, and the effects of transition to cleaner fuel. The direct impact of each of the two large power plants on the ambient SO2 levels could be clearly detected in most of the monitoring stations at distances up to 40 km away. Interestingly, a relatively large impact can also be attributed to the indirect effect of emissions that are recirculated back to the region with the land breeze. The transition from using fuel oil to natural gas in one of the large power plants resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mean SO2 levels in all of the monitoring stations. The contribution of the industrial emissions to the ambient NO2 levels seems to be very modest relative to that from traffic. An analysis of the NO, NO2 and O3 records suggests that the highest mean NO2 concentrations, and a large proportion of the total NO2 encountered in the study area, are probably due to recirculated NOx emitted by traffic in a densely populated region north of it.

  13. A Multi-Institutional Big Data Collaboration to Estimate Long Term Terrestrial Net Carbon Uptake from Remote Sensing and Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halem, M.; Dorband, J.; Rao, R.; Lomonaco, S.; Chapman, D. R.; LeMoigne, J.; Nearing, G. S.; Pelissier, C. S.; Simpson, D. G.; Clune, T.

    2014-12-01

    Recent aircraft measurements from scattered records have shown long-term, global, seasonal photosynthetic CO2 uptake over land accelerating over the past 50 years. The successful launch of the sun-synchronous Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) on July 2, 2014 is expected to provide global, high spatial and spectral resolution datasets of vertical CO2 concentrations with surface spectral resolutions capable of yielding accurate CO2 flux profiles. It is unclear whether the biosphere will continue to act as a sink for anthropogenic CO2 loading of the atmosphere. Since current climate models with detailed terrestrial ecosystems are unable to simulate the observed increase in net ecosystem production (NEP), we will conduct assimilation studies with the derived CO2 fluxes in the GSFC Land Information System hydrological model to validate the generated NEP uptake. Further, we plan to use the OCO-2 CO2 concentrations to train a neural network to enable the calculation of long term trends from a decade of AIRS CO2 concentration data to produce regional NEP. To address this important Big Data science issue, a multi-institutional collaboration was formed to leverage their combined resources and the expertise of the researchers at the NASA GSFC, the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory and UMBC. We will employ a high speed 10Gb network to connect the collaborating researchers and provide them with remote access to dedicated computational hybrid multicore resources at UMBC, as well as access to an archive containing more than a decade of readily accessible continuous daily gridded AIRS data and ten years of daily MODIS data for each September. The status of the following research efforts is planned to be presented; (i) acquisition and processing of the expected CO2 profile data from OCO-2 for two test sites, a low latitude region over the Amazon and a Boral forest at high latitude, (ii) initial impact of 3-D data assimilation of CO2 fluxes with the advanced Goddard LIS

  14. Long-term monitoring of sleep apnea at home in heart failure patients: preliminary results from the HHH study.

    PubMed

    Pinna, G D; Maestri, R; Gobbi, E; Capomolla, S; Campana, C; Emdin, M; Di Lenarda, A; La Rovere, M T; Andrews, D; Johnson, P; Mortara, A; Sleight, P

    2004-01-01

    Sleep apnea is very common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has important implications in terms of morbidity, mortality and clinical management. Home respiratory telemonitoring might constitute a potential low-cost, widely-applicable alternative to traditional polysomnography in the evaluation and long-term monitoring of breathing disorders in these patients. In this paper we briefly describe the technological infrastructure and present preliminary results of the European Community multicountry trial HHH (Home or Hospital in Heart Failure), which is currently testing a novel system for home telemonitoring of cardiorespiratory signals in CHF patients. The recording and transmitting devices are suitable to be self-managed by the patient. We give a detailed report on the prevalence of nocturnal respiratory disorders at the beginning of the one-year follow-up and on their persistency over the following recordings (one per month). These preliminary findings clearly indicate that intermittent home telemonitoring of respiratory signals based on patient's self-management is feasible in CHF patients and the compliance is high. Reported statistics unambiguously confirm the high prevalence of nocturnal breathing disorders in these patients and clearly show that this phenomenon tends to persist over time.

  15. Regional scale estimation of carbon fluxes from long-term monitoring of intertidal exposed rocky shore communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliarolo, Morgana; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent; Clavier, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The observed increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate. Recent studies highlight the importance of identifying the role of marine coastal communities in carbon exchanges. Our objective was to couple macrozoobenthos abundance data from long-term monitoring with species metabolism rates to contribute to the estimation of CO2 fluxes from an intertidal exposed rocky shore community at a regional scale. The carbon fluxes due to respiration and calcification were calculated both during emersion and immersion, and the effect of temperature variation on carbon emissions was then predicted. Spatial and temporal natural variations of carbon fluxes were investigated and the contribution of exposed intertidal rocky shore communities to regional carbon emissions was calculated. The method was used to calculate the carbon budget allowed to account for the natural spatial variability of the community composition and carbon emissions. Mean annual calculated CO2 emission was 14.3 mol C m- 2 yr- 2, and the annual regional CO2 flux was estimated at 2978 t C yr- 1. Simulations showed that the potential feedback of a rise in temperature of 1 °C would lead to an increase of 4-7% in carbon emissions for this type of community. The results give a first quantification of intertidal exposed rocky shore carbon emissions that could be considered in evaluating further the global CO2 budget.

  16. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ardid, M.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F. C. T.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bouhadef, B.; Bozza, C.; Cacopardo, G.; Calamai, M.; Calì, C.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caruso, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Luca, V.; Deniskina, N.; De Rosa, G.; di Capua, F.; Distefano, C.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Flaminio, V.; Fusco, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Giordano, V.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Hugon, C.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leonora, E.; Litrico, P.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pugliatti, C.; Pulvirenti, S.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stellacci, S. M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Ventura, C.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.

    2016-02-01

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the "record" depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of ^{40}K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site.

  17. The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane.

    PubMed

    Wängberg, B; Khorram-Manesh, A; Jansson, S; Nilsson, B; Nilsson, O; Jakobsson, C E; Lindstedt, S; Odén, A; Ahlman, H

    2010-03-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour disease with sinister prognosis also after attempts to radical surgery; better prognosis is seen for low-stage tumours. Adjuvant treatment with the adrenolytic drug mitotane has been attempted, but not proven to prevent from recurrence. The drug may offer survival advantage in case of recurrence. The aim of this single-centre study (1979-2007) of 43 consecutive patients was to evaluate the long-term survival after active surgical treatment combined with monitored mitotane (to reduce side effects of the drug). The series is unique, since all patients were offered a period of mitotane as adjuvant or palliative treatment; six patients refused mitotane. Despite a high proportion of high-stage tumours (67%), the complete resection rate was high (77%). The disease-specific 5-year survival was high (64.1%); very high for patients with low-stage tumours without evident relation to mitotane levels. Patients with high-stage tumours had a clear survival advantage with mitotane levels above a threshold of 14 mg/l in serum. The hazard ratio for patients with high mitotane levels versus all patients indicates a significant effect of the drug. The results indicate that adjuvant mitotane may be the standard of care for patients with high-stage ACC after complete resection.

  18. Current strategies for the long-term assessment, monitoring, and management of cystic fibrosis patients treated with CFTR modulator therapy.

    PubMed

    Elborn, J Stuart; Davies, Jane; Mall, Marcus A; Flume, Patrick A; Plant, Barry

    2017-01-01

    The content for this activity is based on the satellite symposium, "Current Strategies for the Long-term Assessment, Monitoring, and Management for Cystic Fibrosis Patients Treated with CFTR Modulator Therapy" that was presented at the 39th European Cystic Fibrosis Society Conference on June 10, 2016 (Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/ecfs2016e/619e). The emergence of novel targeted agents, that directly correct CFTR loss function alleles, has created new treatment opportunities for patients with cystic fibrosis with advanced disease. Knowledge of the role of these agents in the clinical setting is quickly evolving and will require physicians to stay acquainted with the latest data as well as evidence-based treatment guidelines in order to achieve optimized cystic fibrosis patient care. Ideally, after diagnosis, a personalized approach would be adapted and tailored to the patient through genome-informed medicine. However, due to the relative recentness of genomic-based therapeutics, physicians may have a limited knowledge base regarding these new treatment options and how to best incorporate these agents into patient management plans. Although cystic fibrosis is still largely regarded as a pediatric disease, the median survival for patients is 35years of age. Consequently, pediatric-to-adult cystic fibrosis care programs would allow suitable preparation time for this transition and develop a standardized group of self-care and management skills.

  19. Digital holographic microscopy long-term and real-time monitoring of cell division and changes under simulated zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Zhe; Shang, Peng; Xiao, Wen

    2012-05-07

    The long-term and real-time monitoring the cell division and changes of osteoblasts under simulated zero gravity condition were succeed by combing a digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with a superconducting magnet (SM). The SM could generate different magnetic force fields in a cylindrical cavity, where the gravitational force of biological samples could be canceled at a special gravity position by a high magnetic force. Therefore the specimens were levitated and in a simulated zero gravity environment. The DHM was modified to fit with SM by using single mode optical fibers and a vertically-configured jig designed to hold specimens and integrate optical device in the magnet's bore. The results presented the first-phase images of living cells undergoing dynamic divisions and changes under simulated zero gravity environment for a period of 10 hours. The experiments demonstrated that the SM-compatible DHM setup could provide a highly efficient and versatile method for research on the effects of microgravity on biological samples.

  20. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long-term ecological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large-scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the Shetland survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry, a range of socio-economic impacts, and perhaps climate change. Currently no such figures are available, although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  1. Steady state and a singular event observed at the TAG hydrothermal mound by a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Aoki, M.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2005-12-01

    The steady state variability and occasional O`randomO_L event of hydrothermal activity were observed by several long-term monitoring systems deployed on the TAG hydrothermal mound and observed by submersible video and still cameras in the Mid Atlantic Ridge 26 N. We measured current direction and velocity, visibility, temperature, and salinity of sea water as well as observed newly formed black smokers by video and still camera system. Heat flow measurement system and an OBSH were also deployed around the central black smoker and newly formed black smokers for more than two weeks. Steady state change of the temperature, current direction and velocity, visibility and pressure change by hydrophone show a regular semidiurnal periodic variation, which may be caused by ocean, and earth tides. A singular event occurred during our research at the TAG hydrothermal mound. Small earthquakes beneath the TAG mound were followed by a huge slope failure, which apparently caused by a debris flow, killing swimming eel-like fish. A thin bed of the dead shrimps may be related to a nearly simultaneous increase of hot water flux from vent.

  2. A Long-Term and Reproducible Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Data Record for Climate Studies and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, G.; Meier, W. N.; Scott, D. J.; Savoie, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term, consistent, and reproducible satellite-based passive microwave sea ice concentration climate data record (CDR) is available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation with an initial operation capability (IOC). The daily and monthly sea ice concentration data are on the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) polar stereographic grid with nominal 25 km × 25 km grid cells in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere polar regions from 9 July 1987 to 31 December 2007. The data files are available in the NetCDF data format at http://nsidc.org/data/g02202.html and archived by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the satellite climate data record program (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdr/operationalcdrs.html). The description and basic characteristics of the NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea ice concentration CDR are presented here. The CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability as the heritage products to the user communities with the additional documentation, traceability, and reproducibility that meet current standards and guidelines for climate data records. The data set, along with detailed data processing steps and error source information, can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5B56GN3.

  3. Long-term PAH monitoring results from the Anacostia River active capping demonstration using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibers.

    PubMed

    Lampert, David J; Lu, Xiaoxia; Reible, Danny D

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the long-term monitoring results for hydrophobic organic compounds, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from a field demonstration of capping contaminated sediments at the Anacostia River in Washington DC are presented and analyzed. In situ pore water concentrations in field-contaminated sediments in the demonstration caps were quantified using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based passive sampling device. High resolution vertical pore water concentration profiles were measured using the device and were used to infer fate and transport of polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the site. The derived pore water concentrations were compared with observed bioaccumulation and solid-phase concentration profiles to infer contaminant migration rates and mechanisms. Observed pore water concentrations were found to be a better predictor of bioaccumulation than solid-phase concentrations. Solid-phase concentrations were low in cores which implied containment of contamination; however pore water profiles showed that contaminant migration had occurred in the first few years after cap placement. The discrepancy is the result of the low sorption capacity of the sand. Because of surface re-contamination, low sorption capacity in the demonstration caps and strong tidal pumping effects, steady state contaminant profiles were reached in the caps several years after placement. Despite re-contamination at the surface, steady state concentrations in the capped areas showed decreased contamination levels relative to the control area.

  4. Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Subject of the Evidence-Based Analysis The purpose of this evidence based analysis report is to examine the safety and effectiveness of point-of-care (POC) international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices for patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Long-term OAT is typically required by patients with mechanical heart valves, chronic atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or peripheral arterial occlusion. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the population receives anticoagulation treatment and, by applying this value to Ontario, there are an estimated 132,000 patients on OAT in the province, a figure that is expected to increase with the aging population. Patients on OAT are regularly monitored and their medications adjusted to ensure that their INR scores remain in the therapeutic range. This can be challenging due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and variation in individual responses. Optimal INR scores depend on the underlying indication for treatment and patient level characteristics, but for most patients the therapeutic range is an INR score of between 2.0 and 3.0. The current standard of care in Ontario for patients on long-term OAT is laboratory-based INR determination with management carried out by primary care physicians or anticoagulation clinics (ACCs). Patients also regularly visit a hospital or community-based facility to provide a venous blood samples (venipuncture) that are then sent to a laboratory for INR analysis. Experts, however, have commented that there may be under-utilization of OAT due to patient factors, physician factors, or regional practice variations and that sub-optimal patient management may also occur. There is currently no population-based Ontario data to permit the assessment of patient care, but recent systematic reviews have estimated that less that 50% of patients receive OAT on a

  5. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  6. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  7. Size Distribution of Sperm Whales Acoustically Identified during Long Term Deep-Sea Monitoring in the Ionian Sea.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Sciacca, Virginia; Bellia, Giorgio; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Papale, Elena; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Simeone, Francesco; Speziale, Fabrizio; Viola, Salvatore; Pavan, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) emits a typical short acoustic signal, defined as a "click", almost continuously while diving. It is produced in different time patterns to acoustically explore the environment and communicate with conspecifics. Each emitted click has a multi-pulse structure, resulting from the production of the sound within the sperm whale's head. A Stable Inter Pulse Interval (Stable IPI) can be identified among the pulses that compose a single click. Applying specific algorithms, the measurement of this interval provides useful information to assess the total length of the animal recorded. In January 2005, a cabled hydrophone array was deployed at a depth of 2,100 m in the Central Mediterranean Sea, 25 km offshore Catania (Ionian Sea). The acoustic antenna, named OνDE (Ocean noise Detection Experiment), was in operation until November 2006. OνDE provided real time acoustic data used to perform Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) of cetacean sound emissions. In this work, an innovative approach was applied to automatically measure the Stable IPI of the clicks, performing a cepstrum analysis to the energy (square amplitude) of the signals. About 2,100 five-minute recordings were processed to study the size distribution of the sperm whales detected during the OνDE long term deep-sea acoustic monitoring. Stable IPIs were measured in the range between 2.1 ms and 6.4 ms. The equations of Gordon (1991) and of Growcott (2011) were used to convert the IPIs into measures of size. The results revealed that the sperm whales recorded were distributed in length from about 7.5 m to 14 m. The size category most represented was from 9 m to 12 m (adult females or juvenile males) and specimens longer than 14 m (old males) seemed to be absent.

  8. Size Distribution of Sperm Whales Acoustically Identified during Long Term Deep-Sea Monitoring in the Ionian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Francesco; Sciacca, Virginia; Bellia, Giorgio; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Papale, Elena; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Simeone, Francesco; Speziale, Fabrizio; Viola, Salvatore; Pavan, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) emits a typical short acoustic signal, defined as a “click”, almost continuously while diving. It is produced in different time patterns to acoustically explore the environment and communicate with conspecifics. Each emitted click has a multi-pulse structure, resulting from the production of the sound within the sperm whale’s head. A Stable Inter Pulse Interval (Stable IPI) can be identified among the pulses that compose a single click. Applying specific algorithms, the measurement of this interval provides useful information to assess the total length of the animal recorded. In January 2005, a cabled hydrophone array was deployed at a depth of 2,100 m in the Central Mediterranean Sea, 25 km offshore Catania (Ionian Sea). The acoustic antenna, named OνDE (Ocean noise Detection Experiment), was in operation until November 2006. OνDE provided real time acoustic data used to perform Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) of cetacean sound emissions. In this work, an innovative approach was applied to automatically measure the Stable IPI of the clicks, performing a cepstrum analysis to the energy (square amplitude) of the signals. About 2,100 five-minute recordings were processed to study the size distribution of the sperm whales detected during the OνDE long term deep-sea acoustic monitoring. Stable IPIs were measured in the range between 2.1 ms and 6.4 ms. The equations of Gordon (1991) and of Growcott (2011) were used to convert the IPIs into measures of size. The results revealed that the sperm whales recorded were distributed in length from about 7.5 m to 14 m. The size category most represented was from 9 m to 12 m (adult females or juvenile males) and specimens longer than 14 m (old males) seemed to be absent. PMID:26675588

  9. Passive Acoustic Monitoring of the Temporal Variability of Odontocete Tonal Sounds from a Long-Term Marine Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Hao; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chi-Fang; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-01-01

    The developments of marine observatories and automatic sound detection algorithms have facilitated the long-term monitoring of multiple species of odontocetes. Although classification remains difficult, information on tonal sound in odontocetes (i.e., toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises) can provide insights into the species composition and group behavior of these species. However, the approach to measure whistle contour parameters for detecting the variability of odontocete vocal behavior may be biased when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Thus, methods for analyzing the whistle usage of an entire group are necessary. In this study, a local-max detector was used to detect burst pulses and representative frequencies of whistles within 4.5–48 kHz. Whistle contours were extracted and classified using an unsupervised method. Whistle characteristics and usage pattern were quantified based on the distribution of representative frequencies and the composition of whistle repertoires. Based on the one year recordings collected from the Marine Cable Hosted Observatory off northeastern Taiwan, odontocete burst pulses and whistles were primarily detected during the nighttime, especially after sunset. Whistle usage during the nighttime was more complex, and whistles with higher frequency were mainly detected during summer and fall. According to the multivariate analysis, the diurnal variation of whistle usage was primarily related to the change of mode frequency, diversity of representative frequency, and sequence complexity. The seasonal variation of whistle usage involved the previous three parameters, in addition to the diversity of whistle clusters. Our results indicated that the species and behavioral composition of the local odontocete community may vary among seasonal and diurnal cycles. The current monitoring platform facilitates the evaluation of whistle usage based on group behavior and provides feature vectors for species and behavioral

  10. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  11. Multi-objective optimization of long-term groundwater monitoring network design using a probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yun; Qian, Jiazhong; Wu, Jichun

    2016-03-01

    Optimal design of long term groundwater monitoring (LTGM) network often involves conflicting objectives and substantial uncertainty arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity (K) data. This study develops a new multi-objective simulation-optimization model involving four objectives: minimizations of (i) the total sampling costs for monitoring contaminant plume, (ii) mass estimation error, (iii) the first moment estimation error, and (iv) the second moment estimation error of the contaminant plume, for LTGM network design problems. Then a new probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm (PPGA) coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions to the multi-objective LTGM problems under uncertainty of the K-fields. The PPGA integrates the niched Pareto genetic algorithm with probabilistic Pareto sorting scheme to deal with the uncertainty of objectives caused by the uncertain K-field. Also, the elitist selection strategy, the operation library and the Pareto solution set filter are conducted to improve the diversity and reliability of Pareto-optimal solutions by the PPGA. Furthermore, the sampling strategy of noisy genetic algorithm is adopted to cope with the uncertainty of the K-fields and improve the computational efficiency of the PPGA. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in finding Pareto-optimal sampling network designs of LTGM systems through a two-dimensional hypothetical example and a three-dimensional field application in Indiana (USA). Comprehensive analysis demonstrates that the proposed PPGA can find Pareto optimal solutions with low variability and high reliability and is a promising tool for optimizing multi-objective LTGM network designs under uncertainty.

  12. Building a database for long-term monitoring of benthic macrofauna in the Pertuis-Charentais (2004-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Plumejeaud-Perreau, Christine; Jourde, Jérôme; Pineau, Philippe; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Joyeux, Emmanuel; Corre, Frédéric; Delaporte, Philippe; Bocher, Pierrick

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Long-term benthic monitoring is rewarding in terms of science, but labour-intensive, whether in the field, the laboratory, or behind the computer. Building and managing databases require multiple skills, including consistency over time as well as organisation via a systematic approach. Here, we introduce and share our spatially explicit benthic database, comprising 11 years of benthic data. It is the result of intensive benthic sampling that has been conducted on a regular grid (259 stations) covering the intertidal mudflats of the Pertuis-Charentais (Marennes-Oléron Bay and Aiguillon Bay). Samples were taken by foot or by boats during winter depending on tidal height, from December 2003 to February 2014. The present dataset includes abundances and biomass densities of all mollusc species of the study regions and principal polychaetes as well as their length, accessibility to shorebirds, energy content and shell mass when appropriate and available. This database has supported many studies dealing with the spatial distribution of benthic invertebrates and temporal variations in food resources for shorebird species as well as latitudinal comparisons with other databases. In this paper, we introduce our benthos monitoring, share our data, and present a "guide of good practices" for building, cleaning and using it efficiently, providing examples of results with associated R code. New information The dataset has been formatted into a geo-referenced relational database, using PostgreSQL open-source DBMS. We provide density information, measurements, energy content and accessibility of thirteen bivalve, nine gastropod and two polychaete taxa (a total of 66,620 individuals)​ for 11 consecutive winters. Figures and maps are provided to describe how the dataset was built, cleaned, and how it can be used. This dataset can again support studies concerning spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, interspecific interactions as well as

  13. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  14. Passive acoustic monitoring of the temporal variability of odontocete tonal sounds from a long-term marine observatory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hao; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chi-Fang; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-01-01

    The developments of marine observatories and automatic sound detection algorithms have facilitated the long-term monitoring of multiple species of odontocetes. Although classification remains difficult, information on tonal sound in odontocetes (i.e., toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises) can provide insights into the species composition and group behavior of these species. However, the approach to measure whistle contour parameters for detecting the variability of odontocete vocal behavior may be biased when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Thus, methods for analyzing the whistle usage of an entire group are necessary. In this study, a local-max detector was used to detect burst pulses and representative frequencies of whistles within 4.5-48 kHz. Whistle contours were extracted and classified using an unsupervised method. Whistle characteristics and usage pattern were quantified based on the distribution of representative frequencies and the composition of whistle repertoires. Based on the one year recordings collected from the Marine Cable Hosted Observatory off northeastern Taiwan, odontocete burst pulses and whistles were primarily detected during the nighttime, especially after sunset. Whistle usage during the nighttime was more complex, and whistles with higher frequency were mainly detected during summer and fall. According to the multivariate analysis, the diurnal variation of whistle usage was primarily related to the change of mode frequency, diversity of representative frequency, and sequence complexity. The seasonal variation of whistle usage involved the previous three parameters, in addition to the diversity of whistle clusters. Our results indicated that the species and behavioral composition of the local odontocete community may vary among seasonal and diurnal cycles. The current monitoring platform facilitates the evaluation of whistle usage based on group behavior and provides feature vectors for species and behavioral classification

  15. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and has fit initial spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has completed generation of the artificial data that will be used for model development and testing. In order to generate the artificial data a detailed groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed based upon characteristics of the 317/319 site. The model covers a multi-year time horizon that includes both before and after planting of the trees. As described in the proposal, the artificial data is created by adding ''measurement'' error to the ''true'' value from the numerical model. To date, only simple white noise error models have been considered. He is now reviewing the literature and beginning to develop a hierarchical modeling approach for the artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, is implementing learning models for learning users preferences in an interactive genetic algorithm for solving the inverse problem. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has been improving the user interface for the interactive genetic algorithm and preparing a long-term monitoring design problem for testing the approach. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected substantial data from the 317/319 phytoremediation site at Argonne and has begun learning approaches for modeling these data.

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Perspectives on the geological and hydrological aspects of long-term release scenario analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wallace, R.W.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    Information that may be relevant to individuals involved with analyzing long-term release scenarios of specific repositories for nuclear waste is presented. The bulk of the information is derived from recent studies in West Germany and the United States. Emphasis is on the specific geological and hydrological phenomena that, alone or in concert, could potentially perturb the area around specific repository sites. Research is continuing on most of the topics discussed within this report. Because research is ongoing, statements and conclusions described in this document are subject to change. The main topics of this report are: (1) fracturing, (2) geohydrology, (3) magmatic activity, and (4) geomorphology. Therefore, the site-specific nature of the problem cannot be overemphasized. As an example of how one might combine the many synergistic and time-dependent parameters into a concise format the reader is referred to A Conceputal Simulation Model for Release Scenario Analysis of a Hypothetical Site in Columbia Plateau Basalts, PNL-2892. For additional details on the topics in this report, the reader is referred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) consultant report listed in the bibliography.

  17. Monitoring Tree Population Dynamics in Arid Zone Through Multiple Temporal Scales: Integration of Spatial Analysis, Change Detection and Field Long Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, S.; Rachmilevitch, S.; Ephrath, J. E.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1) individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2) spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis) with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  18. Field Evaluations of Sampling Methods for Long-Term Monitoring of Upland Ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark E.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Mann, Rebecca K.; Tancreto, Nicole J.

    2007-01-01

    To inform planning for long-term ecological monitoring, we sampled vegetation and soil-surface attributes across a range of terrestrial ecosystems (physiognomic types) in seven National Park Service units on the Colorado Plateau. Primary objectives were (1) to evaluate a suite of sampling methods according to measures of repeatability, efficiency, and impacts on plot conditions; and (2) to characterize within- and among-plot variability in monitoring measures. This work was designed to support NPS staff in selecting the combination of methods that best meets their monitoring objectives and resource constraints. We found no differences among cover-estimation techniques in terms of repeatability between observers (measurement precision). Estimates for total live understory canopy cover, cover of individual species, and cover of soil-surface features were highly repeatable between observers for 10-m2 quadrats, 1-m2 quadrats, and line-point intercept sampling methods. Estimates of shrub and tree density in 10-m2 quadrats also were repeatable between observers, although sample sizes for were small for many species. At 10 of 11 ecological sites, we found that sampling with 10-m2 quadrats was the most efficient cover-estimation technique with respect to within-plot variability in cover estimates and numbers of subsamples required to estimate plot-level cover with 20 percent precision. According to these same measures, sampling with 1-m2 quadrats was the least efficient cover-estimation technique at eight of 11 ecological sites. The line-point technique was most efficient at eight of 11 ecological sites in terms of the amount of time required to estimate total plot-level cover with 20 percent precision - largely because 10-m2 quadrats were more time consuming and 1-m2 quadrats had greater within-plot variability relative to line-point sampling. However, there was no statistical difference among methods with respect to median subsampling times for 20 percent precision

  19. Long-term continuous monitoring of mercury in the Russian arctic: winter increase of atmospheric mercury depletion events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Fidel; Mahura, Alexander; Popov, Valentin; Katz, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    Among pollutants mercury is a major environmental concern due to its ecological hazard. The mercury can reside in the atmosphere for a long time high, and it is a reason of its global propagation in the Northern Hemisphere and elevated mercury concentrations are reported in the Arctic environment. First time, in 1995, the effect of atmospheric mercury depletion in the troposphere was found at the Canadian station Alert. This phenomenon (called the Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Event - AMDE) is observed during April-June, when the Polar sunrise starts till the end of the snowmelt. The same effect was reported for other polar stations situated to the north of 60° N. Long-term continuous monitoring of gaseous elemental mercury in the surface air at the polar station Amderma (69,720N; 61,620E) using the analyzer Tekran 2537A has been conducted from Jun 2001 to date. Individual measurements were collected every thirty minutes. It has been shown, that during eleven years of observations the AMDEs were observed every year, from the end of March till early June. For the winter period (Dec-Feb) these events of the atmospheric mercury depletion were registered from 2010 to 2013, which had not been observed before. A large number of hours during the day, when the concentration of mercury was recorded at level of below 1 ng/m3, was registered during Dec-Feb. The sun declination above the horizon is negative, and solar activity is still not enough to trigger the photochemical reactions. The these last 3 years confirmed a tendency to displacement of AMDEs to the winter season, which leads to an additional factor entry of mercury in various biological objects, due to the additional deposition of various forms of mercury on the snowpack. At the same time, especially during the winter seasons, there is a substantial increase (up to 8 times) of AMDEs, compared with the previous years. In particular, in winter 2013 the maximum number of AMDs reached 31 cases. The explanation can be

  20. Hydrology, sediment circulation and long-term morphological changes in highly urbanized Shenzhen River estuary, China: A combined field experimental and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiyan; Mao, Xian-zhong

    2015-10-01

    The Shenzhen River estuary is a small estuary in highly urbanized regions between Shenzhen and Hong Kong, China. An increasing amount of sediment has been observed to accumulate in the estuary, imposing a severe impact on the ecological environment. In this study we utilized a series of hydrographic and bathymetry surveys to study the hydrology, sediment transport and morphological processes in the estuary. Flow and sediment circulation patterns in different seasons were inferred using current velocity, salinity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) time series collected in the hydrographic surveys in conjunction with fathometer profiles in bathymetry surveys. Historical time series at two stations were also analyzed by Mann-Kendall test for possible trends of the driving forces for estuarine morphological processes. The two-dimensional depth-averaged DELFT numerical model was employed to simulate the flow, salinity and SSC fields during the synchronous surveys and to predict the long-term morphological processes in the estuary. A bimodal SSC distribution was observed with two high-SSC zones separated by a low-SSC zone near the central bay, which cannot be explained by the conventional nongravitational transport theory of Postma (1967). It is hypothesized that sediment circulation in the estuary can be separated into two different systems: the "tidal zone" is under the influence of marine sediment from the Pearl River estuary, whereas the "fluvial zone" is mainly affected by terrestrial sediment from the river. Sediment mass exchange between the two systems is limited due to the presence of the low-SSC zone, the location of which could vary with the relative strengths of river flow and tides. The trend analysis of historical time series shows that the river discharge and the mean sea level are increasing and the flood tide range and the ebb tide range are decreasing. These trends are closely related to the intense human activities in the urbanization of

  1. Adapting the coupled hydrological model ISBA-TOPMODEL to the long-term hydrological cycles of suburban rivers: Evaluation and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusho, C.; Chancibault, K.; Andrieu, H.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe hydrological model ISBA-TOPMODEL, initially developed for large rural basins prone to flash floods, has been adapted to suburban basins. Impervious surfaces were taken into account assuming very low infiltration, production of runoff drained through the sewer network when the maximal surface stock capacity is exceeded and groundwater infiltration. This model was evaluated on a French basin, located in the northwestern France, within a suburb of the city of Nantes. A sensitivity study was first performed on the major urban parameters in order to determine which ones had to be calibrated. A ten-year period (2001-2010) was simulated, with the first three years for calibration purposes and the last seven for the actual evaluation. The statistical criteria reveal that the model tends to underestimate total discharge during dry periods while it overestimates discharge during wet weather. The underestimation seems to be caused by an unrealistic deep drainage through the soil, whereas the overestimation can be attributed to impervious surface runoff overestimation. Nevertheless, over the entire simulated period, the statistical criteria still indicate satisfactory results.

  2. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long term ecological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-10-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following DOIs: doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry. Currently no such figures are available although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  3. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long-term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; D'Aì, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High-statistics, intensity-selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between ˜53 and ˜58 keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity-selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time, we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by ˜0.36 keV yr-1 between the first and the third time intervals, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of ˜3 × 1010 G yr-1. The intensity-cyclotron energy pattern is consistent between the third and the last time intervals. A possible interpretation for this decay could be the settling of an accreted mound that produces either a distortion of the poloidal magnetic field on the polar cap or a geometrical displacement of the line forming region. This hypothesis seems supported by the correspondence between the rate of the line shift per unit accreted mass and the mass accreted on the polar cap per unit area in Vela X-1 and Her X-1, respectively.

  4. Long-term GPS tracking of ocean sunfish Mola mola offers a new direction in fish monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sims, David W; Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E; Lima, Fernando P; Hays, Graeme C

    2009-10-09

    Satellite tracking of large pelagic fish provides insights on free-ranging behaviour, distributions and population structuring. Up to now, such fish have been tracked remotely using two principal methods: direct positioning of transmitters by Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and satellite relay of tag-derived light-level data for post hoc track reconstruction. Error fields associated with positions determined by these methods range from hundreds of metres to hundreds of kilometres. However, low spatial accuracy of tracks masks important details, such as foraging patterns. Here we use a fast-acquisition global positioning system (Fastloc GPS) tag with remote data retrieval to track long-term movements, in near real time and position accuracy of <70 m, of the world's largest bony fish, the ocean sunfish Mola mola. Search-like movements occurred over at least three distinct spatial scales. At fine scales, sunfish spent longer in highly localised areas with faster, straighter excursions between them. These 'stopovers' during long-distance movement appear consistent with finding and exploiting food patches. This demonstrates the feasibility of GPS tagging to provide tracks of unparalleled accuracy for monitoring movements of large pelagic fish, and with nearly four times as many locations obtained by the GPS tag than by a conventional Argos transmitter. The results signal the potential of GPS-tagged pelagic fish that surface regularly to be detectors of resource 'hotspots' in the blue ocean and provides a new capability for understanding large pelagic fish behaviour and habitat use that is relevant to ocean management and species conservation.

  5. Long-Term GPS Tracking of Ocean Sunfish Mola mola Offers a New Direction in Fish Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sims, David W.; Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Lima, Fernando P.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite tracking of large pelagic fish provides insights on free-ranging behaviour, distributions and population structuring. Up to now, such fish have been tracked remotely using two principal methods: direct positioning of transmitters by Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and satellite relay of tag-derived light-level data for post hoc track reconstruction. Error fields associated with positions determined by these methods range from hundreds of metres to hundreds of kilometres. However, low spatial accuracy of tracks masks important details, such as foraging patterns. Here we use a fast-acquisition global positioning system (Fastloc GPS) tag with remote data retrieval to track long-term movements, in near real time and position accuracy of <70 m, of the world's largest bony fish, the ocean sunfish Mola mola. Search-like movements occurred over at least three distinct spatial scales. At fine scales, sunfish spent longer in highly localised areas with faster, straighter excursions between them. These ‘stopovers’ during long-distance movement appear consistent with finding and exploiting food patches. This demonstrates the feasibility of GPS tagging to provide tracks of unparalleled accuracy for monitoring movements of large pelagic fish, and with nearly four times as many locations obtained by the GPS tag than by a conventional Argos transmitter. The results signal the potential of GPS-tagged pelagic fish that surface regularly to be detectors of resource ‘hotspots’ in the blue ocean and provides a new capability for understanding large pelagic fish behaviour and habitat use that is relevant to ocean management and species conservation. PMID:19816576

  6. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of the dust deposition in Central Asia - results from a long term monitoring program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groll, M.; Opp, Chr.; Aslanov, I.

    2013-06-01

    The aeolian transport of dust is an important process in Central Asia. Anthropogenic desertification and the desiccation of the Aral Sea have increased the overall dust emission and transport from this region and the local dust storm frequency during the last decades. Reliable ground data, however, are collected only sporadically, so the knowledge about the spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics of the dust deposition in the Aral Sea basin is fragmented and inconsistent at best. A long-term monitoring program was installed and sustained by three research projects. The results included in this article cover the dust deposition between 2003 and 2010 from 21 stations in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. They confirm that the aeolian dust transport occurs mainly in the Southern direction. The highest average monthly deposition rate was registered in Uzbekistan (56.2 g m-2), while the percentage of months with a very intense (and potentially harmful) dust deposition flux was highest in Turkmenistan (36.4%). A majority of samples were collected during months with a dust deposition of less than 10.0 g m-2, while only 6% of all samples showed high monthly deposition intensities of more than 100 g m-2. The Kyzyl Kum, Kara Kum, and Aral Kum were identified as the main sources for aeolian dust in the Aral Sea basin. The impact of the Aral Kum as the dominant source of aeolian dust is limited to a region of approximately 500,000 km2 surrounding the former Aral Sea. The Kara Kum is characterized by a very high frequency of dust storms of a local and regional magnitude, and close to the Kyzyl Kum, monthly dust deposition rates of up to 9,600 g m-2 were registered. An analysis of the temporal distribution of the dust deposition showed a slight increase in the dust deposition activity and intensity between 2003 and 2010, with a strong inter-annual and seasonal dynamic. The highest average dust deposition was registered in June, and a second phase of intense dust

  8. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  9. Accesible hydrological monitoring for better decision making and modelling: a regional initiative in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bievre, B.; Célleri, R.; Crespo, P.; Ochoa, B.; Buytaert, W.; Tobón, C.; Villacís, M.; Villazon, M. F.; Llerena, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Viñas, P.

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the Hydrological Monitoring of Andean Ecosystems Initiative is to improve the conservation and management of High-Andean ecosystems by providing information on the hydrological response of these ecosystems and how different land-uses affect their water yield and regulation capacity. The initiative fills a gap left by widespread hydrological modeling exercises that suffer from lack of data, and by glacier monitoring under climate change. The initiative proposes a hydrological monitoring system involving precipitation, discharge and land cover monitoring in paired catchments. The methodology is accessible for non-specialist organizations, and allows for generation of evidence of land use impact on hydrology on the short term (i.e. a few years). Nevertheless, long term monitoring is pursued with the aim of identifying trends in hydrological response (as opposed to trends in climate) under global change. In this way it supports decision making on the preservation of the hydrological services of the catchment. The initiative aims at a high number of paired catchment sites along the Andes, in order to draw regional conclusions and capture variability, and is connected to more detailed hydrological research sites of several Andean universities. We present preliminary results of a dozen of sites from Venezuela to Bolivia, summarized in hydrological performance indicators that were agreed upon among hydrologists, local stakeholders, and water authorities. The success factors, as well as limitations, of the network are discussed.

  10. Adaptive long-term monitoring of soil health in metal phytostabilization: ecological attributes and ecosystem services based on soil microbial parameters.

    PubMed

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Phytostabilization is a promising option for the remediation of metal contaminated soils which requires the implementation of long-term monitoring programs. We here propose to incorporate the paradigm of "adaptive monitoring", which enables monitoring programs to evolve iteratively as new information emerges and research questions change, to metal phytostabilization. Posing good questions that cover the chemical, toxicological and ecological concerns associated to metal contaminated soils is critical for an efficient long-term phytostabilization monitoring program. Regarding the ecological concerns, soil microbial parameters are most valuable indicators of the effectiveness of metal phytostabilization processes in terms of recovery of soil health. We suggest to group soil microbial parameters in higher-level categories such as "ecological attributes" (vigor, organization, stability) or "ecosystem services" in order to facilitate interpretation and, most importantly, to provide long-term phytostabilization monitoring programs with the required stability through time against changes in techniques, methods, interests, etc. that will inevitably occur during the monitoring program. Finally, a Phytostabilization Monitoring Card, based on both ecological attributes and ecosystem services, for soil microbial properties is provided.

  11. Long-term monitoring of fecal steroid hormones in female snow leopards (Panthera uncia) during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Inada, Sayaka; Seki, Kazuya; Sasaki, Aiko; Hama, Natsuki; Kusunoki, Hiroshi

    2011-05-02

    Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1) estradiol-17β, (2) progesterone and (3) cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1) first housed with a male in all year round and then (2) in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days). The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g) were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g) (P<0.05). Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g) were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g) (P<0.05). Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding success.

  12. Comparing State-of-the-Art Evolutionary Multi-Objective Algorithms for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Kollat, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a modified version of Deb's Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which the authors have named the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (Epsilon-NSGAII), at solving a four objective long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM) design test case. The Epsilon-NSGAII incorporates prior theoretical competent evolutionary algorithm (EA) design concepts and epsilon-dominance archiving to improve the original NSGAII's efficiency, reliability, and ease-of-use. This algorithm eliminates much of the traditional trial-and-error parameterization associated with evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) through epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing, and automatic termination. The effectiveness and reliability of the new algorithm is compared to the original NSGAII as well as two other benchmark multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), the Epsilon-Dominance Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (Epsilon-MOEA) and the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2). These MOEAs have been selected because they have been demonstrated to be highly effective at solving numerous multi-objective problems. The results presented in this study indicate superior performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII in terms of the hypervolume indicator, unary Epsilon-indicator, and first-order empirical attainment function metrics. In addition, the runtime metric results indicate that the diversity and convergence dynamics of the Epsilon-NSGAII are competitive to superior relative to the SPEA2, with both algorithms greatly outperforming the NSGAII and Epsilon-MOEA in terms of these metrics. The improvements in performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII over its parent algorithm the NSGAII demonstrate that the application of Epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing with archive injection, and automatic termination greatly improve algorithm efficiency and reliability. In addition, the usability of

  13. Long-term Monitoring of Ecological and Geomorphic Adjustments to Dam Removal in an Upland Mesic Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Doyle, H.; Kynard, B.; Dietrich, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    . Downstream abundances of some species in the first year were markedly reduced in dam-adjacent sections in response to the major geomorphic changes associated with removal and a subsequent flood. Since then, abundances have generally stablilized or increased, demonstrating the resilience of these species, and the importance of a long-term approach.

  14. Long-term Ocean Bottom Monitoring for Shallow Slow Earthquakes in the Hyuga-nada, Nankai Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Maeda, T.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hyuga-nada region, nearby the western end of the Nankai Trough in Japan, is one of the most active areas of shallow slow earthquakes in the world. Recently, ocean-bottom observation of offshore seismicity near the trench succeeded in detecting shallow tremor. The observed traces contained a complete episode lasting for one month exhibiting similar migration property of deep tremor [Yamashita et al., 2015]. This activity was associated with shallow very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) activity documented by land-based broadband seismic network. The coincidence between tremor and VLFE activities and similarity of their migration pattern show strong resemblance with the episodic tremor and slip episodes; this similarity suggests that the tremor activity in the shallow plate boundary may also be coupled with VLFE and short-term slow slip events in this area. It is important clarifying the seismicity including slow earthquakes to understand the slip behavior at a shallow plate boundary, and to improve assessments of the possibility of tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake that is anticipated to occur at the Nankai Trough. Motivated by these issues, we started long-term ocean-bottom monitoring in this area from May 2014 using 3 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers. In January 2015, we replaced the instruments and obtained the first data which includes minor shallow tremor and VLFE activity on June 1-3, 2014. Preliminary results of data processing show that the shallow tremor activity occurred at the northwestern part of the 2013 activity. The location corresponds the point where the tremors stopped migrating to further north direction and turned sharply eastward in the 2013 activity. On the other hand, clear tremor migration was not found in the 2014 activity. This local activity may imply that regional/small-scale heterogeneous structures such as a subducting sea mount affect the activity pattern. During the 2014 observation, many ordinary earthquakes also

  15. A new concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter capable of precision long-term monitoring in marine geodesy and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennerich, Hans-Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset.

  16. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

    2008-09-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

  17. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  18. Long-term TIR imagery processing for spatiotemporal monitoring of surface thermal features in volcanic environment: A case study in the Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardo, G.; Sansivero, F.; Chiodini, G.

    2015-02-01

    Different procedures were used to analyze a comprehensive time series of nighttime thermal infrared images acquired from October 2006 to June 2013 by a permanent station at Pisciarelli (Campi Flegrei, Italy). The methodologies were aimed at the detection and quantification of possible spatiotemporal changes in the ground-surface thermal features of an area affected by diffuse degassing. Long-term infrared time series images were processed without taking into account atmospheric conditions and emissivity estimations. The data obtained were compared with the trends of independent geophysical and geochemical parameters, which suggested that long-term temporal variations of the surface maximum temperatures were governed by the dynamics of the deeper hydrothermal system. Analogously, the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system are likely to control the short-period thermal oscillations that overlie the long-term thermal signals. The map of the yearly rates of temperature change shows temperature increases clustered in the thermal anomalous area of the infrared images, without evidence of modifications to the extension of the anomaly or of growth of new areas with significant thermal emission. This suggests that in the present state, the heat transfer is mainly due to hot gas emission through preexisting fractures and vents. Our data indicate that the comprehensive picture of the spatiotemporal evolution of the thermal features of the hydrothermal sites obtained by long-term infrared monitoring can provide useful information toward refining physical and conceptual models, as well as improving surveillance of active volcanoes.

  19. Intended long-term permafrost monitoring in Austria: Observations from eight years (2006-2014) of ground temperature monitoring in the Tauern Range, Central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Lintschnig, Michèle

    2015-04-01

    At present permafrost monitoring in Austria is carried out by several institutions at some 20 sites in the Austrian Alps. However, so far this monitoring is not coordinated and institutionalised in terms of monitoring strategy, organization, data management and funding. Within the currently running permAT project such an institutionalization is in progress. Permafrost in the Austrian mountains is rather warm and hence sensitive to present climate change. Consequently permafrost conditions and changes are of increasing importance also for the public. Therefore, it is evident that a coordinated and institutionalised long-term monitoring of ground temperature in Austria is essential for permafrost understanding and people's safety. In this contribution we present up to eight years of field data from nine different study sites in Austria. All sites are located in the highest mountain range in Austria, the Tauern Range (maximum elevation 3798 m asl) covering some 9000 km² of the national territory. The nine different study sites are located between latitude 46°55' to 47°22' and longitude 12°44' to 14°41'. Altogether 57 ground temperature monitoring sites have been installed in 2006 and 2007 at the nine study sites using one- (at 23 sites) and three-channel (at 34 sites) miniature temperature dataloggers produced by GeoPrecision, Germany. Therefore, more than 120 ground temperature data series are available from between the ground surface to maximum depths of 2.75 m. The 57 monitoring sites range from 1922 to 3002 m asl in elevation and consider flat terrain as well as step rock walls. All slope aspects are adequately considered. Relevant research questions we intend to address in this contribution include (a) general ground thermal conditions in 2006-2014, (b) the influence of different substrates and aspects on ground temperatures, (c) potential permafrost occurrence, (d) changes or stable conditions during the observation period, (e) regional pattern, and (f

  20. Prognostic value of intra-operative abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for long-term outcome of hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiping; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of intra-operative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of post-operative outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) is under debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intra-operative AMR changes and long-term post-operative outcome. We monitored intra-operative AMR during microvascular decompression (MVD) in consecutive patients with HFS (n = 104). Patients in this study were divided into two groups based on whether their AMR disappeared or persisted following MVD. Ninety patients were followed-up, and the mean duration from surgery to final follow-up examination was 3.7 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. AMR disappeared during surgery for 80 patients; of these, 74 achieved complete resolution of HFS, five had persistent HFS, and one patient developed a recurrence of HFS. Of the 10 patients with persistent AMR despite effective MVD, eight patients achieved complete resolution, one patient had persistent HFS, and one developed recurrent HFS. The long-term clinical outcome of HFS after MVD did not significantly correlate with intra-operative AMR changes (p = 0.791). Therefore, we suggest that intra-operative AMR monitoring may not be a reliable indicator of long-term post-operative outcome for HFS.

  1. A prospective study on the cost-effective utilization of long-term inpatient video-EEG monitoring in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Chemmanam, Thomas; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sarma, Sankara P; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2009-04-01

    To investigate diagnostic value, therapeutic benefit and cost-effective utilization of video-EEG monitoring (VEM) in a comprehensive epilepsy program in a developing country. The authors prospectively recruited all patients who underwent long-term (> or =3 hours) inpatient VEM during a 10-month period. The cohort was followed to gather information about the proportion of patients in whom long-term management was altered by VEM and resultant impact on direct health care costs. Out of 143 study subjects (median age 22 years), 102 (71.3%) were referred for presurgical evaluation. The median duration of VEM was 61 hours, and median number of events recorded per patient was 3. Video-EEG monitoring helped to clarify the epilepsy syndromic diagnosis in 123 of 132 (93.2%) patients referred with the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. Video-EEG monitoring confirmed coexistent complex partial seizures in 4 of 11 (36.4%) patients with a referral diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic events. During mean follow-up period of 2.2 years, 48 patients (33.6%) underwent epilepsy surgery. A significant decrease in antiepileptic drug polytherapy, and minimization in recurring direct medical and nonmedical costs occurred. In addition to immediate diagnostic usefulness, VEM contributes significantly to long-term therapeutic and economic benefits for patients with difficult to diagnose and treat paroxysmal events.

  2. Hydrologic monitoring and selected hydrologic and environmental studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Georgia, 2011–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Dalton, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    This compendium of papers describes results of hydrologic monitoring and hydrologic and environmental studies completed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Georgia during 2011–2013. The USGS addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia working with local, State, and Federal partners. As the primary Federal science agency for water resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation’s rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. During 2011–2013, the USGS continued a long-term program of monitoring stream and groundwater resources, including flow, water quality, and water use. In addition, a variety of hydrologic and environmental studies were completed to assess water availability, hydrologic hazards, and the impact of development on water resources. Information on USGS activities in Georgia is available online at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/.

  3. An approach to design long-term monitoring and evaluation frameworks in multi-actor systems--a case in water management.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Leon M; Naber, Arienne C; Enserink, Bert

    2012-11-01

    Learning-by-doing and adaptive management require careful monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of environmental policies and programs under implementation. Selecting relevant indicators is difficult, especially when monitoring over a longer period of time. Further challenges arise when policies are developed as a collaborative effort among multiple actors. This paper discusses an approach to design frameworks for long-term monitoring and evaluation in multi-actor systems. It uses Dynamic Actor Network Analysis (DANA) as an actor-sensitive method to reconstruct program theories. This is combined with elements of assumption-based planning to identify critical assumptions and associated indicators to incorporate the dynamic aspects related to long-term monitoring. An application of this approach is described for a case of water management in the Netherlands. Here, mapping multiple perspectives and identifying critical assumptions helped to broaden the scope of monitoring in important ways. Identifying associated indicators and expectations on their development in response to policy implementation proved more difficult. From this case, it can be concluded that the approach is feasible, useful, but also demanding. However, with continuing trends of networked governance and adaptive management, additional efforts to reflect these trends in monitoring and evaluation, through this and similar approaches, are needed.

  4. Determination of epileptic focus side in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using long-term noninvasive fNIRS/EEG monitoring for presurgical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rizki, Edmi Edison; Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Noninvasive localization of an epileptogenic zone is a fundamental step for presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients. Here, we applied long-term simultaneous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)/electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for focus diagnosis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Six MTLE patients underwent long-term (8–16 h per day for 4 days) fNIRS/EEG monitoring for the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. Four spontaneous seizures were successfully recorded out of the six patients. To determine oxy-Hb amplitude, the period-average values of oxy-Hb across 20 s from the EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onset were calculated for both hemispheres from the simultaneously recorded fNIRS data. The average oxy-Hb values for the temporal lobe at the earlier EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onsets were greater for the epileptic side than for the contralateral side after EEG activity suppression, spike train, and clinical seizure in all four cases. The true laterality was determined based on the relief of seizures by selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy. Thus, oxy-Hb amplitude could be a reliable measure for determining the epileptic focus side. Long-term simultaneous fNIRS/EEG measurement serves as an effective tool for recording spontaneous seizures. Cerebral hemodynamic measurement by fNIRS would serve as a valuable supplementary noninvasive measurement method for presurgical evaluation of MTLE. PMID:26158007

  5. Long-term monitoring of the earth's radiation budget; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 17, 18, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The uses of the broadband flux measurements as well as the improvements in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment in instrumentation and data reduction are summarized. Scientific uses of earth-radiation budget data are discussed, along with a perspective on the instrumentation giving a new foundation for studies of the radiation budget, with emphasis on calibration and long-term stability. Cloud identification and angular modeling are covered including angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion and the pattern recognition of clouds and ice in polar regions. The surface-radiation budget and atmospheric radiative flux divergence from the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System are covered, and time dependence of the earth's radiation fields, determination of the outgoing longwave radiation and its diurnal variations are considered.

  6. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's South Temperate domain: Oval BA and the cyclic development of structured sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J.; Adamoli, G.; Hahn, G.; Jacquesson, M.; Vedovato, M.; Mettig, H.-J.

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of atmospheric phenomena in Jupiter's South Temperate domain, covering the years 2001-2012, is here deduced from amateur images. We summarise the long-term history of the major features, viz. a succession of structured cyclonic sectors of the South Temperate Belt (STB), one of which is coupled to the single large anticyclonic oval (oval BA). The other structured segments begin as small dark spots or streaks remote from oval BA, then expand, and eventually catch up and merge with the dark segment at BA, inducing intense disturbance in and around it. This cycle has been completed three times in 15 years, maintaining at least 2 structured sectors at all times. The major changes in drift rate of oval BA appear to be due to the impacts and subsequent shrinkage of the structured segments. From 2008 onwards, oval BA has been shrinking and shifting southwards.

  7. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), Indiana myotis (M. sodalis), and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis) - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11%) in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38%) in P. subflavus, 30% (±26%) in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18%) in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and thus has wide

  8. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Amelon, Sybill K.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species – little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), Indiana myotis (M. sodalis), and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis) – in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999–2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11%) in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38%) in P. subflavus, 30% (±26%) in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18%) in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and thus

  9. Statistical analysis of modal properties of a cable-stayed bridge through long-term structural health monitoring with wireless smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadollahi, Parisa; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of complex structures such as long-span bridges requires dense deployment of sensors. Traditional wired sensor systems are generally expensive and time-consuming to install due to cabling. With wireless communication and on-board computation capabilities, wireless smart sensor networks have the advantages of being low cost, easy to deploy and maintain and therefore facilitate dense instrumentation for structural health monitoring. A long-term monitoring project was recently carried out for a cable-stayed bridge in South Korea with a dense array of 113 smart sensors, which feature the world's largest wireless smart sensor network for civil structural monitoring. This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of the modal properties including natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the monitored cable-stayed bridge. Data analyzed in this paper is composed of structural vibration signals monitored during a 12-month period under ambient excitations. The correlation between environmental temperature and the modal frequencies is also investigated. The results showed the long-term statistical structural behavior of the bridge, which serves as the basis for Bayesian statistical updating for the numerical model.

  10. Historical Prediction Modeling Approach for Estimating Long-Term Concentrations of PM2.5 in Cohort Studies before the 1999 Implementation of Widespread Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Young; Olives, Casey; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D.; Larson, Timothy V.; Keller, Joshua P.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent cohort studies have used exposure prediction models to estimate the association between long-term residential concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health. Because these prediction models rely on PM2.5 monitoring data, predictions for times before extensive spatial monitoring present a challenge to understanding long-term exposure effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Reference Method (FRM) network for PM2.5 was established in 1999. Objectives: We evaluated a novel statistical approach to produce high-quality exposure predictions from 1980 through 2010 in the continental United States for epidemiological applications. Methods: We developed spatio-temporal prediction models using geographic predictors and annual average PM2.5 data from 1999 through 2010 from the FRM and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks. Temporal trends before 1999 were estimated by using a) extrapolation based on PM2.5 data in FRM/IMPROVE, b) PM2.5 sulfate data in the Clean Air Status and Trends Network, and c) visibility data across the Weather Bureau Army Navy network. We validated the models using PM2.5 data collected before 1999 from IMPROVE, California Air Resources Board dichotomous sampler monitoring (CARB dichot), the Children’s Health Study (CHS), and the Inhalable Particulate Network (IPN). Results: In our validation using pre-1999 data, the prediction model performed well across three trend estimation approaches when validated using IMPROVE and CHS data (R2 = 0.84–0.91) with lower R2 values in early years. Model performance using CARB dichot and IPN data was worse (R2 = 0.00–0.85) most likely because of fewer monitoring sites and inconsistent sampling methods. Conclusions: Our prediction modeling approach will allow health effects estimation associated with long-term exposures to PM2.5 over extended time periods ≤ 30 years. Citation: Kim SY, Olives C, Sheppard L, Sampson PD

  11. Long-term monitoring of captive red drum Sciaenops ocellatus reveals that calling incidence and structure correlate with egg deposition.

    PubMed

    Montie, E W; Kehrer, C; Yost, J; Brenkert, K; O'Donnell, T; Denson, M R

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, quantitative data were collected to clarify the relationship between calling, call structure and eggs produced in a captive population of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Sciaenops ocellatus were held in four tanks equipped with long-term acoustic loggers to record underwater sound throughout a simulated reproductive season. Maximal sound production of captive S. ocellatus occurred when the photoperiod shifted from 13·0 to 12·5 h of light, and the water temperature decreased to c. 25° C. These captive settings are similar to the amount of daylight and water temperatures observed during the autumn, which is the primary spawning period for S. ocellatus. Sciaenops ocellatus exhibited daily patterns of calling with peak sound production occurring in the evenings between 0·50 h before dark and 1·08 h after dark. Spawning occurred only on evenings in which S. ocellatus were calling, and spawning was more productive when S. ocellatus produced more calls with longer durations and more pulses. This study provides ample evidence that sound production equates to spawning in captive S. ocellatus when calls are longer than 0·8 s and contain more than seven pulses. The fact that more calling, longer calls and higher sound pressure levels are associated with spawns that are more productive indicates that acoustic metrics can provide quantitative information on spawning in the wild.

  12. Long-term monitoring of airborne nickel (Ni) pollution in association with some potential source processes in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Mauulida, Puteri T; Song, Sang-Keun

    2014-09-01

    The environmental behavior and pollution status of nickel (Ni) were investigated in seven major cities in Korea over a 13-year time span (1998-2010). The mean concentrations of Ni measured during the whole study period fell within the range of 3.71 (Gwangju: GJ) to 12.6ngm(-3) (Incheon: IC). Although Ni values showed a good comparability in a relatively large spatial scale, its values in most cities (6 out of 7) were subject to moderate reductions over the study period. To assess the effect of major sources on the long-term distribution of Ni, the relationship between their concentrations and the potent source processes like non-road transportation sources (e.g., ship and aircraft emissions) were examined from some cities with port and airport facilities. The potential impact of long-range transport of Asian dust particles in controlling Ni levels was also evaluated. The overall results suggest that the Ni levels were subject to gradual reductions over the study period irrespective of changes in such localized non-road source activities. The pollution of Ni at all the study sites was maintained well below the international threshold (Directive 2004/107/EC) value of 20ngm(-3).

  13. Smart ECG Monitoring Patch with Built-in R-Peak Detection for Long-Term HRV Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, W K; Yoon, H; Park, K S

    2016-07-01

    Since heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is widely used to evaluate the physiological status of the human body, devices specifically designed for such applications are needed. To this end, we developed a smart electrocardiography (ECG) patch. The smart patch measures ECG using three electrodes integrated into the patch, filters the measured signals to minimize noise, performs analog-to-digital conversion, and detects R-peaks. The measured raw ECG data and the interval between the detected R-peaks can be recorded to enable long-term HRV analysis. Experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of the built-in R-wave detection, robustness of the device under motion, and applicability to the evaluation of mental stress. The R-peak detection results obtained with the device exhibited a sensitivity of 99.29%, a positive predictive value of 100.00%, and an error of 0.71%. The device also