Science.gov

Sample records for long-term interest rates

  1. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  2. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  3. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  4. 18 CFR 367.4270 - Account 427, Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on long-term debt. 367.4270 Section 367.4270 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Interest on long-term debt. (a) This account must include the amount of interest on outstanding long-term..., Other long-term debt (§ 367.2240). (b) This account must be kept or supported so as to show the...

  5. 17 CFR 256.427 - Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interest on long-term debt... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.427 Interest on long-term debt. This account shall include the amount of interest accrued on outstanding long-term debt owed by the...

  6. 17 CFR 256.427 - Interest on long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest on long-term debt... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.427 Interest on long-term debt. This account shall include the amount of interest accrued on outstanding long-term debt owed by the...

  7. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  8. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  9. Long-Term Volumetric Eruption Rates and Magma Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Scott M. White Dept. Geological Sciences University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208; Joy A. Crisp Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91109; Frank J. Spera Dept. Earth Science University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106

    2005-01-01

    A global compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms of composition and petrotectonic setting to advance the understanding of long-term rates of magma generation and eruption on Earth. Repose periods between successive eruptions at a given site and intrusive:extrusive ratios were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data were available. More silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption rates than basalts. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 Å~ 10-1 km3/yr) are removed, there is a trend in decreasing average Qe with lava composition from basaltic eruptions (2.6 ± 1.0 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr) to andesites (2.3 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr) and rhyolites (4.0 ± 1.4 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr). This trend is also seen in the difference between oceanic and continental settings, as eruptions on oceanic crust tend to be predominately basaltic. All of the volcanoes occurring in oceanic settings fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 2.8 ± 0.4 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr, excluding flood basalts. Likewise, all of the volcanoes on continental crust also fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr. Flood basalts also form a distinctive class with an average Qe nearly two orders of magnitude higher than any other class. However, we have found no systematic evidence linking increased intrusive:extrusive ratios with lower volcanic rates. A simple heat balance analysis suggests that the preponderance of volcanic systems must be open magmatic systems with respect to heat and matter transport in order to maintain eruptible magma at shallow depth throughout the observed lifetime of the volcano. The empirical upper limit of Å`10-2 km3/yr for magma eruption rate in systems with relatively high intrusive:extrusive ratios may be a consequence of the fundamental parameters

  10. Investigating possible gravity change rates expected from long-term deep crustal processes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, M.; Simoes, M.; Mouthereau, F.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.-C.

    2014-07-01

    We propose to test if gravimetry can prove useful in discriminating different models of long-term deep crustal processes in the case of the Taiwan mountain belt. We discuss two existing tectonic models that differ in the deep processes proposed to sustain the long-term growth of the orogen. One model assumes underplating of the uppermost Eurasian crust with subduction of the deeper part of the crust into the mantle. The other one suggests the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust above crustal-scale ramps, the lower crust being accreted into the collisional orogen. We compute the temporal gravity changes caused only by long-term rock mass transfers at depth for each of them. We show that the underplating model implies a rate of gravity change of -6 × 10-2 μGal yr-1, a value that increases to 2 × 10-2 μGal yr-1 if crustal subduction is neglected. If the accretion of the whole Eurasian crust occurs, a rate of 7 × 10-2 μGal yr-1 is obtained. The two models tested differ both in signal amplitude and spatial distribution. The yearly gravity changes expected by long-term deep crustal mass processes in Taiwan are two orders of magnitude below the present-day uncertainty of land-based gravity measurements. Assuming that these annually averaged long-term gravity changes will linearly accumulate with ongoing mountain building, multidecadal time-series are needed to identify comparable rates of gravity change. However, as gravity is sensitive to any mass redistribution, effects of short-term processes such as seismicity and surface mass transfers (erosion, sedimentation, ground-water) may prevent from detecting any long-term deep signal. This study indicates that temporal gravity is not appropriate for deciphering the long-term deep crustal processes involved in the Taiwan mountain belt.

  11. Divergent microtubule assembly rates after short- versus long-term loss of end-modulating kinesins

    PubMed Central

    Wordeman, Linda; Decarreau, Justin; Vicente, Juan Jesus; Wagenbach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Depletion of microtubule (MT) regulators can initiate stable alterations in MT assembly rates that affect chromosome instability and mitotic spindle function, but the manner by which cellular MT assembly rates can stably increase or decrease is not understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we measured the response of microtubule assembly to both rapid and long-term loss of MT regulators MCAK/Kif2C and Kif18A. Depletion of MCAK/Kif2C by siRNA stably decreases MT assembly rates in mitotic spindles, whereas depletion of Kif18A stably increases rates of assembly. Surprisingly, this is not phenocopied by rapid rapamycin-dependent relocalization of MCAK/Kif2C and Kif18A to the plasma membrane. Instead, this treatment yields opposite affects on MT assembly. Rapidly increased MT assembly rates are balanced by a decrease in nucleated microtubules, whereas nucleation appears to be maximal and limiting for decreased MT assembly rates and also for long-term treatments. We measured amplified tubulin synthesis during long-term depletion of MT regulators and hypothesize that this is the basis for different phenotypes arising from long-term versus rapid depletion of MT regulators. PMID:26912793

  12. Calibrating a long-term meteoric 10Be accumulation rate in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusser, Lucas; Graly, Joseph; Bierman, Paul; Rood, Dylan

    2010-10-01

    Using 13 samples collected from a 4.1 meter profile in a well-dated and stable New Zealand fluvial terrace, we present the first long-term accumulation rate for meteoric 10Be in soil (1.68 to 1.72 × 106 at/(cm2·yr)) integrated over the past ˜18 ka. Site-specific accumulation data, such as these, are prerequisite to the application of meteoric 10Be in surface process studies. Our data begin the process of calibrating long-term meteoric 10Be delivery rates across latitude and precipitation gradients. Our integrated rate is lower than contemporary meteoric 10Be fluxes measured in New Zealand rainfall, suggesting that long-term average precipitation, dust flux, or both, at this site were less than modern values. With accurately calibrated long-term delivery rates, such as this, meteoric 10Be will be a powerful tool for studying rates of landscape change in environments where other cosmogenic nuclides, such as in situ 10Be, cannot be used.

  13. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-09-22

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements later in life. We manipulated the rearing conditions in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using brood size manipulation and cross-fostering. It has previously been shown in this species that being reared in a large brood has negative fitness consequences, and that such effects are stronger in daughters than in sons. We show that, independent of mass, standard metabolic rate of 1-year-old birds was higher when they had been reared in a large brood, and this is to our knowledge the first demonstration of such an effect. Furthermore, the brood size effect was stronger in daughters than in sons. This suggests that metabolic efficiency may play a role in mediating the long-term fitness consequences of rearing conditions. PMID:17148435

  14. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-01-01

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements later in life. We manipulated the rearing conditions in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using brood size manipulation and cross-fostering. It has previously been shown in this species that being reared in a large brood has negative fitness consequences, and that such effects are stronger in daughters than in sons. We show that, independent of mass, standard metabolic rate of 1-year-old birds was higher when they had been reared in a large brood, and this is to our knowledge the first demonstration of such an effect. Furthermore, the brood size effect was stronger in daughters than in sons. This suggests that metabolic efficiency may play a role in mediating the long-term fitness consequences of rearing conditions. PMID:17148435

  15. Short-term and Long-term Variations of Dose Rate measured by MSL/RAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Rafkin, Scot; Boettcher, Stephan; Reitz, Guenther; Koehler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Martin, Cesar; Burmeister, Soenke; Posner, Arik; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Hassler, Donald M.; Brinza, David; Boehm, Henning Eckart; Lohf, Henning; Appel, Jan

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard Mars Science Laboratory’s (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the spectra of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. Several effects have been observed for the first time to influence the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR)-driven particle radiation on the surface: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides [Rafkin 2014]; [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere; and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR fluxes by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activities and heliospheric rotation. These concurrent factors affect the dose rate variations measured by RAD on the Martian surface. RAD also recorded the dose rate during the 253-day cruise phase of MSL from the Earth to Mars. The variations of the GCR-induced dose rates during quiet time period without the direct detection of Solar Particle Events (SPE) were solely driven by the changes of heliospheric conditions (i.e. [c]). The RAD cruise and surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed in order to understand how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) individually correlate with the measured dose rates.

  16. Long-term mindfulness training is associated with reliable differences in resting respiration rate

    PubMed Central

    Wielgosz, Joseph; Schuyler, Brianna S.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Respiration rate is known to correlate with aspects of psychological well-being, and attention to respiration is a central component of mindfulness meditation training. Both traditional contemplative systems and recent empirical evidence support an association between formal mindfulness practice and decreased respiration rate. However, the question of whether long-term mindfulness training is associated with stable, generalized changes in respiration has yet to be directly investigated. We analyzed respiration patterns across multiple time points, separated by two months or more, in a group of long-term mindfulness meditation practitioners (LTMs, n = 31) and a matched group of non-meditators (Controls, n = 38). On average, LTMs showed slower baseline respiration rate (RR) than Controls. Among LTMs, greater practice experience was associated with slower RR, independently of age and gender. Furthermore, this association was specific to intensive retreat practice, and was not seen for routine daily practice. Full days of meditation practice did not produce detectable changes in baseline RR, suggesting distal rather than immediate effects. All effects were independent of physiological characteristics including height, weight, body-mass index and waist-hip ratio. We discuss implications for continued study of the long-term effects of mindfulness training on health and well-being. PMID:27272738

  17. Long-term mindfulness training is associated with reliable differences in resting respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Joseph; Schuyler, Brianna S; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Respiration rate is known to correlate with aspects of psychological well-being, and attention to respiration is a central component of mindfulness meditation training. Both traditional contemplative systems and recent empirical evidence support an association between formal mindfulness practice and decreased respiration rate. However, the question of whether long-term mindfulness training is associated with stable, generalized changes in respiration has yet to be directly investigated. We analyzed respiration patterns across multiple time points, separated by two months or more, in a group of long-term mindfulness meditation practitioners (LTMs, n = 31) and a matched group of non-meditators (Controls, n = 38). On average, LTMs showed slower baseline respiration rate (RR) than Controls. Among LTMs, greater practice experience was associated with slower RR, independently of age and gender. Furthermore, this association was specific to intensive retreat practice, and was not seen for routine daily practice. Full days of meditation practice did not produce detectable changes in baseline RR, suggesting distal rather than immediate effects. All effects were independent of physiological characteristics including height, weight, body-mass index and waist-hip ratio. We discuss implications for continued study of the long-term effects of mindfulness training on health and well-being. PMID:27272738

  18. Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Carroll, S.A.; Phillips, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100{degree}C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 {minus} (Q/K){sup 1}/{sigma}) where {sigma} = 10.

  19. Short and long-term delivery rates of meteoric 10Be to terrestrial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Bierman, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Well-constrained, long-term average meteoric 10Be deposition rates are important when meteoric 10Be is used as a chronometer or tracer of Earth surface processes. To constrain meteoric 10Be delivery to terrestrial soils, we estimate time-integrated 10Be deposition rates from meteoric 10Be inventories measured in dated soils and compare these results to a new synthesis of short-term measurements of 10Be in precipitation. Comparison of these long-term rates to short-term measurements suggests that short-term measurements likely predict long-term meteoric 10Be deposition rates within uncertainties of ~ 20%. In precipitation measurements, it is possible to deconvolve the contribution of atmospherically-produced "primary" meteoric 10Be from "recycled" meteoric 10Be delivered by terrestrial dust if a second isotope is measured that quantifies either the recycled or primary components of meteoric 10Be deposition. We use dust-concentration dependent differences between 7Be and 10Be measurements to make new estimates of the recycled contribution to total meteoric 10Be flux delivered to the Earth's surface. These dust-corrected data show a strong linear dependence between precipitation amount and primary meteoric 10Be flux. Concentrations of primary meteoric 10Be in mid- and low-latitude precipitation vary predictably by latitude between 0.63 · 10 4 and 2.05 · 10 4 atoms/cm 3 of precipitation, providing a first-order estimate of primary meteoric 10Be deposition for a given latitude and precipitation rate.

  20. Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Peter W; Ehlers, Todd A; Mitchell, Sara G; Montgomery, David R

    2003-12-11

    Past studies of tectonically active mountain ranges have suggested strong coupling and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and topography. For example, rock uplift generates topographic relief, thereby enhancing precipitation, which focuses erosion and in turn influences rates and spatial patterns of further rock uplift. Although theoretical links between climate, erosion and uplift have received much attention, few studies have shown convincing correlations between observable indices of these processes on mountain-range scales. Here we show that strongly varying long-term (>10(6)-10(7) yr) erosion rates inferred from apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages across the Cascades mountains of Washington state closely track modern mean annual precipitation rates. Erosion and precipitation rates vary over an order of magnitude across the range with maxima of 0.33 mm yr(-1) and 3.5 m yr(-1), respectively, with both maxima located 50 km west (windward) of the topographic crest of the range. These data demonstrate a strong coupling between precipitation and long-term erosion rates on the mountain-range scale. If the range is currently in topographic steady state, rock uplift on the west flank is three to ten times faster than elsewhere in the range, possibly in response to climatically focused erosion.

  1. Long-term cosmogenic 10Be catchment-wide erosion rates in the Kruger National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzbach, Christoph; Paape, Alexander; Reinwarth, Bastian; Baade, Jussi; Miller, Jordan; Rowntree, Kate

    2015-04-01

    In this study we estimated long-term catchment-wide erosion rates in the central and southern Kruger National Park with cosmogenic 10Be analyses. Samples were collected in small catchments (2-100 km2) upstream of dams, which were used to determine short-term sediment yield rates. 10Be-derived erosion rates vary from 4-15 mm/kyr. Although there are significant site-specific differences in geomorphic parameters and precipitation we could not identify a single parameter controlling long-term erosion. Geomorphic fieldwork reveals that an unknown fraction of sampled sand-sized channel sediments derived from partly extensive and up to a few-meters deep gully erosion, which may lead to an overestimation of 10Be-derived erosion rates. Cosmogenic nuclide production is rapidly decreasing with depth and consequently the measured 10Be concentration of stream sediments is a mixture of (i) sand with high 10Be concentration from colluvial creep or sheet flow from hillslopes and (ii) sand with low 10Be concentration from gully erosion. To correct erosion rates, we quantify sediments derived from gullies using a combination of mapping gullies using remote sensing data and field work and geochemical characterisation of intact hillslopes and gully side walls.

  2. Effects of long-term grazing on sediment deposition and salt-marsh accretion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elschot, Kelly; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Temmerman, Stijn; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attempted to predict whether coastal marshes will be able to keep up with future acceleration of sea-level rise by estimating marsh accretion rates. However, there are few studies focussing on the long-term effects of herbivores on vegetation structure and subsequent effects on marsh accretion. Deposition of fine-grained, mineral sediment during tidal inundations, together with organic matter accumulation from the local vegetation, positively affects accretion rates of marsh surfaces. Tall vegetation can enhance sediment deposition by reducing current flow and wave action. Herbivores shorten vegetation height and this could potentially reduce sediment deposition. This study estimated the effects of herbivores on 1) vegetation height, 2) sediment deposition and 3) resulting marsh accretion after long-term (at least 16 years) herbivore exclusion of both small (i.e. hare and goose) and large grazers (i.e. cattle) for marshes of different ages. Our results firstly showed that both small and large herbivores can have a major impact on vegetation height. Secondly, grazing processes did not affect sediment deposition. Finally, trampling by large grazers affected marsh accretion rates by compacting the soil. In many European marshes, grazing is used as a tool in nature management as well as for agricultural purposes. Thus, we propose that soil compaction by large grazers should be taken in account when estimating the ability of coastal systems to cope with an accelerating sea-level rise.

  3. Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Maekawa, T; Nakajima, K; Sadamitsu, D; Tateishi, A

    1998-11-01

    Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients were investigated. Heart rates were monitored continuously, and the data were stored, edited, and interpolated to allow for data lost during calibration and disconnection of the sensors for various treatments. Heart rate power spectra were calculated using the fast Fourier transform method. The power spectra of the patients who recovered showed that the heart rate fluctuated and produced a 1/f relationship, termed 1/f fluctuations, whereas those of patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) consisted of white-noise-like signals. The power spectra in brain-dead patients showed a 1/f relationship under steady-state conditions, while the power density and variation of the frequency distribution were lower than those in a normal subject. Therefore, 1/f fluctuations appear to be universal and occur independent of the central nervous system. PMID:9844751

  4. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  5. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates long-term depression and learning rate.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Julien; Unsain, Nicolas; Gamache, Karine; Thomas, Rhalena A; De Leon, Andres; Johnstone, Aaron; Nader, Karim; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A

    2016-09-01

    Hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) is an active form of synaptic plasticity that is necessary for consolidation of spatial memory, contextual fear memory, and novelty acquisition. Recent studies have shown that caspases (CASPs) play an important role in NMDA receptor-dependent LTD and are involved in postsynaptic remodeling and synaptic maturation. In the present study, we examined the role of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), a putative endogenous CASP inhibitor, in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Analysis in acute brain slices and in cultured hippocampal neurons revealed that XIAP deletion increases CASP-3 activity, enhances α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor internalization, sharply increases LTD, and significantly reduces synapse density. In vivo behaviors related to memory were also altered in XIAP(-/-) mice, with faster acquisition of spatial object location and increased fear memory observed. Together, these results indicate that XIAP plays an important physiologic role in regulating sublethal CASP-3 activity within central neurons and thereby facilitates synaptic plasticity and memory acquisition.-Gibon, J., Unsain, N., Gamache, K., Thomas, R. A., De Leon, A., Johnstone, A., Nader, K., Séguéla, P., Barker, P. A. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates long-term depression and learning rate.

  6. Long-term Evolution of Seismicity Rates in California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, D. T.; Shearer, P. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of seismicity rates within geothermal fields provides important observational constraints on the ways in which rocks respond to natural and anthropogenic loading. We develop an iterative, regularized inversion procedure to partition the observed seismicity rate into two primary components: (1) the interaction seismicity rate due to earthquake-earthquake triggering, and (2) the time-varying background seismicity rate controlled by other time-dependent stresses, including anthropogenic forcing. We parameterize our seismicity model using an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) framework with a background seismicity rate that varies smoothly with time. We apply our methodology to study long-term changes in seismicity rates at the Geysers and Salton Sea geothermal fields in California. At the Geysers, we find that the background seismicity rate is highly correlated with fluid injection. Seismicity at the Geysers has experienced a rate increase of approximately 50% since year 2000 and exhibits strong seasonal fluctuations, both of which can be explained by changes in fluid injection following the completion of the Santa Rosa pipeline. At the Salton Sea, the background seismicity rate has remained relatively stable since 1990, with short-term fluctuations that are not obviously modulated by fluid fluxes related to the operation of the geothermal field. The differences in the field-wide seismicity responses of the Geysers and Salton Sea to geothermal plant operation may reflect differences in in-situ reservoir conditions and local tectonics, indicating that induced seismicity may not be solely a function of fluid injection and withdrawal.

  7. Do erosion rates control the long-term carbon isotope mass balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields-Zhou, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term marine carbon isotope record responds to changes in the proportional burial rates of organic carbon relative to carbonate carbon on a global scale. For this reason, high δ13C values in marine carbonate rocks are normally interpreted to reflect faster rates of organic burial and increased atmospheric oxygenation. Geochemical redox tracers fail to support this paradigm for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean, indicating perhaps that proportionally high organic burial may be associated with lower overall flux rates. Here I propose that ~107-108 year trends in average δ13C, as with seawater 87Sr/86Sr, are driven by changes in the balance between volcanism and denudation (~uplift). In other words, high proportional organic burial may be related to increases in the net CO2 flux (= organic carbon burial + Ca-Mg silicate weathering) relative to the carbonate weathering flux. According to this model, high baseline δ13C values will be associated with periods of heightened volcanic activity and/or diminished tectonic uplift. Conversely, lower baseline δ13C values can be related to times when the global carbon cycle was dominated by carbonate and oxidative weathering due to high rates of physical erosion. Shorter 105-106 year positive δ13C excursions have also been interpreted as the 'smoking gun' to extreme oxygenation events. However, large increases in organic burial are difficult to sustain under steady-state conditions without very high volcanic fluxes, indicating that some of these excursions might be better explained by transient changes to the isotopic composition of carbon sources and sinks.

  8. Hypothesis processing as a new tool to aid managers of mental health agencies in serving long-term regional interests.

    PubMed

    Kochen, M

    1975-10-01

    Mental health planning is partly a political process, involving the articulation of the long-range interests of a regional community, formation of consensus among key people and the appropriate investment of authority, power and responsibility. Conflicts between the short-term self-interests of planners and the long-term general interest usually arise. This paper claims that it is feasible to increase the expected number of cases in which a region's longer-term interest is served without radical changes in existing planning processes or ideologies. The means for doing this are new kinds of information systems that serve planners as tools to increase their awareness about assumptions, hypotheses and problem representations. The conceptual and technological bases for developing such systems stem from progress in artificial intelligence in the direction of hypothesis-processing algorithms. The proposed application to mental health planning is described. Arguments are presented to show how the use of such tools would increase the likelihood that longer-term regional interest are served.

  9. Revised long-term creep rates on the Hayward Fault, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Galehouse, Jon S.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Hayward fault is a source of major earthquakes, it also creeps or slips aseismically, and has done so steadily for several decades (certainly since 1921 and probably since 1869). Most of the fault creeps between 3 and 6 mm/yr, except for a 4- to 6-km-long segment near its south end that creeps at about 9 mm/yr. We present results of our recent surveys to recover angles and deflection lines established across the fault in the 1960s and 1970s, but unmonitored since. We have added data from more offset cultural features to the long-term creep rate data set and made substantial improvements to the analytical method used to compute offsets. The revised creep rate values improve our knowledge of spatial and temporal variation along the fault. The more accurate revised data has reduced the estimate of the average creep rate along most of the fault from 5.1 mm/yr to 4.6 mm/yr. Creep rates in the 9 mm/yr section near the south end have remained the same.

  10. Long-Term Cytotoxicity, pH and Dissolution Rate of AH Plus and MTA Fillapex.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da; Accorsi-Mendonça, Thais; Pedrosa, Ana Carolina; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Zaia, Alexandre A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the long-term cytotoxic effects of the MTA Fillapex and to compare them with AH Plus. Dissolution rate and pH were also evaluated. Human osteoblast cells were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from AH Plus and MTA Fillapex, and with elutes of the same specimens for 4 successive weeks. Elute's pH was evaluated at each time point. A multiparametric cell viability assay was performed. For dissolution rate, ISO methodology was used. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, complemented with the Tukey post-test (p<0.05). No significant difference was found among the materials when fresh mixed (p>0.05). After 1 week, AH Plus became non-cytotoxic on all three evaluated parameters. Conversely, MTA Fillapex remained severely and mildly cytotoxic over the entire experimental period (p<0.05). The dissolution rate of AH Plus was significantly lower than MTA Fillapex at all time points (p>0.05). The pH of AH Plus was significantly lower than MTA Fillapex at the second and third week (p<0.05). In the other tested time points no statistical difference was observed. In conclusion, MTA Fillapex remained cytotoxic after 4 weeks and its cytotoxicity may be related to the high dissolution rate of this material. PMID:27652704

  11. Interest rates factor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-07-01

    Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

  12. Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. Materials and methods One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects’ whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. Results The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Conclusion Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis. PMID:23346336

  13. Long-Term Recurrence Rates of Peptic Ulcers without Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Hyun; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Wook; Jee, Sam Ryong; Chung, Woo Chul; Shim, Ki-Nam; Baik, Gwang Ho; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this study is to investigate the recurrence rate of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) over a long follow-up period with PUD patients without Helicobacter pylori. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with PUD on endoscopy and divided them into two groups: a H. pylori-negative group (HP-negative group), and a group of patients with untreated H. pylori (HP noneradicated group). We compared the recurrence rates of PUD in these two groups and analyzed the factors that affected ulcer recurrence. Results Total of nine hospitals in Korea participated, and a total of 1,761 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The HP-negative group included 553 patients, and the HP noneradicated group included 372 patients. The 5-year cumulative probabilities of PUD recurrence were 36.4% in the HP-negative group and 43.8% in the HP noneradicated group (p=0.113). The factors that were found to affect recurrence in the HP-negative group were elder, male, and comorbid chronic kidney disease. Conclusions The 5-year cumulative probability of PUD recurrence without H. pylori infection after a long-term follow-up was 36.4% and the factors that affected recurrence were elder, male, and comorbid chronic kidney disease. PMID:27114412

  14. Short-term disruption rates and long-term outcomes of a professional parent program.

    PubMed

    Redinger, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Both traditional and specialized foster care have disruption rates ranging from 36% to 70%. Connecting Children and Families was a professional parent program that provided permanent family placements for children and young adults with significant behavior problems and mental health issues. During the 15 years of the Connecting Children and Families program, the short-term disruption rate was 21%. Long-term positive outcomes (i.e., stability in the family, reunification with birth family, or adoption) occurred for 83% of the children and young adults. This article is a program description of Connecting Children and Families. There were five key elements of this program: (a) The primary treatment was the life itself provided by the professional parents; (b) The parents were paid a significant stipend and they were treated both as professionals and as the parents of the children placed in their home; (c) The program model was one based on continuity of clinical care rather than case management; (d) Treatment interventions were derived from the fields of behaviorism and applied behavior analysis; and (e) The core value of the program was rooted in Wolfensberger's concept of social role valorization. PMID:24205552

  15. Long-term flow rates and biomat zone hydrology in soil columns receiving septic tank effluent.

    PubMed

    Beal, C D; Gardner, E A; Kirchhof, G; Menzies, N W

    2006-07-01

    Soil absorption systems (SAS) are used commonly to treat and disperse septic tank effluent (STE). SAS can hydraulically fail as a result of the low permeable biomat zone that develops on the infiltrative surface. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the hydraulic properties of biomats grown in soils of different textures, to investigate the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR) from prolonged application of STE, and to assess if soils were of major importance in determining LTAR. The STE was applied to repacked sand, Oxisol and Vertisol soil columns over a period of 16 months, at equivalent hydraulic loading rates of 50, 35 and 8L/m(2)/d, respectively. Infiltration rates, soil matric potentials, and biomat hydraulic properties were measured either directly from the soil columns or calculated using established soil physics theory. Biomats 1 to 2 cm thick developed in all soils columns with hydraulic resistances of 27 to 39 d. These biomats reduced a 4 order of magnitude variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) between the soils to a one order of magnitude variation in LTAR. A relationship between biomat resistance and organic loading rate was observed in all soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the rate and extent of biomat development. However, once the biomat was established, the LTAR was governed by the resistance of the biomat and the sub-biomat soil unsaturated flow regime induced by the biomat. Results show that whilst initial soil K(s) is likely to be important in the establishment of the biomat zone in a trench, LTAR is determined by the biomat resistance and the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity, not the K(s) of a soil. The results call into question the commonly used approach of basing the LTAR, and ultimately trench length in SAS, on the initial K(s) of soils.

  16. Long-term flow rates and biomat zone hydrology in soil columns receiving septic tank effluent.

    PubMed

    Beal, C D; Gardner, E A; Kirchhof, G; Menzies, N W

    2006-07-01

    Soil absorption systems (SAS) are used commonly to treat and disperse septic tank effluent (STE). SAS can hydraulically fail as a result of the low permeable biomat zone that develops on the infiltrative surface. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the hydraulic properties of biomats grown in soils of different textures, to investigate the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR) from prolonged application of STE, and to assess if soils were of major importance in determining LTAR. The STE was applied to repacked sand, Oxisol and Vertisol soil columns over a period of 16 months, at equivalent hydraulic loading rates of 50, 35 and 8L/m(2)/d, respectively. Infiltration rates, soil matric potentials, and biomat hydraulic properties were measured either directly from the soil columns or calculated using established soil physics theory. Biomats 1 to 2 cm thick developed in all soils columns with hydraulic resistances of 27 to 39 d. These biomats reduced a 4 order of magnitude variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) between the soils to a one order of magnitude variation in LTAR. A relationship between biomat resistance and organic loading rate was observed in all soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the rate and extent of biomat development. However, once the biomat was established, the LTAR was governed by the resistance of the biomat and the sub-biomat soil unsaturated flow regime induced by the biomat. Results show that whilst initial soil K(s) is likely to be important in the establishment of the biomat zone in a trench, LTAR is determined by the biomat resistance and the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity, not the K(s) of a soil. The results call into question the commonly used approach of basing the LTAR, and ultimately trench length in SAS, on the initial K(s) of soils. PMID:16764900

  17. Determining long-term (decadal) deep drainage rate using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Si, Bing C; de Jong, Eeltje

    2007-01-01

    The deep drainage rate is a critical hydrological parameter in understanding contamination mechanisms of soil and groundwater. Little research has been conducted on the temporal variations in deep drainage rate during the last century. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term deep drainage rate on a cultivated loamy soil in the Canadian Prairies. Three tracers were used: KCl applied in 1971, fallout tritium in 1963, and NO3* released during the initial cultivation of the field (1923). Two soil cores to a depth of 3.6 m were taken along a flat portion of the field, and soil Cl(-), 3H, and NO3* concentrations were measured as a function of depth. An additional four cores were taken for soil water content measurements between 2000 and 2003. Distinct peaks in the depth distribution of these three tracers were located at 1.27 m for Cl(-), 1.31 m for 3H, and 1.52 m for NO3*, 32, 40, and 80 yr after the application of Cl(-), 3H, and NO3*, respectively. The average deep drainage rates, calculated as the product of the estimated tracer velocity and volumetric soil water content below the active root zone, were 2.0 mm yr(-1) from the Cl(-) tracer, 2.2 mm yr(-1) from 3H, and 2.5 mm yr(-1) from the NO3* tracer. Therefore, there was little temporal variability in the groundwater recharge over the eight decades that the field has been cultivated. The recharge rates are less than 1% of the mean annual precipitation (333 mm).

  18. Changes in cat medullary neurone firing rates and synchrony following induction of respiratory long-term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, K F; Shannon, R; Lindsey, B G

    2001-01-01

    Long-term facilitation is a respiratory memory expressed as an increase in motor output lasting more than an hour. This change is induced by repeated hypoxia, stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors, or electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve or brainstem mid-line. The present work addressed the hypothesis that persistent changes in medullary respiratory neural networks contribute to long-term facilitation. Carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated by close arterial injection of CO2-saturated saline solution. Phrenic nerve efferent activity and up to 30 single medullary neurones were recorded simultaneously in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) including the dorsal respiratory group (DRG), Bötzinger-ventral respiratory group (Böt-VRG), and nucleus raphe obscurus of nine adult cats, anaesthetized, injected with a neuromuscular blocking agent, vagotomized and artificially ventilated. The firing rates of 87 of 105 neurones (83 %) changed following induction of long-term facilitation. Nine of eleven DRG and Böt-VRG putative premotor inspiratory neurones had increased firing rates with long-term facilitation. Fourteen of twenty-one raphe obscurus neurones with control firing rates less than 4 Hz had significant long-term increases in activity. Cross-correlogram analysis suggested that there were changes in effective connectivity of neuron pairs with long-term facilitation. Joint peristimulus time histograms and pattern detection methods used with ‘gravity’ analysis also detected changes in short time scale correlations associated with long-term facilitation. The results suggest that changes in firing rates and synchrony of VRG and DRG premotor neurones and altered effective connectivity among other functionally antecedent elements of the medullary respiratory network contribute to the expression of long-term facilitation. PMID:11306666

  19. Long-term survival rate of teeth receiving multidisciplinary endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A S; Radafshar, G; Taramsari, M; Darabi, F

    2014-03-01

    Deciding whether to replace or preserve a compromised tooth, even with emerging trends in implant dentistry, is still a common dilemma for practitioners. This study sought to determine the 3- to more than 10-year survival rate of teeth that had undergone endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments. A total of 245 teeth in 87 patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated. All the teeth had received crown lengthening surgery by a single periodontist. Root canal therapy and prosthodontic procedures were rendered either by specialists or by experienced general dentists. Numbers of lost teeth were recorded and the criteria for hopeless teeth were defined. Survival rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Clinical indices including pocket depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), C/R ratio, position of the restoration margin relative to the gingival margin (RM-GM) and the presence of intra-canal post were compared between different survival groups (<3, 3-5, 5-10 and >10 years) using one-way analysis of variance (anova). Potential predictors of failure were determined using the Cox regression model. The mean ± s.d. of 3-, 5-, 10- and 13-year survival rates was 98 ± 1%, 96 ± 1·6%, 83·1 ± 4·5% and 51·9 ± 14·5%, respectively. The mean PD (P < 0·013), as well as C/R ratio in the mesial (P = 0·003) and distal (P = 0·007) surfaces, was significantly higher in the >10-year-survived teeth. Bleeding index and RM-GM showed no significant differences between the groups. C/R ratio and RM-GM position appeared to be the major determinants of tooth loss. The long-term survival rate of multidisciplinary-treated teeth was 83-98% in this specific sample.

  20. Extremely low long-term erosion rates around the Gamburtsev Mountains in interior East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. E.; Thomson, S. N.; Reiners, P. W.; Hemming, S. R.; van de Flierdt, T.

    2010-11-01

    The high elevation and rugged relief (>3 km) of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) have long been considered enigmatic. Orogenesis normally occurs near plate boundaries, not cratonic interiors, and large-scale tectonic activity last occurred in East Antarctica during the Pan-African (480-600 Ma). We sampled detrital apatite from Eocene sands in Prydz Bay at the terminus of the Lambert Graben, which drained a large pre-glacial basin including the northern Gamburtsev Mountains. Apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He cooling ages constrain bedrock erosion rates throughout the catchment. We double-dated apatites to resolve individual cooling histories. Erosion was very slow, averaging 0.01-0.02 km/Myr for >250 Myr, supporting the preservation of high elevation in interior East Antarctica since at least the cessation of Permian rifting. Long-term topographic preservation lends credence to postulated high-elevation mountain ice caps in East Antarctica since at least the Cretaceous and to the idea that cold-based glaciation can preserve tectonically inactive topography.

  1. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

  2. Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2003-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  3. Prior morphine experience induces long-term increases in social interest and in appetitive behavior for natural reward.

    PubMed

    Nocjar, Christine; Panksepp, Jaak

    2007-08-01

    Brain opioids regulate social emotional responsivity. One neuro-evolutionary theory of addiction suggests that exogenous opiates may induce addiction via opioid-controlled emotional changes; with the drug eventually fulfilling the need for social comfort that is normally provided by endogenous opioids. This view predicts that past opiate experience may enduringly alter social responsivity. Although the acute social effects of opiates are well known, little evidence is available concerning the enduring effects of past opiate experience on social motivation aside from copulatory behaviors. This study evaluated the long-term effects of 10 daily morphine (10mg/kg/day) or saline injections on social and non-social motivated behaviors. Following 3 days or 2 weeks drug abstinence, social interest, food-seeking, and sexual pursuit were assessed. After 2-weeks opiate withdrawal, sexual pursuit and food-seeking behaviors were significantly increased. After a shorter 3-day withdrawal, these effects were not seen. Importantly, social interest was consistently magnified, even after short-term 3-day opiate withdrawal, and it was magnified more than sexual or food pursuit. These findings indicate that the incentive for social and non-social natural rewards were increased following withdrawal from intermittent opiate treatment, but that different morphine-induced neuroadaptations may regulate their expression.

  4. Ductile strain rates measurements reveal continental crust long-term deformation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, E.; Leloup, P. H.; Sassier, C.; Gardien, V.; Ricard, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Any discussion on the long-term crustal rheology is hindered by our poor knowledge of deformation rates in the deep crust. These rates have only been estimated to be ≤10-15 and ≥10-13 s-1 in the "stable" and highly deforming zones respectively, and measured in a few peculiar cases. Because quartz ribbons are ubiquitous in continental shear zones, the quartz-strain-rate-metry (QRS) method, based on experimentally calibrated quartz piezometers and ductile flow laws, could provide deformation rates measurements in many geological contexts. However, the results are highly sensitive on the deformation temperature that is difficult to measure. Furthermore, results vary by three orders of magnitude depending on the chosen piezometer and rheological law. If recent technical progress allow measuring more precisely the deformation temperature, it is still not clear what is the most accurate piezometer - rheological law association. We solved that dilemma by comparing strain rates measured by the QRS method with a reference one measured with another method on the same outcrop of the Ailao Shan - Red River (ASRR) shear zone. At site C1, by combining dating of syntectonic dykes and measurements of their deformation, the strain rate is calculated between 3 and 4 x10-14 s-1 between 29 to 22 Ma, (Sassier et al., JGR, 2009). Quartz ribbons sampled in site C1 show large grains recrystallized by grain boundary migration (GBM), themselves recrystallized at lower temperature by sub-grain rotation (SGR). The mean recrystallized quartz grain size for the SGR event range between 74.0 and 79.3 μm. The associated stresses, measured with Shimizu (JSG, 2008) piezometer, range between 35.2 and 38.1 MPa. Conditions of deformation of P≈ 1.5 kbar and T≈ 430°C were inferred by combining several thermobarometers on quartz, such as TitaniQ, fluid inclusions microthermometry and crystallographic fabrics. The calculated strain rate with five flow laws and three piezometers range between 3

  5. Jensen's Inequality and the Impact of Short-Term Environmental Variability on Long-Term Population Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Evan J; Thomson, David L; Li, Teng A; Xing, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    It is well established in theory that short-term environmental fluctuations could affect the long-term growth rates of wildlife populations, but this theory has rarely been tested and there remains little empirical evidence that the effect is actually important in practice. Here we develop models to quantify the effects of daily, seasonal, and yearly temperature fluctuations on the average population growth rates, and we apply them to long-term data on the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor); an endothermic species whose population growth rates follow a concave relationship with temperature. We demonstrate for the first time that the current levels of temperature variability, particularly seasonal variability, are already large enough to substantially reduce long-term population growth rates. As the climate changes, our results highlight the importance of considering the ecological effects of climate variability and not just average conditions. PMID:26352857

  6. Interest rates hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.; Hyde, S. T.; Ramsden, S.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a general method to study the hierarchical organization of financial data by embedding the structure of their correlations in metric graphs in multi-dimensional spaces. An application to two different sets of interest rates is discussed by constructing triangular embeddings on the sphere. Three-dimensional representations of these embeddings with the correct metric geometry are constructed and visualized. The resulting graphs contain the minimum spanning tree as a sub-graph and they preserve its hierarchical structure. This produces a clear cluster differentiation and allows us to compute new local and global topological quantities.

  7. Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Rossello, Eduardo A.; Stoeckli, Danny F.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set show clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Calculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling histories and the influence of tectonics

  8. Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, S.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Caltculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling historys and the influence of tectonics

  9. Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

    2013-01-01

    With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often…

  10. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.14 - How is my daily lodging rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rate computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? 301-11.14 Section 301-11.14 Public Contracts... computed when I rent lodging on a long-term basis? When you obtain lodging on a long-term basis (e.g., weekly or monthly) your daily lodging rate is computed by dividing the total lodging cost by the...

  13. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

  14. Early and long-term mantle processing rates derived from xenon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Parai, R.; Tucker, J.; Middleton, J. L.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Noble gases, particularly xenon (Xe), in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. The combination of extinct and extant radioactive species in the I-Pu-U-Xe systems shed light on the degassing history of the early Earth throughout accretion, as well as the long-term degassing of the Earth's interior in association with plate tectonics. The ubiquitous presence of shallow-level air contamination, however, frequently obscures the mantle Xe signal. In a majority of the samples, shallow air contamination dominates the Xe budget. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Thus, the extent of variability in mantle source Xe composition is not well-constrained. Here, we present new MORB Xe data and explore constraints placed on mantle processing rates by the Xe data. Ten step-crushes were obtained on a depleted popping glass that was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval from between the Kane-Atlantis Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. 9 steps yielded 129Xe/130Xe of 7.50-7.67 and one yielded 7.3. The bulk 129Xe/130Xe of the sample is 7.6, nearly identical to the estimated mantle source value of 7.7 for the sample. Hence, the sample is virtually free of shallow-level air contamination. Because sealing the sample in N2upon dredge retrieval largely eliminated air contamination, for many samples, contamination must be added after sample retrieval from the ocean bottom. Our new high-precision Xe isotopic measurements in upper mantle-derived samples provide improved constraints on the Xe isotopic composition of the mantle source. We developed a forward model of mantle volatile evolution to identify solutions that satisfy our Xe isotopic data. We find that accretion timescales of ~10±5 Myr are consistent with I-Pu-Xe constraints, and the last

  15. Proliferation rate but not mismatch repair affects the long-term response of colon carcinoma cells to 5FU treatment.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, B; Hanski, M L; Zeitz, M; Hanski, C

    2012-07-01

    The role of mismatch repair (MMR) in the response of colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is not well understood. In most of the in vitro studies only short-term response was investigated. We focussed here on the influence of MMR status on the mechanism of the short- and long-term response to clinically relevant 5FU concentrations by using isogenic or semiisogenic cell line pairs expressing/nonexpressing the hMLH1 protein, an important component of the MMR system. We show that the lower survival of MMR-proficient than of MMR-deficient cells in the clonogenic survival assay is due to a more frequent early cell arrest and to subsequent senescence. By contrast, the long-term cell growth after treatment, which is also affected by long-term arrest and senescence, is independent from the MMR status. The overall effect on the long-term cell growth is a cumulative result of cell proliferation rate-dependent growth inhibition, apoptosis and necrotic cell death. The main long-term cytotoxic effect of 5FU is the inhibition of growth while apoptosis and the necrotic cell death are minor contributions.

  16. THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER: WHAT DRIVES THE HIGH RATE OF MEDICAL BURDEN AND DETERMINES LONG-TERM PROGNOSIS?

    PubMed Central

    Soreca, Isabella; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been classically described as one of episodic mood disturbances. New evidence suggests that a chronic course and multisystem involvement is the rule, rather than the exception, and that together with disturbances of circadian rhythms, mood instability, cognitive impairment, a high rate of medical burden is often observed. The current diagnostic approach for BD neither describes the multisystem involvement that the recent literature has highlighted nor points toward potential predictors of long- term outcome. In light of the new evidence that the long-term course of BD is associated with a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and an increased mortality from medical disease, we propose a multidimensional approach that includes several symptom domains, namely affective instability, circadian rhythm dysregulation, and cognitive and executive dysfunction, presenting in various combinations that give shape to each individual presentation, and offers potential indicators of overall long-term prognosis. PMID:18828143

  17. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

  18. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency.

  19. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  20. A comparison of recent, short-, and long-term carbon accumulation rates for a vegetation gradient in central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manies, K.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M.; Fuller, C.

    2013-12-01

    Information regarding historical rates of carbon (C) accumulation will aid scientists in understanding how climate change may affect biogeochemical cycles in the future. We examined rates of C accumulation for the following three time periods: the last two thousand years (long-term rates), the last 30 years (short-term rates), and the last several years (recent rates). We compared C accumulation rates among these time periods for five different ecosystems found along a ~300-m transect within the Bonanza Creek Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site. These sites were dominated by black spruce, low shrubs, tussock grass, Carex sp., or brown moss. The black spruce and shrub site are the only ecosystems currently underlain by permafrost. Three soil cores were taken at each site and analyzed for C content. In order to gain a robust understanding of C accumulation rates at each site, 14C measurements and 210Pb chronologies were also obtained, and flux measurements were taken at each site. 14C dates were acquired for the basal horizon of one profile for each ecosystem type, providing estimations of C accumulation rates since organic matter began to form. 210Pb chronologies for each soil profile allowed us to estimate C accumulation rates for the last several decades. Finally, CO2 flux measurements were taken at each site from May - September for five years (2007 - 2011), capturing recent C losses and gains. Although short-term C accumulation rates were lowest in the black spruce ecosystem, rates among ecosystems were not significantly different, due to large variability among soil profiles within each site (coefficient of variations of up to 50%). The long-term C accumulation rate at the black spruce site corresponds well to values measured in an adjacent black spruce forest using eddy covariance. The brown moss site had the highest long-term rates of C accumulation among the five ecosystems. Short-term C accumulation rates were always higher than long-term rates (40

  1. Decadal and long-term boreal soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration rates across a variety of ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Turetsky, Merritt

    2016-01-01

    Boreal soils play a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control soil C accumulation and loss for this region. Examining C & nitrogen (N) accumulation rates over decades to centuries may provide additional understanding of the dominant mechanisms for their storage, which can be masked by seasonal and interannual variability when investigated over the short term. We examined longer-term accumulation rates, using 210Pb and 14C to date soil layers, for a wide variety of boreal ecosystems: a black spruce forest, a shrub ecosystem, a tussock grass ecosystem, a sedge-dominated ecosystem, and a rich fen. All ecosystems had similar decadal C accumulation rates, averaging 84 ± 42 gC m−2 yr−1. Long-term (century) C accumulation rates were slower than decadal rates, averaging 14 ± 5 gC m−2 yr−1 for all ecosystems except the rich fen, for which the long-term C accumulation rates was more similar to decadal rates (44 ± 5 and 76 ± 9 gC m−2 yr−1, respectively). The rich fen also had the highest long-term N accumulation rates (2.7 gN m−2 yr−1). The lowest N accumulation rate, on both a decadal and long-term basis, was found in the black spruce forest (0.2 and 1.4 gN m−2 yr−1, respectively). Our results suggest that the controls on long-term C and N cycling at the rich fen is fundamentally different from the other ecosystems, likely due to differences in the predominant drivers of nutrient cycling (oxygen availability, for C) and reduced amounts of disturbance by fire (for C and N). This result implies that most shifts in ecosystem vegetation across the boreal region, driven by either climate or succession, will not significantly impact regional C or N dynamics over years to decades. However, ecosystem transitions to or from a rich fen will promote significant shifts in soil C and N storage.

  2. Decadal and long-term boreal soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration rates across a variety of ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2016-08-01

    Boreal soils play a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control soil C accumulation and loss for this region. Examining C & nitrogen (N) accumulation rates over decades to centuries may provide additional understanding of the dominant mechanisms for their storage, which can be masked by seasonal and interannual variability when investigated over the short term. We examined longer-term accumulation rates, using 210Pb and 14C to date soil layers, for a wide variety of boreal ecosystems: a black spruce forest, a shrub ecosystem, a tussock grass ecosystem, a sedge-dominated ecosystem, and a rich fen. All ecosystems had similar decadal C accumulation rates, averaging 84 ± 42 gC m-2 yr-1. Long-term (century) C accumulation rates were slower than decadal rates, averaging 14 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 for all ecosystems except the rich fen, for which the long-term C accumulation rates was more similar to decadal rates (44 ± 5 and 76 ± 9 gC m-2 yr-1, respectively). The rich fen also had the highest long-term N accumulation rates (2.7 gN m-2 yr-1). The lowest N accumulation rate, on both a decadal and long-term basis, was found in the black spruce forest (0.2 and 1.4 gN m-2 yr-1, respectively). Our results suggest that the controls on long-term C and N cycling at the rich fen is fundamentally different from the other ecosystems, likely due to differences in the predominant drivers of nutrient cycling (oxygen availability, for C) and reduced amounts of disturbance by fire (for C and N). This result implies that most shifts in ecosystem vegetation across the boreal region, driven by either climate or succession, will not significantly impact regional C or N dynamics over years to decades. However, ecosystem transitions to or from a rich fen will promote significant shifts in soil C and N storage.

  3. Long-term care and hospital utilisation by older people: an analysis of substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Forder, Julien

    2009-11-01

    Older people are intensive users of hospital and long-term care services. This paper explores the extent to which these services are substitutes. A small area analysis was used with both care home and (tariff cost-weighted) hospital utilisation for older people aggregated to electoral wards in England.Health and social-care structural equations were specified using a theoretical model. The estimation accounted for the skewed and censored nature of the data. For health utilisation, both a fixed effects instrumental variables GMM model and a generalised estimating equations (GEE) model were fitted, the later on a log dependent variable with predicted values of social care utilisation used to account for endogeneity (bootstrapping was used to derive standard errors). In addition to a GMM model, the social-care estimation used both two-part and tobit models (also with predicted health utilisation and bootstrapping).The results indicate that for each additional pound1 spent on care homes, hospital expenditure falls by pound0.35. Also, pound1 additional hospital spend corresponds to just over pound0.35 reduction on care home spend. With these cost substitution effects offsetting, a transfer of resources to care homes is efficient if the resultant outcome gain is greater than the outcome loss from reduced hospital use.

  4. Working together in placing the long term interests of the child at the heart of the DSD evaluation.

    PubMed

    Magritte, Ellie

    2012-12-01

    This paper articulates a number of important but often ignored questions that families have during and following the diagnosis of a child with a DSD. Recounting a personal birth experience, it illustrates the urgent need for more psychological and educational support during and following diagnosis and gender assignment. Finally, the paper describes some practical strategies for raising a child living with genital difference. It urges everyone involved in the care of children with a DSD to support parents in looking beyond initial anxiety and worry and always to place the child's long term wellbeing at the very heart of the clinical decision-making and care. PMID:22981141

  5. Accelerated forgetting? An evaluation on the use of long-term forgetting rates in patients with memory problems

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Sofie; van der Werf, Sieberen P.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this review was to evaluate whether long-term forgetting rates (delayed tests, days, to weeks, after initial learning) are more sensitive measures than standard delayed recall measures to detect memory problems in various patient groups. It has been suggested that accelerated forgetting might be characteristic for epilepsy patients, but little research has been performed in other populations. Here, we identified eleven studies in a wide range of brain injured patient groups, whose long-term forgetting patterns were compared to those of healthy controls. Signs of accelerated forgetting were found in three studies. The results of eight studies showed normal forgetting over time for the patient groups. However, most of the studies used only a recognition procedure, after optimizing initial learning. Based on these results, we recommend the use of a combined recall and recognition procedure to examine accelerated forgetting and we discuss the relevance of standard and optimized learning procedures in clinical practice. PMID:26106343

  6. Relative Contributions of Geothermal Pumping and Long-Term Earthquake Rate to Seismicity at California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jackson, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    In a tectonically active area, a definitive discrimination between geothermally-induced and tectonic earthquakes is difficult to achieve. We focus our study on California's 11 major geothermal fields: Amedee, Brawley, Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, The Geysers, Heber, Litchfield, Salton Sea, Susanville, and Wendel. The Geysers geothermal field is the world's largest geothermal energy producer. California's Department of Oil Gas and Geothermal Resources provides field-wide monthly injection and production volumes for each of these sites, which allows us to study the relationship between geothermal pumping activities and seismicity. Since many of the geothermal fields began injecting and producing before nearby seismic stations were installed, we use smoothed seismicity since 1932 from the ANSS catalog as a proxy for tectonic earthquake rate. We examine both geothermal pumping and long-term earthquake rate as factors that may control earthquake rate. Rather than focusing only on the largest earthquake, which is essentially a random occurrence in time, we examine how M≥4 earthquake rate density (probability per unit area, time, and magnitude) varies for each field. We estimate relative contributions to the observed earthquake rate of M≥4 from both a long-term earthquake rate (Kagan and Jackson, 2010) and pumping activity. For each geothermal field, respective earthquake catalogs (NCEDC and SCSN) are complete above at least M3 during the test period (which we tailor to each site). We test the hypothesis that the observed earthquake rate at a geothermal site during the test period is a linear combination of the long-term seismicity and pumping rates. We use a grid search to determine the confidence interval of the weighting parameters.

  7. Success rate, costs and long-term stability of treatment with activator/headgear combinations.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Camilla; Feldmann, Ingalill

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate treatment outcome with activator-headgear combinations carried out by general dental practitioners, overall costs, long-term stability and patients' satisfaction with treatment outcome. Patients who were recommended to start treatment in 2006 were included in this study (n = 97). Inclusion criteria were: Class II Division 1 with at least half a cusp width distal molar relationship, overjet ≥ 6 mm and presence of dental records. Data were collected, pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3 years after treatment for those with favorable outcome. Patients at follow-up completed a questionnaire about satisfaction with treatment outcome, perceived pain and discomfort during treatment, and subjective need for additional treatment. Eighty-five patients were analyzed, 52 boys and 33 girls (mean age 11.2 years SD 1.39). Thirty-five patients had successful treatment outcome, 15 partially successful and 35 had an unsuccessful outcome. Total costs for all 85 patients amounted to SEK 1 405 000 including both direct and indirect costs. Thirty-eight patients participated in the 3-year follow-up. Treatment outcomes were then categorized as successful in 28 patients, partially successful in 9 patients and 1 patient was judged as unsuccessful. Median values on VAS (0-100) for overall satisfaction with treatment and treatment outcome were high, 78 and 84 respectively. Median value for perceived pain and discomfort during treatment was 42. Just over half of the patients had a favorable treatment outcome. Patients with favorable outcome were stable over time and satisfied with treatment. PMID:27464383

  8. Effects of long-term microgravity exposure in space on circadian rhythms of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomune; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yutaka; Hayashi, Mitsutoshi; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated their circadian rhythms using data from electrocardiographic records and examined the change in circadian period related to normal RR intervals for astronauts who completed a long-term (≥6-month) mission in space. The examinees were seven astronauts, five men and two women, from 2009 to 2010. Their mean ± SD age was 52.0 ± 4.2 years (47-59 yr). Each stayed in space for more than 160 days; their average length of stay was 172.6 ± 14.6 days (163-199 days). We conducted a 24-h Holter electrocardiography before launch (Pre), at one month after launch (DF1), at two months after launch (DF2), at two weeks before return (DF3), and at three months after landing (Post), comparing each index of frequency-domain analysis and 24-h biological rhythms of the NN intervals (normal RR intervals). Results show that the mean period of Normal Sinus (NN) intervals was within 24 ± 4 h at each examination. Inter-individual variability differed among the stages, being significantly smaller at DF3 (Pre versus DF1 versus DF3 versus Post = 22.36 ± 2.50 versus 25.46 ± 4.37 versus 22.46 ± 1.75 versus 26.16 ± 7.18 h, p < 0.0001). The HF component increased in 2 of 7 astronauts, whereas it decreased in 3 of 7 astronauts and 1 was remained almost unchanged at DF1. During DF3, about 6 months after their stay in space, the HF component of 5 of 7 astronauts recovered from the decrease after launch, with prominent improvement to over 20% in 3 astronauts. Although autonomic nervous functions and circadian rhythms were disturbed until one month had passed in space, well-scheduled sleep and wake rhythms and meal times served as synchronizers.

  9. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  10. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  11. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  12. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  13. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  14. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  15. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  16. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  1. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  2. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  3. Factors Differentiating Hospital Transfers from Long-term Care Facilities with High and Low Transfer Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined differences among nursing homes in rates at which they transfer patients to hospitals. Data from nursing staff and charts on 286 most recent transfers from 10 nursing homes revealed that, from relatively equivalent patient populations, high-rate facilities transferred more chronically ill, physically frail patients and patients with…

  4. Long-term stability of global erosion rates and weathering during late-Cenozoic cooling.

    PubMed

    Willenbring, Jane K; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2010-05-13

    Over geologic timescales, CO(2) is emitted from the Earth's interior and is removed from the atmosphere by silicate rock weathering and organic carbon burial. This balance is thought to have stabilized greenhouse conditions within a range that ensured habitable conditions. Changes in this balance have been attributed to changes in topographic relief, where varying rates of continental rock weathering and erosion are superimposed on fluctuations in organic carbon burial. Geological strata provide an indirect yet imperfectly preserved record of this change through changing rates of sedimentation. Widespread observations of a recent (0-5-Myr) fourfold increase in global sedimentation rates require a global mechanism to explain them. Accelerated uplift and global cooling have been given as possible causes, but because of the links between rates of erosion and the correlated rate of weathering, an increase in the drawdown of CO(2) that is predicted to follow may be the cause of global climate change instead. However, globally, rates of uplift cannot increase everywhere in the way that apparent sedimentation rates do. Moreover, proxy records of past atmospheric CO(2) provide no evidence for this large reduction in recent CO(2) concentrations. Here we question whether this increase in global weathering and erosion actually occurred and whether the apparent increase in the sedimentation rate is due to observational biases in the sedimentary record. As evidence, we recast the ocean dissolved (10)Be/(9)Be isotope system as a weathering proxy spanning the past approximately 12 Myr (ref. 14). This proxy indicates stable weathering fluxes during the late-Cenozoic era. The sum of these observations shows neither clear evidence for increased erosion nor clear evidence for a pulse in weathered material to the ocean. We conclude that processes different from an increase in denudation caused Cenozoic global cooling, and that global cooling had no profound effect on spatially and

  5. The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

  6. Long-Term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... we have not known the rate and risk factors for subsequent knee surgery until now,” said senior author Kurt Spindler, M.D., of Vanderbilt University. In the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) study, ...

  7. Possible long-term decline in impact rates. 1. Martian geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantin, Cathy; Mangold, Nicolas; Hartmann, William K.; Allemand, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Quantin et al. [Quantin, C., Allemand, P., Mangold, N., Delacourt, C., 2004a. Icarus 172, 555-572] tabulated crater count data for 56 landslides along the walls of Valles Marineris. Under the assumption of a constant cratering rate after about 3 Gyr ago, as used in the 1999-2005 iterations of the crater chronology isochron system of Hartmann, and in the Hartmann and Neukum system, these data indicate a regularly increasing rate of landslides, which would be difficult to explain. We suggest that these data may support a decline in inner Solar System cratering rates by about a factor of 3 since 3 Gyr ago, not unlike predictions based on asteroid belt collision models. Such a decline is also supported by our review of data on lunar impact melts and glass spherules in a companion paper [Hartmann, W.K., Quantin, C., Mangold, N., 2007. Icarus 186, 11-23]. Such models produce not only a more uniform rate of landslides over the last 3 Gyr, but also a more uniform rate of resurfacing processes which also had an apparent increase under the assumption of a constant cratering rate.

  8. Long-term Rates of Mafic Magma Emplacement and Implications for Heat Advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Spera, F. J.; Crisp, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Rates of magmatism (magma emplacement rate) including both volcanic products and intrusive bodies were obtained for terrestrial petrotectonic systems where reliable volumes can be estimated and geochronological data exist. Approximately 50 estimates of magma emplacement rates have been extracted from the literature published between 1982 and 2003 for persistent basaltic systems with durations from 1 ka to ~5 Ma. Although the volcanic output is highly episodic, the data indicate that the mass output rate at individual hotspot volcanoes is on the order of 10-3 km3/yr when averaged over several thousand years. This differs from the estimated output rates of large igneous provinces, such as continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus, which have maximal output rates on the order of 1 km3/yr per province. For globally averaged mid-ocean ridges, the total volcanic emplacement rate is only 10-6 km3/yr/100 km of ridge. Ratios of intrusive to extrusive emplacement are subject to much uncertainty, but generally lie in the range 6:1 to 10:1 for most crustal mafic magma systems. Recent seismic, geodetic, and gravity work suggests that there may be large regions of underplating and storage in subcrustal magma chambers in areas of basaltic volcanism previously not widely considered in intrusive volume estimates that may increase most of these ratios to 10:1. Rates of magmatism may be translated into excess heat flows for specific magmatic provinces to obtain estimates of advected heat transport via magmatism at regional scales over magmatic province timescales. For mafic eruption rate V and an intrusive/extrusive ratio of R, the volumetric rate of magma flow into the crust is RV. The excess heat power (J/yr) associated with magma transport from mantle to crust is RVρ δ T [Cp + δ h/(Tliquidus-Tsolidus)] where δ T is the temperature difference between the magma and host crust, δ h is the enthalpy of crystallization (250-400 kJ/kg dependent on magma composition), ρ is

  9. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

  10. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Ware, M J; Bergeson, S D; Ellsworth, J E; Groesbeck, M; Hansen, J E; Pace, D; Peatross, J

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of (22)Na, (36)Cl, (54)Mn, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (133)Ba, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate. PMID:26233381

  11. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Ware, M J; Bergeson, S D; Ellsworth, J E; Groesbeck, M; Hansen, J E; Pace, D; Peatross, J

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of (22)Na, (36)Cl, (54)Mn, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (133)Ba, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  12. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, M. J.; Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of 22Na, 36Cl, 54Mn, 60Co, 90Sr, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 154Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  13. Bluff formation and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, C.W. II )

    1992-01-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 140 ft. in height and expose multiple stratigraphic units. According to the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland (west) produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave cut terrace, was determined from 4 offshore seismic profiles. It is picked as an inflection point in the slope of the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over the 2,500 year duration of the modern stage is 5 ft/yr in contrast to average rates of 2 ft/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is damped. By correlating bluff height to amount of recession of modern bluffs, a third rate of 12 ft/yr of the first 800 years of a recession is calculated for relict bluffs formed at the Nipissing II level. The 3 rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1,000 years.

  14. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, M. J. Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-15

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of {sup 22}Na, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  15. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-15

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  16. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J; Kozak, K

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

  17. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  18. Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, B.P.; Delin, G.N.; Baker, R.J.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Volatilization and subsequent biodegradation near the water Table make up a coupled natural attenuation pathway that results in significant mass loss of hydrocarbons. Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 years apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Biodegradation rates were determined by calibrating a gas transport model to O2, CO2, and CH4 gas-concentration data in the unsaturated zone. Reaction stoichiometry was assumed in converting O2 and CO2 gas-flux estimates to rates of aerobic biodegradation and CH4 gas-flux estimates to rates of methanogenesis. Model results indicate that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that approximately 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenenic conditions represented approximately one-half of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/m2-day. It appears that volatilization is the primary mechanism for attenuation in early stages of plume evolution, while biodegradation dominates in later stages.

  19. Design of long-term sludge-loading rates for forests under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Crohn, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    A simple time series describing nitrate-nitrogen concentrations percolating form a sludge-amended forest is presented for the case where applications are made at several-year intervals. The time series converges to a quasi-steady-state solution that can be solved for an application rate limited by percolating nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. Excess nitrogen is commonly converted to nitrate, a form that leaches readily to pollute ground water. A chance constraint incorporates uncertainty associated with precipitation and evapotranspiration, the most important factors in determining the excess of water available for leaching. Design loading rates for eight New York state forest regions are discussed. If applications occur at 3-year intervals, rates range form 0.2 to 5.3 Mg/ha dry weight depending on the design confidence level, local excess water patterns, forest nitrogen uptake, sludge type, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates. Results are compared to predictions made with FORSENTO, a comprehensive model for simulating sludge applications to northern hardwood forests. FORSENTO simulations suggest that mature hardwoods need only 12 kg/ha to support annually perennial material growth and that atmospheric nitrogen deposition may eventually meet or exceed needs of trees so that landspreading may not be sustainable indefinitely in some areas.

  20. The Greenville Fault: preliminary estimates of its long-term creep rate and seismic potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Barry, Robert G.; Smith, Forrest E.; Mello, Joseph D.; McFarland, Forrest S.

    2013-01-01

    Once assumed locked, we show that the northern third of the Greenville fault (GF) creeps at 2 mm/yr, based on 47 yr of trilateration net data. This northern GF creep rate equals its 11-ka slip rate, suggesting a low strain accumulation rate. In 1980, the GF, easternmost strand of the San Andreas fault system east of San Francisco Bay, produced a Mw5.8 earthquake with a 6-km surface rupture and dextral slip growing to ≥2 cm on cracks over a few weeks. Trilateration shows a 10-cm post-1980 transient slip ending in 1984. Analysis of 2000-2012 crustal velocities on continuous global positioning system stations, allows creep rates of ~2 mm/yr on the northern GF, 0-1 mm/yr on the central GF, and ~0 mm/yr on its southern third. Modeled depth ranges of creep along the GF allow 5-25% aseismic release. Greater locking in the southern two thirds of the GF is consistent with paleoseismic evidence there for large late Holocene ruptures. Because the GF lacks large (>1 km) discontinuities likely to arrest higher (~1 m) slip ruptures, we expect full-length (54-km) ruptures to occur that include the northern creeping zone. We estimate sufficient strain accumulation on the entire GF to produce Mw6.9 earthquakes with a mean recurrence of ~575 yr. While the creeping 16-km northern part has the potential to produce a Mw6.2 event in 240 yr, it may rupture in both moderate (1980) and large events. These two-dimensional-model estimates of creep rate along the southern GF need verification with small aperture surveys.

  1. Self rated health and mortality: a long term prospective study in eastern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Heistaro, S; Jousilahti, P; Lahelma, E; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between self rated health and mortality over a period of 23 years, taking into account medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, and education at the beginning of the follow up.
DESIGN—A cohort of random population samples. The baseline studies included a self administered questionnaire and a health examination. Mortality data were collected from the national mortality register using personal identification numbers.
SETTING—The provinces of North Karelia and Kuopio in eastern Finland.
PARTICIPANTS—Random samples of working age people (n=21 302) from the population register.
MAIN RESULTS—For self rated health, the age adjusted poor to good relative risk for all cause mortality was 2.36 (95% confidence intervals 2.10, 2.64) for men and 1.90 (1.63, 2.22) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 2.29 (1.96, 2.68) for men and 2.34 (1.84, 2.96) for women. Adjusted for selected potentially fatal diseases from the subjects' medical histories, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education, the corresponding relative risks for all cause mortality were 1.66 (1.47, 1.88) for men and 1.50 (1.26, 1.78) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 1.54 (1.29, 1.82) for men and 1.63 (1.26, 2.10) for women. The association between self rated health and mortality attributable to external causes was fairly strong.
CONCLUSIONS—Poor self rated health is a strong predictor of mortality, and the association is only partly explained by medical history, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education.


Keywords: self rated health; mortality; Finland PMID:11238576

  2. Long-term measurements of 36Cl to investigate potential solar influence on the decay rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossert, Karsten; Nähle, Ole J.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Jenkins et al. [6] reported on fluctuations in the detected decay events of 36Cl which were measured with a Geiger-Müller counter. Experimental data of 32Si measured by means of an end-window gas-flow proportional counter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory show similar periodicity, albeit a different amplitude. Jenkins et al. interpret the fluctuations as evidence of solar influence on the decay rates of beta-decaying radionuclides.

  3. Dominant Frequency Increase Rate Predicts Transition from Paroxysmal to Long-Term Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Raphael P.; Kaur, Kuljeet; Hwang, Elliot; Ramirez, Rafael J.; Willis, B. Cicero; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Ennis, Steven R.; Takemoto, Yoshio; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Zarzoso, Manuel; O’Connell, Ryan P.; Musa, Hassan; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Avula, Uma Mahesh R.; Swartz, Michael F.; Bhushal, Sandesh; Deo, Makarand; Pandit, Sandeep V.; Berenfeld, Omer; Jalife, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transition from paroxysmal to persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). In an ovine model of long-standing persistent AF (LS-PAF) we tested the hypothesis that the rate of electrical and/or structural remodeling, assessed by dominant frequency (DF) changes, determines the time at which AF becomes persistent. Methods and Results Self-sustained AF was induced by atrial tachypacing. Seven sheep were sacrificed 11.5±2.3 days after the transition to persistent AF and without reversal to sinus rhythm (SR); 7 sheep were sacrificed after 341.3±16.7 days of LS-PAF. Seven sham-operated animals were in SR for 1 year. DF was monitored continuously in each group. RT-PCR, western blotting, patch-clamping and histological analyses were used to determine changes in functional ion channel expression and structural remodeling. Atrial dilatation, mitral valve regurgitation, myocyte hypertrophy, and atrial fibrosis occurred progressively and became statistically significant after the transition to persistent AF, with no evidence for left ventricular dysfunction. DF increased progressively during the paroxysmal-to-persistent AF transition and stabilized when AF became persistent. Importantly, the rate of DF increase (dDF/dt) correlated strongly with the time to persistent AF. Significant action potential duration (APD) abbreviation, secondary to functional ion channel protein expression changes (CaV1.2, NaV1.5 and KV4.2 decrease; Kir2.3 increase), was already present at the transition and persisted for one-year follow up. Conclusions In the sheep model of LS-PAF, the rate of DF increase predicts the time at which AF stabilizes and becomes persistent, reflecting changes in APD and densities of sodium, L-type calcium and inward rectifier currents. PMID:24463369

  4. A long-term perspective on deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Gomez, M. D.; Beuchle, R.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Grecchi, R.; Simonetti, D.; Eva, H. D.; Achard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest cover is central to biodiversity preservation, terrestrial carbon stocks, essential ecosystem and climate functions, and ultimately, sustainable economic development. The Amazon forest is the Earth's largest rainforest, and despite intensive studies on current deforestation rates, relatively little is known as to how these compare to historic (pre 1985) deforestation rates. We quantified land cover change between 1975 and 2014 in the so-called Arc of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon, covering the southern stretch of the Amazon forest and part of the Cerrado biome. We applied a consistent method that made use of data from Landsat sensors: Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Operational Land Imager (OLI). We acquired suitable images from the US Geological Survey (USGS) for five epochs: 1975, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2014. We then performed land cover analysis for each epoch using a systematic sample of 156 sites, each one covering 10 km x 10 km, located at the confluence point of integer degree latitudes and longitudes. An object-based classification of the images was performed with five land cover classes: tree cover, tree cover mosaic, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The automatic classification results were corrected by visual interpretation, and, when available, by comparison with higher resolution imagery. Our results show a decrease of forest cover of 24.2% in the last 40 years in the Brazilian Arc of Deforestation, with an average yearly net forest cover change rate of -0.71% for the 39 years considered.

  5. The long-term alteration rate of Na-smectite in natural bentonite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohe, T.; Itoh, M.; Ishii, T.; Nakashima, H.; Hirata, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1998-12-01

    Alteration of the natural bentonite in Kuroishi ore deposit located in the north Japan was estimated by the vertical element profiles of Na, Ca and Mg in the drilled core samples. The exchangeable Na depleted from the ground surface to 20 m in depth and the total loss of Na coincided with the accumulation of Ca and Mg. This suggests the Na depletion was caused by the ion exchange reactions. A simple analytical calculation using the steady state approximation indicated the average alteration rate was about 1 cm/1000 years. This value is equivalent to that by geomorphological studies.

  6. Long term diurnal variations in contaminant removal in high rate ponds treating urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    García, J; Green, B F; Lundquist, T; Mujeriego, R; Hernández-Mariné, M; Oswald, W J

    2006-09-01

    In this investigation, diurnal variations in contaminant removal in high rate ponds (HRP) treating urban wastewater were evaluated. Two experimental HRPs (surface area 1.54 m2 and depth 0.3 m), each with a clarifier in series (surface area 0.025 m2), were operated in parallel with different hydraulic retention times (3-10 days) but with the same environmental conditions over a period of one year. The operating strategies adopted only yielded a significant overall difference in removal between the two HRPs for nutrients. Effluent total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand were slightly higher at midday than at dawn, while for total nitrogen and total phosphorous the concentrations were slightly higher at dawn. All these differences were related to the diurnal changes of DO and pH. The main conclusion of this work is that the diurnal variations of the contaminant concentrations in HRPs do not seriously affect their reliability in treating wastewater.

  7. Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-05

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

  8. Long-term effects of wealth on mortality and self-rated health status.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S; Rose, Kathryn M; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C

    2011-01-15

    Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%-44% higher risk and 6-18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth-mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality.

  9. Interest rate swaps under CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallier, R.; Alobaidi, G.

    2004-03-01

    We consider fixed-for-floating interest rate swaps under the assumption that interest rates are given by the mean-reverting Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model. By using a Green's function approach, we derive analytical expressions for the values of both a vanilla swap and an in-arrears swap.

  10. Towards quantifying long-term erosion rates in the Campine Basin, NE Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanacker, Veerle

    2016-04-01

    The Campine Basin, NE Belgium, is situated between the uplifting Ardennes Massif and rapidly subsiding Roer Valley Graben. It contains a thick series of marine, estuarine and continental Neogene and Quaternary sediments, locally more than 300 m. As a result of relief inversion during the Quaternary, the Campine Plateau is nowadays a distinct morphological feature in this basin. Its surface elevation dips from 100 m in the south to 30 m in the north over a distance of about 60 km, which is the result of differential uplift. The Campine Plateau is covered by Early and Middle Pleistocene erosion-resistant fluvial sediments from the Rhine and Meuse and can thus be regarded as a fluvial terrace. The age of deposition and time of abandonment of the terrace have not yet been resolved by direct numerical dating. In this study, we apply the cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) profiling technique that, in ideal circumstances, allows one to constrain the exposure age, burial age and amount of post-depositional erosion of the landform. Samples were taken from a 3.5 m deep cross-section in coarse river sands that were deposited by the river Rhine, and now situated at an altitude of about 50 m (a.s.l.). Nine of them were prepared for CRN measurements according to state-of-the-art techniques. The in-situ 10Be concentration of the samples was determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (ETH, Zurich). The in-situ 10Be concentrations are 1.5x10e5 atoms/g for the uppermost sample (at 0.3 m depth) and 0.9x10e5 at/g for the lowermost sample (at 3.1 m depth), yielding an estimated 0.6x10e5 at/g of radionuclide accumulation following sediment deposition. Using forward modelling, we solved for the exposure duration and erosion rate that best fit the measured in-situ 10Be depth profile data, nuclide inheritance and their associated analytical uncertainties. Model optimisation is here based on the sum of chi-squared between the measured and modelled 10Be concentrations. When taking previous

  11. Long-term variation of OH peak emission altitude and volume emission rate over Indian low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakandan, Mani; Thokuluwa, Ramkumar; Kandula, Niranjan; Taori, Alok

    2016-07-01

    Using 13 (April 2002 -December 2014) years of Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER/TIMED) 1.6µm OH airglow emission data, we have studied the long-term variation of OH peak emission altitude and volume emission rate (VER) for 0-10 N latitude and 70-90 E longitude grid. We have noted that, during day time the OH peak emission altitude is varying from 80 to 87 km with mean value of 83.5 km and from 82 to 88 km with mean value of 85 km during night time. The signature of semi-annual oscillation (SAO), annual oscillation (AO) and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the OH peak emission altitude as well as the VER is evident. Our analysis reveals that the SAO and QBO signatures but not the AO signature are very strong in the equatorial region during night time. Apart from the SAO, AO and QBO signatures, the presence of oscillation related to the El Niño oscillation (ENSO) is also noted. After the removal of these oscillations, we find the evidence of the influence of solar activity and a long term trend in the OH emission layer. It is also found good correlation between the mesospheric and stratospheric variations (ECMWF data).

  12. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer. Long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana García; Payá, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, María; Vázquez, Andrés; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the “Phoenix consensus”. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:27136466

  13. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  14. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  15. Recurrence rates in bipolar disorder: Systematic comparison of long-term prospective, naturalistic studies versus randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Holtzman, Jessica N; Lolich, María; Ketter, Terence A; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent, lifelong illness with high risks of disability and excess mortality. Despite many treatment options with demonstrated short-term efficacy, evidence concerning long-term treatment effectiveness in BD remains limited and the relative value of naturalistic studies versus randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in its assessment, uncertain. Systematic computer-searching yielded 10 naturalistic studies and 15 RCTs suitable for analysis of recurrence rates and their association with treatments and selected clinical factors. In naturalistic studies (3904 BD subjects, 53.3% women, 85.8% BD-I, mean onset age 29.1, followed up to 2.1 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 55.2% (26.3%/year). In RCTs (4828 subjects, 50.9% women, 96.0% BD-I, mean onset age 23.1, followed up to 1.9 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 39.3% (21.9%/year) with mood-stabilizing drug-treatment versus 60.6% (31.3%/year) with placebo; drug-versus-placebo outcomes favored antipsychotics over lithium, and disfavor an approved anticonvulsant. Depressive episode-polarity increased from 27.7% at intake to 52.0% at first-recurrence (p<0.0001). Recurrence rate (%/year) did not differ by study-type, was greater with younger onset and rapid-cycling, and paradoxically declined with longer observation. In short, recurrences of major affective episodes up to two years during putative mood-stabilizing treatment of BD patients in prospective, naturalistic studies and RCTs were substantial and similar (26.3 vs. 21.9%/year). Episode-polarity shifted strongly toward depressive first-recurrences. These findings support the value of naturalistic studies to complement long-term RCTs, and add to indications that control of depression in BD remains particularly unsatisfactory. PMID:26238969

  16. Recurrence rates in bipolar disorder: Systematic comparison of long-term prospective, naturalistic studies versus randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Holtzman, Jessica N; Lolich, María; Ketter, Terence A; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent, lifelong illness with high risks of disability and excess mortality. Despite many treatment options with demonstrated short-term efficacy, evidence concerning long-term treatment effectiveness in BD remains limited and the relative value of naturalistic studies versus randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in its assessment, uncertain. Systematic computer-searching yielded 10 naturalistic studies and 15 RCTs suitable for analysis of recurrence rates and their association with treatments and selected clinical factors. In naturalistic studies (3904 BD subjects, 53.3% women, 85.8% BD-I, mean onset age 29.1, followed up to 2.1 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 55.2% (26.3%/year). In RCTs (4828 subjects, 50.9% women, 96.0% BD-I, mean onset age 23.1, followed up to 1.9 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 39.3% (21.9%/year) with mood-stabilizing drug-treatment versus 60.6% (31.3%/year) with placebo; drug-versus-placebo outcomes favored antipsychotics over lithium, and disfavor an approved anticonvulsant. Depressive episode-polarity increased from 27.7% at intake to 52.0% at first-recurrence (p<0.0001). Recurrence rate (%/year) did not differ by study-type, was greater with younger onset and rapid-cycling, and paradoxically declined with longer observation. In short, recurrences of major affective episodes up to two years during putative mood-stabilizing treatment of BD patients in prospective, naturalistic studies and RCTs were substantial and similar (26.3 vs. 21.9%/year). Episode-polarity shifted strongly toward depressive first-recurrences. These findings support the value of naturalistic studies to complement long-term RCTs, and add to indications that control of depression in BD remains particularly unsatisfactory.

  17. Styles and rates of long-term denudation in carbonate terrains under a Mediterranean to hyper-arid climatic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryb, U.; Matmon, A.; Erel, Y.; Haviv, I.; Benedetti, L.; Hidy, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Carbonate minerals, unlike silicates, have the potential to dissolve almost completely and with high efficiency. Thus, in carbonate terrains denudation rate and style (the governing process of denudation, mechanical or chemical) should be more sensitive to climatic forcing. Using 36Cl measurements in 39 carbonate bedrock and sediment samples, we calculate long-term denudation rates across a sharp climatic gradient from Mediterranean to hyper-arid conditions. Our samples were collected along the Arugot watershed, which drains the eastern flank of the Judea Range (central Israel) to the Dead Sea and is characterized by a pronounced rain shadow. Denudation rates of flat-lying bedrock outcrops sampled along interfluves differ by an order of magnitude from ∼20 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean zone to 1-3 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These rates are strongly correlated with precipitation, and thus reflect the importance of carbonate mineral dissolution in the overall denudation process. In contrast, denudation rates of steep bedrock surfaces depend on the hillslope gradient, but only in the hyper-arid climate zone, indicating that mechanical processes dominate the overall hillslope denudation within this zone. The dominance of slope-dependent mechanical erosion in the hyper-arid zone is also reflected by an increase in spatially-average denudation rates from 17-19 mm ka-1 in the Mediterranean-semi-arid zones to 21-25 mm ka-1 in the hyper-arid zone. These higher rates are attributed to clast contribution from steep slopes under arid climate. This suggests an increased importance of mechanical processes to the overall denudation in the hyper-arid zone. We demonstrate that the transition between chemically-dominated denudation to mechanically-dominated denudation occurs between 100 and 200 mm of mean annual precipitation. Long-term denudation rates across the Judea Range indicate that between Mediterranean and hyper-arid climates, chemical weathering rates are limited by

  18. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Rebecca R; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, Duncan R; Dann, Peter

    2015-12-30

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials originated from commercial fisheries; most frequently entangling pups and juveniles. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Models, which incorporated observer effort and survey frequency, we identified that entanglements were observed more frequently amongst pups from July to October as they approached weaning. Neither the decline in regional fishing intensity nor changing seal population size influenced the incidence of entanglements. Using the models, we estimated that 302 (95% CI=182-510) entangled seals were at Seal Rocks each year, equivalent to 1.0% (CI=0.6-1.7%) of the site population. This study highlights the influence of observer effort and the value of long-term datasets for determining the drivers of marine debris entanglements. PMID:26475026

  19. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Rebecca R; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, Duncan R; Dann, Peter

    2015-12-30

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials originated from commercial fisheries; most frequently entangling pups and juveniles. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Models, which incorporated observer effort and survey frequency, we identified that entanglements were observed more frequently amongst pups from July to October as they approached weaning. Neither the decline in regional fishing intensity nor changing seal population size influenced the incidence of entanglements. Using the models, we estimated that 302 (95% CI=182-510) entangled seals were at Seal Rocks each year, equivalent to 1.0% (CI=0.6-1.7%) of the site population. This study highlights the influence of observer effort and the value of long-term datasets for determining the drivers of marine debris entanglements.

  20. Long term response stability of a well-type ionization chamber used in calibration of high dose rate brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, S.; Sharma, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Well-type ionization chamber is often used to measure strength of brachytherapy sources. This study aims to check long term response stability of High Dose Rate (HDR)-1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber in terms of reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of a reference 137Cs brachytherapy source and recommend an optimum frequency of recalibration. An HDR-1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber, a reference 137Cs brachytherapy source (CDCSJ5), and a MAX-4000 electrometer were used in this study. The HDR-1000 Plus well-type chamber was calibrated in terms of reference air kerma rate by the Standards Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna. The response of the chamber was verified at regular intervals over a period of eight years using the reference 137Cs source. All required correction factors were applied in the calculation of the RAKR of the 137Cs source. This study reveals that the response of the HDR-1000 Plus well-type chamber was well within ±0.5% for about three years after calibration/recalibration. However, it shows deviations larger than ±0.5% after three years of calibration/recalibration and the maximum variation in response of the chamber during an eight year period was 1.71%. The optimum frequency of recalibration of a high dose rate well-type chamber should be three years. PMID:20589119

  1. Long term response stability of a well-type ionization chamber used in calibration of high dose rate brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Vandana, S; Sharma, S D

    2010-04-01

    Well-type ionization chamber is often used to measure strength of brachytherapy sources. This study aims to check long term response stability of High Dose Rate (HDR)-1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber in terms of reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of a reference (137)Cs brachytherapy source and recommend an optimum frequency of recalibration. An HDR-1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber, a reference (137)Cs brachytherapy source (CDCSJ5), and a MAX-4000 electrometer were used in this study. The HDR-1000 Plus well-type chamber was calibrated in terms of reference air kerma rate by the Standards Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna. The response of the chamber was verified at regular intervals over a period of eight years using the reference (137)Cs source. All required correction factors were applied in the calculation of the RAKR of the (137)Cs source. This study reveals that the response of the HDR-1000 Plus well-type chamber was well within +/-0.5% for about three years after calibration/recalibration. However, it shows deviations larger than +/-0.5% after three years of calibration/recalibration and the maximum variation in response of the chamber during an eight year period was 1.71%. The optimum frequency of recalibration of a high dose rate well-type chamber should be three years.

  2. Observations of historical sea cliff retreat rates exceed long-term estimates derived from cosmogenic 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Historical observation of coastal retreat are limited to relatively short timescales (< 150 years), during which time humans may have modified the coastal environment. There is growing concern that rates of coastal change may be accelerated in the face of anticipated stormier climates and rising sea level, yet there is little knowledge of rates of coastal change prior to the relatively brief historical records. In order to make predictions about potential future coastal change it is important to establish baseline conditions averaged over longer time periods. Here we present analysis of sea cliff retreat throughout the Holocene averaged for chalk cliffs in south-east England using cosmogenic isotopes. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in-situ flint samples collected from three transects across coastal platforms in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate during the Holocene. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. We find that cliff retreat rates during the Holocene were significantly slower (2-6 cm yr-1) than those derived from recent historical observations (15-25 cm yr-1). Modelled accumulation of 10Be requires retreat rates that increase rapidly in recent times, potentially reflecting human modification of the coastal sediment budget through construction of sea defences, flood defenses and aggregate extraction. Therefore knowledge of past human activity at the coastline may be important in anticipating future rates of coastal retreat.

  3. Determination of longevities, chamber building rates and growth functions for Operculina complanata from long term cultivation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgang, Eder; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Operculina complanata was collected in 20 and 50 m depth around the Island of Sesoko belonging to Japans southernmost prefecture Okinawa in a series of monthly sampling over a period of 16 months (Apr.2014-July2015). A minimum of 8 specimens (4 among the smallest and 4 among the largest) per sampling were cultured in a long term experiment that was set up to approximate conditions in the field as closely as possible. A set up allowing recognition of individual specimens enabled consistent documentation of chamber formation, which in combination with μ-CT-scanning after the investigation period permitted the assignment of growth steps to specific time periods. These data were used to fit various mathematical models to describe growth (exponential-, logistic-, generalized logistic-, Gompertz-function) and chamber building rate (Michaelis-Menten-, Bertalanffy- function) of Operculina complanata. The mathematically retrieved maximum lifespan and mean chamber building rate found in cultured Operculina complanata were further compared to first results obtained by the simultaneously conducted "natural laboratory approach". Even though these comparisons hint at a somewhat stunted growth and truncated life spans of Operculina complanata in culture, they represent a possibility to assess and improve the quality of further cultivation set ups, opening new prospects to a better understanding of the their theoretical niches.

  4. Effects of Long-Term Dharma-Chan Meditation on Cardiorespiratory Synchronization and Heart Rate Variability Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic–parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions. PMID:23323597

  5. Regression Method for Estimating Long-Term Mean Annual Ground-Water Recharge Rates from Base Flow in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Thompson, Ronald E.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for making estimates of long-term, mean annual ground-water recharge from streamflow data at 80 streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. The method relates mean annual base-flow yield derived from the streamflow data (as a proxy for recharge) to the climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and physiographic characteristics of the basins (basin characteristics) by use of a regression equation. Base-flow yield is the base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area of the basin, expressed in inches of water basinwide. Mean annual base-flow yield was computed for the period of available streamflow record at continuous streamflow-gaging stations by use of the computer program PART, which separates base flow from direct runoff on the streamflow hydrograph. Base flow provides a reasonable estimate of recharge for basins where streamflow is mostly unaffected by upstream regulation, diversion, or mining. Twenty-eight basin characteristics were included in the exploratory regression analysis as possible predictors of base-flow yield. Basin characteristics found to be statistically significant predictors of mean annual base-flow yield during 1971-2000 at the 95-percent confidence level were (1) mean annual precipitation, (2) average maximum daily temperature, (3) percentage of sand in the soil, (4) percentage of carbonate bedrock in the basin, and (5) stream channel slope. The equation for predicting recharge was developed using ordinary least-squares regression. The standard error of prediction for the equation on log-transformed data was 9.7 percent, and the coefficient of determination was 0.80. The equation can be used to predict long-term, mean annual recharge rates for ungaged basins, providing that the explanatory basin characteristics can be determined and that the underlying assumption is accepted that base-flow yield derived from PART is a reasonable estimate of ground-water recharge rates. For example, application of the equation for 370

  6. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (< 10% of ambient concentration) of 15NH4+ + 14NO3- or 15NO3- + 14NH4+. An additional parallel incubation with 15NH4+ + 14NO3- and 1 mM of allylthiourea (ATU) was included to measure rates of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Well-homogenized slurries filled about 10% of the volume in the gas-tight incubation vials, and the rest of the volume was replaced with an O2/He (20%/80%) mixture. The production of 29N2, 44N2O and 45N2O were determined using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The rate of total N2O production in fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  7. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

  8. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  9. Estimated soil respiration rates decreased with long-term soil microclimate changes in successional forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei

    2011-12-01

    The response of soil respiration to short-term environmental factors changes has been well studied, whereas the influences of long-term soil microclimate changes on soil respiration are still highly unclear, especially in tropical ecosystems. We hypothesized that soil carbon accumulation in southern China, especially in mature forest during recent years, partly resulted from reducing soil respiration rates. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the temporal trends and variations of air temperature, soil temperature and soil water content (hereafter referred to as SWC), and then estimated soil respiration rates in the 1980s and 2000s with soil temperature and SWC by regression model in three subtropical forests which are at early-, mid-, and advanced-successional stages, respectively, in Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. The annual mean ambient air temperature increased by 1.03 ± 0.15°C in the last 50 years (1954-2007) in DNR. Rainfall amount in the corresponding period did not change significantly, but rainfall pattern changed remarkably in the last three decades (1978-2007). Soil temperature is correlated with ambient air temperature. The average SWC was 36.8 ± 8.4%, 34.7 ± 8.1% and 29.6 ± 8.1% in the 1980s, and then dropped sharply to 23.6 ± 2.9%, 20.5 ± 4.2% and 17.6 ± 3.9% in the 2000s, for the advanced, mid- and early-successional forests, respectively. Concurrent changes of soil temperature and SWC may have a negative effect on soil respiration rates for all three forests, implicated that soil respiration may have a negative feedback to regional climate change and carbon could be sequestered in subtropical forests in southern China. PMID:21983997

  10. Evaluation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™) with focus on long-term rate adaptation over a wide range of stimulation rates.

    PubMed

    Huarte, Alicia; Ramos, Angel; Morera, Constantino; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Battmer, Rolf; Dillier, Norbert; Wesarg, Thomas; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hey, Mattias; Offeciers, Erwin; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Coudert, Chrystelle; Killian, Matthijs

    2014-05-01

    Custom Sound EP™ (CSEP) is an advanced flexible software tool dedicated to recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) in Nucleus® recipients using Neural Response Telemetry™ (NRT™). European multi-centre studies of the Freedom™ cochlear implant system confirmed that CSEP offers tools to effectively record ECAP thresholds, amplitude growth functions, recovery functions, spread of excitation functions, and rate adaptation functions and an automated algorithm (AutoNRT™) to measure threshold profiles. This paper reports on rate adaptation measurements. Rate adaptation of ECAP amplitudes can successfully be measured up to rates of 495 pulses per second (pps) by repeating conventional ECAP measurements and over a wide range of rates up to 8000 pps using the masked response extraction technique. Rate adaptation did not show a predictable relationship with speech perception and coding strategy channel rate preference. The masked response extraction method offers opportunities to study long-term rate adaptation with well-defined and controlled stimulation paradigms. PMID:24559068

  11. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  12. Determining the long-term slip rate of the Pernicana Fault System, Mt. Etna, to improve earthquake forecast modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amato, Davide; Pace, Bruno; Di Nicola, Luigia; Stuart, Finlay M.; Barfod, Dan; Branca, Stefano; Azzaro, Raffaele; Visini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The Pernicana fault system (PFS) is a complex active tectonic systems located in the NE sector of Mt. Etna. It represents the northern boundary of the sliding side of the volcano and plays an important role in the dynamics of the eastern flank. Several historic and recent earthquakes have occurred close to this structure with coseismic surface faulting and damage (e.g. 02/04/2010 earthquake, Mw = 4.2). The PFS is transtensive, characterised by complex of en echelon segments with a N 110° overall direction. The dip-slip component decreases to the East accompanied with a decreasing of seismic activity. The eastern-most segment is characterised by left aseismic creeping strike-slip motion. The aim of this work is to constrain to constrain the long-term history of the PFS using 40Ar/39Ar and cosmogenic 3He ages of lava flows that are cut by the PFS in order to better understand the fault behaviour and improve the prediction of earthquake occurrence. We will present the first 3D shape of the PFS based on a network of detailed topographic profiles, to better constrain the variability of the fault scarp along strike and so the kinematics of the structure. In situ cosmogenic 3He exposure ages of two faulted lava flows from the central sector of PFS are used to determine the slip rate. Flow ages (1157 ± 230 yr and 1088 ± 96 yr) are combined with fault scarp heights to calculate an average vertical slip rate of about 11 mm/year over the last 1,000 years for the central section of the PFS. This rate is close to the rate determined from historical and geodetic data (displacement of antropic manufact and geodetic levelling), covering the last 20 years. It suggests that the slip-rates have not changed significantly in the last 1,000 years. The new fault geometry and slip rate data have been used to realise a kinematic and strain model of the PFS, in order to distinguish the vertical and the horizontal slip rate components and to model the tectonic and volcanic strain fields

  13. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  14. Are Changes in the Mean or Variability of Climate Signals More Important for Long-Term Stochastic Growth Rate?

    PubMed Central

    García-Carreras, Bernardo; Reuman, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Population dynamics are affected by changes in both the mean and standard deviation of climate, e.g., changes in average temperature are likely to affect populations, but so are changes in the strength of year-to-year temperature variability. The impacts of increases in average temperature are extensively researched, while the impacts of changes in climate variability are less studied. Is the greater attention given to changes in mean environment justified? To help answer this question we developed a simple population model, explicitly linked to an environmental process. We used the model to compare the sensitivities of a population's long-term stochastic growth rate, a measure of fitness, to changes in the mean and standard deviation of the environment. Results are interpreted in light of a comparative analysis of the relative magnitudes of change in means and standard deviations of biologically relevant climate variables in the United States. Results show that changes in the variability of the environment can be more important for many populations. Changes in mean conditions are likely to have a greater impact than changes in variability on populations far from their ideal environment, for example, populations near species range boundaries and potentially of conservation concern. Populations near range centres and close to their ideal environment are more likely to be affected by changes in variability. Among pest and insect disease vectors, as well as species of commercial value, populations likely to be of greatest economic and public health significance are those near species range centers, living in a near-ideal environment for the species. Observed changes in the variability of climate variables may benefit these populations. PMID:23691131

  15. Long-term and Short-term Vertical Deformation Rates across the Forearc in the Central Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Gaidzik, K.; Forman, S. L.; Kostoglodov, V.; Burgmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial scales of the earthquake cycle, from rapid deformation associated with earthquake rupture to slow deformation associated with interseismic and transient slow-slip behavior, span from fractions of a meter to thousands of kilometers (plate boundaries). Similarly, temporal scales range from seconds during an earthquake rupture to thousands of years of strain accumulation between earthquakes. The complexity of the multiple physical processes operating over this vast range of scales and the limited coverage of observations leads most scientists to focus on a narrow space-time window to isolate just one or a few process. We discuss here preliminary results on the vertical crustal deformation associated with both slow and rapid crustal deformation along a profile across the forearc region of the central Mexican subduction zone on the Guerrero sector, where the Cocos plate underthrusts the North American plate. This sector of the subduction zone is characterized by a particular slab geometry (with zones of rapid bending-unbending of the slab), irregular distributed seismicity, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT). We used the river network and geomorphic features of the Papagayo River to assess Quaternary crustal deformation. The Papagayo drainage network is strongly controlled by Late Cenozoic tectonic, Holocene and recent earthquake cycle processes. This is particularly true for the southern section of the drainage basin; from the dam in La Venta to the river mouth, where W-E structures commonly offset the course of the main river. River terraces occur along the course of the river at different elevations. We measured the height of a series of terraces and obtained OSL ages on quartz extracts to determine long-term rates of deformation. Finally, we discuss associations of the topography and river characteristics with the Cocos slab geometry, slow earthquakes, crustal deformation, and interseismic deformation.

  16. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and

  17. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Post, Wilfred M; Owens, Lloyd

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  18. Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an

  19. Possible long-term decline in impact rates. 2. Lunar impact-melt data regarding impact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.; Quantin, Cathy; Mangold, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Crater counts at lunar landing sites with measured ages establish a steep decline in cratering rate during the period ˜3.8 to ˜3.1 Gyr ago. Most models of the time dependence suggest a roughly constant impact rate (within factor ˜2) after about 3 Gyr ago, but are based on sparse data. Recent dating of impact melts from lunar meteorites, and Apollo glass spherules, clarifies impact rates from ˜3.2 to ˜2 Gyr ago or less. Taken together, these data suggest a decline with roughly 700 Myr half-life around 3 Gyr ago, and a slower decline after that, dropping by a factor ˜3 from about ˜2.3 Gyr ago until the present. Planetary cratering involved several phases with different time behaviors: (1) rapid sweep-up of most primordial planetesimals into planets in the first hundred Myr, (2) possible later effects of giant planet migration with enhanced cratering, (3) longer term sweep-up of leftover planetesimals, and finally (4) the present long-term "leakage" of asteroids from reservoirs such as the main asteroid belt and Kuiper belt. In addition, at any given point on the Moon, a pattern of "spikes" (sharp maxima of relatively narrow time width) will appear in the production rate of smaller craters (≲500 m?), not only from secondary debris from large primary lunar impacts at various distances from the point in question, but also from asteroid breakups dotted through Solar System history. The pattern of spikes varies according to type of sample being measured (i.e., glass spherules vs impact melts). For example, several data sets show an impact rate spike ˜470 Myr ago associated with the asteroid belt collision that produced the L chondrites (see Section 3.6 below). Such spikes should be less prominent in the production record of craters of D≳ few km. These phenomena affect estimates of planetary surfaces ages from crater counts, as discussed in a companion paper [Quantin, C., Mangold, N., Hartmann, W.K., Allemand, P., 2007. Icarus 186, 1-10]. Fewer impact melts and

  20. The octopus vertical lobe modulates short-term learning rate and uses LTP to acquire long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, Tal; Zarrella, Ilaria; Fiorito, Graziano; Hochner, Binyamin

    2008-03-11

    Analyzing the processes and neuronal circuitry involved in complex behaviors in phylogenetically remote species can help us understand the evolution and function of these systems. Cephalopods, with their vertebrate-like behaviors but much simpler brains, are ideal for such an analysis. The vertical lobe (VL) of Octopus vulgaris is a pivotal brain station in its learning and memory system. To examine the organization of the learning and memory circuitry and to test whether the LTP that we discovered in the VL is involved in behavioral learning, we tetanized the VL to induce a global synaptic enhancement of the VL pathway. The effects of tetanization on learning and memory of a passive avoidance task were compared to those of transecting the same pathway. Tetanization accelerated and transection slowed short-term learning to avoid attacking a negatively reinforced object. However, both treatments impaired long-term recall the next day. Our results suggest that the learning and memory system in the octopus, as in mammals [9], is separated into short- and long-term memory sites. In the octopus, the two memory sites are not independent; the VL, which mediates long-term memory acquisition through LTP, also modulates the circuitry controlling behavior and short-term learning.

  1. Influence of landscape position and vegetation on long-term weathering rates at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, Carmen A.; Blum, Joel D.; Klaue, Andrea; Johnson, Chris E.; Siccama, Thomas G.

    2004-07-01

    The spatial variability of long-term chemical weathering in a small watershed was examined to determine the effect of landscape position and vegetation. We sampled soils from forty-five soil pits within an 11.8-hectare watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. The soil parent material is a relatively homogeneous glacial till deposited ˜14,000 years ago and is derived predominantly from granodiorite and pelitic schist. Conifers are abundant in the upper third of the watershed while the remaining portion is dominated by hardwoods. The average long-term chemical weathering rate in the watershed, calculated by the loss of base cations integrated over the soil profile, is 35 meq m -2 yr -1—similar to rates in other ˜10 to 15 ka old soils developed on granitic till in temperate climates. The present-day loss of base cations from the watershed, calculated by watershed mass balance, exceeds the long-term weathering rate, suggesting that the pool of exchangeable base cations in the soil is being diminished. Despite the homogeneity of the soil parent material in the watershed, long-term weathering rates decrease by a factor of two over a 260 m decrease in elevation. Estimated weathering rates of plagioclase, potassium feldspar and apatite are greater in the upper part of the watershed where conifers are abundant and glacial till is thin. The intra-watershed variability across this small area demonstrates the need for extensive sampling to obtain accurate watershed-wide estimates of long-term weathering rates.

  2. Trophic Position and Metabolic Rate Predict the Long-Term Decay Process of Radioactive Cesium in Fish: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (137Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term 137Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum 137Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of 137Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

  3. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  4. Rates, causes, and dynamic of long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive continental margin", Brazil and Namibia, as revealed by thermo-kinematic numerical modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Stippich; Anton, Glasmacher Ulrich; Peter, Christian, Hackspacher

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil and NW-Namibia. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and complete rift to post-rift archives between Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre and in the transition from Namibia to Angola (onshore Walvis ridge) allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate the published and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil and Namibia, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape evolution at rifted margins. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE and FastCape). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The data and models will allow separating the exogenous and endogenous forces and their process rates.

  5. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  6. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  7. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more... market and pass interest-rate savings on to the borrower. (a) A variable interest rate agreed to by the.... The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of the loan, but...

  8. A New Paradigm for Gamma Ray Bursts: Long Term Accretion Rate Modulation by an External Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long term evolution of GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep "breaks" in the long term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power law segment.

  9. A NEW PARADIGM FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: LONG-TERM ACCRETION RATE MODULATION BY AN EXTERNAL ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Cannizzo, J. K. E-mail: gehrels@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We present a new way of looking at the very long-term evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in which the disk of material surrounding the putative black hole powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the efficacy of the process that extracts rotational energy from the black hole and inner accretion disk. The pre-Swift paradigm of achromatic, shallow-to-steep 'breaks' in the long-term GRB light curves has not been borne out by detailed Swift data amassed in the past several years. We argue that, given the initial existence of a fall-back disk near the progenitor, an unavoidable consequence will be the formation of an 'external disk' whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. The mass reservoir at large radii moves outward with time and gives a natural power-law decay to the GRB light curves. In this model, the different canonical power-law decay segments in the GRB identified by Zhang et al. and Nousek et al. represent different physical states of the accretion disk. We identify a physical disk state with each power-law segment.

  10. Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G.; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6 weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4 weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes. PMID:24680712

  11. 27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... application of daily compounding in determining interest accruing after December 31, 1982. Because...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable as long as they are legal. Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in... secondary market. (1) A variable interest rate must be a rate that is tied to a base rate published... and borrower. The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variable as long as they are legal. Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in... secondary market. (1) A variable interest rate must be a rate that is tied to a base rate published... and borrower. The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... variable as long as they are legal. Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in... secondary market. (1) A variable interest rate must be a rate that is tied to a base rate published... and borrower. The variable interest rate may be adjusted at different intervals during the term of...

  15. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4274.325 Section 4274.325 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.325 Interest rates. (a) Loans made by the Agency pursuant to this subpart shall bear interest at a fixed rate of 1 percent per annum over the term of the loan. (b) Interest rates charged...

  16. Height of faceted spurs, a proxy for determining long-term throw rates on normal faults: Evidence from the North Baikal Rift System, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Carole; Meyer, Bertrand; Gunnell, Yanni; Jolivet, Marc; San'kov, Vladimir; Strak, Vincent; Gonga-Saholiariliva, Nahossio

    2010-05-01

    We present new results on the long-term throw rates of active normal faults in the North Baikal Rift (NBR), eastern Siberia, based on a statistical analysis of triangular faceted scarps. Faceted spurs or triangular facets are morphologic features frequently observed along normal fault scarps, and result from the progressive denudation and incision of the footwall during fault activity. Fault-bounded ridges in the NBR display such typical morphologies with several contiguous facets separated by fault-perpendicular catchments. Over a range of 20 fault segments analyzed, triangular facet heights vary from ~200 to >900 m. As fault scarps have been developing under similar long-term climatic conditions, we infer that the scatter in mean facet height arises from long-term differences in fault throw rate. We compare the morphology of NBR facets with results obtained in a previously published numerical model of facet growth, which predicts that the mean height of triangular facets is proportional to the fault throw rate. Using facet height as an input, model results provide estimates of the long-term fault throw rates in the NBR. These vary between 0.2 and 1.2 mm/yr. The throw rates are then compared with the cumulated throw, which has been constrained by geophysical and stratigraphic data in the basins. This provides an estimate of the age of fault and basin initiation. We show that the modern stage of basin development started circa 3 Myr ago, except for the North Baikal basin (~ 8 Ma). Our results also suggest that a proportion of the observed throw is inherited from an earlier tectonic stage.

  17. A Discordancy Between Short-Term Sedimentation Rate Using Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu and Long-Term Sedimentation Rate Using C-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M.; Filley, T. R.; Bianchi, T. S.; Freeman, K. H.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Short-lived radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs, etc) have been successfully utilized to obtain sedimentation rates in freshwater and coastal marine environments over the past 3 decades. Combined use of 210Pb and Pu enable to delineate sedimentation from sediment mixing. However independent validation of short-term accumulation rates using other long-lived isotopes, such as 14C are very limited. We collected a sediment core from a sinkhole lake, Mud Lake, Florida, USA and analyzed it for 210Pb, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 14C. The sediment inventories of 137Cs, and 239,240Pu are comparable to the regional global fallout values while 210Pb inventory is comparable to the value reported for this region. A plot of depth against 14C age yields an intercept value of 1070 yrs, indicating a reservoir correction age of 1070 yrs. Most of the data points fall either on the straight line or close to the line possibly suggesting that the relative proportion of fossil carbon had remained constant throughout the core. Due to sediment compaction, a comparison of linear sedimentation rate obtained using short-lived radionuclides with those 14C could yield considerable difference and hence we compared the mass accumulation rates obtained from these isotopes. The 210Pbxs-based sediment mass accumulation rate of 17 mg cm-2 y-1, is almost a factor of 3 higher than that obtained using 14C -derived mass accumulation rate of 6 mg cm-2 y-1. The peak fallout of Pu is well preserved in the lake core suggesting relatively minimum sediment mixing. The factors that could cause this discordancy between the long-term and short-term mass accumulation rates will be discussed.

  18. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Elizabeth A.; Thorburn, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues (‘trash’). Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a ‘trash blanket’ in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location × soil × fertilizer × trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 years after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to reduce N

  19. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth A; Thorburn, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues ('trash'). Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a 'trash blanket' in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location × soil × fertilizer × trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 years after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to reduce N fertilizer

  20. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth A; Thorburn, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues ('trash'). Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a 'trash blanket' in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location × soil × fertilizer × trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 years after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to reduce N fertilizer

  1. Male and Female Subpopulations of Salix viminalis Present High Genetic Diversity and High Long-Term Migration Rates between Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation. PMID:27047511

  2. Male and Female Subpopulations of Salix viminalis Present High Genetic Diversity and High Long-Term Migration Rates between Them.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation.

  3. Using low-temperature thermochronometers to determine the long-term erosion rate pattern in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolar, D. B.; Brandon, M. T.; Willett, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Models of convergent mountain building can be tested with low-temperature thermochronometers and similar data sets provided that mass and heat transport are reasonably well-understood in the setting of interest. Here, we consider the topographically-highest and most deeply-exhumed portion of the Cascadia accretionary wedge, the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, where previous work suggests the long-term steadiness of the pattern of surface erosion and, hence, the mean topography and the temperature and rock velocity fields since soon after the onset of exhumation around 15-18 Ma. We test the hypothesis of a steady erosion rate pattern in the Olympic Mountains by using a thermo- mechanical model of a steady-state accretionary wedge and multiple low-temperature thermochronometers to solve for the patterns of mass influx (accretion) and mass outflux (surface erosion) through the Cascadia margin. Inversions of synthetic data indicate that the methodology is capable of accurately resolving the pattern of surface erosion. Inversions of real data appear to constrain both the duration and pattern of steady surface erosion. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) data, which record maximum temperatures, suggest that exhumation began ~15 Ma, matching previous estimates. Estimates of the erosion rate pattern from inversions of reset apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages are in rough agreement with each other and with fluvial incision rates near the western coast of the Olympic Peninsula, suggesting a steady erosion rate pattern over many millions of years. Inversions of reset zircon fission track (ZFT) ages suggest higher erosion rates in the core of the range than indicated by either the AFT or AHe data. Because the youngest reset ZFT age in the range is 9 Ma, we infer that the erosion rate pattern has remained relatively steady since 8 Ma. Finally, the erosion rate pattern determined from a simultaneous inversion of the AFT and AHe ages does not agree with

  4. Molecular demographic history of the annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris--large effective population sizes and rates of long-term gene flow.

    PubMed

    Strasburg, Jared L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2008-08-01

    Hybridization between distinct species may lead to introgression of genes across species boundaries, and this pattern can potentially persist for extended periods as long as selection at some loci or genomic regions prevents thorough mixing of gene pools. However, very few reliable estimates of long-term levels of effective migration are available between hybridizing species throughout their history. Accurate estimates of divergence dates and levels of gene flow require data from multiple unlinked loci as well as an analytical framework that can distinguish between lineage sorting and gene flow and incorporate the effects of demographic changes within each species. Here we use sequence data from 18 anonymous nuclear loci in two broadly sympatric sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, analyzed within an "isolation with migration" framework to make genome-wide estimates of the ages of these two species, long-term rates of gene flow between them, and effective population sizes and historical patterns of population growth. Our results indicate that H. annuus and H. petiolaris are approximately one million years old and have exchanged genes at a surprisingly high rate (long-term N(ef)m estimates of approximately 0.5 in each direction), with somewhat higher rates of introgression from H. annuus into H. petiolaris than vice versa. In addition, each species has undergone dramatic population expansion since divergence, and both species have among the highest levels of genetic diversity reported for flowering plants. Our results provide the most comprehensive estimate to date of long-term patterns of gene flow and historical demography in a nonmodel plant system, and they indicate that species integrity can be maintained even in the face of extensive gene flow over a prolonged period.

  5. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks... Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and direct lender association shall bear interest at a rate or rates as may be determined by the institution board. The...

  6. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  7. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  8. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to an interest rate plan within which management may establish rates. Any interest rate plan shall... management may adjust rates, and provide the upper and lower limits on management authority. Any interest... its review and approval of the institution's operational and strategic business plan....

  9. Lepidopteran cell lines after long-term culture in alternative media: comparison of growth rates and baculovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Dwight E

    2006-01-01

    Three insect cell lines, IPLB-LdFB and IPLB-LdEIta from gypsy moth fat body and embryos and UFL-AG-286 from velvetbean caterpillar embryos, have been concurrently maintained for 1 to 12 yr on two media formulations, modified TC-100 containing 9% fetal bovine serum and Ex-cell 400, a commercial serum-free medium (SFM). Cells grown in each medium were tested for susceptibility to and productivity of various multiply embedded nucleopolyhedroviruses. The three lines chosen for these experiments fall into three categories of relative growth in SFM versus TC-100: LdFB cells grew similarly in each medium, LdEIta grew better in Ex-Cell than in TC-100, and AG-286 grew better in TC-100 than in Ex-Cell. The susceptibility of cells to infection also varies, although without any apparent correlation to which medium was best for supporting growth. Endpoint assays suggested that LdFB cells grown in serum-containing medium are more susceptible to virus infection than their SFM counterparts, while the opposite is true for LdEIta cells. Production of virus, based on numbers of occlusion bodies, showed fewer differences with only AcMNPV production with AG-286 in TC-100 being statistically higher than production of the same virus in Ex-cell 400. These studies suggest that long-term passage in alternative media may impact the ability of cells to support virus infection and replication, but the effects on each cell line and virus system need to be determined. PMID:16848634

  10. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan...

  11. Long-term observations of SO2 gas emission rates from Nyiragongo volcano (RD Congo) during 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalire, Matthiew; Galle, Bo; Arellano, Santiago; Norman, Patrik; Johansson, Mattias

    2010-05-01

    volcanological observations is presented. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term and continuous gas monitoring to better understand the human and environmental effects of the persistent activity of this volcano.

  12. Relationship of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow rate and CD4 Count among HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J Vijay; Baghirath, P Venkat; Naishadham, P Parameswar; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sreedevi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy alters salivary flow rate and also to compare its relation of CD4 count with unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 individuals divided into three groups. Group I (50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, but not on HAART therapy), Group II (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for less than 3 years called short-term HAART), Group III (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for more than or equal to 3 years called long-term HAART). Spitting method proposed by Navazesh and Kumar was used for the measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean CD4 count was 424.78 ± 187.03, 497.82 ± 206.11 and 537.6 ± 264.00 in the respective groups. Majority of the patients in all the groups had a CD4 count between 401 and 600. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary (UWS and SWS) flow rates in Group I was found to be significantly higher than in Group II (P < 0.05). Unstimulated salivary flow rate between Group II and III subjects were also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). ANOVA performed between CD4 count and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva in each group demonstrated a statistically significant relationship in Group II (P < 0.05). There were no significant results found between CD4 count and stimulated whole saliva in each groups. Conclusion: The reduction in CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with salivary flow rates of HIV-infected individuals who are on long-term HAART. PMID:26097309

  13. Long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault, from 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating of an offset alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    der Woerd, J v; Klinger, Y; Sieh, K; Tapponnier, P; Ryerson, F; M?riaux, A

    2006-01-13

    We determine the long-term slip rate of the southern San Andreas Fault in the southeastern Indio Hills using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al isotopes to date an offset alluvial fan surface. Field mapping complemented with topographic data, air photos and satellite images allow to precisely determine piercing points across the fault zone that are used to measure an offset of 565 {+-} 80 m. A total of twenty-six quartz-rich cobbles from three different fan surfaces were collected and dated. The tight cluster of nuclide concentrations from 19 samples out of 20 from the offset fan surface implies a simple exposure history, negligible prior exposure and erosion, and yield an age of 35.5 {+-} 2.5 ka. The long-term slip rate of the San Andreas Fault south of Biskra Palms is thus 15.9 {+-} 3.4 mm/yr. This rate is about 10 mm/yr slower than geological (0-14 ka) and short-term geodetic estimates for this part of the San Andreas Fault implying changes in slip rate or in faulting behavior. This result puts new constraints on the slip rate of the San Jacinto and on the Eastern California Shear Zone for the last 35 ka. Our study shows that more sites along the major faults of southern California need to be targeted to better constrain the slip-rates over different time scales.

  14. Changes in Heart Rate Variability Are Associated with Expression of Short-Term and Long-Term Contextual and Cued Fear Memories

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hui; Zhao, Fang; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2013-01-01

    Heart physiology is a highly useful indicator for measuring not only physical states, but also emotional changes in animals. Yet changes of heart rate variability during fear conditioning have not been systematically studied in mice. Here, we investigated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability in both short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that while fear conditioning could increase heart rate, the most significant change was the reduction in heart rate variability which could be further divided into two distinct stages: a highly rhythmic phase (stage-I) and a more variable phase (stage-II). We showed that the time duration of the stage-I rhythmic phase were sensitive enough to reflect the transition from short-term to long-term fear memories. Moreover, it could also detect fear extinction effect during the repeated tone recall. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a valuable physiological indicator for sensitively measuring the consolidation and expression of fear memories in mice. PMID:23667644

  15. Variability of OH(3-1) emission altitude from 2003 to 2011: Long-term stability and universality of the emission rate-altitude relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Savigny, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Vertical volume emission rate profiles of the OH(3-1) Meinel emission near the mesopause are retrieved from nighttime limb-emission observations with the SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) instrument on the Envisat satellite. Mean emission altitudes are determined by weighting altitude with the vertical OH(3-1) volume emission rate profile. Analysis of the SCIAMACHY data set from January 2003 to December 2011 shows a clear semi-annual variation of the mean emission altitudes at low latitudes - where SCIAMACHY performs measurements throughout the year - with an amplitude of 0.5-1.0 km. Confirming earlier studies, we find a near constant, or universal, scaling of mean OH emission altitude and vertically integrated emission rate, which can be employed by ground-based observers to infer indirect information on OH emission altitude and its variability, if measurements of OH emission rates are performed. For this purpose we provide climatological fit parameters for the altitude/emission rate relationship. No obvious long-term trends or 11-year solar cycle signatures are present in the OH emission altitude time series, partly contradicting earlier studies. The long-term stability in OH emission altitude at the local time of the SCIAMACHY nighttime observations (10 p.m.) strengthens the use of ground-based OH rotational temperature measurements to study middle atmospheric climate change.

  16. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  17. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  18. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  19. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates... business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest... more often than quarterly). (2) The lender must incorporate within the variable rate note,...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender and... or the current Fannie Mae rate as defined in § 1980.302(a), whichever is higher. The lender...

  1. 8 CFR 293.2 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DEPOSIT OF AND INTEREST ON CASH RECEIVED TO SECURE IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury...

  2. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  3. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  4. Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

  5. Erosion rates at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites and long-term climate change on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Weitz, C.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Christensen, P.R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of ???0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga). Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

    2015-02-01

    Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14)C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which--in combination with the volumetric carbon content--allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands.

  7. Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

    2015-02-01

    Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14)C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which--in combination with the volumetric carbon content--allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. PMID:25230297

  8. A new animal model for evaluation of long-term growth rate over one month by rhGH/PLGA microcapsule formulations.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shigeyuki; Kurokawa, Tomofumi; Misaki, Masafumi; Taira, Keiko; Yamagata, Yutaka

    2003-07-01

    A new animal model to evaluate the long-term growth rate produced by a sustained-release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) over one month was developed and the usefulness of our microcapsule formulations was demonstrated in this model. Long-term pharmacological effects by subcutaneous injection of microcapsules for sustained release of rhGH were evaluated in hypophysectomized (Hpx) rats treated with immunosuppressive agent along with hormone supplement. Copoly(DL-lactic/glycolic)acid (PLGA) microcapsules for sustained release of rhGH, a two-week sustained-release formulation (rhGH-SR-2W) and a one-month sustained-release formulation (rhGH-SR-1M), were prepared by a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Body-weight gain, body-length gain and serum levels of rat insulin-like growth factor-I (rIGF-I) induced by subcutaneous injection of rhGH-SR were compared with those by daily injections of rhGH solution in Hpx rats for 35 days. Serum IGF-I levels in Hpx rats after the injection of rhGH-SR2W microcapsules were higher than those after daily injections of rhGH solution. Body-length gain, a new parameter, after single injection of rhGH-SR-1M microcapsules demonstrated the higher growth rate than that after daily injections of rhGH solution for 35 days. Thus, single injection of rhGH-SR microcapsules demonstrated long-term pharmacological effects greater than those by daily injections of rhGH solution in a newly developed model, immunosuppressed Hpx rats. PMID:12906752

  9. Does the eradication of Helicobacter pylori cure duodenal ulcer disease in communities with a high prevalence rate? Comparison with long-term acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Kepekci, Y; Kadayifci, A

    1999-01-01

    The long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer has been investigated and compared with long-term acid suppression treatment in an endemic community for infection. Seventy-three patients with endoscopically verified H. pylori positive active duodenal ulcer disease were included in this prospective study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A patients (n = 39) were given an omeprazole-based triple eradication regimen, while group B patients (n = 34) were given omeprazole alone followed by long-term famotidine 20 mg daily as maintenance treatment. A control endoscopy was performed at the third month of treatment. The bacterium was eradicated in 32 (82%) of group A patients. All patients were followed up for two years and an endoscopy performed at the end of each year. H. pylori recurred in 13 patients and the reinfection rate was 44.8% over two years. Duodenal ulcer recurred in seven of these patients at two years (24.1%). There was a close association between H. pylori reinfection and ulcer relapse. Group B patients remained H. pylori positive during the study and the ulcer recurred in five of these patients (6.6%) despite continuous famotidine treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in ulcer relapse rate between the groups. These results suggested that H. pylori eradication is not an absolute solution for duodenal ulcer disease in high endemic regions and continuous maintenance treatment with H2-receptor antagonists is still an alternative approach in some chronic recurrent cases.

  10. The Participation Rates of Older Minority Persons in Community-Based Services in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Monica; And Others

    Existing data are summarized and original data provided on minority participation rates in alternative services among the elderly. Data from several federally-funded programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, are presented. A group of 32 counties in the US, representing a universe of counties in which minorities constitute a large proportion of…

  11. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This...

  12. THE LONG-TERM DECAY IN PRODUCTION RATES FOLLOWING THE EXTREME OUTBURST OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, David G.

    2009-10-15

    Numerous sets of narrowband filter photometry were obtained of Comet 17P/Holmes from Lowell Observatory during the interval of 2007 November 1 to 2008 March 5. Observations began 8 days following its extreme outburst, at which time the derived water production rate, based on OH measurements, was 5 x 10{sup 29} molecule s{sup -1} and the derived proxy of dust production, A({theta})f{rho}, was about 5 x 10{sup 5} cm. Relative production rates for the other gas species, CN, C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, and NH, are consistent with 'typical' composition (based on our update to the classifications by A'Hearn et al.). An exponential decay in the logarithm of measured production rates as a function of time was observed for all species, with each species dropping by factors of about 200-500 after 125 days. All gas species exhibited clear trends with aperture size, and these trends are consistent with larger apertures having a greater proportion of older material that was released when production rates were higher. Much larger aperture trends were measured for the dust, most likely because the dust grains have smaller outflow velocities and longer lifetimes than the gas species; therefore, a greater proportion of older, i.e., higher production dust is contained within a given aperture. By extrapolating to a sufficiently small aperture size, we derive near-instantaneous water and dust production rates throughout the interval of observation, and also estimate values immediately following the outburst. The finite lifetime of the gas species requires that much higher ice vaporization rates were taking place throughout the observation interval than occurred prior to the outburst, likely due to the continued release of icy grains from the nucleus. The relatively small aperture trends for the gas species also imply that the bulk of fresh, excess volatiles are confined to the nucleus and near-nucleus regime, rather than being associated with the outburst ejecta cloud. A minimum of about 0

  13. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons.

  14. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  15. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  16. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P. W.

    2014-08-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island. These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have affected Crete in the Late Holocene. Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ∼600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ∼100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ∼68 and ∼76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level highstands indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ∼0.5 m/ka since at least ∼600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete.

  17. Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn-Bingham, Melva; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil; DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie; Mahmood, Usama; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results: Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

  18. Germline mutation rates and the long-term phenotypic effects of mutation accumulation in wild-type laboratory mice and mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Arikuni; Higuchi, Mayumi; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohno, Mizuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Nishino, Jo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    The germline mutation rate is an important parameter that affects the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolution. However, neither the rate of germline mutations in laboratory mice nor the biological significance of the mutation rate in mammalian populations is clear. Here we studied genome-wide mutation rates and the long-term effects of mutation accumulation on phenotype in more than 20 generations of wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mutator mice, which have high DNA replication error rates. We estimated the base-substitution mutation rate to be 5.4 × 10(-9) (95% confidence interval = 4.6 × 10(-9)-6.5 × 10(-9)) per nucleotide per generation in C57BL/6 laboratory mice, about half the rate reported in humans. The mutation rate in mutator mice was 17 times that in wild-type mice. Abnormal phenotypes were 4.1-fold more frequent in the mutator lines than in the wild-type lines. After several generations, the mutator mice reproduced at substantially lower rates than the controls, exhibiting low pregnancy rates, lower survival rates, and smaller litter sizes, and many of the breeding lines died out. These results provide fundamental information about mouse genetics and reveal the impact of germline mutation rates on phenotypes in a mammalian population.

  19. Germline mutation rates and the long-term phenotypic effects of mutation accumulation in wild-type laboratory mice and mutator mice

    PubMed Central

    Uchimura, Arikuni; Higuchi, Mayumi; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohno, Mizuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Nishino, Jo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The germline mutation rate is an important parameter that affects the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolution. However, neither the rate of germline mutations in laboratory mice nor the biological significance of the mutation rate in mammalian populations is clear. Here we studied genome-wide mutation rates and the long-term effects of mutation accumulation on phenotype in more than 20 generations of wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mutator mice, which have high DNA replication error rates. We estimated the base-substitution mutation rate to be 5.4 × 10−9 (95% confidence interval = 4.6 × 10−9–6.5 × 10−9) per nucleotide per generation in C57BL/6 laboratory mice, about half the rate reported in humans. The mutation rate in mutator mice was 17 times that in wild-type mice. Abnormal phenotypes were 4.1-fold more frequent in the mutator lines than in the wild-type lines. After several generations, the mutator mice reproduced at substantially lower rates than the controls, exhibiting low pregnancy rates, lower survival rates, and smaller litter sizes, and many of the breeding lines died out. These results provide fundamental information about mouse genetics and reveal the impact of germline mutation rates on phenotypes in a mammalian population. PMID:26129709

  20. Effect of age-at-release on long term sexual re-offense rates in civilly committed sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Prentky, Robert Alan; Lee, Austin F S

    2007-03-01

    A cohort of 136 rapists and 115 child molesters civilly committed to a prison in Massachusetts and followed for 25 years (see Prentky, Lee, Knight, & Cerce, 1997) was examined for the effect of age at time of release on sexual recidivism. The present study (1) examined the recidivism rates for each of five age-at-release groups, separately for rapists and child molesters, (2) tested the fit of linear and quadratic models for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25-year windows using Cox regression analysis, (3) presented the predicted failure rates for rapists (up to five years post-release) and child molesters (out 21 years post-release), and (4) provided a computational formula for estimating the sexual recidivism rate given an individual's age and number of years post-release. For rapists, a linear model extending 5 years best captured our data (LR=5.62, p<.02). Going out any further than 5 years did not enhance the predictive efficacy of the model. By contrast, a quadratic model extending the full duration of the study (25 years) provided the best fit (LR=6.30, p<.04) for child molesters. Our data supported the general conclusion that risk of sexual recidivism diminishes as a function of increasing age at time of release for rapists. We found marked differences, however, in the re-offense patterns of rapists and child molesters, with the latter group evidencing a distinct quadratic, rather than linear, pattern. Since these findings derive from a population screened for civil commitment by virtue of their presumptive dangerousness, they may not be generalizable to samples of sex offenders drawn from the general prison population. PMID:17334931

  1. A long-term rock uplift rate for eastern Crete and geodynamic implications for the Hellenic subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.; Hetzel, R.; Fassoulas, C.; Kubik, P.

    2014-12-01

    The island of Crete in the forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone has a rugged topography with a local relief exceeding 2 km. Based on the elevation of marine shorelines, rates of rock uplift during the Late Holocene were previously estimated to range between 1 and 4 mm/a in different parts of the island (e.g. Lambeck, 1995). These rates may, however, not be representative for longer timescales, because subduction earthquakes with up to 9 m of vertical coseismic displacement have recently affected Crete (Stiros, 2001). Here we use a well preserved sequence of marine terraces near Kato Zakros in eastern Crete to determine the rate of rock uplift over the last ˜600 ka. Field investigations and topographic profiles document a flight of more than 13 marine bedrock terraces that were carved into limestones of the Tripolitza unit. Preliminary age constraints for the terraces were obtained by 10Be exposure dating of rare quartz-bearing sandstone clasts, which are present on some terraces. The 10Be ages of these samples, which have been corrected for an inherited nuclide component, yielded exposure ages between ˜100 ka and zero. Combined with geomorphologic evidence the two oldest 10Be ages suggest that the terraces T4 and T5, with shoreline angles at an elevation of ca. 68 and ca. 76 m above sea level, respectively, formed during the marine isotope stage 5e about 120 ka ago. The correlation of the higher terraces (T6 to T13) with regional sea-level high-stands (Siddall et al., 2003) indicates sustained rock uplift at a rate of ˜0.5 m/ka since at least ˜600 ka. As normal faulting has dominated the tectonics of Crete during the last several million years, upper crustal shortening can be ruled out as a cause for rock uplift. We argue that the sustained uplift of the island results from the continuous underplating of sediments, which are transferred from the subducting African plate to the base of the crust beneath Crete. Lambeck, 1995, Geophys. J. Int. 122, 1022

  2. Evidence for Long-term Retrograde Motions of Sunspot Patterns and Indications of Coupled g-mode Rotation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juckett, David A.; Wolff, Charles L.

    2008-11-01

    Solar g-modes are global oscillations that would exist primarily in the radiative zone (RZ) and would be excited by either convective overshoot or nuclear burning in the core. Wolff and O’Donovan ( Astrophys. J. 661, 568, 2007) proposed a non-linear coupling of g-modes into groups that share the same harmonic degree ℓ. Each group (denoted set( ℓ)) exhibits a unique retrograde rotation rate with respect to the RZ that depends mainly on ℓ. The coupling yields a standing wave (nearly stationary in longitude) that has two angularly defined hot spots offset from the equator on opposite sides of the Sun that would deposit energy asymmetrically in the lower convective envelope (CE). It is anticipated that when two or more groups overlap in longitude, an increase in local heating would influence the distribution of sunspots. In this paper, we scanned a multitude of rotational reference frames for sunspot clustering to test for frames that are concordant with the rotation of these g-modes sets. To achieve this, spherical harmonic filtering of sunspot synoptic maps was used to extract patterns consistent with coalesced g-modes. The latitude band, with minimal differential rotation, was sampled from each filtered synoptic map and layered into a stackplot. This was progressively shifted, line-by-line, into different rotational reference frames. We have detected long-lived longitudinal alignments, spanning 90 years of solar cycles, which are consistent with the rotation rate of the deep solar interior as well as other rotational frames predicted by the coupled g-mode model. Their sidereal rotation rates of 370.0, 398.8, 412.7, 418.3, 421.0, 424.2 and 430.0 nHz correspond, respectively, to coupled g-modes for ℓ = 2 through 7 and G, where G is a set with high ℓ values or a group of such sets (unresolved) that rotate almost as fast as the RZ. While the clustering in these reference frames offers new approaches for studying the longitudinal behavior of solar activity

  3. Sources of variability in spotted owl population growth rate: testing predictions using long-term mark-recapture data.

    PubMed

    Seamans, Mark E; Gutiérrez, R J

    2007-05-01

    For long-lived iteroparous vertebrates that annually produce few young, life history theory predicts that reproductive output (R) and juvenile survival should influence temporal variation in population growth rate (lambda) more than adult survival does. We examined this general prediction using 15 years of mark-recapture data from a population of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). We found that survival of individuals > or =1 year old (phi) exhibited much less temporal variability (CV = 0.04), where CV is coefficient of variation, than R (CV = 0.83) and that R was strongly influenced by environmental stochasticity. Although lambda was most sensitive (ê; log-transformed sensitivity) to phi (ê = 0.77), and much less sensitive to either R (ê = 0.12) or juvenile survival (survival rate of owls from fledging to 1 year old; ê = 0.12), we estimated that R contributed as much as phi to the observed annual variability in lambda. The contribution of juvenile survival to variability in lambda was proportional to its ê. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection may have favored the evolution of longevity in spotted owls as a strategy to increase the probability of experiencing favorable years for reproduction. Our finding that annual weather patterns that most affected R (temperature and precipitation during incubation) and phi (conditions during winter related to the Southern Oscillation Index) were equally good at explaining temporal variability in lambda supports the conclusion that R and phi were equally responsible for variability in lambda. Although currently accepted conservation measures for spotted owl populations attempt to enhance survival, our results indicated that conservation measures that target R may be as successful, as long as actions do not reduce phi. PMID:17160689

  4. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.

    PubMed

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

    2014-03-25

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, λc, and its geometric mean, λper-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined λc and λper-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (λper-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (λper-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's λper-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (λper-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide.

  5. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of β = -0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year(-1). Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (β = -0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year(-1)). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (β = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year(-1)), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (β = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year(-1)). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non

  6. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

    PubMed Central

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. 2. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. 3. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 °C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. 4. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of β = −0·611 ± SE 0·015 days year−1. Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (β = −0·010 ± SE 0·022 days year−1). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (β = 0·336 ± SE 0·026 days year−1), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (β = 0·002 ± SE <0·001 year−1). 5. The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were

  7. Effects of short- and long-term exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, I.; Yokoyama, E.

    1989-02-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure of elastase-treated emphysematous rats (E rats) and saline-treated control rats (S rats) were recorded continuously during exposure to either 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 3 hr or 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6 hr. The heart rates (HRs) of both groups decreased to about 50 and 65% of the initial levels at the end of 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) also decreased to about 76 and 82%, respectively. There was no significant difference in these responses between E and S rats, although the levels of HRs and MAPs of the E rats were always a little lower than those of the S rats. Another group of E and S rats was continuously exposed to 0.2 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 weeks. The HRs of both E and S groups decreased to about 81 and 88% of the initial levels on the first day, respectively, although they recovered completely by the third day. No significant difference in the variation of HRs during exposure was noted between E and S rats. However, the HR responses of these rats to a challenge exposure of 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr appeared to be different. That is, S rats were more tolerant of the challenge exposure to O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr than the E rats.

  8. Long term observation of MRSA prevalence in a German rehabilitation center: risk factors and variability of colonization rate

    PubMed Central

    Gieffers, Jens; Ahuja, André; Giemulla, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data on MRSA prevalence in rehabilitation centers are sparse. Methods: We screened more than 18,000 patients with neurological, cardiac/pulmonary or orthopedic diagnoses treated in three German rehabilitation centers and documented potential risk factors in almost 1,500 of them. Results: 2.1% were MRSA positive (CI 1.9%–2.4%). Prevalence was higher in neurologic patients (3.7%) and lower in orthopedic patients (0.9%). While the overall MRSA situation was stable over two years, the weekly MRSA rate fluctuated strongly (0.0% to 8.0%). We confirmed five risk factors in our study population. A risk adapted screening strategy derived from our data had a significance of 74% and a positive predictive value of only 2.2%. Conclusion: MRSA positivity is a rare and highly variable event, requiring a huge sample size to generate robust data. The benefit of a risk-adapted screening strategy over a general screening should be questioned in each individual setting. PMID:27777874

  9. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  10. Updated Long Term Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Central Alborz, Iran: New Constraints From InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alborz mountain range, located south of the Caspian Sea, accommodates 30% of the 25 mm/yr convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. The resulting shortening and left lateral motion is distributed over several active fault zones within the Central Alborz. Despite earlier efforts using only GPS data, little is known about the long term rate of vertical deformation and aseismic slip. Several historical earthquakes have affected this region, some of the largest of these events occurred on the Mosha fault which is close to the capital city, Tehran, which has a population of over eight million. Thus, constraining the interseismic slip rates in this region is particularly important. In this study we complement existing horizontal velocities from a regional GPS network, with line of sight velocities from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), to provide additional constraints on the vertical deformation and enhance the spatial coverage. Assuming a seismogenic depth of 30 km, based on microseismicity data, we solve for the geometry and long term slip rates on four major fault strands in this region. We obtain a long term slip rate of ~ 3 mm/yr for the Mosha and North Alborz faults, and ~ 10 mm/yr for the Khazar fault and Parchin faults. These rates and fault geometries are in agreement with earlier works, and fit the GPS data well. However, close to the fault traces there are large residuals in the InSAR data, suggesting that there is shallow creep (< 30 km). Therefore, we carry out a subsequent inversion using only the residual InSAR displacements to solve for the distribution of creep within the seismogenic zones on these faults. We find that the Mosha and North Alborz faults remain locked between 0 - 30 km depth, whilst the Parchin and Khazar faults are creeping. This new observation of fault creep has direct implications for the seismic hazard in the region. On the Mosha fault we estimate a slip deficit equivalent to a Mw 7.0 event. The combination of In

  11. Long-term effects of different type and rates of organic amendments on reclamation of copper mine tailing in Central Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, Eduardo; Garreton, Bruna; Ginocchio, Rosanna

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of a single application of organic amendments on a copper mine tailings. Seven years after seeding of a mix of herbaceous plant and planting of ten native trees, and the application of organic amendment, plant community and soil fertility was measured in replicated plots that received six different treatments of waste water treatment plant biosolids (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha), olive oil waste (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha) and pisco grapes waste (90 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha). A control treatment that received no organic amendment was also measured after seven years. Field measurements demonstrated that application of biosolids and pisco grapes waste, at both rates significantly improved vegetation coverage in comparison to the control treatment (80 and 100% vs control, 25%). The high rates of pisco waste had the highest vegetation diversity and survival in comparison to the other treatments. The high rate of olive oil waste had a negative effect on vegetation development in comparison to the control treatment. The application of organic amendment improved soil fertility in the long-term. All the treatments had a significant higher nitrogen concentration in comparison to the control treatment. The high rates of biosolids and pisco grape waste had a significantly effect of soil carbon concentration. Soil macro-aggregate in the high rate of pisco grape waste were also higher than the control, showing a positive relation between soil recover and vegetation development. We can conclude assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings is likely a technically effective solution for the valorisation of organic residues.

  12. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS General Loan Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and direct...

  13. Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature). We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence.

  14. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  16. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates... course of business and are subject to Agency review and approval. (b) Variable rate publication. A variable interest rate must be tied to a base rate published periodically in a recognized national...

  19. Heart rate reduction for 36 months with ivabradine reduces left ventricular mass in cardiac allograft recipients: a long-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Doesch, Andreas O; Mueller, Susanne; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Frankenstein, Lutz; Hardt, Stefan; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Ehlermann, Philipp; Dengler, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to graft denervation, sinus tachycardia is a common problem after heart transplantation, underlining the importance of heart rate control without peripheral effects. However, long-term data regarding the effects of ivabradine, a novel If channel antagonist, are limited in patients after heart transplantation. Methods In this follow-up analysis, the resting heart rate, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMI), tolerability, and safety of ivabradine therapy were evaluated at baseline and after 36 months in 30 heart transplant recipients with symptomatic sinus tachycardia versus a matched control group. Results During the study period, ivabradine medication was stopped in three patients (10% of total). Further analysis was based on 27 patients with 36 months of drug intake. The mean patient age was 53.3±11.3 years and mean time after heart transplantation was 5.0±4.8 years. After 36 months, the mean ivabradine dose was 12.0±3.4 mg/day. Resting heart rate was reduced from 91.0±10.7 beats per minute before initiation of ivabradine therapy (ie, baseline) to 81.2±9.8 beats per minute at follow-up (P=0.0006). After 36 months of ivabradine therapy, a statistically significant reduction of LVMI was observed (104.3±22.7 g at baseline versus 93.4±18.4 g at follow-up, P=0.002). Hematologic, renal, and liver function parameters remained stable during ivabradine therapy. Except for a lower mycophenolate mofetil dose at follow-up (P=0.02), no statistically significant changes in immunosuppressive drug dosage or blood levels were detected. No phosphenes were observed during 36 months of ivabradine intake despite active inquiry. Conclusion In line with previously published 12-month data, heart rate reduction with ivabradine remained effective and safe in chronic stable patients after heart transplantation, and also during 36-month long-term follow-up. Further, a significant reduction of LVMI was observed only during ivabradine therapy

  20. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long-term

  1. Comparing global-scale topographic and climatic metrics to long-term erosion rates using ArcSwath, an efficient new ArcGIS tool for swath profile analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, Niclas; Whipp, David

    2016-04-01

    data and the long-term erosion rates shows that 86 of 288 plots (30%) have "good" R2 values (> 0.35) and 135 of 288 (47%) have an "acceptable" R2 value (> 0.2). The "good" and "acceptable" values have been selected on the basis of visual fit to the regression line. The majority of the plots with a "good" correlation value have positive correlations, while 11/86 plots have negative slopes for the regression lines. Interestingly, two topographic profile shapes were clear in swath profiles: Concave-up (e.g., the central-western Himalaya and the northern Bolivian Andes) and concave-down or straight (e.g., the eastern Himalayas and the southern Bolivian Andes). On the orogen scale, the concave-up shape is often related to relatively high precipitation and erosion rates on the slopes of steep topography. The concave-down/straight profiles seem to occur in association of low rainfall and/or erosion rates. Though we cannot say with confidence, the lack of a clear correlation between long-term erosion rates and climate or topography may be due to the difference in their respective timescales as climate can vary over shorter timescales than 105-107 years. In that case, variations between fluvial and glacial erosion may have overprinted the erosional effects of one another.

  2. Payment Rates for Personal Care Assistants and the Use of Long-Term Services and Supports among Those Dually Eligible for Medicare and Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Michelle; Newcomer, Robert; Kang, Taewoon; Hulett, Denis; Chu, Philip; Bindman, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between payment rates for personal care assistants and use of long-term services and supports (LTSS) following hospital discharge among dual eligible Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Data Sources State hospital discharge, Medicaid and Medicare claims, and assessment data on California Medicaid LTSS users from 2006 to 2008. Study Design Cross-sectional study. We used multinomial logistic regression to analyze county personal care assistant payment rates and postdischarge LTSS use, and estimate marginal probabilities of each outcome across the range of rates paid in California. Data Extraction Methods We identified dual eligible Medicare and Medicaid adult beneficiaries discharged from an acute care hospital with no hospitalizations or LTSS use in the preceding 12 months. Principal Findings Personal care assistant payment rates were modestly associated with home and community-based services (HCBS) use versus nursing facility entry following hospital discharge (RRR 1.2, 95 percent CI: 1.0–1.4). For a rate of $6.75 per hour, the probability of HCBS use was 5.6 percent (95 percent CI: 4.2–7.1); at $11.75 per hour, 18.0 percent (95 percent CI: 12.5–23.4). Payment rate was not associated with the probability of nursing facility entry. Conclusions Higher payment rates for personal care assistants may increase utilization of HCBS, but with limited substitution for nursing facility care. PMID:25327166

  3. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender and must not be more than the current Fannie Mae rate as defined in § 1980.302(a) of this subpart....

  4. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  5. Caregiver Ratings of Long-term Executive Dysfunction and Attention Problems After Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: Family Functioning Is Important

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better

  6. Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

  7. Assessment of individual adaptation to microgravity during long term space flight based on stepwise discriminant analysis of heart rate variability parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, Roman M.; Chernikova, Anna G.; Funtova, Irina I.; Tank, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Optimization of the cardiovascular system under conditions of long term space flight is provided by individual changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an easy to use method under these extreme conditions. We tested the hypothesis that individual HRV analysis provides important information for crew health monitoring. HRV data from 14 Russian cosmonauts measured during long term space flights are presented (two times before and after flight, monthly in flight). HRV characteristics in the time and in the frequency domain were calculated. Predefined discriminant function equations obtained in reference groups (L1=-0.112*HR-1.006*SI-0.047*pNN50-0.086*HF; L2=0.140*HR-0.165*SI-1.293*pNN50+0.623*HF) were used to define four functional states. (1) Physiological normal, (2) prenosological, (3) premorbid and (4) pathological. Geometric mean values for the ISS cosmonauts based on L1 and L2 remained within normal ranges. A shift from the physiological normal state to the prenosological functional state during space flight was detected. The functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to pre-flight and early post-flight functional states. Analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the pre-flight functional state. Using the developed classification a transition process from the state of physiological normal into a prenosological state or premorbid state during different stages of space flight can be detected for individual Russian cosmonauts. Our approach to an estimation of HR regulatory pattern can be useful for prognostic purposes.

  8. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  9. Reconstructing shifts in vital rates driven by long-term environmental change: a new demographic method based on readily available data

    PubMed Central

    González, Edgar J; Martorell, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, vital rates are driven by directional, long-term environmental changes. Many of these are of great importance, such as land degradation, climate change, and succession. Traditional demographic methods assume a constant or stationary environment, and thus are inappropriate to analyze populations subject to these changes. They also require repeat surveys of the individuals as change unfolds. Methods for reconstructing such lengthy processes are needed. We present a model that, based on a time series of population size structures and densities, reconstructs the impact of directional environmental changes on vital rates. The model uses integral projection models and maximum likelihood to identify the rates that best reconstructs the time series. The procedure was validated with artificial and real data. The former involved simulated species with widely different demographic behaviors. The latter used a chronosequence of populations of an endangered cactus subject to increasing anthropogenic disturbance. In our simulations, the vital rates and their change were always reconstructed accurately. Nevertheless, the model frequently produced alternative results. The use of coarse knowledge of the species' biology (whether vital rates increase or decrease with size or their plausible values) allowed the correct rates to be identified with a 90% success rate. With real data, the model correctly reconstructed the effects of disturbance on vital rates. These effects were previously known from two populations for which demographic data were available. Our procedure seems robust, as the data violated several of the model's assumptions. Thus, time series of size structures and densities contain the necessary information to reconstruct changing vital rates. However, additional biological knowledge may be required to provide reliable results. Because time series of size structures and densities are available for many species or can be rapidly generated, our model can

  10. Long-Term Efficacy and Toxicity of Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy in Low-, Intermediate-, and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kittel, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Smith, Kristin L.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Ulchaker, James; Angermeier, Kenneth; Campbell, Steven; Stephenson, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.; Wilkinson, D. Allan; Ciezki, Jay P.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives: To report long-term efficacy and toxicity for a single-institution cohort of patients treated with low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy permanent implant (PI) monotherapy. Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2007, 1989 patients with low-risk (61.3%), intermediate-risk (29.8%), high-intermediate-risk (4.5%), and high-risk prostate cancer (4.4%) were treated with PI and followed up prospectively in a registry. All patients were treated with {sup 125}I monotherapy to 144 Gy. Late toxicity was coded retrospectively according to a modified Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 scale. The rates of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) were calculated. We identified factors associated with late grade ≥3 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, bRFS, DMFS, OS, PCSM, and incontinence. Results: The median age of the patients was 67 years, and the median overall and prostate-specific antigen follow-up times were 6.8 years and 5.8 years, respectively. The overall 5-year rates for bRFS, DMFS, OS, and PCSM were 91.9%, 97.8%, 93.7%, and 0.71%, respectively. The 10-year rates were 81.5%, 91.5%, 76.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. The overall rates of late grade ≥3 GU and GI toxicity were 7.6% and 0.8%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, age and prostate length were significantly associated with increased risk of late grade ≥3 GU toxicity. The risk of incontinence was highly correlated with both pre-PI and post-PI transurethral resection of the prostate. Conclusions: Prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy is an effective treatment for low-risk and low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer and appears promising as a treatment for high-intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. Significant long-term toxicities are rare when brachytherapy is performed as monotherapy.

  11. Long-Term Rates of Erosion and Relief Growth Along the Converging Southern Mexican Margin, Inferred From 10Be in Sediment and Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, T.; Riebe, C. S.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2002-12-01

    Quantifying how erosion and tectonics interrelate is crucial for understanding patterns of sediment yield and for understanding how mountains evolve. Using 10Be in alluvial sediment and regolith, we measured long-term rates of erosion and relief generation in granitic mountains along 1800 km of southern Mexico's actively converging Pacific margin. Both the style and rate of plate convergence change significantly along the margin, with much steeper subduction in the south, and convergence increasing from 3 cm/yr to 7 cm/yr along strike from North to South. These differences in convergence should correspond to differences in tectonic activity, and thus in rates of landscape evolution. Our results show that catchment-wide erosion rates along the margin span a five-fold range and are highest (0.6 mm/yr) in the southernmost area, where convergence is fastest. Relief production (estimated here from the difference between ridgetop and catchment-wide erosion rates) also appears to be exceptionally rapid (0.5 mm/yr) in the south. Conversely, in the north, where convergence is slower and subduction is shallower, catchment erosion rates are slower (0.1 mm/yr) and relief is declining, with ridgetops wearing down faster than the catchments around them. Neither differences in lithology nor climate adequately account for the differences in relief growth and erosion rates measured here. We suggest that slower erosion and relief reduction in the north together with faster erosion and relief growth in the south may be signatures of the disparity in the styles and rates of plate convergence.

  12. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312 Section 36.4312 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN... rate adjustments must occur on an annual basis, except that the first adjustment may occur no...

  13. Prostate-specific antigen nadir after high-dose-rate brachytherapy predicts long-term survival outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Sekiguchi, Akane; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Fujita, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen nadir (nPSA) after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in clinically non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer patients. Material and methods Data from 216 patients with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis was 24 ng/ml (range: 3-338 ng/ml). The clinical stage was T1c-2a in 55 cases (26%), T2b-2c in 48 (22%), T3a in 75 (35%), and T3b-4 in 38 (17%). The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After 5 fractions, external beam radiation therapy with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent neoadjuvant ADT for at least 6 months, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months. The median follow-up was 7 years from the start of radiotherapy. Results The 7-year PSA relapse-free rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 94%, compared with 23% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 28.57; 95% CI: 12.04-66.66; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the nPSA value after radiotherapy was a significant independent predictor of biochemical failure, whereas pretreatment predictive values for worse biochemical control including higher level of initial PSA, Gleason score ≥ 8, positive biopsy core rate ≥ 67%, and T3b-T4, failed to reach independent predictor status. The 7-year cancer-specific survival rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 99%, compared with 82% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 32.25; 95% CI: 3.401-333.3; p = 0.002). Conclusions A post-radiotherapy nPSA value of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was associated with better long-term biochemical tumor control even if patients had pretreatment predictive values for worse

  14. The fate of 5N-nitrate in mesocosms from five European peatlands differing in long-term nitrogen deposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, K.; Blodau, C.

    2015-10-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition changes the retention, transformation, and fluxes of N in ombrotrophic peatlands. To evaluate such effects we applied a 15N tracer (NH415NO3) at a rate of 2.3 g N m-2 yr-1 to mesocosms of five European peatlands with differing long-term N deposition rates for a period of 76 days of dry and 90 days of wet conditions. We determined background N content and moss length growth, and recovered the 15N tracer from the mosses, graminoids, shrubs, the peat, and dissolved N. Background N contents in Sphagnum mosses increased from 5.5 (Degerö Stormyr, deposition < 0.2 g N m-2 yr-1) up to 12.2 mg g-1 (Frölichshaier Sattelmoor, 4.7-6.0 g N m-2 yr-1). In peat from Degerö nitrate and ammonium concentrations were below 3 mg L-1, whereas up to 30 mg L-1 (nitrate) and 11 mg L-1 (ammonium) was found in peat from Frölichshaier Sattelmoor. Sphagnum mosses (down to 5 cm below surface) generally intercepted large amounts of 15N (0.2-0.35 mg g-1) and retained the tracer most effectively relative to their biomass. Similar quantities of the 15N were recovered from the peat, followed by shrubs, graminoids and the dissolved pool. At the most polluted sites we recovered more 15N from shrubs (up to 12.4 %) and from nitrate and ammonium (up to 0.7 %). However, no impact of N deposition on 15N retention by Sphagnum could be identified and their length growth was highest under high N background deposition. Our experiment suggests that the decline in N retention at levels above ca. 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, as expressed by elevated near-surface peat N content and increased dissolved N concentrations, is likely more modest than previously thought. This conclusion is related to the finding that Sphagnum species can apparently thrive at elevated long-term N deposition rates in European peatlands.

  15. The fate of 15N-nitrate in mesocosms from five European peatlands differing in long-term nitrogen deposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, K.; Blodau, C.

    2016-02-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition changes the retention, transformation, and fluxes of N in ombrotrophic peatlands. To evaluate such effects we applied a 15N tracer (NH4 15NO3) at a rate of 2.3 g N m-2 yr-1 to mesocosms of five European peatlands with differing long-term N deposition rates for a period of 76 days of dry and 90 days of wet conditions. We determined background N content and moss length growth, and recovered the 15N tracer from the mosses, graminoids, shrubs, the peat, and dissolved N. Background N contents in Sphagnum mosses increased from 5.5 (Degerö Stormyr, deposition < 0.2 g N m-2 yr-1) up to 12.2 mg g-1 (Frölichshaier Sattelmoor, 4.7-6.0 g N m-2 yr-1). In peat from Degerö, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were below 3 mg L-1, whereas up to 30 (nitrate) and 11 mg L-1 (ammonium) was found in peat from Frölichshaier Sattelmoor. Sphagnum mosses (down to 5 cm below surface) generally intercepted large amounts of 15N (0.2-0.35 mg g-1) and retained the tracer most effectively relative to their biomass. Similar quantities of the 15N were recovered from the peat, followed by shrubs, graminoids, and the dissolved pool. At the most polluted sites we recovered more 15N from shrubs (up to 12.4 %) and from nitrate and ammonium (up to 0.7 %). However, no impact of N deposition on 15N retention by Sphagnum could be identified and their length growth was highest under high N background deposition. Our experiment suggests that the decline in N retention at levels above ca. 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, as expressed by elevated near-surface peat N content and increased dissolved N concentrations, is likely more modest than previously thought. This conclusion is related to the finding that Sphagnum species can apparently thrive at elevated long-term N deposition rates in European peatlands.

  16. Nitrogen transformations in a Vertisol under long-term tillage and no tillage management in dryland agricultual systems: key genes and potential rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melero, Sebastiana; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Murillo, J. Manuel; Buegger, Franz; Kleinedam, Kristina; Kublik, Susanne; Vanderlinden, Karl; Moreno, Felix; Schloter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The impact of tillage practices on microbial N transformations in semiarid regions is poorly understood and data from long-term field experiments are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the effects of traditional tillage (TT) vs no-tillage (NT) on key processes of the N cycle such as nitrification and denitrification in a long-term field experiment under a rainfed crop rotation system (cereal-sunflower-legumes) on a vertisol (SW Spain). Besides general soil chemical and biological parameters, we quantified the size of the ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying bacterial populations via real-time PCR (amoA, nirS and nosZ genes), and measured potential nitrification and denitrification rates. Soil was sampled at two depths (0-30, till layer; and 30-50 cm), once during the growing period of the crop (wheat) and another time after harvesting. Conservation tillage slightly increased total organic carbon and microbial biomass C content, whereas no effect on nutrient availability (C and N) was observed, likely due to the fertilization regime and the textural characteristics of the soil type (Vertisol). Gene abundance and potential rates were influenced by the interaction between tillage treatment and sampling period, mainly at 0-30 cm depth. In general, ammonia oxidizers and potential nitrification were enhanced under TT, particularly after harvesting. By contrast, higher abundance of denitrifiers, as reflected by both nirS and nosZ gene copy numbers and larger potential denitrification rates were found under NT during the growing period, but not after harvesting. Results also showed that the N2O/N2 ratio was constant throughout the experiment and thus was affected more significantly by environmental parameters such as the availability carbon than by changes in denitrifier abundance. Our results stress the importance of quantifying microbial populations to address the impact of agricultural practices on N transformations in soil. Furthermore, results suggest that the spatial

  17. Contrasts Between Short- and Long-Term Erosion Rates in the NW Himalaya: Disequilibrium at 103 to 106-yr Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Strecker, M. R.; Thiede, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2006-12-01

    Along the Sutlej Valley in the NW Indian Himalaya, large tectonic and climatic gradients influence landscape evolution in different spatial and temporal domains. Here, we present (1) results from 8 new cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) river-sand samples that help quantify Holocene basin-wide erosion rates, (2) a surface- processes model based on specific stream power to explain the measured erosion rates in light of present-day climatic conditions, and (3) a comparison of short-term (103 - 104 yr) erosion and long-term (105 - 106 yr) exhumation rates based on published apatite fission-track (AFT) ages that reveal large spatiotemporal discrepancies. CRN-derived erosion rates from the upper Sutlej River draining ~30,000 km2 within the Tibetan Plateau average ~0.2 mm/yr (all rates represent an averaged value from Al and Be cosmogenic isotopes). Erosion rates, as measured from tributary catchments, increase downstream to a peak of ~3 mm/yr in the midst of the High Himalaya (~2000 m asl on the main stem). Near the toe of the Himalayan mountains, erosion rates based on detrital CRNs are ~1.1 mm/yr along the Sutlej main stem at river elevations of ~1000 m asl and thus represent an integrated rate over the entire catchment. Next, we compare the measurements to an erosion model that utilizes river discharge, width, and slope to calculate specific stream power, a proxy for the energy per unit stream length. In this numerical model, (1) river discharge is explicitly derived from calibrated, high resolution satellite-rainfall measurements (TRMM), (2) river width is taken from a discharge width scaling law adjusted to the Himalaya, and (3) river slope is taken from a hydrologically corrected, 90m Digital Elevation Model (SRTM) where data gaps have been carefully patched with DEMs derived from stereo-pair satellite imagery and other high-resolution datasets. Using the present-day monsoonal rainfall as input for discharge, a linear relation emerges between measured erosion rates and

  18. Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cury, Fabio L.; Duclos, Marie; Aprikian, Armen; Patrocinio, Horacio; Kassouf, Wassim; Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

  19. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  20. 7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... handling Single Family Housing Loans are contained in 7 CFR part 3550. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Servicing Accounts of Borrowers Entering the Armed Forces § 1950.105...

  1. 7 CFR 4279.231 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.231 Section 4279.231 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  2. 7 CFR 4279.231 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.231 Section 4279.231 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  3. 24 CFR 200.83 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 200.83 Section 200.83 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rates. 1980.423 Section 1980.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  5. 12 CFR 1808.300 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... will be established by the Bond Purchaser as of the date of the respective advance of funds, as provided in the Bond. The Bond Rate for each advance of funds must be fixed and consistent with Federal...) Interest on each advance of funds under a Bond shall be computed as provided in the Bond. (3) A...

  6. An appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of heart rate (fH) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. Recently a non-invasive technique of fH detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. This device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. However, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect temperature with consequent effects on physiological processes, including fH. We studied the effect of use of the monitor on the temperature of eggs and on fH in two species of reptiles, the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Egg temperature increased from a room temperature of 27-28 °C, by 26% in turtles and 14% in iguanas over 1h of enclosure, resulting in an increase in fH of 76-81% in turtles and 35-50% iguanas. These effects on fH can either be avoided by brief enclosure of each egg in the monitor or measured and accounted for during the design of long-term experiments. PMID:26086361

  7. An appraisal of the use of an infrared digital monitoring system for long-term measurement of heart rate in reptilian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Marina R; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of heart rate (fH) in embryonic reptiles has previously imposed some degree of invasive treatment on the developing embryo. Recently a non-invasive technique of fH detection from intact eggs was developed for commercial avian breeders and has since been used in biological research. This device uses infrared light, enabling it to detect heartbeats in very early embryos. However, infrared light is a source of heat and extended enclosure of an egg in the device is likely to affect temperature with consequent effects on physiological processes, including fH. We studied the effect of use of the monitor on the temperature of eggs and on fH in two species of reptiles, the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Egg temperature increased from a room temperature of 27-28 °C, by 26% in turtles and 14% in iguanas over 1h of enclosure, resulting in an increase in fH of 76-81% in turtles and 35-50% iguanas. These effects on fH can either be avoided by brief enclosure of each egg in the monitor or measured and accounted for during the design of long-term experiments.

  8. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. Part II: Solute profiles, gradients and the comparisons of contemporary and long-term weathering rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Vivit, D.V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T.D.; Maher, K.; Blum, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    changes and/or climate. Pore waters approach thermodynamic saturation with respect to albite at depth in the younger terraces, indicating that weathering rates ultimately become transport-limited and dependent on hydrologic flux. Contemporary rates Rsolute are estimated from linear Na and Si pore weathering gradients bsolute such that Rsolute = frac(qh, bsolute ?? Sv) where Sv is the volumetric surface area and ?? is the stoichiometric coefficient. Plagioclase weathering rates (0.38-2.8 ?? 10-15 mol m-2 s-1) are comparable to those based on 87Sr/86Sr mass balances and solid-state Na and Ca gradients using analogous gradient approximations. In addition, contemporary solute gradients, under transport-limited conditions, approximate long-term solid-state gradients when normalized against the mass of protolith plagioclase and its corresponding aqueous solubility. The multi-faceted weathering analysis presented in this paper is perhaps the most comprehensive yet applied to a single field study. Within uncertainties of the methods used, present day weathering rates, based on solute characterizations, are comparable to average long-term past rates as evidenced by soil profiles.

  9. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  10. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  11. Alarming rates of virological failure and drug resistance in patients on long-term antiretroviral treatment in routine HIV clinics in Togo.

    PubMed

    Konou, Abla A; Dagnra, Anoumou Y; Vidal, Nicole; Salou, Mounerou; Adam, Zakillatou; Singo-Tokofai, Assétina; Delaporte, Eric; Prince-David, Mireille; Peeters, Martine

    2015-11-28

    Information on efficacy of long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) exposure in resource-limited countries is still scarce. In 767 patients attending routine HIV centers in Togo and receiving first-line ART for more than four years, 42% had viral load greater than 1000 copies/ml and either were on a completely ineffective ART regime or were with only a single drug active. The actual conditions to ensure lifelong ART in resource-limited countries can have dramatic long-term outcomes. PMID:26558549

  12. Alarming rates of virological failure and drug resistance in patients on long-term antiretroviral treatment in routine HIV clinics in Togo.

    PubMed

    Konou, Abla A; Dagnra, Anoumou Y; Vidal, Nicole; Salou, Mounerou; Adam, Zakillatou; Singo-Tokofai, Assétina; Delaporte, Eric; Prince-David, Mireille; Peeters, Martine

    2015-11-28

    Information on efficacy of long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) exposure in resource-limited countries is still scarce. In 767 patients attending routine HIV centers in Togo and receiving first-line ART for more than four years, 42% had viral load greater than 1000 copies/ml and either were on a completely ineffective ART regime or were with only a single drug active. The actual conditions to ensure lifelong ART in resource-limited countries can have dramatic long-term outcomes.

  13. Long-term observations of black carbon mass concentrations at Fukue Island, western Japan, during 2009-2015: constraining wet removal rates and emission strengths from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Pan, Xiaole; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Taketani, Fumikazu; Uno, Itsushi; Kondo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Long-term (2009-2015) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were performed using a continuous soot-monitoring system (COSMOS) at Fukue Island, western Japan, to provide information on wet removal rate constraints and the emission strengths of important source regions in East Asia (China and others). The annual average mass concentration was 0.36 µg m-3, with distinct seasonality; high concentrations were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring and were caused by Asian continental outflows, which reached Fukue Island in 6-46 h. The observed data were categorized into two classes, i.e., with and without a wet removal effect, using the accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) for the last 3 days as an index. Statistical analysis of the observed ΔBC / ΔCO ratios was performed to obtain information on the emission ratios (from data with zero APT only) and wet removal rates (including data with nonzero APTs). The estimated emission ratios (5.2-6.9 ng m-3 ppb-1) varied over the six air mass origin areas; the higher ratios for south-central East China (30-35° N) than for north-central East China (35-40° N) indicated the relative importance of domestic emissions and/or biomass burning sectors. The significantly higher BC / CO emission ratios adopted in the bottom-up Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2 (8.3-23 ng m-3 ppb-1) over central East China and Korea needed to be reduced at least by factors of 1.3 and 2.8 for central East China and Korea, respectively, but the ratio for Japan was reasonable. The wintertime enhancement of the BC emission from China, predicted by REAS2, was verified for air masses from south-central East China but not for those from north-central East China. Wet removal of BC was clearly identified as a decrease in the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio against APT. The transport efficiency (TE), defined as the ratio of the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio with precipitation to that without precipitation, was

  14. Promising Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlgren, Thomas Nilsson, Sten; Lennernaes, Bo; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To explore the long-term general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) >5 years after combined radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, including a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost and hormonal deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: Of 196 eligible patients with localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T3a) consecutively treated with curative radiotherapy at our institution between June 1998 and August 2000, 182 (93%) completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, including specific questions on fecal incontinence >5 years after treatment in September 2005. A comparison with age-matched normative data was done, as well as a longitudinal analysis using HRQOL data from a previous study. Results: The analysis included 158 nonrecurrent patients. Comparisons made with normative data showed that physical and role functioning were significantly better statistically and social functioning was significantly worse. Diarrhea and sleep disturbances were more pronounced and pain less pronounced than in a normal male population. The longitudinal analysis of disease-specific HRQOL showed that urinary urgency and erectile problems persisted 5 years after treatment, and nocturia and hormonally dependent symptoms had declined significantly, with a statistically significant difference. Fecal incontinence was recognized by 25% of patients, of whom 80% considered it a minor problem. Conclusion: More than 5 years after combined radiotherapy, irritative urinary problems and erectile dysfunction remain concerns, although severe bowel disturbance and fecal incontinence seem to be minor problems. Longitudinally, a decline mainly in hormonally dependent symptoms was seen. Minor differences in general HRQOL compared with normative data were observed, possibly including 'response shift' effects.

  15. Long-term slip rates of the Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault, southern California, by U-series Dating of Pedogenic Carbonate in Progressively Offset Alluvial fan Remnants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, K. E.; Rockwell, T. K.; Sharp, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    The Elsinore-Laguna Salada (ELS) fault is one of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault system in southern California, however its seismic potential is often de-emphasized due to previous estimates of a low slip rate. Nevertheless, the fault zone has produced two historic earthquakes over M6, with the 1892 event estimated at >M7; thus further investigation of the long-term slip rate on the ELS fault is warranted. On the western slopes of the Coyote Mountains (CM), southwest Imperial Valley, a series of alluvial fans are progressively offset by the Elsinore fault. These fans can be correlated to their source drainages via distinctive clast assemblages, thereby defining measurable offsets on the fault. Dating of the CM fans (to compute slip rates), however, is challenging. Organic materials appropriate for C-14 dating are rare or absent in the arid, oxidizing environment. Cosmogenic surface exposure techniques are limited by the absence of suitable sample materials and are inapplicable to numerous buried fan remnants that are otherwise excellent strain markers. Pedogenic carbonate datable by U-series, however, occurs in CM soil profiles, ubiquitously developed in fan gravels, and is apparent in deposits as young as ~1 ka. In CM gravels 10's ka and older, carbonate forms continuous, dense, yellow coatings up to 3 mm thick on the undersides of clasts. Powdery white carbonate may completely engulf clasts, but is not dateable. Carefully selected samples of dense, innermost carbonate lamina weighing 10's of milligrams and analyzed by TIMS, are geochemically favorable for precise U-series dating (e.g., U = 1-1.5 ppm, median 238U/232Th ~ 7), and yield reproducible ages for coatings from the same microstratigraphic horizon (e.g., 48.2 ± 2.7 and 49.9 ± 2.2 ka), indicating that U-Th systems have remained closed and that inherited coatings, though present, have been avoided. Accordingly, U-series on pedogenic carbonate provides reliable minimum ages for deposition of

  16. γ-H2AX responds to DNA damage induced by long-term exposure to combined low-dose-rate neutron and γ-ray radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junlin; He, Ying; Shen, Xianrong; Jiang, Dingwen; Wang, Qingrong; Liu, Qiong; Fang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Risk estimates for low-dose radiation (LDR) remain controversial. The possible involvement of DNA repair-related genes in long-term low-dose-rate neutron-gamma radiation exposure is poorly understood. In this study, 60 rats were divided into control groups and irradiated groups, which were exposed to low-dose-rate n-γ combined radiation (LDCR) for 15, 30, or 60 days. The effects of different cumulative radiation doses on peripheral blood cell (PBC), subsets of T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and DNA damage repair were investigated. Real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses were used to detect expression of DNA DSB-repair-related genes involved in the NHEJ pathway, such as Ku70 and Ku80, in PBL. The mRNA level of H2AX and the expression level of γ-H2AX were detected by real-time PCR, immunoblot, and flow cytometry. White blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT) of all ionizing radiation (IR) groups decreased significantly, while no difference was seen between the 30 day and 60 day exposure groups. The numbers of CD3(+), CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)/CD8(+) in the PBL of IR groups were lower than in the control group. In the 30 day and 60 day exposure groups, CD8(+) T cells decreased significantly. Real-time PCR and immunoblot results showed no significant difference in the mRNA and protein expression of Ku70 and Ku80 between the control groups and IR groups. However, the mRNA of H2AX increased significantly, and there was a positive correlation with dose. There was no difference in the protein expression of γ-H2AX between 30 day and 60 day groups, which may help to explain the damage to PBL. In conclusion, PBL damage increased with cumulative dose, suggesting that γ-H2AX, but neither Ku70 nor Ku80, plays an important role in PBL impairment induced by LDCR.

  17. Long-term rates and the depth extent of fault creep along the San Andreas Fault system in northern California from alinement arrays and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; McFarland, F. S.; Simpson, R. W.; Caskey, J.

    2013-12-01

    The dextral San Andreas Fault system (SAFS) in northern California comprises five branches that exhibit considerable variation in the amount and spatial extent of aseismic release or creep. We estimate the depth extent of creep with a forward elastic model using the algorithms of Okada (1992) and boundary value dislocation solutions for creep rate and depth of creeping patches. For purposes of analysis we label branches, from west to east: A (San Gregorio), B (San Andreas), C (Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama), D (Northern Calaveras-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs) and E (Greenville. Since the 1960s alinement arrays have provided one of the most accurate means to estimate the long-term creep rate and these rates have been reasonably well determined for much of the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) southward. Over the past decade we have been installing alinement arrays along the more remote faults, especially northward of the SFBA, to monitor the extent of creep on branches C and D. We currently monitor about 80 such arrays throughout the northern SAFS. To analyze the depth extent of creep over the entire system, we model 30 fault sections on these five branches, delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We have removed any significant transient rate changes imposed by large regional earthquakes. We use crustal velocities determined for global-positioning station pairs of survey mode and continuous (SGPS, CGPS or mixed pairs) that are located near each fault to provide additional constraint on average creep rates. We estimate the mean depth of creep from the mean observed surface creep rate for each section and the rate uncertainty allows estimation of a depth uncertainty. Uncertainties are generally much higher where only five years or less of alinement array data are available, but in some cases the addition of CGPS or multiple SGPS station pairs has been essential for a more complete evaluation of

  18. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wazer, David E. . E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth; Cuttino, Laurie; Di Petrillo, Thomas; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2006-02-01

    . Suboptimal cosmetic outcome was significantly associated with the number of source dwell positions, V150, and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.05). Late skin toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, or 2 in 77%, 19%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 1/2 skin toxicity was significantly associated with V150 and V200 and inversely associated with DHI (0.77 vs. 0.71; p = 0.009). Late subcutaneous toxicity was rated as Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 in 55%, 15%, 12%, 5%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The risk of Grade 0/1 vs. Grade 2-4 subcutaneous toxicity was significantly associated only with a lower value of DHI (0.77 vs. 0.73; p = 0.02). To further explore factors that might contribute to the risk of fat necrosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic), a separate analysis showed that only dose hotspots as reflected in V150 and V200 were significantly associated with elevated risk. The use of adriamycin-based chemotherapy after APBI was found to be associated with a significant increase in the incidence of higher-grade skin toxicity and a higher risk of fat necrosis and suboptimal cosmetic outcome. Patient age, volume of resection, extent of axillary surgery, a history of diabetes or hypertension, and the use of tamoxifen were not found to be significantly associated with cosmetic outcome or late normal tissue complications. Conclusions: Long-term cosmetic results and the risk of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity after APBI with interstitial HDR brachytherapy can be correlated with specific treatment-related variables. These data provide dosimetric parameters that might be used to minimize the risk of normal tissue injury after APBI interstitial brachytherapy.

  19. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  20. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  1. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  2. Nitrogen Isotopes as an Indicator of Long-Term N Cycling in a Grazed Temperate Pasture Receiving Different Rates of Superphosphate Fertilizer and Irrigation for ~50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, P. L.; Schipper, L. A.; Ghani, A.; Baisden, W. T.; Dodd, M.

    2010-12-01

    Pastoral agriculture is the dominant land use in New Zealand and intensification (as a result of fertilizer inputs and in some areas irrigation) has led to increased nitrogen (N) losses to the wider environment. An indicator that could identify soils which are vulnerable to N loss would be useful for the development of management practices and regulations aimed at reducing unwanted N losses. The natural abundance of 15N relative to 14N (δ15N) in soils is one potential indicator. Most N cycle processes associated with N losses (e.g. nitrification, denitrification, and volatilisation) discriminate against 15N and therefore soil δ15N could provide an indication of cumulative N losses. In this study we measured δ15N in archived soils from two long-term field trials receiving different rates of superphosphate fertilizer and irrigation. Both trials were in mid-Canterbury, New Zealand and were grazed by sheep. The fertilizer trial began in 1952, and treatments used were the control (nilP), 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 (376PA) and a treatment where 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 was applied between 1952 and 1957, no fertilizer from 1958 to 1979 and then 250 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 from 1980 to 2009 (376-0-250PA). The irrigation trial was initiated in 1949 and ceased in 2002. The dryland treatment and treatments irrigated when soil moisture was 10% and 20% were used in this study. From 1958, soil samples (0-75 mm depth) were taken annually from each trial, air dried and archived. Soil samples at four year intervals were analysed for this study. Pasture production varied considerably between treatments, with higher rates of fertilizer and irrigation promoting greater pasture growth and therefore higher grazing intensities. Initially δ15N was about the same (3.3‰) in all treatments of both trials. δ15N in the 376PA treatment of the fertilizer trial increased gradually with time and by 2009 was 4.5‰. In the 376-0-250PA treatment, δ15N stayed constant until about

  3. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  4. High rates of viral suppression after long-term entecavir treatment of Asian patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Pan, Calvin Q; Tong, Myron; Kowdley, Kris V; Hu, Ke-Qin; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yoon, Seung Kew; Lee, Samuel S; Cohen, David; Tang, Hong; Tsai, Naoky

    2012-09-01

    There are limited data on the effects of long-term entecavir therapy in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We performed a post hoc analysis of 94 Asian hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg+), nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive patients who received 5 years of therapy with entecavir (up to 2 years in study ETV-022 and the remainder in study ETV-901). Among patients completing week 240, 95% (63 of 66) had levels of hepatitis B virus DNA <300 copies/mL, and 76% (50 of 66) had normalized levels of alanine aminotransferase. In addition to patients who achieved a serologic response during ETV-022, a further 40% (26 of 65) achieved HBeAg loss, and 18% (12 of 65) underwent HBeAg seroconversion through year 5 of entecavir therapy. No resistance to entecavir was detected, and the safety profile was consistent with previous reports. The long-term efficacy and safety of entecavir are therefore comparable between Asians and the overall population of HBeAg+ patients with CHB.

  5. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  6. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  7. Long-term biomass research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Some of DOE's long term R and D programs for biomass are summarized in this article. These include research efforts in the fields of anaerobic digestion, energy farming, short rotation cultivation and aquatic farming. (DMC)

  8. 26 CFR 301.6621-1 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 301.6621-1 Section 301.6621-1... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Interest Interest on Underpayments § 301.6621-1 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate established under section 6621 shall be— (1) On amounts outstanding before...

  9. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  10. 12 CFR 619.9130 - Differential interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Differential interest rates. 619.9130 Section 619.9130 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9130 Differential interest rates. An interest rate program under which different rates of interest may be...

  11. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  12. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  13. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  14. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  15. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  16. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-09-14

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  17. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  18. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed.

  19. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. The variable rate must be based on published indices, such as...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. The variable rate must be based on published indices, such as...

  1. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  2. Reforming long-term care financing through insurance

    PubMed Central

    Meiners, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, insurance for long-term care was not viewed as feasible. This perception has changed dramatically in the past few years. Several models of long-term care insurance have begun to be tested. Although the application of insurance principles to long-term care is still new, the emergence of private market interest in developing long-term care insurance has been a catalyst to renewed public-policy support for reforming the way we pay for long-term care. States, in particular, have become interested in developing public-private partnerships to support the emergence of long-term care insurance that could help relieve the mounting pressure on Medicaid budgets. PMID:10312962

  3. 76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... the balance sheet, which contains multiple instruments, assets and liabilities can act in ways that... 10 percent change in any given period, or cumulatively over 12 months. Income Simulation: Net interest income after shock change less than 20 percent over any 12 month period. Asset Valuation or...

  4. A long-term frequency stabilized deep ultraviolet laser for Mg+ ions trapping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yuan, W. H.; Deng, K.; Deng, A.; Xu, Z. T.; Qin, C. B.; Lu, Z. H.; Luo, J.

    2013-12-01

    As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg+ ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work.

  5. A long-term frequency stabilized deep ultraviolet laser for Mg+ ions trapping experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Yuan, W H; Deng, K; Deng, A; Xu, Z T; Qin, C B; Lu, Z H; Luo, J

    2013-12-01

    As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg(+) ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work.

  6. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  10. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For...

  11. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  12. Impact of intermittent hypoxia on long-term facilitation of minute ventilation and heart rate variability in men and women: do sex differences exist?

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Harpreet; Gradinaru, Ciprian; Gates, Gregory J.; Badr, M. Safwan; Mateika, Jason H.

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure to intermittent hypoxia, respiratory motor activity and sympathetic nervous system activity may persist above baseline levels for over an hour. The present investigation was designed to determine whether sustained increases in minute ventilation and sympathovagal (S/V) balance, in addition to sustained depression of parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNSA), were greater in men compared with women following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Fifteen healthy men and women matched for age, race, and body mass index were exposed to eight 4-min episodes of hypoxia during sustained hypercapnia followed by a 15-min end-recovery period. The magnitude of the increase in minute ventilation during the end-recovery period, compared with baseline, was similar in men and women (men, 1.52 ± 0.03; women, 1.57 ± 0.02 fraction of baseline; P < 0.0001). In contrast, depression of PNSA and increases in S/V balance were evident during the end-recovery period, compared with baseline, in men (PNSA, 0.66 ± 0.06 fraction of baseline, P < 0.0001; S/V balance, 2.8 ± 0.7 fraction of baseline, P < 0.03) but not in women (PNSA, 1.27 ± 0.19 fraction of baseline, P = 0.3; S/V balance, 1.8 ± 0.6 fraction of baseline, P = 0.2). We conclude that a sustained increase in minute ventilation, which is indicative of long-term facilitation, is evident in both men and women following exposure to intermittent hypoxia and that this response is independent of sex. In contrast, sustained alterations in autonomic nervous system activity were evident in men but not in women. PMID:18403450

  13. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely

  14. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  15. 12 CFR 652.30 - Interest rate risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the causes of interest rate risk and set appropriate quantitative limits consistent with a clearly... values by conducting interest rate stress tests and simulations of multiple economic scenarios at least quarterly. Your stress tests must gauge how interest rate fluctuations affect the Corporation's...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this part. The board of directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this part. The board of directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates and late charges. 36.4212 Section 36.4212 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... of interest rate changes. Interest rate adjustments must occur on an annual basis, except that...

  19. 12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document which will prevail as the...

  20. 12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document which will prevail as the...

  1. 12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document which will prevail as the...

  2. 12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document which will prevail as the...

  3. 12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document which will prevail as the...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this part. The board of directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135... agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk management program as set forth in subpart G of this part. The board of directors shall adopt an interest rate risk management section of...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  7. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  8. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  10. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  11. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

  12. Clinical evaluation of osseointegrated implants in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (third report): long-term observation of functioning survival rate of fixtures.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yuko; Arataki, Tomohiko; Nomura, Takao; Suzuki, Hiroki; Atsuta, Syunichi; Hotta, Hiromi; Shimamura, Ichiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Kishi, Masataka

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this report was to review 365 cases of Brånemark Implant Bridge including 1,444 fixtures in patients of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. The term of implantation was divided into several phases; less than 1 year, from 1 year to 3 years, from 3 years to 5 years, from 5 years to 7 years, from 7 years to 10 years, more than 10 years, and the survival rate was calculated for each phase. The removal rate of fixture after connecting the superstructure was 13% in maxillary cases and 2% in mandibular cases. The functioning survival rate in maxillary cases slightly decreased from 91% in less than 1 year to 87% after more than 10 years; however, the functioning survival rate in mandibular cases was about 99% in all periods. The removal rate of fixtures per patient was 23% in maxillary cases and 6% in mandibular ones. The average removal number of fixtures was 1.8 in maxillary cases and 1.2 in mandibular ones. The removal of the fixture occurred most frequently at less than 1 year in maxillary cases, but there was no tendency for a pattern of removal of fixture in mandibular cases.

  13. 77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1-3/8 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments... service by the required payment date shall pay the business concern an interest penalty. 31 U.S.C....

  14. 78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service..., the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries may... service by the required payment date shall pay the business concern an interest penalty. 31 U.S.C....

  15. Effects of Wyoming big sagebrush seeding rate and grass competition on the long-term density and canopy volume of the big sagebrush and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was initiated in 1997 to evaluate the effects of seeding rates of grass and Wyoming big sagebrush on the establishment of big sagebrush. The research was accomplished at the Belle Ayr West mine, south of Gillette, WY using a randomized complete block experimental design with three big ...

  16. Consequences of digital mammography in population-based breast cancer screening: initial changes and long-term impact on referral rates

    PubMed Central

    Karssemeijer, Nico; Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J. M.; van Engen, Ruben E.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the referral pattern after the transition to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a population-based breast cancer screening programme. Methods: Preceding the nationwide digitalisation of the Dutch screening programme, an FFDM feasibility study was conducted. Detection and referral rates for FFDM and screen-film mammography (SFM) were compared for first and subsequent screens. Furthermore, radiological characteristics of referrals in digital screening were assessed. Results: A total of 312,414 screening mammograms were performed (43,913 digital and 268,501 conventional), with 4,473 consecutive referrals (966 following FFDM). Initially the FFDM referral rate peaked, and many false-positive results were noted as a consequence of pseudolesions and increased detection of (benign) microcalcifications. A higher overall referral rate was observed in FFDM screening in both first and subsequent examinations (p < .001), with a significant increase in cancer detection (p = .010). Conclusion: As a result of initial inexperience with digital screening images implementing FFDM in a population-based breast cancer screening programme may lead to a strong, but temporary increase in referral. Dedicated training in digital screening for radiographers and screening radiologists is therefore recommended. Referral rates decrease and stabilise (learning curve effect) at a higher level than in conventional screening, yet with significantly enhanced cancer detection. PMID:20407901

  17. [Slowing down the rate of irreversible age-related atrophy of the thymus gland by atopic autotransplantation of its tissue, subjected to long-term cryoconservation].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A V; Arkhipova, L V; Smirnova, G N; Novoselova, E G; Shpurova, N A; Shishova, N V; Sukhikh, G T

    2010-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed enabling to slow down the rate of irreversible atrophy of the thymus gland. The atopic autotransplantation of its tissue subjected to prolonged cryoconservation enables one to inhibit the aging of the organism with respect to several biochemical and immunological indicators.

  18. Co-modification of nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon on Li3V2(PO4)3 particles with excellent long-term and high-rate performance for lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Wu, Xianbin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, N-doped graphene and carbon co-modified Li3V2(PO4)3 composites (LVP/NGC) are successfully fabricated through a xerogel method for the first time. The obtained architecture combines two types of electronic contact with Li3V2(PO4)3 particles: the point-to-face contact of N-doped graphene and the face-to-face contact of N-doped carbon coating layers. Profiting from the favorable complex structure, graphene and carbon coating layers offer an extraordinary network for electron transfer and hence an excellent long-term and high-rate performance. Even tested at the rate of 40 C, the reversible capacity still maintains 86.9 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles without any fading. This work provides a promising route to improve the long-term and high-rate performance of cathodes for LIBs and enlightens us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced electrode materials for other energy storage devices.

  19. Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

  20. Model analysis of the link between interest rates and crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broga, Kristijonas M.; Viegas, Eduardo; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2016-09-01

    We analyse the effect of distinct levels of interest rates on the stability of the financial network under our modelling framework. We demonstrate that banking failures are likely to emerge early on under sustained high interest rates, and at much later stage-with higher probability-under a sustained low interest rate scenario. Moreover, we demonstrate that those bank failures are of a different nature: high interest rates tend to result in significantly more bankruptcies associated to credit losses whereas lack of liquidity tends to be the primary cause of failures under lower rates.

  1. Pentoxifylline, total urinary protein excretion rate and arterial blood pressure in long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with overt nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Solerte, S B; Fioravanti, M; Patti, A L; Schifino, N; Zanoletti, M G; Inglese, V; Ferrari, E

    1987-01-01

    A specific hemorheologic treatment might reduce urinary protein excretion and the decline in kidney function in diabetic patients with overt clinical nephropathy. Twenty-one insulin dependent (type I) diabetic patients were randomized and assigned to a treatment with conventional antihypertensive therapy (protocol I) or with pentoxifylline (Trental 400) (protocol II). A marked improvement of blood rheology pattern, together with a reduction of urinary albumin excretion rate and total urinary protein excretion rate, was demonstrated throughout a 1-year follow-up study with pentoxifylline. Furthermore a decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels was found during the treatment. The modification of these parameters was followed by a significant increase of creatinine clearance in each of the patients studied. The results obtained during pentoxifylline therapy were comparable to those obtained in patients treated with conventional antihypertensive drugs. Pentoxifylline may therefore be used in the treatment of advanced nephropathy in diabetic patients.

  2. A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bukaveckas, P.A.; Likens, G.E.; Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

  3. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  4. 5 CFR 842.605 - Election of insurable interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beneficiary's date of birth. (f) OPM will notify the employee or Member of initial monthly annuity rates with... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election of insurable interest rate. 842... Election of insurable interest rate. (a) At the time of retirement, an employee or Member in good...

  5. 77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Human Services becomes entitled to recovery. The rate cannot be lower than the Department of Treasury's... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... Secretary shall charge an annual rate of interest, which is ] determined and fixed by the Secretary of...

  6. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  7. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at −20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at −20°C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  8. Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially α-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease

  9. The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

    It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a

  10. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  11. A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m−2 yr−1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m−2 yr−1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m−2 yr−1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean = 219 g C m−2 yr−1 vs. mean = 91 g C m−2 yr−1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean = 0.84 cm yr−1 vs. mean = 0.21 cm yr−1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

  12. The rate of mutation and the homozygous and heterozygous mutational effects for competitive viability: a long-term experiment with Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Chavarrías, D; López-Fanjul, C; García-Dorado, A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 250 generations of mutation accumulation (MA) on the second chromosome competitive viability of Drosophila melanogaster was analyzed both in homozygous and heterozygous conditions. We used full-sib MA lines, where selection hampers the accumulation of severely deleterious mutations but is ineffective against mildly deleterious ones. A large control population was simultaneously evaluated. Competitive viability scores, unaffected by the expression of mutations in heterozygosis, were obtained relative to a Cy/L(2) genotype. The rate of decline in mean DeltaM approximately 0.1% was small. However, that of increase in variance DeltaV approximately 0.08 x 10(-3) was similar to the values obtained in previous experiments when severely deleterious mutations were excluded. The corresponding estimates of the mutation rate lambda > or = 0.01 and the average effect of mutations E(s) < or = 0.08 are in good agreement with Bateman-Mukai and minimum distance estimates for noncompetitive viability obtained from the same MA lines after 105 generations. Thus, competitive and noncompetitive viability show similar mutational properties. The regression estimate of the degree of dominance for mild-to-moderate deleterious mutations was approximately 0.3, suggesting that the pertinent value for new unselected mutations should be somewhat smaller. PMID:11404332

  13. Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, Tamim M.; Souhami, Luis . E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine; Bahoric, Boris; Gilbert, Lucy; Stanimir, Gerald

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are

  14. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktaş, Gül Ege; Turoğlu, Halil Turgut; Erdil, Tanju Yusuf; İnanır, Sabahat; Dede, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG) with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq) were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD) medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients. PMID:27529883

  15. Sea Star Wasting Disease in the Keystone Predator Pisaster ochraceus in Oregon: Insights into Differential Population Impacts, Recovery, Predation Rate, and Temperature Effects from Long-Term Research

    PubMed Central

    Menge, Bruce A.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Johnson, Angela; Sullivan, Jenna; Gravem, Sarah; Chan, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease (SSWD) first appeared in Oregon in April 2014, and by June had spread to most of the coast. Although delayed compared to areas to the north and south, SSWD was initially most intense in north and central Oregon and spread southward. Up to 90% of individuals showed signs of disease from June-August 2014. In rocky intertidal habitats, populations of the dominant sea star Pisaster ochraceus were rapidly depleted, with magnitudes of decline in density among sites ranging from -2x to -9x (59 to 84%) and of biomass from -2.6x to -15.8x (60 to 90%) by September 2014. The frequency of symptomatic individuals declined over winter and persisted at a low rate through the spring and summer 2015 (~5–15%, at most sites) and into fall 2015. Disease expression included six symptoms: initially with twisting arms, then deflation and/or lesions, lost arms, losing grip on substrate, and final disintegration. SSWD was disproportionally higher in orange individuals, and higher in tidepools. Although historically P. ochraceus recruitment has been low, from fall 2014 to spring 2015 an unprecedented surge of sea star recruitment occurred at all sites, ranging from ~7x to 300x greater than in 2014. The loss of adult and juvenile individuals in 2014 led to a dramatic decline in predation rate on mussels compared to the previous two decades. A proximate cause of wasting was likely the “Sea Star associated Densovirus” (SSaDV), but the ultimate factors triggering the epidemic, if any, remain unclear. Although warm temperature has been proposed as a possible trigger, SSWD in Oregon populations increased with cool temperatures. Since P. ochraceus is a keystone predator that can strongly influence the biodiversity and community structure of the intertidal community, major community-level responses to the disease are expected. However, predicting the specific impacts and time course of change across west coast meta-communities is difficult, suggesting the need for

  16. Rutile TiO2 Mesocrystals/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Rate and Long-Term Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tongbin; Qiu, Heyuan; Xie, Fengyan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hydrothermal route is developed for fabricating rutile TiO2 mesocrystals/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (TGR) hybrids in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (ADBS). These rutile TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff shape are composed of ultra-tiny rod-like subunits with the same oriented direction and closely wrapped by the nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). It is found that ADBS played a key role for the formation of mesocrystals during the self-assembly process, which pillared the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and involved the aggregation of the mesocrystal subunits. Furthermore, the TGR hybrids are used as an anode material and exhibited a large capacity over 150 mA h g−1 at 20 C after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability up to 40 C. These high performance characteristics may be due to the intrinsic characteristics of rutile TiO2 mesocrystals constructed from ultra-tiny subunits and hybridized with super conductive RGO nanosheets. PMID:25688035

  17. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  18. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary

  19. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary

  20. 12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Differential interest rate programs. 614.4160 Section 614.4160 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS General Loan Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4160 Differential interest rate...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4160 - Differential interest rate programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Differential interest rate programs. 614.4160 Section 614.4160 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS General Loan Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4160 Differential interest rate...

  2. 76 FR 23646 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk. OMB... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  3. 76 FR 9870 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk OMB Number: 1550-0094 Form Number: N/A... below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork...

  4. 78 FR 67364 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... Service Award Program (42 U.S.C. 288(c)(4)(B)).'' This interest rate will be applied to overdue debt...

  5. 78 FR 44124 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... Award Program (42 U.S.C. 288(c)(4)(B)).'' This interest rate will be applied to overdue debt until...

  6. Interest rates in quantum finance: the Wilson expansion and Hamiltonian.

    PubMed

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2009-10-01

    Interest rate instruments form a major component of the capital markets. The Libor market model (LMM) is the finance industry standard interest rate model for both Libor and Euribor, which are the most important interest rates. The quantum finance formulation of the Libor market model is given in this paper and leads to a key generalization: all the Libors, for different future times, are imperfectly correlated. A key difference between a forward interest rate model and the LMM lies in the fact that the LMM is calibrated directly from the observed market interest rates. The short distance Wilson expansion [Phys. Rev. 179, 1499 (1969)] of a Gaussian quantum field is shown to provide the generalization of Ito calculus; in particular, the Wilson expansion of the Gaussian quantum field A(t,x) driving the Libors yields a derivation of the Libor drift term that incorporates imperfect correlations of the different Libors. The logarithm of Libor phi(t,x) is defined and provides an efficient and compact representation of the quantum field theory of the Libor market model. The Lagrangian and Feynman path integrals of the Libor market model of interest rates are obtained, as well as a derivation given by its Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian formulation of the martingale condition provides an exact solution for the nonlinear drift of the Libor market model. The quantum finance formulation of the LMM is shown to reduce to the industry standard Bruce-Gatarek-Musiela-Jamshidian model when the forward interest rates are taken to be exactly correlated.

  7. High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent 192Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ≥6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25–94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

  8. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  9. Long-term equilibrium tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, John A.; Cerveny, Randall S.

    1998-08-01

    Extreme equilibrium tides, or ``hypertides,'' are computed in a new equilibrium tidal model combining algorithms of a version of the Chapront ELP-2000/82 Lunar Theory with the BER78 Milankovitch astronomical expansions. For the recent past, a high correspondence exists between computed semidiurnal tide levels and a record of coastal flooding demonstrating that astronomical alignment is a potential influence on such flooding. For the Holocene and near future, maximum tides demonstrate cyclic variations with peaks at near 5000 B.P. and 4000 A.P. On the late Quaternary timescale, variations in maximum equilibrium tide level display oscillations with periods of approximately 10,000, 100,000 and 400,000 years, because of precessional shifts in tidal maxima between vernal and autumnal equinoxes. While flooding occurs under the combined effects of tides and storms via ``storm surges,'' the most extensive flooding will occur with the coincidence of storms and the rarer hypertides and is thus primarily influenced by hypertides. Therefore we suggest that astronomical alignment's relationship to coastal flooding is probabilistic rather than deterministic. Data derived from this model are applicable to (1) archaeological and paleoclimatic coastal reconstructions, (2) long-term planning, for example, radioactive waste site selection, (3) sealevel change and paleoestuarine studies or (4) ocean-meteorological interactions.

  10. Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

  11. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  12. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  13. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  14. Solutions of two-factor models with variable interest rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinglu; Clemons, C. B.; Young, G. W.; Zhu, J.

    2008-12-01

    The focus of this work is on numerical solutions to two-factor option pricing partial differential equations with variable interest rates. Two interest rate models, the Vasicek model and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model (CIR), are considered. Emphasis is placed on the definition and implementation of boundary conditions for different portfolio models, and on appropriate truncation of the computational domain. An exact solution to the Vasicek model and an exact solution for the price of bonds convertible to stock at expiration under a stochastic interest rate are derived. The exact solutions are used to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation schemes. For the numerical simulations the pricing solution is analyzed as the market completeness decreases from the ideal complete level to one with higher volatility of the interest rate and a slower mean-reverting environment. Simulations indicate that the CIR model yields more reasonable results than the Vasicek model in a less complete market.

  15. Long-term outcome in personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Stone, M H

    1993-03-01

    Personality disorders meeting DSM or ICD criteria represent the severe end of the broad spectrum of personality configurations involving maladaptive traits. The literature regarding long-term outcome of personality disorders is sparse. Most attention is devoted to formerly institutionalised patients with borderline, antisocial, or schizotypal disorders. Borderline patients at 10-25-year follow-up have a wide range of outcomes, from clinical recovery (50-60%) to suicide (3-9%). Certain factors (e.g. artistic talent) conduce to higher recovery rates, others (e.g. parental cruelty) to lower rates. Schizoid and schizotypal patients tend to remain isolated, and to lead marginal lives. The long-term outcome in antisocial persons is bleak if psychopathic traits are prominent. Personality traits and their corresponding disorders are egosyntonic, harden into habit, and are both slow to change and hard to modify. There is no one treatment of choice. Psychoanalysis and related methods work best within the anxious/inhibited group; cognitive/behavioural techniques are well suited to the disorders requiring limit setting and the amelioration of maladaptive habits. PMID:8453424

  16. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... Street Journal in effect on the date the statement is filed accounting for all amounts received under the... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest...

  17. Individuals and Environments: Linking Ability and Skill Ratings with Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women,…

  18. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2014-06-19

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j′-th time point where j≤j′≤j+n. To model the variation of φ{sup (j)}, we assume that φ{sup (j)} depends on φ{sup (j−m)}, φ{sup (j−m+1)},…, φ{sup (j−1)} and the interest rate r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest rate at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  19. Determinants of interest rates on tax-exempt hospital bonds.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Goldman, F; Nesbitt, S W; Mobilia, P

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the determinants of interest rates on tax-exempt hospital bonds. The results highlight the potential and actual roles of Federal and state policy in the determination of these rates. The shift to a Prospective Payment System under Medicare has subsidized the borrowing costs of some hospitals at the expense of others. The selection of underwriters by negotiation rather than by competitive bidding results in higher interest rates. The Federal tax act of 1986 raised the cost of hospital debt by encouraging bond issues to contain call features.

  20. People with limiting long-term conditions report poorer experiences and more problems with hospital care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term conditions have a significant impact on individuals, their families, and the health service. As people with these conditions represent a high proportion of hospital admissions, investigating their experiences of inpatient care has become an important area of investigation. We conducted a secondary analysis of the NHS adult inpatient survey for England to compare the hospital experiences of three groups of patients: those without long-term conditions, those with a single long-term condition, and those with multiple long-term conditions. We were particularly interested in the extent to which these patients received self-management support from hospital staff, so we developed a brief summary tool drawn from salient questions in the survey to aid the comparison. Methods Analysis of data from the 2011 national adult inpatient survey (n = 65,134) to compare the experiences of three groups of patients: those with no limiting long-term conditions (No-LLTC), those with one limiting long-term condition (S-LLTC), and those with two or more limiting long-term conditions (M-LLTC). The main outcome measure was patients’ self-reports of their experience of inpatient care, including staff-patient interactions, information provision, involvement in decisions and support for self-care and overall ratings of care. A short form scale, the Oxford Patient Involvement and Experience scale (OxPIE) was developed from the adult inpatient survey and used to compare the groups using logistic regression. Results There were significant differences between the No-LLTC group in comparison to both the S-LLTC and M-LLTC groups. Patients with limiting long-term conditions reported significantly worse hospital experiences than those without, as measured by OxPIE: S-LLTC odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.48; M-LLTC odds ratio = 1.64, 95% CI 1.19 – 2.26. Responses to a single global rating question were more positive but not strongly correlated with Ox

  1. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  2. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  3. Empirical analysis of quantum finance interest rates models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yang, Cao

    2009-07-01

    Empirical forward interest rates drive the debt markets. Libor and Euribor futures data is used to calibrate and test models of interest rates based on the formulation of quantum finance. In particular, all the model parameters, including interest rate volatilities, are obtained from market data. The random noise driving the forward interest rates is taken to be a Euclidean two dimension quantum field. We analyze two models, namely the bond forward interest rates, which is a linear theory and the Libor Market Model, which is a nonlinear theory. Both the models are analyzed using Libor and Euribor data, with various approximations to match the linear and nonlinear models. The results are quite good, with the linear model having an accuracy of about 99% and the nonlinear model being slightly less accurate. We extend our analysis by directly using the Zero Coupon Yield Curve (ZCYC) data for Libor and for bonds; but due to some technical difficulties we could not derive the models parameters directly from the ZCYC data.

  4. Influence of physical aging on mechanical properties of polymer free films: the prediction of long-term aging effects on the water permeability and dissolution rate of polymer film-coated tablets.

    PubMed

    Guo, J H; Robertson, R E; Amidon, G L

    1991-12-01

    The effects of physical aging on the water permeation of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose, the mechanical properties of ethylcellulose, and the dissolution property of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate were investigated. The water permeabilities of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose and the dissolution rate of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate were found to decrease with physical aging time after being quenched from above the glass transition temperatures to sub-Tg temperatures. The gradual approach toward thermodynamic equilibrium during physical aging decreases the free volume of the polymers. This decrease in free volume is accompanied by a decrease in the transport mobility, with concomitant changes in those properties of the polymer that depend on it. The effects of long-term aging on the dissolution rate and water permeabilities of these polymers can be estimated from a linear double-logarithmic relationship between the mobility properties and physical aging time. The existence of the linear double-logarithmic relationship can be derived from the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, the Doolittle equation, Struik's model, and Fujita's relationship between diffusion and free volume.

  5. Long-term groundwater contamination after source removal—The role of sorbed carbon and nitrogen on the rate of reoxygenation of a treated-wastewater plume on Cape Cod, MA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Barber, Larry B.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of groundwater contamination can remain long after a contaminant source has been removed. Documentation of natural aquifer recoveries and empirical tools to predict recovery time frames and associated geochemical changes are generally lacking. This study characterized the long-term natural attenuation of a groundwater contaminant plume in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, after the removal of the treated-wastewater source. Although concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other soluble constituents have decreased substantially in the 15 years since the source was removed, the core of the plume remains anoxic and has sharp redox gradients and elevated concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Aquifer sediment was collected from near the former disposal site at several points in time and space along a 0.5-km-long transect extending downgradient from the disposal site and analyses of the sediment was correlated with changes in plume composition. Total sediment carbon content was generally low (< 8 to 55.8 μmol (g dry wt)− 1) but was positively correlated with oxygen consumption rates in laboratory incubations, which ranged from 11.6 to 44.7 nmol (g dry wt)− 1 day− 1. Total water extractable organic carbon was < 10–50% of the total carbon content but was the most biodegradable portion of the carbon pool. Carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios in the extracts increased more than 10-fold with time, suggesting that organic carbon degradation and oxygen consumption could become N-limited as the sorbed C and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) pools produced by the degradation separate with time by differential transport. A 1-D model using total degradable organic carbon values was constructed to simulate oxygen consumption and transport and calibrated by using observed temporal changes in oxygen concentrations at selected wells. The simulated travel velocity of the oxygen gradient was 5–13% of the groundwater velocity. This

  6. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  7. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  8. Brodie's abscess. A long-term review.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M M; MacAuley, P

    1988-09-01

    In 20 patients with 21 Brodie's abscesses, a long-term review revealed that 13 occurred in the second decade of life. All had local symptoms for six weeks or more. The tibia was involved in 11 cases and seven of these were in the proximal metaphysis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in only six cases. When the ESR was more than 40 mm per hour, recurrence was more likely. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 11 abscesses. Curettage and antibiotics for six weeks were adequate for treatment in most cases. However, lesions larger than 3 cm in diameter should be grafted, and patients with an elevated ESR require more aggressive decompression and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Lesions within the neck of the femur pose particular anatomic problems and should not be approached laterally. All cases were followed to full bone maturity. No significant leg length inequality was clinically or roentgenologically apparent. If an abscess was juxtaphyseal, deformity of the epiphysis could develop.

  9. Individuals and environments: Linking ability and skill ratings with interests.

    PubMed

    Anthoney, Sarah Fetter; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    Holland's (1997) theory of corresponding person and work environment structures was evaluated by comparing the integration of individual and occupational ratings of interests, abilities, and skills. Occupational ratings were obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database (U.S. Department of Labor, 2007). College students (494 women, 526 men) provided self-ratings of their interests, abilities, and skills. Property vector fitting was used to embed ability and skill ratings into the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) interest structure, and bootstrapping was used to generate confidence intervals for the angles of the vectors and the magnitude of their fit to the Holland model. Across the individual and occupational ratings, 18 of 45 (40%) ability vectors and 41 of 48 (85%) skill vectors were fit into the RIASEC model. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of self-rated abilities and skills into the RIASEC circumplex; however, some differences were found between individual and environmental ratings. Obtained results highlight the potential utility and limitations of using Holland's model for representing both individual and occupational data in a common structure. PMID:21133559

  10. Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Galan, Carlos; Teijeira, Mercedes; Romero, Pilar; Zudaire, Javier; Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

  11. 12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following fees connected with credit extension or availability: numerical periodic rates, late fees... the law of that state. If state law permits different interest charges on specified classes of loans, a national bank making such loans is subject only to the provisions of state law relating to...

  12. 12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following fees connected with credit extension or availability: numerical periodic rates, late fees... the law of that state. If state law permits different interest charges on specified classes of loans, a national bank making such loans is subject only to the provisions of state law relating to...

  13. 12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following fees connected with credit extension or availability: numerical periodic rates, late fees... the law of that state. If state law permits different interest charges on specified classes of loans, a national bank making such loans is subject only to the provisions of state law relating to...

  14. 12 CFR 7.4001 - Charging interest at rates permitted competing institutions; charging interest to corporate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following fees connected with credit extension or availability: numerical periodic rates, late fees... the law of that state. If state law permits different interest charges on specified classes of loans, a national bank making such loans is subject only to the provisions of state law relating to...

  15. 75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Agency), through the FCA Board (Board), issued a final rule under part 617 on December 22, 2009 (74 FR... CFR part 617 published on December 22, 2009 (74 FR 67970) is effective March 2, 2010. FOR FURTHER... 12 CFR Part 617 RIN 3052-AC45 Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date AGENCY:...

  16. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  17. Macroeconomic Stabilization When the Natural Real Interest Rate Is Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    The authors modify the Dynamic Aggregate Demand-Dynamic Aggregate Supply model in Mankiw's widely used intermediate macroeconomics textbook to discuss monetary policy when the natural real interest rate is falling over time. Their results highlight a new role for the central bank's inflation target as a tool of macroeconomic stabilization. They…

  18. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  19. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  20. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  1. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  2. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  3. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  4. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  5. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  6. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 220.830 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 220.830 Section 220.830 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  10. 75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR Part 30) provides that...

  11. 76 FR 8370 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  12. 77 FR 20399 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  13. 78 FR 23936 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the... debt until the Department of Health and Human Services publishes a revision. Dated: April 17,...

  14. 77 FR 76492 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office Of The Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  15. 77 FR 35681 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  16. 75 FR 22136 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  17. 75 FR 80055 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  18. 77 FR 60438 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  19. 75 FR 48690 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR Part 30) provides that...

  20. 76 FR 30721 - Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Notice of Interest Rate on Overdue Debts Section 30.18 of the Department of Health and Human Services' claims collection regulations (45 CFR part 30) provides that...

  1. 24 CFR 221.790 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 221.790 Section 221.790 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  2. 24 CFR 221.790 - Debenture interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Debenture interest rate. 221.790 Section 221.790 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  3. 5 CFR 841.603 - Rate of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rate of interest. 841.603 Section 841.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... calendar year 1985 and for each subsequent calendar year, OPM will publish a notice in the Federal...

  4. 77 FR 57990 - Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk Policy and Program Correction In rule document 2012-02091, appearing on pages 55155-5167 in the issue of Thursday, February 2, 2012, make...

  5. Actuarial models of life insurance with stochastic interest rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiang; Hu, Ping

    2009-07-01

    On the basis of general actuarial model of life insurance, this article has carried on research to continuous life insurance actuarial models under the stochastic interest rate separately. And it provide net single premium for life insurance and life annuity due over a period based on that de Moivre law of mortality and Makeham's law of mortality separately.

  6. Exploring Fiscal Policy at Zero Interest Rates in Intermediate Macroeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamurthy, Srikanth; Sedgley, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Since the financial meltdown of 2007, advanced macroeconomic theory has delved more deeply into the question of the appropriate fiscal policy when the nominal interest rate is close to or at zero percent. Such analysis is typically conducted with the aid of New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models. The policy implications are,…

  7. 24 CFR 241.560 - Agreed interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreed interest rate. 241.560 Section 241.560 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  8. Financing long-term care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Mills, C; Hollander, M

    1997-06-01

    Financial policies relating to long-term care in Canada are changing rapidly in response to demands for health care reform. This chapter focuses on the financial structure of institutional care, primarily nursing homes, in the western provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Community-based long-term care is discussed briefly.

  9. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  10. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  11. Modifying Effect of a Common Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6 Promoter on the Relationship between Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Boes, Eva; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Kronenberg, Florian; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Carballo, David; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with an increase in many inflammatory markers, including interleukin 6 (IL6). Air pollution exposure has also been suggested to induce an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), such as a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV). In this study we aimed to investigate the modifying effect of polymorphisms in a major proinflammatory marker gene, interleukin 6 (IL6), on the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related PM10 (TPM10) and HRV. Methods For this cross-sectional study we analysed 1552 participants of the SAPALDIA cohort aged 50 years and older. Included were persons with valid genotype data, who underwent ambulatory 24-hr electrocardiogram monitoring, and reported on medical history and lifestyle. Main effects of annual average TPM10 and IL6 gene variants (rs1800795; rs2069827; rs2069840; rs10242595) on HRV indices and their interaction with average annual exposure to TPM10 were tested, applying a multivariable mixed linear model. Results No overall association of TPM10 on HRV was found. Carriers of two proinflammatory G-alleles of the functional IL6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) polymorphism exhibited lower HRV. An inverse association between a 1 µg/m3 increment in yearly averaged TPM10 and HRV was restricted to GG genotypes at this locus with a standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) (GG-carriers: −1.8%; 95% confidence interval −3.5 to 0.01; pinteraction(additive) = 0.028); and low frequency power (LF) (GG-carriers: −5.7%; 95%CI: −10.4 to −0.8; pinteraction(dominant) = 0.049). Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution decreases heart rate variability through inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:25133672

  12. Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy: Long term results

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Karabulut, Gamze; Çelik, Burcu; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy (TRC-DCR) surgery in patients with epiphora due to primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) at second year follow-up. Methods In this retrospective, interventional study, 33 eyes of 29 patients, with epiphora due to PANDO, are included. Lower eyelid conjunctiva is incised at vestibulum inferomedially to access the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Bone is perforated with burr and rongeurs and saccal and nasal flaps are anastomosed. Conjunctival wound edges are apposed and left unsutured. Intraoperative difficulties, surgical time and complications are noted. Average follow-up time was 2 years. Anatomical success was defined as patent lacrimal passages upon irrigation and functional success was defined as relief of epiphora. Results In nineteen (57.6%) eyes the surgeries were completed with the anterior and the posterior flaps sutured. In eight eyes (24.2%) only anterior flaps could be sutured. In 6 eyes (18.2%), the surgical procedure was converted to external dacryocystorhinostomy since the nasal mucosa could not be exposed adequately via transconjunctival route. The mean surgical time was 65.1 min. One patient had a millimeter long lower eyelid margin laceration in one eye (3.7%) intraoperatively due to traction for visualization of the operative site. Epiphora resolved in 25 of 27 eyes (92.5%) in whom TRC-DCR could be completed. Epiphora and failure to irrigation were noted in two eyes (7.4%) at the postoperative 4th and 8th months, respectively and required reoperation. No complications occurred, except granuloma formation at the conjunctival incision site in three eyes (11.1%). Epiphora resolved in all the six eyes of patients who underwent an external DCR (100%). Conclusion Transconjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy is a scarless dacryocystorhinostomy technique which is performed without endoscope and/or laser assistance, with 92.5% success rate comparable to external DCR at

  13. Future value with type-1 fuzzy interest rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darus, Mukminah; Wahab, Abdul Fatah

    2013-04-01

    We propose the more sophisticated way in formulating interest rate by using type-1 fuzzy sets. This approach is essential in deriving the future value of an investment. The confidence level is represented as the value of α - cut where we can obtain a fuzzy interval that will finally become crisp value using defuzzification method of center of area. We illustrate our approach in calculating future value of an investment with a simple case of saving money in a bank.

  14. External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire; Pascual, Ignacio; Aristu, Javier

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

  15. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study.

  16. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  17. Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjol, Dan

    2012-04-01

    We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-α(e-γ|x-y|-e-γ(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

  18. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  19. First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be-26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woerd, J.; Klinger, Y.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.

    2001-12-01

    Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +/- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+/- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have analyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +/- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages indicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +/- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4+/-3.6 kyrs) is older than the others and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +/- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these

  20. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  1. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  2. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  3. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  4. 18. Uniform cost accounting in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J E

    1976-05-01

    Uniform cost data are essential for managing health services, establishing billing and reimbursement rates, and measuring effectiveness and impact. Although it is especially difficult in the case of long-term health care to develop standard cost accounting procedures because of the varied configurations of inpatient, intermediate, and ambulatory services, the overall approaches to cost accounting and its content can be made more uniform. With this purpose in mind, a general model of cost accounting is presented for a multilevel program of long-term services, together with a special method for ambulatory services using "hours accounted for" as the basic measure.

  5. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  6. 18. Uniform cost accounting in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J E

    1976-05-01

    Uniform cost data are essential for managing health services, establishing billing and reimbursement rates, and measuring effectiveness and impact. Although it is especially difficult in the case of long-term health care to develop standard cost accounting procedures because of the varied configurations of inpatient, intermediate, and ambulatory services, the overall approaches to cost accounting and its content can be made more uniform. With this purpose in mind, a general model of cost accounting is presented for a multilevel program of long-term services, together with a special method for ambulatory services using "hours accounted for" as the basic measure. PMID:819732

  7. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  8. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... website, Electric Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans at the beginning... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS... Disposal loans. The method used to determine this rate is set forth in the regulations of the Farmers...

  9. Long-term home care research.

    PubMed

    Green, J H

    1989-11-01

    The population of seniors is growing and health service reimbursement is shrinking. Long-term home health care services were developed with an assumption that the services would decrease costs. This assumption has not been validated. What has been recognized is that long-term home health care targets a new and growing population of frail seniors who need services but are probably not at risk for institutionalization. The impact of long-term home care services on the health status and quality of life of seniors and caregivers has been limited by outcome measurement problems. There are indications that the services improved life satisfaction and reduced services needs, but further evaluations need to replicate the outcomes. In effect, long-term outcomes have not been sufficiently explored. Further research also needs to assist us in identifying outcomes for certain services with precise target populations. Public policy questions are ahead. Should a program that can increase costs, has demonstrated some but not dramatic impacts on quality of life and health status, and has the possibility of expansion, be funded? The question is obviously debatable. From a nursing perspective of health promotion and prevention, the answer is "yes." Funding should be continued in conjunction with increased research on the program impacts. In Kane's (1988) analysis of the Channeling experiments, she summarized the situation effectively: Knowing these facts, we are now in a position to reformulate public policies to design a system of long-term care that satisfies the preferences of consumers and protects them from catastrophic long-term expenses, while promoting the triple virtues of acceptable, quality, equitable access, and defensible costs. . . Nothing in the Channeling results should prevent us from going ahead and trying to develop both community based and institutionally based long-term services in which this country can take pride.

  10. E1-forbidden transition rates in ions of astrophysical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träbert, E.

    2014-11-01

    Transition rates in atomic systems may appear to be of little importance in steady-state plasmas that are observed at great distances from Earth. However, some of the transition rates compete with collision rates, and in these cases certain line intensity ratios are affected and can serve as remote indicators of density. In the low-density environments of stellar coronae and planetary nebulae, the transition rates of interest are mostly spin-forbidden E1 decays, higher-multipole order transitions (M1, E2, M2, M3), and hyperfine-induced transitions. On Earth, measurements of the long upper level lifetimes of these atomic systems require the use of ion traps. A fair number of test cases with lifetimes in the range from nanoseconds to many seconds have been treated successfully, and the evolution of calculations along with the experimental progress is notable. A new generation of cold ion traps is expected to extend the atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions into the range of many minutes.

  11. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  12. Long-Term Marriage and Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Elana

    Projections, based on current rates, are that 40% of recent marriages will end in divorce. To investigate the factors associated with long term marriage stability and satisfaction among elderly persons, 60 California older adults (30 married, 30 divorced) were interviewed about their perceptions of the role of companionship, alternatives to…

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of an Urban Farming Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonti, Nancy Falxa; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Daftary-Steel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the…

  14. 76 FR 41283 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  15. 78 FR 1222 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  16. 75 FR 59279 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On Overdue Accounts and Refunds On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable overpayments or underpayments of customs... Overdue Accounts and Refunds On Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  17. 76 FR 20697 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  18. 77 FR 59411 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  19. 75 FR 37823 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable overpayments or underpayments of customs... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  20. 77 FR 2308 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  1. 77 FR 18256 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  2. 78 FR 20349 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  3. 76 FR 64964 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable overpayments or... Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and...

  4. 75 FR 419 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable overpayments or underpayments of customs... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  5. 77 FR 38076 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  6. 78 FR 37839 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ..., published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on applicable... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  7. 78 FR 63238 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Decision 85-93, published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1985 (50 FR 21832), the interest rate paid on... Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments)...

  8. Environmental and Genetic Preconditioning for Long-Term Anoxia Responses Requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Bobby L.; Padilla, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2) and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1) lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2) suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely

  9. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

  10. A basic strategy for financing long term care.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N

    1984-02-01

    As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would

  11. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  12. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term

  13. Understanding the motivations of long-term care insurance owners: the importance of retirement planning.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    This article is based on two recent reports by the American Council of Life Insurers (ACLI) that illuminate the reasons why individuals purchase private long-term care insurance in both the group and individual markets. This information suggests that a younger and more diverse group of individuals are becoming increasingly interested in private long-term care insurance and that workplace education linkage the purchase of long-term care insurance to retirement planning may promote coverage.

  14. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    PubMed

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  15. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  16. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  17. Oil Prices and Interest Rates: Do They Determine the Exchange Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, I. A.; Old, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the relationship between the British pound sterling, interest rates, and oil prices has been overemphasized by economic commentators because they ignored a basic economic theory about the determination of the exchange rate. Provides an example and suggestions for follow up instruction. (Author/JDH)

  18. Characteristics of Long-Term First Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenell, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of long-term first marriages (over 20 years). Findings from 147 couples revealed: lifetime commitment to marriage, loyalty to spouse, strong moral values, respect for spouse as best friend, commitment to sexual fidelity, desire to be good parent, faith in God, desire to please and support spouse, good companion to…

  19. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  20. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  1. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

  2. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  3. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  4. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  5. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  6. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  7. Plutonium packaging and long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Jane A.; Wedman, Douglas E.

    2000-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) packaging line at Los Alamos National Laboratory can successfully package plutonium to meet DOE requirements for safe long-term storage. The ARIES system has just completed the disassembly and conversion of its first cores ("pits") for nuclear weapons.

  8. Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources. PMID:21221264

  9. Relationship between short- and long-term memory and short- and long-term extinction.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Martín; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Rossato, Janine I; Ramirez, Maria; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván

    2005-07-01

    Both the acquisition and the extinction of memories leave short- and long-term mnemonic traces. Here, we show that in male Wistar rats, the short-term memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) is resistant to extinction, and that its expression does not influence retrieval or extinction of long-term memory. It has been known for some time that short- and long-term inhibitory avoidance memory involve separate and parallel processes. Here we show that, instead, short-term extinction of IA long-term memory is the first step towards its long-term extinction, and that this link requires functional NMDA receptors and protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus at the time of the first CS-no US presentation.

  10. Beliefs and stochastic modelling of interest rate scenario risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galic, E.; Molgedey, L.

    2001-04-01

    We present a framework that allows for a systematic assessment of risk given a specific model and belief on the market. Within this framework the time evolution of risk is modeled in a twofold way. On the one hand, risk is modeled by the time discrete and nonlinear garch(1,1) process, which allows for a (time-)local understanding of its level, together with a short term forecast. On the other hand, via a diffusion approximation, the time evolution of the probability density of risk is modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. Then, as a final step, using Bayes theorem, beliefs are conditioned on the stationary probability density function as obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation. We believe this to be a highly rigorous framework to integrate subjective judgments of future market behavior and underlying models. In order to demonstrate the approach, we apply it to risk assessment of empirical interest rate scenario methodologies, i.e. the application of Principal Component Analysis to the the dynamics of bonds.

  11. Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

    2008-06-01

    The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

  12. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  14. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  15. Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

    2004-09-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in

  16. Convergence of long-term care planning and retirement planning at the work place.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ajith

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing expectation that the private-sector should provide needed solutions to pressing problems in long-term care. Long-term care insurance has figured prominently in recent discussions. Within the long-term care insurance market, the potential of the employer in making such insurance available to employees has been discussed extensively. This paper traces the increasing convergence of retirement planning and long-term care planning at the work place. The long-term care insurance market has come a long way, and the employer-sponsored segment of the market has recorded the highest rate of growth in recent times. Furthermore, the employer-sponsored market is beginning to diversify. Low take-up rates still remain a problem. Recent rapid growth of the market coupled with the federal government's involvement as an employer offering long-term care insurance is bound to expand the market further. PMID:15148046

  17. Long-term phase-locking technique for locking the repetition rate of an optical frequency comb laser with 1.67 × 10-19 precision.

    PubMed

    Ci, Cheng; Zhang, Xuesong; Li, Xinran; Chen, Xing; Cui, Yifan; Zhao, Yingxin; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong

    2016-08-20

    An ultrahigh stable phase-locked loop system for synchronization of an optical frequency comb to a hydrogen maser has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A mathematical model has been set up to investigate the feasibility and steady state of the phase-locking system. The fractional frequency instability is evaluated by measuring the mixed-phase signal of an improved experimental system. Experimental results show that the fractional frequency instability of the phase-locked loop system lies from 8.83×10-16 at 1 s to 1.67×10-19 at 1000 s, which indicates our proposed phase-locking system possesses ultrahigh measurement precision with good long-term stabilization performance. PMID:27556998

  18. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  19. Long-term care standards: enforcement and compliance.

    PubMed

    Christianson, J B

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of long-term care in the United States. First, it addresses alternate models of regulation that potentially could explain both enforcer and provider actions. Then it describes in more detail the incentives for enforcement of regulatory standards. Empirical evidence concerning the effect of regulation on provider incomes and the relationship between reported compliance with standards and provider operating costs is examined. In the latter case, the evidence is consistent with a self-interest theory of behavior for regulatory agencies and inspectors. Ideas for reform of the long-term care marketplace are summarized in the concluding selection, with emphasis on their probable impact on enforcement of standards.

  20. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  1. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1985-09-01

    Attention is given to the results of a long term monitoring study of Saturn's H/sub 2/ quadrupole and CH/sub 4/ band absorptions outside the equatorial zone, over an interval of half a Saturn year that covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit (which is approximately bounded by the equinoxes). Marked long term changes are noted in the CH/sub 4/ absorption, accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H/sub 2/ absorption. Seasonal changes are inferred on the basis of temporal variations in absorption. Spatial measurements have also been made in the 6450 A NH/sub 3/ band since the 1980 equinox. 42 references.

  2. Long-term reinforced fixed provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Galindo, D; Soltys, J L; Graser, G N

    1998-06-01

    Extensive prosthodontic treatment often requires fabrication of long-term provisional restorations. Numerous materials and techniques have been described for prolonged insertion of interim restorations. This article describes a procedure for fabrication of long-term reinforced heat-processed provisional restorations based on a diagnostic wax-up. Reinforced heat-processed provisional restorations reduced flexure, which minimizes progressive loss of cement and diminished the possibility of recurrent decay. Occlusal stability and vertical dimension were maintained because of greater wear resistance. Occlusion, tooth contours, and pontic design developed in the provisional restoration were duplicated in the definitive restoration. The use of a matrix from a diagnostic wax-up facilitated fabrication of the prosthesis, and made the procedure less time-consuming and more predictable.

  3. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  4. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  5. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  6. 31 CFR 535.440 - Commercially reasonable interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bearing account. Furthermore, in the event that the Iran-U.S Claims Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) determines... lieu of interest, is due Iran, then that amount determined by the Tribunal to be owing to Iran shall be... claimed in, and determined by the Tribunal, constitutes an interest of Iran in property for purposes...

  7. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration (FmHA) at 7 CFR 1942.17(f) (1) and (4). Pursuant to the FmHA rule, the interest rates are set... writing Bond Buyer, One State Street Plaza, New York, NY 10004-1549, or by calling 1-800-982-0633....

  8. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  9. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  10. Long-term EEG in children.

    PubMed

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development.

  11. Infective endocarditis: determinants of long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, R O M; Altwegg, S C; Zollinger, E; Täuber, M; Carrel, T; Seiler, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate predictors of long term prognosis in infective endocarditis. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care centre. Patients: 212 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis between 1980 and 1995 Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; event-free survival; and the following events: recurrence, need for late valve surgery, bleeding and embolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, congestive heart failure. Results: During a mean follow up period of 89 months (range 1–244 months), 56% of patients died. In 180 hospital survivors, overall and cardiac mortality amounted to 45% and 24%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, early surgical treatment, infection by streptococci, age < 55 years, absence of congestive heart failure, and > 6 symptoms or signs of endocarditis during active infection were predictive of improved overall long term survival. Independent determinants of event-free survival were infection by streptococci and age < 55 years. Event-free survival was 17% at the end of follow up both in medically–surgically treated patients and in medically treated patients. Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis. PMID:12067947

  12. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  13. Long-term Nicotine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Goelz, Patricia M.; Veluz-Wilkins, Anna; Blazekovic, Sonja; Powers, Lindsay; Leone, Frank T.; Gariti, Peter; Wileyto, E. Paul; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    and extended treatment arms (20.3% vs 23.8%; OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.69-1.98]; P = .57). Similarly, we found no difference in week 52 abstinence rates between participants in the extended and standard treatment arms (26.0% vs 21.7%; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 0.72-2.45]; P = .36). Treatment duration was not associated with any adverse effects or adherence to the counseling regimen, but participants in the maintenance treatment arm reported lower adherence to the nicotine patch regimen compared with those in the standard and extended treatment arms (mean [SD], 3.94 [2.5], 4.61 [2.0], and 4.7 [2.4] patches/wk, respectively; F2,522 = 6.03; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings support the safety of long-term use of nicotine patch treatment, although they do not support efficacy beyond 24 weeks of treatment in a broad group of smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01047527 PMID:25705872

  14. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Long-Term Cryopreserved Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kar Wey; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Choi, Jane Ru; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Chua, Kien Hui; Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications. PMID:25872464

  15. Radical surgery for gallbladder carcinoma. Long-term results.

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Y; Yoshida, K; Tsukada, K; Muto, T; Watanabe, H

    1992-01-01

    The authors' objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of radical surgery with lymph node dissection for gallbladder carcinoma. Long-term results were analyzed in 40 patients in a 5-year study. The authors divided the 40 cases into two groups: 20 without positive nodes and 20 with positive nodes. In the group without positive nodes, one patient who underwent R1 resection died of a recurrence at 1 year 7 months. Seventeen of the 19 patients treated with R0 resection survived more than 5 years. The 5-year survival rate was 85% (17/20). In the group with positive nodes, 9 of the 13 patients treated with R0 resection survived more than 5 years, whereas the seven patients treated with R1 or R2 resection died within 5 years. The 5-year survival rate was 45% (9/20). Patients treated by R0 resection showed a 5-year survival rate of 69% (9/13). Thus we documented the favorable long-term results of radical surgery. R0 resection is a prerequisite for long-term survival. The results justify radical surgery with lymph node dissection. PMID:1359844

  16. Genomic fossils calibrate the long-term evolution of hepadnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-09-28

    Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae) are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity) suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10(-8) substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep time scale.

  17. Genomic Fossils Calibrate the Long-Term Evolution of Hepadnaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae) are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity) suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10−8 substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep time scale. PMID

  18. What's Next After ARDS: Long-Term Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chiumello, Davide; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Gotti, Miriam

    2016-05-01

    ARDS is a life-threatening organ failure due to several pulmonary and extrapulmonary injuries with an incidence between 5 and 60 cases/100,000 persons/y. Patients with ARDS have non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and dyspnea often requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and intensive care admission. Although the short-term mortality rate has significantly decreased in the last decade, mainly due to the widespread application of lung-protective ventilation and better general support, long-term outcomes are still unsatisfactory. Besides simply evaluating the outcome at hospital discharge, several recent studies have assessed the health-related quality of life, neuropsychological disability, radiological findings, and pulmonary dysfunction up to 5 y. This paper reviews the literature regarding the long-term outcomes in patients with ARDS. PMID:27121623

  19. Glass Dissolution: Testing and Modeling for Long-Term Behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M. )

    2001-09-01

    The basic concepts of thermodynamics and kinetics are discussed in relationship to glass dissolution testing. While it seems like these subjects are too basic to be discussed in a journal article, it is often the case that we forget these concepts when planning and designing dissolution tests and interpreting the results that come from these tests. The possible connection between the composition of the dissolving glass and its long-term behavior is discussed. Results from a preliminary study suggest that the aluminum content of a glass is important to its long-term behavior. The formation of a zeolite can cause the glass dissolution rate to increase under certain conditions that can be modeled. Results indicate that complex glasses can be modeled with a glass containing as little as six components.

  20. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. PMID:26792873