Science.gov

Sample records for long-term operation kontinuierliche

  1. Long-term operational testing of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of long-term operational testing of several quantum cascade laser (QCL) variants to illustrate their robustness and long lifetimes. Performance factors are investigated including power and spectral stability over different timescales ranging from days to years. The effects of burn-in, packaging, mounting, and facet coatings are considered with respect to their influence on long-term laser performance. In addition, the results from the several years' operation of a custom external cavity quantum cascade laser-based trace gas sensor are presented to highlight the reliable performance of QCL-based sensor systems. This sensor monitored the laboratory air for multiple chemicals and operated continuously for two years without any evidence of degradation in performance. The data from all of these experiments will be discussed to demonstrate the reliability and robust performance of QCLs.

  2. Physical nature of rail strengthening in long term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Victor; Peregudov, Oleg; Ivanov, Yurii; Glezer, Alexandr; Morozov, Konstantin; Aksenova, Krestina; Semina, Olga

    2016-11-01

    Regularities of changes in structure-phase states and the defect substructure of rail surface layers up to 10 mm along the fillet in long-term operation (the gross tonnage 1000 mln tons) were determined by methods of transmission electron diffraction microscopy and by measuring microhardness. The possible reasons of the observed regularities were discussed. It was noticed that two competitive processes may proceed in rail operation: (1) cementite segregation followed by their carrying to the volume of ferrite grains or plates (in the pearlite structure) and (2) cutting, subsequent dissolution of cementite particles, transition of carbon atoms at dislocations (Cottrell atmospheres), and carbon atom transfer by dislocations into the volume of ferrite grains (or plates) followed by the formation of cementite nanoparticles. A qualitative analysis of rail hardening mechanisms at different distance from the tread surface along the fillet after long-term operation was done. It was shown that hardening had a multifactor character and was caused by substructure hardening brought about by the formation of nanofragments, dispersion hardening by carbide phase particles, hardening caused by the formation of the Cottrell and Suzuki atmospheres on dislocations, and internal stress fields being formed by inner- and interphase boundaries.

  3. R&D of MCFC matrix for long term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takashi; Fujita, Yoji; Urushibata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akira

    1996-12-31

    Long term operation is an essential subject in the commercialization of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC). Material stability is important for the development of the MCFC. particularly for long term operation. In this paper, the specification and the stabilization of MCFC matrix arc investigated, with the aim of producing 40000 hours of operation. It is common knowledge that matrix thickness has a large influence on shorting time, as shorting is caused by the dissolution of the nickel oxide cathodes. Therefore, the optimum thickness of a matrix designed for 40000 hours operation without the nickel shorting was sought. The influences of different electrolytes and matrix specifications on the shorting time were measured with accelerated cell tests. The internal resistance of the matrix was also estimated. Gamma( {gamma} )-lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) powder with a sub-micron particle diameter is commonly used for a raw material of matrix to retain molten carbonate electrolytes. This is because most researchers found that {gamma}-LiA1O{sub 2} was the most stable material in the MCFC environment among the three allotropic forms alpha ( {alpha} ), beta ( {beta} ), and {gamma}. However. two problems with the stability of {gamma} -LiAlO{sub 2} are being vigorously discussed. especially in Japan: particle growth causes decreasing electrolyte retention, and the transformation of {gamma} to {alpha}. This transformation contradicts the accepted opinion that {gamma} is the most stable form. In this paper, the particle growth and the phase transformation of LiAlO{sub 2} are examined with post-test analyses. The influence of matrix degradation on cell performance is also considered.

  4. Long-term performance of motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that motor-operated valves (MOVs) important to safety be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. Despite these requirements, operating experience and research revealed problems with the performance of MOVs in operating nuclear power plants. In response to the concerns about MOV performance, the NRC issued Generic Letter (GL) 89-10, {open_quotes}Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,{close_quotes} and its supplements. Most licensees have completed the aspects of their GL 89-10 programs associated with the review of MOV design bases, verification of MOV switch settings initially, testing of MOVs under design-basis conditions where practicable, and improvement of evaluations of MOV failures and necessary corrective action. Licensees are establishing processes to ensure that the long-term aspects of their MOV programs, such as periodic verification of MOV capability and the trending of MOV problems, are maintained. The NRC staff is developing a generic letter to address periodic verification of MOV design-basis capability.

  5. Long-Term Operating System Maintenance. A Linux Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    when maintaining an operating system for long periods. Therefore, this report serves as an introduction and a simple methodology for performing...and necessary reconfiguration capabilities have been established, an appropriate methodology could be developed for upgrading and updating an...this study proposes a methodology for upgrading and updating an operating system so that installing a newer operating system is not required in order

  6. Operational summary of an electric propulsion long term test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    An automated test facility capable of simultaneously operating three 2.5 kW, 30-cm mercury ion thrusters and their power processors is described, along with a test program conducted for the documentation of thruster characteristics as a function of time. Facility controls are analog, with full redundancy, so that in the event of malfunction the facility automaticcally activates a backup mode and notifies an operator. Test data are recorded by a central data collection system and processed as daily averages. The facility has operated continuously for a period of 37 months, over which nine mercury ion thrusters and four power processor units accumulated a total of over 14,500 hours of thruster operating time.

  7. Long-Term Counterinsurgency Strategy: Maximizing Special Operations and Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    operations forces possess a repertoire of capabilities and attributes which impart them with unique strategic utility. “That utility reposes most...Diameter Bomb (SDB) with programmable attack azimuth and impact angle capabilities independent of delivery platform and profile has virtually eliminated

  8. Optimizing Long-Term Capital Planning for Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    optimization, United States Special Operations Command, capital planning, modernization , Binary Knapsack Model, Bounded Integer Knapsack Model...procurement money over the entire planning horizon. This thesis presents proof-of-principle models to improve the LRCPT by incorporating goal programming...test our models with a 30-year planning horizon including 68 projects and one category of money . We validate the BK model by analyzing the effect of

  9. Budgeting for International Projects: In-Country Business Operations and Long-Term Residential Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of international sponsored research program administration looks at budgeting, costs, and procedures for both projects with in-country business operations in developing nations and projects with long-term residential assignments. It is intended for university administrators providing new services to faculty working on international…

  10. Role of Proteasome-Dependent Protein Degradation in Long-Term Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Gardner, Jacob S.; Gandour, Catherine E.; Krishnan, Harini C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the in vivo role of protein degradation during intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) in "Aplysia" using an operant learning paradigm. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 inhibited the induction and molecular consolidation of LTM with no effect on ITM. Remarkably, maintenance of steady-state protein levels through…

  11. PKG-Mediated MAPK Signaling Is Necessary for Long-Term Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Eskin, Arnold; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    Signaling pathways necessary for memory formation, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear highly conserved across species and paradigms. Learning that food is inedible (LFI) represents a robust form of associative, operant learning that induces short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in "Aplysia." We investigated the…

  12. Disk oxygen generator with closed flow loop for long-term COIL operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Christian J. M.; Gruenewald, Karin; Handke, Juergen; Duschek, Frank; Schall, Wolfgang O.

    2003-11-01

    A test facility was designed to operate a disk type singlet delta oxygen generator in a closed loop for the flow of basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP). The facility allows the investigations of the influence of operating conditions like BHP flow, gas flow, disk rotation speed, and system components like disk package parameters and type of liquid separator on the generator performance and the ascertainment of the facilities capability for long term COIL operation. The dimension of the generator in the closed flow loop is chosen in accordance with the 10 kW-DLR-COIL.

  13. Operant Discriminative Learning and Evidence of Subtelencephalic Plastic Changes After Long-Term Detelencephalation in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, S. M.; Diaz-Cintra, S.; Cintra, L.; Ferrari, E. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed operant discrimination in detelencephalated pigeons and neuroanatomical substrates after long-term detelencephalation. In Experiment I, experimental pigeons with massive telencephalic ablation and control pigeons were conditioned to key peck for food. Successive discrimination was made under alternating red (variable-ratio reinforcement) and yellow (extinction) lights in one key of the chamber. These relations were interchanged during reversal discrimination. The sessions were run until steady-state rates were achieved. Experiment II analyzed the morphology of the nucleus rotundus and optic tectum in long-term detelencephalated and control birds, using a Klüver-Barrera staining and image analyzer system. Detelencephalated birds had more training sessions for response shaping and steady-state behavior (p<0.001), higher red key peck rates during discrimination (p<0.01), and reversal discrimination indexes around 0.50. Morphometric analysis revealed a decreased number of neurons and increased vascularity, associated with increases in the perimeter (p<0.001) in the nucleus rotundus. In the optic tectum, increases in the perimeter (p<0.05) associated with disorganization in the layers arrangement were seen. The data indicate that telencephalic systems might have an essential function in reversal operant discrimination learning. The structural characteristics of subtelencephalic systems after long-term detelencephalation evidence plastic changes that might be related to functional mechanisms of learning and neural plasticity in pigeons. PMID:15152980

  14. Long term reliability and machine operation diagnosis with fiber optic sensors at large turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.; Strack, S.; Villnow, M.; Weidner, J. R.; Willsch, M.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing quantity of renewable energy in electric power generation leads to a higher flexibility in the operation of conventional power plants. The turbo generator has to face the influence of frequent start-stop-operation on thermal movement and vibration of the stator end windings. Large indirect cooled turbo generators have been equipped with FBG strain and temperature sensors to monitor the influence of peak load operation. Fiber optic accelerometers measure the vibration of the end windings at several turbine generators since many years of operation. The long term reliability of fiber optic vibration, temperature and strain sensors has been successfully proved during years of online operation. The analysis of these data in correlation to significant operation parameter lead to important diagnostic information.

  15. Long-term energy capture and the effects of optimizing wind turbine operating strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. H.; Formica, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of increasing energy capture without affecting the turbine design were investigated. The emphasis was on optimizing the wind turbine operating strategy. The operating strategy embodies the startup and shutdown algorithm as well as the algorithm for determining when to yaw (rotate) the axis of the turbine more directly into the wind. Using data collected at a number of sites, the time-dependent simulation of a MOD-2 wind turbine using various, site-dependent operating strategies provided evidence that site-specific fine tuning can produce significant increases in long-term energy capture as well as reduce the number of start-stop cycles and yawing maneuvers, which may result in reduced fatigue and subsequent maintenance.

  16. Optimizing the Long-Term Operating Plan of Railway Marshalling Station for Capacity Utilization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenliang; Yang, Xia; Deng, Lianbo

    2014-01-01

    Not only is the operating plan the basis of organizing marshalling station's operation, but it is also used to analyze in detail the capacity utilization of each facility in marshalling station. In this paper, a long-term operating plan is optimized mainly for capacity utilization analysis. Firstly, a model is developed to minimize railcars' average staying time with the constraints of minimum time intervals, marshalling track capacity, and so forth. Secondly, an algorithm is designed to solve this model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and simulation method. It divides the plan of whole planning horizon into many subplans, and optimizes them with GA one by one in order to obtain a satisfactory plan with less computing time. Finally, some numeric examples are constructed to analyze (1) the convergence of the algorithm, (2) the effect of some algorithm parameters, and (3) the influence of arrival train flow on the algorithm. PMID:25525614

  17. Experimental evaluation of stable long term operation of semiconductor magnetic sensors at ITER relevant environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakova, I.; Belyaev, S.; Bulavin, M.; Brudnyi, V.; Chekanov, V.; Coccorese, V.; Duran, I.; Gerasimov, S.; Holyaka, R.; Kargin, N.; Konopleva, R.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Makido, O.; Moreau, Ph; Murari, A.; Quercia, A.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Timoshyn, S.; Vasil'evskii, I.; Vinichenko, A.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with radiation resistant sensors and their associated measuring instrumentation developed in the course of R and D activities carried out in the framework of an international collaboration. The first trial tests of three-dimensional (3D) probes with Hall sensors have been performed in European tokamaks TORE SUPRA (2004) and JET (2005). Later in 2009 six sets of 3D probes were installed in JET and now continue to operate. The statistical analysis performed in 2014 on the basis of the JET database have demonstrated stable long term operation of all 18 sensors of 3D probes. The results of measurements conducted at the neutron fluxes of nuclear reactors have demonstrated the operability of the sensors up to high neutron fluences of F  >  1018n • cm-2 that exceeds the maximum one for the locations of steady state sensors in ITER over its total lifetime.

  18. Long Term, Operational Monitoring Of Enhanced Oil Recovery In Harsh Environments With INSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Henschel, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, MDA GSI has provided ground deformation measurements for an oil field in northern Alberta, Canada using InSAR technology. During this period, the monitoring has reliably shown the slow rise of the oil field due to enhanced oil recovery operations. The InSAR monitoring solution is essentially based on the observation of point and point-like targets in the field. Ground conditions in the area are almost continuously changing (in their reflectivity characteristics) making it difficult to ob- serve coherent patterns from the ground. The extended duration of the oil operations has allowed us to continue InSAR monitoring and transition from RADARSAT-1 to RADARSAT-2. With RADARSAT-2 and the enhancement of the satellite resolution capability has provided more targets of opportunity as identified by a differential coherence method. This poster provides an overview of the long term monitoring of the oil field in northern Alberta, Canada.

  19. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  20. Modeling heat exchange characteristics of long term space operations: Role of skin wettedness and exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of heat exchange during rest and exercise during long term space operations are covered in this report. Particular attention is given to the modeling and description of the consequences of requirement to exercise in a zero-g atmosphere during Space Shuttle flights, especially long term ones. In space environments, there exists no free convection therefore only forced convection occurring by movement, such as pedalling on a cycle ergometer, augments required heat dissipation necessary to regulate body temperature. The requirement to exercise at discrete periods of the day is good practice in order to resist the deleterious consequences of zero-gravity problems and improve distribution of body fluids. However, during exercise (ca. 180 to 250W), in zero-g environments, the mass of eccrine sweating rests as sheets on the skin surface and the sweat cannot evaporate readily. The use of exercise suits with fabrics that have hydrophobic or outwicking properties somewhat distributes the mass of sweat to a larger surface from which to evaporate. However, with no free convection, increased skin wettedness throughout the body surface induces increasing thermal discomfort, particularly during continuous exercise. This report presents several alternatives to aid in this problem: use of intermittent exercise, methods to quantify local skin wettedness, and introduction of a new effective temperature that integrates thermal stress and heat exchange avenues in a zero-g atmosphere.

  1. Long-term energy capture and the effects of optimizing wind-turbine operating strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.H.; Formica, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    One of the major factors driving the evolutionary design of wind turbines is the cost of energy (COE). The COE for electricity produced by any means is based on three primary factors: capital costs plus operating and maintenance (O and M) costs divided by the number of kilowatt hours produced per year. Obviously an increase in production of energy has the positive effect of decreasing the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine. A research effort has been established to determine the possible methods of increasing energy capture without affecting the turbine design. The emphasis has been on optimizing the wind turbine operating strategy. The operating strategy embodies the startup and shutdown algorithm as well as the algorithm for determining when to yaw (rotate) the axis of the turbine more directly into the wind. Using data collected at a number of sites, the time-dependent simulation of a MOD-2 wind turbine using various, site-dependent operating strategies has provided evidence that site-specific fine tuning can produce significant increases in long-term energy capture as well as reduce the number of start-stop cycles and yawing maneuvers, which may result in reduced fatigue and subsequent maintenance.

  2. LONG TERM OPERATION ISSUES FOR ELECTRICAL CABLE SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Dr Leonard S; Duckworth, Robert C; Glass III, Dr. Samuel W.

    2016-01-01

    conditions, but extension of behavior to long term degradation under more mild conditions, such as those experienced by most installed cables in nuclear power plants, is complicated by the fact that different degradation mechanisms may be involved in extreme and mild scenarios. The discrepancy in predicted results from short term, more extreme exposure and actual results from longer term, more mild exposures can be counter intuitive. For instance, due to the attenuation of oxidation penetration in material samples rapidly aged through exposure to high temperatures, the bulk of the samples may be artificially protected from thermal aging. In another example, simultaneous exposure of cable insulation material to heat and radiation may actually lead to less damage at higher temperatures than may be observed at lower temperatures. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program of the United States (US) Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Nuclear Energy is funding research to increase the predictive understanding of electrical cable material aging and degradation in existing nuclear power plants in support of continued safe operation of plants beyond their initial license periods. This research includes the evaluation and development of methods to assess installed cable condition.

  3. Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film electrodes at operating potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Peng, J. -K.; Wang, X.; ...

    2017-02-09

    Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts at operating potentials has been investigated. Compared to high surface area Pt/C catalysts, NSTF electrodes show 20–50x smaller F– emission rates (FER) because of their high specific activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but are susceptible to poisoning by the products of membrane degradation because of their low electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). The observed voltage degradation rates at potentials corresponding to 1–1.5 A/cm2 current density are much higher than the allowable 13–14 μV/h. Although F– is not itself responsible for performance decay, cumulative fluoride release (CFR) is a good marker formore » catalyst surface contamination. The observed performance decay is not only due to loss of active Pt sites but also adsorbed impurities impeding ORR kinetics. There is a strong correlation between measured CFR and observed decrease in specific ORR activity and limiting current density and increase in mass transfer overpotentials. Furthermore, the correlations indicate that the target of <10% lifetime performance degradation can be achieved by restricting CFR in NSTF electrodes to 0.7 μg/cm2, as may be possible with more stable membranes, higher surface area NSTF catalysts, and cell operation at lower temperatures and higher relative humidities.« less

  4. Identifying the limitations of conventional biofiltration of diffuse methane emissions at long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cuervo, S; Hernández, J; Omil, F

    2016-08-01

    There is growing international concern about the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly CO2 and methane. The emissions of methane derived from human activities are associated with large flows and very low concentrations, such as those emitted from landfills and wastewater treatment plants, among others. The present work was focused on the biological methane degradation at diffuse concentrations (0.2% vv(-1)) in a conventional biofilter using a mixture of compost, perlite and bark chips as carrier. An extensive characterization of the process was carried out at long-term operation (250 days) in a fully monitored pilot plant, achieving stable conditions during the entire period. Operational parameters such as waterings, nitrogen addition and inlet loads and contact time influences were evaluated. Obtained results indicate that empty bed residence times within 4-8 min are crucial to maximize elimination rates. Waterings and the type of nitrogen supplied in the nutrient solution (ammonia or nitrate) have a strong impact on the biofilter performance. The better results compatible with a stable operation were achieved using nitrate, with elimination capacities up to 7.6 ± 1.1 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1). The operation at low inlet concentrations (IC) implied that removal rates obtained were quite limited (ranging 3-8 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1)); however, these results could be significantly increased (up to 20.6 g CH4 m(-3) h(-1)) at higher IC, which indicates that the mass transfer from the gas to the liquid layer surrounding the biofilm is a key limitation of the process.

  5. Rosetta Lander - Philae: Operations on 67P and attempts for Long Term Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Geurts, Koen; Jansen, Sven; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; O'Rourke, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Philae is a comet Lander, part of Rosetta which is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. Philae successfully landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12th, 2014 and performed a First Scientific Sequence, based on the energy stored in it's on board batteries. All ten instruments of the Philae payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the final landing site (after several bounces) was poorly illuminated, Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, and the teams hoped for a wake-up at closer heliocentric distances. Signals from the Lander were indeed received on June 13th when 67P was at a distance of about 1.4 AU from the Sun. Housekeeping values showed that Philae had already been active earlier, but no RF contact with the mothership could be established. Seven more times, signals from Philae were received, the last ones on July 9th, 2015. Unfortunately, no reliable or predictable links could be achieved. The paper will give an overview of the activities with Philae after its hibernation, interpretation of the received housekeeping data and the various strategies to attempt more contacts and long term science measurements. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae Lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  6. Demographic, laboratory, and operational variables that influence short- and long-term plateletpheresis yields.

    PubMed

    Badami, K G; Sesun, M; Basu, A; Absalom, N

    2012-11-01

    We studied the demographic, laboratory, and operational parameters that might influence individual, as well as average, plateletpheresis yields. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that 25.4% and 11.6% of variability, among males and females, respectively, in individual yields was explained by the platelet count prior to that donation and 55% of the variation in mean platelet yields (PYs) was explained by the pre-first donation platelet count, the first donation PY and the body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression analysis showed that donors with first donation PYs higher, compared to those with lower yields, than the median of all mean PYs were more likely to be relatively high platelet yielders over the long term. A statistically significant, although clinically insignificant, decline in predonation platelet counts is seen in all donors regardless of the total number of donations or interdonation interval. Donors with high pre-first donation platelet counts, first donation yields, and BMI are likely to be consistent good platelet yielders.

  7. Possible nutrient limiting factor in long term operation of closed aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zongjie; Li, Yanhui; Cai, Wenkai; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Yongding; Wang, Gaohong

    2012-03-01

    To investigate nutrient limitation effect on the community metabolism of closed aquatic ecosystem and possible nutrient limiting factors in the experimental food chains, depletion of inorganic chemicals including carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous was tested. A closed aquatic ecosystem lab module consisting of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Daphnia magna and associated unidentified microbes was established. Closed ecological systems receive no carbon dioxide; therefore, we presumed carbon as a first limiting factor. The results showed that the algae population in the nutrient saturated group was statistically higher than that in the nutrient limited groups, and that the chlorophyll a content of algae in the phosphorus limited group was the highest among the limited groups. However, the nitrogen limited group supported the most Daphnia, followed by the carbon limited group, the nutrient saturated group and the phosphorus limited group. Redundancy analysis showed that the total phosphorus contents were correlated significantly with the population of algae, and that the amount of soluble carbohydrate as feedback of nutrient depletion was correlated with the number of Daphnia. Thus, these findings suggest that phosphorus is the limiting factor in the operation of closed aquatic ecosystem. The results presented herein have important indications for the future construction of long term closed ecological system.

  8. Transitioning from Enemy Prisoner of War "EPW" Operations to Long-Term Detainee Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    DETAINEE OPERATIONS by Colonel John M. Huey United States Army Colonel George Millan Project Adviser This...Sanchez, the overall military commander in Iraq, appointed a high-level investigation, headed by MG Antonio Taguba. In addition, the Secretary of Defense

  9. Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy cow feces: Long-term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Massé, Daniel I. Cata Saady, Noori M.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces (CF) is feasible. • PDAD of CF is as efficient as mesophilic and thermophilic AD at TCL 21 days. • CF (13–16% TS at OLR 5.0 g TCOD{sub fed} kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1}) yielded 222 ± 27 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental results which demonstrate psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces during long-term operation in sequence batch reactor. Cow feces (13–16% total solids) has been anaerobically digested in 12 successive cycles (252 days) at 21 days treatment cycle length (TCL) and temperature of 20 °C using psychrotrophic anaerobic mixed culture. An average specific methane yield (SMY) of 184.9 ± 24.0, 189.9 ± 27.3, and 222 ± 27.7 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} of VS fed has been achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 g TCOD kg{sup −1} inoculum d{sup −1} and TCL of 21 days, respectively. The corresponding substrate to inoculum ratio (SIR) was 0.39 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± .02, 0.53 ± 0.05, respectively. Average methane production rate of 10 ± 1.4 {sub N}L CH{sub 4} kg{sup −1} VS fed d{sup −1} has been obtained. The low concentration of volatile fatty acids indicated that hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step.

  10. Operational improvements of long-term predicted ephemerides of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRSs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostoff, J. L.; Ward, D. T.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) orbit determination and prediction are supported by the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). TDRS System (TDRSS)-user satellites require predicted TDRS ephemerides that are up to 10 weeks in length. Previously, long-term ephemerides generated by the FDF included predictions from the White Sands Complex (WSC), which plans and executes TDRS maneuvers. TDRSs typically have monthly stationkeeping maneuvers, and predicted postmaneuver state vectors are received from WSC up to a month in advance. This paper presents the results of an analysis performed in the FDF to investigate more accurate and economical long-term ephemerides for the TDRSs. As a result of this analysis, two new methods for generating long-term TDRS ephemeris predictions have been implemented by the FDF. The Center-of-Box (COB) method models a TDRS as fixed at the center of its stationkeeping box. Using this method, long-term ephemeris updates are made semiannually instead of weekly. The impulse method is used to model more maneuvers. The impulse method yields better short-term accuracy than the COB method, especially for larger stationkeeping boxes. The accuracy of the impulse method depends primarily on the accuracy of maneuver date forecasting.

  11. PKA and PKC Are Required for Long-Term but Not Short-Term in Vivo Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of PKA and PKC signaling in a negatively reinforced operant learning paradigm in "Aplysia", learning that food is inedible (LFI). In vivo injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors blocked long-term LFI memory formation. Moreover, a persistent phase of PKA activity, although not PKC activity, was necessary for long-term…

  12. Lightning climatology over Jakarta, Indonesia, based on long-term surface operational, satellite, and campaign observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Wu, Peiming; Yamanaka, Manabu D.; Hattori, Miki; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Sulistyowati, Reni; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    Lightning frequency over Indonesian Maritime Continent (MC) is quite high (Petersen and Rutledge 2001, Christian et al. 2003, Takayabu 2006, etc). In particular, Bogor (south of Jakarta, west Jawa) had 322 days of lightning in one year (Guinness Book in 1988). Lightning causes serious damage on nature and society over the MC; forest fore, power outage, inrush/surge currents on many kinds of electronics. Lightning climatology and meso-scale characteristics of thunderstorm over the MC, in particular over Jakarta, where social damage is quite serious, were examined. We made Statistical analysis of lightning and thunderstorm based on TRMM Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) together with long-term operational surface observation data (SYNOP) in terms of diurnal, intraseasonal, monsoonal, and interannual variations. In addition, we carried out a campaign observation in February 2015 in Bogor to obtain meso-scale structure and dynamics of thunderstorm over Jakarta to focus on graupel and other ice phase particles inside by using an X-band dual-polarimetric (DP) radar. Recently, Virts et al. (2013a, b) showed comprehensive lightning climatology based on the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). However, they also reported problems with its detection efficiency (< 10%) and small sampling frequency (< 0.1% of the time fly over tropics) by satellites. Therefore, we firstly examine in situ lightning data based on SYNOP observed by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) because lightning is quite local and sporadic phenomena. We've started to analyze lightning characteristics over Jakarta region based on SYNOP as the ground truth data and GSMaP. Variability of lightning frequency around Jakarta was affected much by local conditions, e.g., topography (elevation) and proximity to the coastline. We confirmed the lightning frequency and its diurnal variation around Jakarta were much

  13. Long-Term Characterization of 6H-SiC Transistor Integrated Circuit Technology Operating at 500 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chang, Carl W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Meredith Roger D.; Ferrier, Terry L.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has been developing very high temperature semiconductor integrated circuits for use in the hot sections of aircraft engines and for Venus exploration. This paper reports on long-term 500 C electrical operation of prototype 6H-SiC integrated circuits based on epitaxial 6H-SiC junction field effect transistors (JFETs). As of this writing, some devices have surpassed 4000 hours of continuous 500 C electrical operation in oxidizing air atmosphere with minimal change in relevant electrical parameters.

  14. Long Term Operation of Cooling System for the Kepco Hts Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-04-01

    HTS power cable systems of to several hundred meters in length are presently being developed and evaluated for practical use in real power grids. Since 2006, a cooling system for the 3-phase, 100-m HTS power cable with 22.9 kV/1.25 kA has been installed and tested at the KEPCO's Gochang power-testing center. Performance reliability through several demonstration tests of over 9,000 hours was demonstrated. This paper mainly describes the cooling performance test results of the HTS power cable system obtained during the long-term performance tests.

  15. Evaluation of a long-term operation of a submerged nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF MBR) for advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, J H; Fukushi, K; Ng, H Y; Yamamoto, K

    2006-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is considered as one of the most promising separation technologies to obtain a very good-quality permeate in water and wastewater treatment. A submerged NF membrane bioreactor (NF MBR) using polyamide membranes was tested for a long-term operation and the performance of the NF MBR was compared with that of a microfiltration MBR (MF MBR). Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the permeate of the NF MBR ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/L, whereas that of the MF MBR showed an average of 5 mg/L. This could be explained by the tightness of the NF membrane. Although the concentration of organic matter in the supernatant of the NF MBR was higher than that in the permeate due to high rejection by the NF membrane, the NF MBR showed excellent treatment efficiency and satisfactory operational stability for a long-term operation.

  16. Test Plan for Long-Term Operation of a Ten-Cell High Temperature Electrolysis Stack

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    This document defines a test plan for a long-term (2500 Hour) test of a ten-cell high-temperature electrolysis stack to be performed at INL during FY09 under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This test was originally planned for FY08, but was removed from our work scope as a result of the severe budget cuts in the FY08 NHI Program. The purpose of this test is to evaluate stack performance degradation over a relatively long time period and to attempt to identify some of the degradation mechanisms via post-test examination. This test will be performed using a planar ten-cell Ceramatec stack, with each cell having dimensions of 10 cm × 10 cm. The specific makeup of the stack will be based on the results of a series of shorter duration ten-cell stack tests being performed during FY08, funded by NGNP. This series of tests was aimed at evaluating stack performance with different interconnect materials and coatings and with or without brazed edge rails. The best performing stack from the FY08 series, in which five different interconnect/coating/edge rail combinations were tested, will be selected for the FY09 long-term test described herein.

  17. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-11-05

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of <2.4 ng/mL. The tumor volume was calculated based on the pre- and post-operative magnetic resonance images. We prescribed testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement.

  18. RELIABILITY MODELS OF AGING PASSIVE COMPONENTS INFORMED BY MATERIALS DEGRADATION METRICS TO SUPPORT LONG-TERM REACTOR OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2012-05-01

    Paper describes a methodology for the synthesis of nuclear power plant service data with expert-elicited materials degradation information to estimate the future failure rates of passive components. This method should be an important resource to long-term plant operations and reactor life extension. Conventional probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are not well suited to addressing long-term reactor operations. Since passive structures and components are among those for which replacement can be least practical, they might be expected to contribute increasingly to risk in an aging plant; yet, passives receive limited treatment in PRAs. Furthermore, PRAs produce only snapshots of risk based on the assumption of time-independent component failure rates. This assumption is unlikely to be valid in aging systems. The treatment of aging passive components in PRA presents challenges. Service data to quantify component reliability models are sparse, and this is exacerbated by the greater data demands of age-dependent reliability models. Another factor is that there can be numerous potential degradation mechanisms associated with the materials and operating environment of a given component. This deepens the data problem since risk-informed management of component aging will demand an understanding of the long-term risk significance of individual degradation mechanisms. In this paper we describe a Bayesian methodology that integrates metrics of materials degradation susceptibility with available plant service data to estimate age-dependent passive component reliabilities. Integration of these models into conventional PRA will provide a basis for materials degradation management informed by predicted long-term operational risk.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program: Assessing Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms Exposed to Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Bioconcentration of Hydrophobic Chemicals by Fish ," Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 16, pp 242-257. Connolly, J. P., and Pedersen, C. J...Ocean Disposal of Wastes," Chapter 12 in Fate and Effects of Sediment-Bound Chemicals in Aauatic Systems , K. C. Dickson, A. W. Maki, and W. A. Brungs...AD-A239 551 LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF DREDGING{Tf I IIIID . OPERATIONS PROGRAM MISCELLANEOUS PAPER D-91-2 ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS

  20. Surgical indication for functional tricuspid regurgitation at initial operation: judging from long term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pozzoli, Alberto; Elisabetta, Lapenna; Vicentini, Luca; Alfieri, Ottavio; De Bonis, Michele

    2016-09-01

    The assessment and management of tricuspid valve disease have evolved substantially during the past several years. Whereas tricuspid stenosis is uncommon, tricuspid regurgitation is frequently encountered and it is most often secondary due to annular dilatation and leaflet tethering from right ventricular remodelling. The indications for tricuspid valve surgery to treat tricuspid regurgitation are several and mainly related to the underlying disease, to the severity of insufficiency and to the right ventricular function. Surgical tricuspid repair has been avoided for years, because of the misleading concept that tricuspid regurgitation should disappear once the primary left-sided problem has been eliminated. Instead, during the last decade, many investigators have reported evidence in favor of a more aggressive surgical approach to functional tricuspid regurgitation, recognising the risk of progressive tricuspid insufficiency in patients with moderate or lesser degrees of tricuspid regurgitation and tricuspid annular dilatation. This concept, along with the long-term outcomes of principal surgical repair techniques are reported and discussed. Last, novel transcatheter therapies have begun to emerge for the treatment of severe tricuspid regurgitation in high-risk patients. Hence, very preliminary pre-clinical and clinical experiences are illustrated. The scope of this review is to explore the anatomic basis, the pathophysiology, the outcomes and the new insights in the management of functional tricuspid regurgitation.

  1. Theoretical estimation and experimental studies on gas dissociation in TEA CO2 laser for long term arc free operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Biswas, A. K.; Bhargav, Pankaj; Reghu, T.; Sahu, Shashikiran; Pakhare, J. S.; Bhagat, M. S.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    Gas dissociation in a high energy, high repetition rate Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser in both sealed-off and gas replenishment modes were studied for nitrogen lean gas mixture. A comprehensive theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation and the discharge excitation circuit equations was adopted to calculate the amount of CO2 dissociated during a single discharge pulse. Theoretically it is shown that inclusion of superelastic collisions in the Boltzmann transport equation is necessary for precise estimation of dissociation per pulse, particularly at high discharge energy loadings and for nitrogen rich gas mixtures. Gas lifetime for repetitively pulsed operations was found experimentally by measuring the amount of CO formed when frequent arcing sets in under sealed off operation. Using this model, the optimum replenishment rate of CO2 either by gas purging and/or by catalytic regeneration needed for arc free long term operation of the laser was estimated. The measured saturation values of CO concentration in the laser chamber agreed well with the calculated values for various operating conditions. Arc free, long term repetitively pulsed operation of the laser was achieved in the gas replenishment mode with gas purging and/or catalytic regeneration.

  2. Thermophilic treatment of acidified and partially acidified wastewater using an anaerobic submerged MBR: Factors affecting long-term operational flux.

    PubMed

    Jeison, D; van Lier, J B

    2007-09-01

    The long-term operation of two thermophilic anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (AnSMBRs) was studied using acidified and partially acidified synthetic wastewaters. In both reactors, cake formation was identified as the key factor governing critical flux. Even though cake formation was observed to be mostly reversible, particle deposition proceeds fast once the critical flux is exceeded. Very little irreversible fouling was observed during long-term operation, irrespective of the substrate. Critical flux values at the end of the reactors operation were 7 and 3L/m(2)h for the AnSMBRs fed with acidified and partially acidified wastewaters, respectively, at a gas superficial velocity of 70m/h. Small particle size was identified as the responsible parameter for the low observed critical flux values. The degree of wastewater acidification significantly affected the physical properties of the sludge, determining the attainable flux. Based on the fluxes observed in this research, the membrane costs would be in the range of 0.5euro/m(3) of treated wastewater. Gas sparging was ineffective in increasing the critical flux values. However, preliminary tests showed that cross-flow operation may be a feasible alternative to reduce particle deposition.

  3. Long-term stability of underground operated CZT detectors based on the analysis of intrinsic 113Cd β--decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, J.; Gößling, C.; Gehre, D.; Hagner, C.; Heidrich, N.; Klingenberg, R.; Kröninger, K.; Nitsch, C.; Oldorf, C.; Quante, T.; Rajek, S.; Rebber, H.; Rohatsch, K.; Tebrügge, J.; Temminghoff, R.; Theinert, R.; Timm, J.; Wonsak, B.; Zatschler, S.; Zuber, K.

    2016-06-01

    The COBRA collaboration operates a demonstrator setup at the underground facility Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, located in Italy) to prove the technological capabilities of this concept for the search for neutrinoless double beta-decay. The setup consists of 64 (1×1×1) cm3 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors in Coplanar-Grid (CPG) configuration. One purpose of this demonstrator is to test if reliable long-term operation of CZT-CPG detectors in such a setup is possible. The demonstrator has been operated under ultra low-background conditions for more than three years and collected data corresponding to a total exposure of 218 kg days. The presented study focuses on the long-term stability of CZT detectors by analyzing the intrinsic, fourfold forbidden non-unique 113Cd single beta-decay. It can be shown that CZT detectors can be operated stably for long periods of time and that the 113Cd single beta-decay can be used as an internal monitor of the detector performance during the runtime of the experiment.

  4. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system.

  5. Long-term operating characteristics of Japan's first in-grid HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tetsutaro; Maruyama, Osamu; Honjo, Shoichi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hirose, Masayuki; Shimoda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Yaguchi, Hiroharu; Machida, Akito

    2015-11-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd and Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd have jointly conducted the first in-grid demonstration test of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable in Japan, from FY2007 to FY2013. The objective of this project is to evaluate the reliability, stability and other characteristics of the system. The cable structure used in this project is the type of three-in-one cable. As a coolant, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen flows through the gap between the corrugated cryostat and the three cable cores. This structure can realize compactness and reduce heat invasion compared with three single-core HTS cables housed in separate cryostats. The cooling system consists of six refrigerators, two circulation pumps and a reservoir tank. Each refrigerator has a cooling power of 1.0 kW at 77 K, 0.8 kW at 67 K. The number of operating refrigerators is controlled so that the coolant temperature at the cable inlet is kept to preset value. The HTS cable was connected to the live electricity grid from October 29, 2012 to December 25, 2013. In-grid operation continued for more than one year without any accidental interruption of operation or other operating issues. During this time, we studied the operating performance of the HTS cable in dependence on the sub-cooled LN2 temperature.

  6. Long-Term Environmental Monitoring of an Operating Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.; Kirchner, Th.; Monk, J.; Sage, S.

    2008-07-01

    In the present energy dilemma in which we find ourselves, the magnitude of humanity's energy needs requires that we embrace a multitude of various energy sources and applications. Nuclear energy must be a major portion of the distribution. One often-cited strategic hurdle to the commercial production of nuclear energy is the apparent lack of an acceptable nuclear waste repository. This issue has been quietly addressed at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP; see http://www.wipp.energy.gov), the closest population center of significant size being Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP has been operating for about nine years, disposing of over 250,000 drum-equivalents of nuclear waste. From the standpoint of addressing operational and environmental risk, as well as public fear, WIPP has had extensive human health and environmental monitoring. The Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center is in the Institute for Energy and the Environment, in the College of Engineering at New Mexico State University. Located in Carlsbad, NM, CEMRC has been the independent monitoring facility for the area around WIPP from 1993 to the present, i.e., from six years before disposal operations began to nine years of waste disposal operations (www.cemcr.org). Based on the radiological analyses of monitoring samples completed to date for area residents and site workers, and for selected aerosols, soils, sediments, drinking water and surface waters, there is no evidence of increases in radiological contaminants in the region of WIPP that could be attributed to releases from WIPP. Levels of radiological and non-radiological analytes measured since operations began in 1999 have been within the range of baseline levels measured previously, and are within the ranges measured by other entities at the State and local levels since well before disposal phase operations began in 1999. (authors)

  7. Managing the cryogenic systems of SCUBA-2 for long term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cookson, Jamie L.; Bintley, Dan

    2016-07-01

    SCUBA-2 has been operational on JCMT producing excellent science for almost 5 years. We describe the strategy and methods that we have evolved to keep one of the world's first "dry dilution refrigerators" and the other cryogenic systems working effectively at the summit of Mauna Kea, keeping the instrument functioning at peak efficiency for extended periods (over 12 months at a time), with minimum downtime. We discuss new plans to reduce day-to-day operational costs and to add remote management of the gas handling systems, as we look to the future and envisage another ten years of SCUBA-2 science.

  8. Long-term operation of ''Orlan'' space suits in the ''Mir'' orbiting station: Experience obtained and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Glazov, G. M.; Svertshek, V. I.

    2002-07-01

    The started assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its further operation will call for a great number of extravehicular activity sorties (EVA) to be performed by ISS crews. Therefore, of great importance is to make use of the EVA experience gained by cosmonauts in the process of 15-year operation of the Mir orbiting station (OS). Over the 15-year period, Mir crewmembers wearing Orlan type semi-rigid space suits have accumulated 158 man/sorties from the orbiting station. Crewmembers used 15 suits in orbit and some of the suits were in operation for more than 3 years. The paper presents principal design features, which provide effective and safe operation of orbit-based suits, and briefly describes procedures for preparation and maintenance of suit systems, which ensure long-term operation of space suit in orbit. The paper gives results of the space suit modifications, presents suit performance characteristics and lists novel or upgraded components of the space suit and its systems. The paper also summarizes improvements in the Orlan type suits described in some earlier publications. They refer, in the first run, to the improvement of space suit operations characteristics and reliability, and the utilization of the Orlan type space suit in the ISS program. The paper analyses the experience gained and drawbacks detected and observations made, and gives statistical data on long-term space suit operations aboard the Mir station. The paper reviews certain problems in the process of EVAs performed from the station, and describes the ways of their solution as applied to the further utilization of the suit within the ISS program.

  9. Long term operation of the 100-cm{sup 2} class single cell of MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Kazumi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The R&D on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is proceeding as one of the New Sun Shine Project sponsored by Japanese government. In ONRI (Osaka National Research Institute), the tested MCFCs were assembled with the state-of-the-art components and operated under the load condition for 40000 hours and 34000 hours. We analyzed the performance reduction.

  10. Engineering challenges to the long term operation of the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T; Albert, T; Levin, G M

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has maintained an intense interest in the ISS program since its inception. In the Appropriations Act of 1997, the Senate of the United States included language directing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to have the National Research Council (NRC) under take a study that evaluates the engineering challenges posed by extravehicular activity (EVA) requirements, United States and non-United States space launch requirements, the potential need to upgrade or replace equipment and components after Assembly Complete, and the requirement to decommission and disassemble the facility. NASA and the NRC decided the focus should be on the anticipated challenges in the continuous operation and maintenance of the ISS after assembly of the on-orbit facility has been completed. This would encompass the operational years, from late 2004 (if the current schedule holds) to 2020-2025. This executive summary overviews the results of this NRC study. It focuses on the U.S. operation of the ISS after Assembly Complete, including cooperative efforts by the United States and Russia. The paper summarizes the primary findings and recommendations in each of the areas considered during this two-year NRC study.

  11. TransFormers for Ensuring Long-Term Operations in Lunar Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Stoica, A.; Alkalai, L.; Wilcox, B.; Quadrelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    "Surviving Extreme Space Environments" (EE) is one of NASA's Space Technology Grand Challenges. Power generation and thermal control are the key survival ingredients that allow a robotic explorer to cope with the EE using resources available to it, for example, by harvesting the local solar energy or by utilizing an onboard radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). TransFormers (TFs) are a new technology concept designed to transform a localized area within a harsh extreme environment into a survivable micro-environment by projecting energy to the precise location where robots or humans operate. For example, TFs placed at a location on the rim of Shackleton Crater, which is illuminated by solar radiation for most of the year, would be able to reflect solar energy onto robots operating in the dark cold crater. TFs utilize a shape transformation mechanism to un-fold from a compact volume to a large reflective surface, and to control how much-and where-the energy is projected, and by adjusting for the changing position of the sun. TFs would enable in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) activities within locations of high interest that would normally be unreachable because of their extreme environment

  12. Long-term treatment of tumor-operated mice with high doses of alpha-difluoromethylornithine.

    PubMed

    de Lustig, E S; Klein, S; Fuchs, A; Algranati, I D

    1986-01-01

    Mice inoculated subcutaneously with a mammary adenocarcinoma M3cell suspension and submitted 10 to 15 days later to the surgical removal of primary tumors have been chosen in our laboratory as the experimental model to study the effect of several drugs on metastasis spreading. A 90-day treatment of tumor-operated mice with high doses of alpha-difluoromethylornithine showed, in addition to a marked decrease of lung metastases, several side effects including a loss of body weight, a delay of surgical wound healing and a reduced number of megakaryocytes in bone marrow. The measurement of ceruloplasmin in serum has indicated that treated animals contained increased levels of this oxidase activity in spite of the polyamine depletion caused by alpha-difluoromethylornithine. These results rule out a direct correlation between ceruloplasmin activity and polyamine concentration.

  13. [Long-term results of 156 Mustard operations for simple transposition of the great vessels].

    PubMed

    Landau, J F; Sidi, D; Batisse, A; Kachaner, J

    1978-05-01

    156 children with simple transposition of the great vessels have been operated on by Mustard's technique between 1-6-1967 and 31-12-1976, with an immediate overall mortality rate of 8%. In the longterm, the 9% of late deaths and more especially the complications are regrettable; complications were either of severe arrhythmia (almost 30%) leading to 2 late deaths and 7 pacemaker implantations, or venous obstruction relating to problems with the patch (25%). Despite the improved techniques and consequent reduction in surgical mortality and late complications, longterm prognosis is still unsure because of the unknown fate of the intra-atrial partition, and that of the "passive" rhythms which are so commonly found after this type of surgery.

  14. Long-Term Operating Experience with High-Power Gyrotron Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felch, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    High-power, megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators have now been used in electron cyclotron heating (ECH) experiments for several years. The long periods of sustained operation have provided important information about the design limits that had initially been placed on the key elements of the gyrotron. In particular, observations made on recent 110 GHz, 1 MW gyrotrons used in ECH experiments on DIII-D at General Atomics indicate that several of the important components of the device, including the electron guns, interaction cavities and diamond output windows, have performed quite well, while analyses of the electron beam collectors on some of the devices indicate that design limits have often been exceeded. Observations made on these gyrotrons will be summarized and plans to address problem areas will be discussed.

  15. The Long-term Performance of NOAA's Operational Open Ocean Tsunameter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, J.; Bouchard, R. H.; Petraitis, D. C.; Rutledge, T. M.; Boudreaux, T. J.; Robbie, M. D.; Yarborough, S.; Fornea, G.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has operated and maintained the full 39-station array of open ocean tsunameters since 2008 using the second generation Deep-ocean Reporting and Assessment of Tsunamis technology. The array provides real-time, ocean bottom measurements to Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) located in Hawai'i and Alaska. These measurements aid them in detecting the presence or absence of tsunamis in the open ocean and in determining the essential characteristics of a tsunami to support the TWC. Thirty-two of the stations span the Pacific Ocean, while seven are located in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. The sensors are located on the ocean floor to depths of 6000 m and the system must deliver measurements from that depth to the TWCs in 3 minutes or less. These vast horizontal and vertical distances and the often extreme conditions of the open ocean raise considerable challenges in maintaining necessary and sufficient measurements to support the TWCs. To support this effort, NDBC aims to maintain and generally achieves a goal of 80% real-time data availability. Data availability is the percentage of measurements received versus the number of expected measurements. Using seven years of data we examine operational performance parameters such as real-time and retrospective data availability and tsunami detection for trends, patterns, and the factors affecting performance and reliability of the array. We will also discuss the initial results of the Field Evaluation of the 4th Generation technology.

  16. Vocational rehabilitation of the socially disadvantaged long-term sick: inter-organizational co-operation between welfare state agencies.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, R; Grape, O

    1999-03-01

    Vocational rehabilitation targeted to the socially disadvantaged long-term sick requires that the client keep in touch with a number of welfare state agencies, all of which have different regulations, conflicting goals and various types of benefits. This is an arduous and time-consuming task for clients with medical, social and labour market problems. Many of these clients run the risk of ending up in a no-man's land or being endlessly circulated between agencies because their problems do not correspond to the profile of the typical client. Both government and welfare workers see institutional co-operation between welfare state agencies as the remedy to such problems. This article, which is based on interviews with participants in fourteen cooperating projects, focuses on difficulties and opportunities experienced in such co-operation. It is concluded that such cooperation, when initiated in local settings and supported by local players, is a way of rejuvenating the existing Swedish model.

  17. Renewal of the Control System and Reliable Long Term Operation of the LHD Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, T.; Iwamoto, A.; Oba, K.; Takami, S.; Moriuchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Takahata, K.; Yamada, S.; Yanagi, N.; Hamaguchi, S.; Kishida, F.; Nakashima, T.

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a heliotron-type fusion plasma experimental machine which consists of a fully superconducting magnet system cooled by a helium refrigerator having a total equivalent cooling capacity of 9.2 kW@4.4 K. Seventeenplasma experimental campaigns have been performed successfully since1997 with high reliability of 99%. However, sixteen years have passed from the beginning of the system operation. Improvements are being implementedto prevent serious failures and to pursue further reliability.The LHD cryogenic control system was designed and developed as an open system utilizing latest control equipment of VME controllers and UNIX workstations at the construction time. Howeverthe generation change of control equipment has been advanced. Down-sizing of control deviceshas beenplanned from VME controllers to compact PCI controllers in order to simplify the system configuration and to improve the system reliability. The new system is composed of compact PCI controller and remote I/O connected with EtherNet/IP. Making the system redundant becomes possible by doubling CPU, LAN, and remote I/O respectively. The smooth renewal of the LHD cryogenic controlsystem and the further improvement of the cryogenic system reliability are reported.

  18. Study of the long-term operation of a vanadium/oxygen fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Jens; Cognard, Gwenn; Oral, Meryem; Küttinger, Michael; Roznyatovskaya, Nataliya; Pinkwart, Karsten; Tübke, Jens

    2016-09-01

    A vanadium/oxygen fuel cell (VOFC) with a geometrically active area of 51 cm2 and two membranes was discontinuously operated over a period of over 676 h with 47 successive tests at room temperature with a current density of 19.6 mA/cm2 in order to investigate signs of ageing. As well as measuring cell voltages, the test setup was also used to measure anode and redox potentials as well as cell and half-cell impedances. The performance data of the VOFC fluctuated widely over the course of the test period, due to different V2+ concentrations and instabilities of the starting solutions on the one hand and complex changes in cathode conditions on the other. The desired behaviour of the anode reactions was achieved primarily through improved methods for producing the V2+ solutions, and remained stable at the end of the experiments. The kinetics of the cathode reactions were temporarily increased by purging with 2 M H2SO4, however their performance decreased over time. The VOFC had symptoms of ageing by complex and overlaid changes in the cathode's triple phase boundary layer and in the special conditions between the two electrodes and membranes.

  19. Pregnancy and Delivery in Functional Single Ventricle Patient; Successful Long-Term Outcome after Right Ventricle Exclusion and Fontan Operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Sungkyu; Choi, Eunseok

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six-year-old Ebstein's anomaly patient, who had failed both biventricular and one-and-a-half repair, underwent right ventricle exclusion and Fontan operation. She completed pregnancy and delivery owing to the excellent long-term clinical course. Although the caesarean section was performed due to symptoms of heart failure on the gestational age of 32+6 weeks, preterm delivery was agreeable with neonatology support. In Korea, there has not yet been a case of pregnancy and delivery of functional single ventricle patient because most patients have been discouraged from getting pregnant. However, functional single ventricle patient can endure pregnancy and delivery, if valve function and ventricular contractility, status of Fontan pathway and absence of arrhythmia predict favorable outcome as presented in this case. Although the patient maintained her pregnancy without anticoagulation owing to laminar flow in the Fontan pathway and absence of thromboembolic event, anticoagulation should be considered, weighing the benefits and risks during the pregnancy. PMID:26798394

  20. Pregnancy and Delivery in Functional Single Ventricle Patient; Successful Long-Term Outcome after Right Ventricle Exclusion and Fontan Operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Sungkyu; Choi, Eunseok; Kim, Woong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six-year-old Ebstein's anomaly patient, who had failed both biventricular and one-and-a-half repair, underwent right ventricle exclusion and Fontan operation. She completed pregnancy and delivery owing to the excellent long-term clinical course. Although the caesarean section was performed due to symptoms of heart failure on the gestational age of 32+6 weeks, preterm delivery was agreeable with neonatology support. In Korea, there has not yet been a case of pregnancy and delivery of functional single ventricle patient because most patients have been discouraged from getting pregnant. However, functional single ventricle patient can endure pregnancy and delivery, if valve function and ventricular contractility, status of Fontan pathway and absence of arrhythmia predict favorable outcome as presented in this case. Although the patient maintained her pregnancy without anticoagulation owing to laminar flow in the Fontan pathway and absence of thromboembolic event, anticoagulation should be considered, weighing the benefits and risks during the pregnancy.

  1. Characterization and long term operation of a novel superconducting undulator with 15 mm period length in a synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Cecilia, A.; Gerstl, S.; Glamann, N.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Meuter, C.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Voutta, R.; Boffo, C.; Gerhard, Th.; Turenne, M.; Walter, W.

    2016-11-01

    A new cryogen-free full scale (1.5 m long) superconducting undulator with a period length of 15 mm (SCU15) has been successfully tested in the ANKA storage ring. This represents a very important milestone in the development of superconducting undulators for third and fourth generation light sources carried on by the collaboration between the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the industrial partner Babcock Noell GmbH. SCU15 is the first full length device worldwide that with beam reaches a higher peak field than what expected with the same geometry (vacuum gap and period length) with an ideal cryogenic permanent magnet undulator built with the best material available PrFeB. After a summary on the design and main parameters of the device, we present here the characterization in terms of spectral properties and the long term operation of the SCU15 in the ANKA storage ring.

  2. Design and operation of an anaerobic digester for waste management and fuel generation during long term lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhoble, Abhishek S.; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.

    2014-10-01

    Waste treatment and management for manned long term exploratory missions to moon will be a challenge due to longer mission duration. The present study investigated appropriate digester technologies that could be used on the base. The effect of stirring, operation temperature, organic loading rate and reactor design on the methane production rate and methane yield was studied. For the same duration of digestion, the unmixed digester produced 20-50% more methane than mixed system. Two-stage design which separated the soluble components from the solids and treated them separately had more rapid kinetics than one stage system, producing the target methane potential in one-half the retention time than the one stage system. The two stage system degraded 6% more solids than the single stage system. The two stage design formed the basis of a prototype digester sized for a four-person crew during one year exploratory lunar mission.

  3. Assessment of segregation kinetics in water-moderated reactors pressure vessel steels under long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Gurovich, B. A.; Lavrukhina, Z. V.; Saltykov, M. A.; Fedotova, S. V.; Khodan, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    In reactor pressure vessel (RPV) bcc-lattice steels temper embrittlement is developed under the influence of both operating temperature of ∼300 °C and neutron irradiation. Segregation processes in the grain boundaries (GB) begin to play a special role in the assessment of the safe operation of the RPV in case of its lifetime extension up to 60 years or more. The most reliable information on the RPV material condition can be obtained by investigating the surveillance specimens (SS) that are exposed to operational factors simultaneously with the RPV itself. In this paper the GB composition in the specimens with different thermal exposure time at the RPV operating temperature as well as irradiated by fast neutrons (E ≥ 0.5 MeV) to different fluences (20-71)·1022 m-2 was studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) including both impurity and main alloying elements content. The data obtained allowed to trace the trend of the operating temperature and radiation-stimulated diffusion influence on the overall segregants level in GB. The revealed differences in the concentration levels of GB segregants in different steels, are due to the different chemical composition of the steels and also due to different grain boundary segregation levels in initial (unexposed) state. The data were used to estimate the RPV steels working capacity for 60 years. The estimation was carried out using both the well-known Langmuir-McLean model and the one specially developed for RPV steels, which takes into account the structure and phase composition of VVER-1000 RPV steels, as well as the long-term influence of operational factors.

  4. Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Jean-Bernard; Tikhomirov, Alex; Ushakova, Sofya; Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model, including higher plants for food production and biodegradation of human waste, in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states was performed. The model system was conceived for supplying vegetarian food and oxygen to 0.07 human. The following data were obtained in steady-state operating conditions. Average rate of wheat, chufa, radish, lettuce and Salicornia edible biomass accumulation were 8.7, 5.5, 0.6, 0.6 and metricconverterProductID2.5 g2.5 g per day respectively. Thus, to mimic the vegetarian edible biomass consumption by a human it was necessary to withdraw 17.9 g/d from total mass ex-change. Simultaneously, human mineralized exometabolites (artificial mineralized urine, AMU) in the amount of approximately 7% of a daily norm were introduced into the nutrient solu-tion for irrigation of the plants cultivated on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate). The estimated value of 5.8 g/d of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass was introduced in the soil-like substrate (SLS) to fully meet the plants need in nitrogen. The rest of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass, 5.7 g/d, was stored. Thus in all, 23.6g of vegetarian dry matter had been stored. Assuming edible biomass is eaten up by the human, the closure coefficient of the vegetarian biomass inclusion into matter recycling amounted to 88%. The analysis of the long-term model operation showed that the main factors limiting increase of recycling processes were the following: a) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of daily human waste with daily needs of plants culti-` vated in the system. Thus, when fully satisfied with respect to nitrogen, the plants experienced a lack of macro elements such as P, Mg and Ca by more than 50%; b) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of edible biomass of the plants cultivated in the SLS with that of inedible biomass of the plants cultivated by hydroponic method on neutral substrate introduced in the SLS; c) Accumulation of

  5. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  6. A review on durability issues and restoration techniques in long-term operations of direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Asad; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Prabhuram, Joghee; An, Myung-Gi; Ha, Heung Yong

    2015-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) remain attractive among advanced energy conversion technologies due to their high energy density and simple system configuration. Although they made an early market entry but failed to attain a large-scale commercialization mainly because of their inferior performance sustainment in lifetime operations and high production costs. There have been lots of R&D efforts made to upgrade the long-term durability of DMFCs to a commercially acceptable standard. These rigorous efforts have been useful in gaining insights about various degradation mechanisms and their origins. This review first briefly describes the recent progress in lifetime enhancement of DMFC technology reported by various groups in academia and industry. Then, it is followed by comprehensive discussions on the major performance degradation routes and associated physico-chemical origins, and influence of operational parameters, together with the methods which have been employed to alleviate and restore the performance losses. Finally, a brief summary of the presented literature survey is provided in conjunction with some possible future research directions.

  7. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  8. Value of long-term streamflow forecasts to reservoir operations for water supply in snow-dominated river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Voisin, N.; Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present a forecast-based adaptive management framework for water supply reservoirs and evaluate the contribution of long-term inflow forecasts to reservoir operations. Our framework is developed for snow-dominated river basins that demonstrate large gaps in forecast skill between seasonal and inter-annual time horizons. We quantify and bound the contribution of seasonal and inter-annual forecast components to optimal, adaptive reservoir operation. The framework uses an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach to generate retrospective, one-year-long streamflow forecasts based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model. We determine the optimal sequence of daily release decisions using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) optimization scheme. We then assess the forecast value by comparing system performance based on the ESP forecasts with the performances based on climatology and perfect forecasts. We distinguish among the relative contributions of the seasonal component of the forecast versus the inter-annual component by evaluating system performance based on hybrid forecasts, which are designed to isolate the two contributions. As an illustration, we first apply the forecast-based adaptive management framework to a specific case study, i.e., Oroville Reservoir in California, and we then modify the characteristics of the reservoir and the demand to demonstrate the transferability of the findings to other reservoir systems. Results from numerical experiments show that, on average, the overall ESP value in informing reservoir operation is 35% less than the perfect forecast value and the inter-annual component of the ESP forecast contributes 20-60% of the total forecast value.

  9. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  10. Analysis of degradation of structure and mechanical properties of chromium-nickel steel 12Kh18N10T in long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryakina, N. Yu.; Poyarkova, E. V.; Gryzunov, V. I.

    2009-09-01

    Structural changes occurring in the processes of long-term operation of pipelines from austenitic stainless steel are analyzed. The structure and mechanical properties are shown to be inhomogeneous over the cross section of pipeline fragments that have served for a long time under the action of live steam.

  11. Neurological presentation and long-term outcome following operative intervention in patients with meningocele manqué.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R S; McGirt, M J; Warder, D E; Oakes, W J

    2003-06-01

    We review and describe the neurological presentation and long-term outcome of patients with meningocele manqué, and describe the dysraphic features associated with this entity. Our series of patients was collected over a 25-year period with a mean follow-up of 11.5 years. The mean age of presentation was 10.4 years and 72% of the patients presented with an abnormal neurological examination. At most recent follow-up, symptoms were stable, improved, and progressed in 47, 37 and 16%, respectively. Meningocele manqué was associated with focal hirsutism in 37% of the cases. These bands were primarily found in the lumbar spine and involved two sequential vertebral levels in 42% of cases. Sectioning of meningocele manqué has good long-term results in the majority of patients. These bands should be sought in the evaluation of patients with spinal dysraphism and surgically transected.

  12. Prognostic value of intra-operative abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for long-term outcome of hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiping; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of intra-operative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of post-operative outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) is under debate. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intra-operative AMR changes and long-term post-operative outcome. We monitored intra-operative AMR during microvascular decompression (MVD) in consecutive patients with HFS (n = 104). Patients in this study were divided into two groups based on whether their AMR disappeared or persisted following MVD. Ninety patients were followed-up, and the mean duration from surgery to final follow-up examination was 3.7 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. AMR disappeared during surgery for 80 patients; of these, 74 achieved complete resolution of HFS, five had persistent HFS, and one patient developed a recurrence of HFS. Of the 10 patients with persistent AMR despite effective MVD, eight patients achieved complete resolution, one patient had persistent HFS, and one developed recurrent HFS. The long-term clinical outcome of HFS after MVD did not significantly correlate with intra-operative AMR changes (p = 0.791). Therefore, we suggest that intra-operative AMR monitoring may not be a reliable indicator of long-term post-operative outcome for HFS.

  13. [Combined arterial bypass operation and coumarin therapy--a concept for long-term management and its conditions].

    PubMed

    Kühnel, L; Heinrichs, C; Wache, I; Neugebauer, J

    1991-01-01

    Antithrombotics of cumarin type or with antiplatelet effect are preferred to obtain results from vascular surgical interventions in arterial occlusion disease. In our experience the combination with cumarin long term therapy seems to be the better method, especially if the following conditions can be achieved: very good compliance of patients respectively strict consideration of absolute and relative contraindications, a sufficient number of patients who are treated and a long enough experience of therapeutists followed by using the recommendations of the WHO expert committee for the worldwide application of standardization in measuring the anticoagulation effect, using reagents and calibration materials, and the expression of results in INR. Further in our anticoagulation behaviour we are used influencing risk factors, having a good cooperation between patients and doctors during secondary diseases and new drug intake. For dental surgery we prefer a Quick test between 30 and 35% activity or 1, 9 and 2, 1 INR. With Phenprocoumon (Falithrom, Markumar) we use the long term anticoagulation effect without several daily applications. Since September 1987 there has been the possibility of a computer assisted programme for dose prediction.

  14. Effect of biogas sparging on the performance of bio-hydrogen reactor over a long-term operation

    PubMed Central

    Nualsri, Chatchawin; Kongjan, Prawit; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance hydrogen production from sugarcane syrup by biogas sparging. Two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were used to produce hydrogen and methane, respectively. Biogas produced from the UASB was used to sparge into the CSTR. Results indicated that sparging with biogas increased the hydrogen production rate (HPR) by 35% (from 17.1 to 23.1 L/L.d) resulted from a reduction in the hydrogen partial pressure. A fluctuation of HPR was observed during a long term monitoring because CO2 in the sparging gas and carbon source in the feedstock were consumed by Enterobacter sp. to produce succinic acid without hydrogen production. Mixed gas released from the CSTR after the sparging can be considered as bio-hythane (H2+CH4). In addition, a continuous sparging biogas into CSTR release a partial pressure in the headspace of the methane reactor. In consequent, the methane production rate is increased. PMID:28207755

  15. Effect of biogas sparging on the performance of bio-hydrogen reactor over a long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Nualsri, Chatchawin; Kongjan, Prawit; Reungsang, Alissara; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance hydrogen production from sugarcane syrup by biogas sparging. Two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were used to produce hydrogen and methane, respectively. Biogas produced from the UASB was used to sparge into the CSTR. Results indicated that sparging with biogas increased the hydrogen production rate (HPR) by 35% (from 17.1 to 23.1 L/L.d) resulted from a reduction in the hydrogen partial pressure. A fluctuation of HPR was observed during a long term monitoring because CO2 in the sparging gas and carbon source in the feedstock were consumed by Enterobacter sp. to produce succinic acid without hydrogen production. Mixed gas released from the CSTR after the sparging can be considered as bio-hythane (H2+CH4). In addition, a continuous sparging biogas into CSTR release a partial pressure in the headspace of the methane reactor. In consequent, the methane production rate is increased.

  16. Microbial and mineral evolution in zero valent iron-based permeable reactive barriers during long-term operations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Millot, Romain; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Omoregie, Enoma; Chaurand, Perrine; Borschneck, Daniel; Bastiaens, Leen; Rose, Jérôme

    2016-03-01

    Impacts of subsurface biogeochemical processes over time have always been a concern for the long-term performance of zero valent iron (Fe(0))-based permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). To evaluate the biogeochemical impacts, laboratory experiments were performed using flow-through glass columns for 210 days at controlled temperature (20 °C). Two different particle sizes of Fe(0) were used in the columns, and to simulate indigenous microbial activity, extra carbon source was provided in the two columns (biotic columns) and the remaining two columns were kept abiotic using gamma radiations. Heavy metals (Zn, As) were removed efficiently in all the columns, and no exhaustion of treatment capability or clogging was observed during our experimental duration. Newly formed Fe mineral phases and precipitates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and micro-XRF techniques in solid phase at the end of the experiment. In addition, 16S rRNA gene extraction was used for microbial community identification in biotic columns. During the incubation, microbial population shifted in favor of Desulfosporosinus species (sulfate-reducing bacteria) from initial dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in sediments. Dominant mineral phases detected in biotic columns were mackinawite (FeS) and sulfate green rust, while in abiotic columns, magnetite/maghemite phases were more prevalent.

  17. [Long term results (5 years) of the first 50 consecutive operations following Mustard's technique for simple transposition of the great vessels].

    PubMed

    Bex, J P; Baillot, F; Pilichovski, P; Lemoine, G

    1977-04-01

    The long-term results of Mustard's operation for simple transposition of the great vessels have been studied in a homogenous series of the first 50 consecutive cases operated on by G. Lemoine. The overall mortality was 20% over the 5 year follow-up period. Serious arrhythmias or conduction defects can usually be picked up immediately postoperatively; on the other hand, stenosis of the venae cavae or of the pulmonary venous channels may come on very late and unexpectedly as growth takes place. Reoperation must be carried out to remove these stenoses when they are troublesome.

  18. Long-term operation of a novel pilot-scale six tanks alternately operating activated sludge process in treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R N; Abu-Alhail, S; Xi-Wu, L

    2014-08-01

    The performance of a new pilot-scale six tanks activated sludge process has been evaluated for 303 d, receiving real domestic wastewater with a flow rate of 15-24.4 L/h. Partial nitrification via nitrite and microbial community structure were investigated in this system. The result shows that the nitrite accumulation rate was achieved successfully over 94% in the last aerobic compartment through a combination of short hydraulic retention time and low dissolved oxygen (DO) level. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to correlate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) numbers with nutrient removal via nitrite. It was shown that in response to complete and partial nitrification modes, the numbers of AOB population were 7.7 x 10(7) cells/g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and 5.31 x 10(8) cells/g MLSS, respectively. The morphology of the sludge indicated that there is a small rod-shaped and spherical cluster which was mainly dominantly bacterial according to scanning electron microscope. Higher pollutant removal efficiencies of 86.2%, 98%, and 96.1%, for total nitrogen, NH4+ - N, and total phosphorus, respectively, were achieved by a long-term operation of the six tanks activated sludge process at a low DO concentration and low chemical oxygen demand to nitrogen ratio which were approximately equal to the complete nitrification-ldenitrification with the addition of an external carbon source at a concentration of 1.5-2.5 mg/L.

  19. [Effects of bromantane and sidnocarb on long-term operant conditioning and its vegetative correlates in rats].

    PubMed

    Morozov, I S; Efimova, L P; Salenko, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    Bromantan (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and sydnocarb (10 mg/kg, p.o.) augment the efficacy of a 5-h operant activity in rats, the effect being achieved through different pathways. Sydnocarb increases the number of operant reactions and exhausts the sympathico adrenal system reserves. Bromantan favors the activity optimization by reducing the number of errors at a smaller number of operant reactions. Bromantan increases the tension of motivational component (electric pain irritation avoidance), whereas sydnocarb decreases this component of the operant behavior. None of the two drugs affects the degree of functional activation of the cardiovascular system.

  20. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  1. The potential for long-term operation of a lithium-oxygen battery using a non-carbonate-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Kim, Haegyeom; Kang, Kisuk

    2012-08-28

    Herein we demonstrate the feasibility of extended cycle operation of a Li-O(2) battery by simple control of the discharge/charge protocol. By avoiding electrolyte decomposition and the deep discharge state of the air electrode, we were able to construct a Li-O(2) cell capable of efficiently cycling over 50 times with high energy density.

  2. Reasons for crack nucleation in welded joints of main gas-pipelines after a long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruschak, P. O.; Bishchak, R. T.; Shlapak, L. S.; Panin, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    A crack of operational origin in the welded joint of the main gas pipeline is analyzed. The reasons for its nucleation and impact on technological microdefects that were formed earlier during the welding are found. Micromechanisms and stages of nucleation and propagation of the crack are investigated.

  3. Long term operation of high concentration powdered activated carbon membrane bio-reactor for advanced water treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, G T; Moon, C D; Chang, S W; Lee, S H

    2004-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of a membrane bioreactor filled with high concentration powdered activated carbon. This hybrid system has great potential to substitute for existing GAC or O3/BAC processes in the drinking water treatment train. The system was installed at a water treatment plant located downstream of the Nakdong river basin, Korea. Effluent of rapid sand filter was used as influent of the system which consists of PAC bio-reactor, submerged MF membrane module and air supply facility. PAC concentration of 20 g/L was maintained at the beginning of the experiment and it was increased to 40 g/L. The PAC has not been changed during the operational periods. The membrane was a hollow fiber type with pore sizes of 0.1 and 0.4 microm. It was apparent that the high PAC concentration could prevent membrane fouling. 40 g/L PAC was more effective to reduce the filtration resistance than 20 g/L. At the flux of 0.36 m/d, TMP was maintained less than 40 kPa for about 3 months by intermittent suction type operation (12 min suction/3 min idling). Adsorption was the dominant role to remove DOC at the initial operational period. However the biological effect was gradually increased after around 3 months operation. Constant DOC removal could be maintained at about 40% without any trouble and then a tremendous reduction of DBPs (HAA5 and THM) higher than 85% was achieved. Full nitrification was observed at the controlled influent ammonia nitrogen concentration of 3 and 7 mg/L. pH was an important parameter to keep stable ammonia oxidation. From almost two years of operation, it is clear that the PAC membrane bioreactor is highly applicable for advanced water treatment under the recent situation of more stringent DBPs regulation in Korea.

  4. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution.

    PubMed

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-02-26

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated.

  5. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  6. Long-term operation of biological activated carbon pre-treatment for microfiltration of secondary effluent: Correlation between the organic foulants and fouling potential.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-03-01

    The impact of long-term (>2 years) biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment for mitigating organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent was investigated. Correlation between the organic constituents and hydraulic filtration resistance was investigated to identify the major components responsible for fouling. Over two years operation, the removal efficiency for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the BAC treatment was fairly consistent (30 ± 3%), although the reduction in UVA254 gradually decreased from 56 to 34%. BAC treatment effectively decreased the organic foulants in the effluent and so contributed to the mitigation of membrane fouling as shown by reduction in the unified membrane fouling index (UMFI). BAC consistently removed biopolymers whereas the removal of humic substances decreased from 52 to 25% after two years of BAC operation, and thus led to a gradual decrease in UMFI reduction efficiency from 78 to 43%. This was due to gradual reduction in adsorption capacity of the activated carbon as confirmed by analysis of its pore size distribution. Hence humics also played an important role in membrane fouling. However, there was a good correlation between protein and carbohydrate contents with hydraulically reversible and irreversible filtration resistance, compared with UVA254, turbidity and DOC. Although the mitigation of membrane fouling decreased over time, this study demonstrated that the long-term use of BAC pre-treatment of biologically treated secondary effluent prior to microfiltration has potential to reduce the need for frequent chemical cleaning and so increase membrane life span.

  7. Long-term operation of surface high-harmonic generation from relativistic oscillating mirrors using a spooling tape

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.

    2015-05-01

    Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generation becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.

  8. [Long-term survival with complete response by gefitinib treatment followed by noncurative operation for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Ken; Tabata, Toshiharu; Minowa, Muneo; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2014-05-01

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. A computed tomography( CT) scan of the chest revealed a 6.5 cm tumor in the right upper lobe suspected of superior vena cava (SVC) infiltration. He was diagnosed as lung cancer(adenocarcinoma), and the right upper lobectomy with partial resection of SVC was performed. But the pathology confirmed the surgery to be non-curative. Nine months after operation, carcinomatous pleuritis was detected on chest X-ray. Since deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)analysis revealed a mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in exon 21, gefitinib treatment was started. Nine months later, pleural effusion regressed and his cerum carcinoembrionic antigen( CEA) level was normalized. 4 years later, gefitinib was discontinued by patient's request, however, he is alive without any signs of relapse 9 years after the operation.

  9. Long-term meditation training induced changes in the operational synchrony of default mode network modules during a resting state.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja

    2016-02-01

    Using theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concept and experimental evidence on the brain default mode network (DMN) that constitutes the neural signature of self-referential processes, we hypothesized that the anterior and posterior subnets comprising the DMN should show differences in their integrity as a function of meditation training. Functional connectivity within DMN and its subnets (measured by operational synchrony) has been measured in ten novice meditators using an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in a pre-/post-meditation intervention design. We have found that while the whole DMN was clearly suppressed, different subnets of DMN responded differently after 4 months of meditation training: The strength of EEG operational synchrony in the right and left posterior modules of the DMN decreased in resting post-meditation condition compared to a pre-meditation condition, whereas the frontal DMN module on the contrary exhibited an increase in the strength of EEG operational synchrony. These findings combined with published data on functional-anatomic heterogeneity within the DMN and on trait subjective experiences commonly found following meditation allow us to propose that the first-person perspective and the sense of agency (the witnessing observer) are presented by the frontal DMN module, while the posterior modules of the DMN are generally responsible for the experience of the continuity of 'I' as embodied and localized within bodily space. Significance of these findings is discussed.

  10. Long-term operation of surface high-harmonic generation from relativistic oscillating mirrors using a spooling tape

    DOE PAGES

    Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; ...

    2015-05-01

    Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generationmore » becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.« less

  11. Chemometrical assessment of the electrical parameters obtained by long-term operating freshwater sediment microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Mario; Bardarov, Ivo; Mandjukov, Petko; Hubenova, Yolina

    2015-12-01

    The electrical parameters of nine freshwater sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) were monitored for a period of over 20 months. The developed SMFCs, divided into three groups, were started up and continuously operated under different constant loads (100, 510 and 1100 Ω) for 2.5 months. At this stage of the experiment, the highest power density values, reaching 1.2 ± 0.2 mW/m(2), were achieved by the SMFCs loaded with 510 Ω. The maximum power obtained at periodical polarization during the rest period, however, ranged between 26.2 ± 2.8 and 35.3 ± 2.8 mW/m(2), strongly depending on the internal cell resistance. The statistical evaluation of data derived from the polarization curves shows that after 300 days of operation all examined SMFCs reached a steady-state and the system might be assumed as homoscedastic. The estimated values of standard and expanded uncertainties of the electric parameters indicate a high repeatability and reproducibility of the SMFCs' performance. Results obtained in subsequent discharge-recovery cycles reveal the opportunity for practical application of studied SMFCs as autonomous power sources.

  12. Operational Simulation Tools and Long Term Strategic Planning for High Penetrations of PV in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tuohy, Aidan; Smith, Jeff; Rylander, Matt; Singhvi, Vikas; Enbar, Nadav; Coley, Steven; Roark, Jeff; Ela, Erik; Lannoye, Eamonn; Pilbrick, Charles Russ; Rudkevich, Alex; Hansen, Cliff

    2016-07-11

    Increasing levels of distributed and utility scale Solar Photovoltaics (PV) will have an impact on many utility functions, including distribution system operations, bulk system performance, business models and scheduling of generation. In this project, EPRI worked with Southern Company Services and its affiliates and the Tennessee Valley Authority to assist these utilities in their strategic planning efforts for integrating PV, based on modeling, simulation and analysis using a set of innovative tools. Advanced production simulation models were used to investigate operating reserve requirements. To leverage existing work and datasets, this last task was carried out on the California system. Overall, the project resulted in providing useful information to both of the utilities involved and through the final reports and interactions during the project. The results from this project can be used to inform the industry about new and improved methodologies for understanding solar PV penetration, and will influence ongoing and future research. This report summarizes each of the topics investigated over the 2.5-year project period.

  13. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81.

  14. Long-term effects of dredging operations program: Assessing bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.U.; McFarland, V.A.

    1991-07-01

    This paper synthesizes previous work on bioaccumulation to provide a working document for the environmental impact on the aquatic environment due to bioaccumulation of sediment contaminants resulting from dredging operations and dredged material placement. Emphasis is placed on explanation of basic concepts concerning, and factors influencing, sediment contaminant bioaccumulation and bioavailability. The paper presents several numerical methods for assessing bioaccumulation, including a simple method for estimating theoretical bioaccumulation potential (TBP) from sediment chemistry for neutral organic chemicals. Methods are also given for projecting contaminant concentrations in organism tissues when steady state is achieved, based on laboratory or field exposures to contaminated sediments. These assessments are presented in the context of the US Environmental Protection Agency's tiered testing approach for dredged material evaluation. The various numerical methods for bioaccumulation assessment are illustrated and compared using step-by-step example calculations with hypothetical and actual data.

  15. A modification of the laser detonation-type hyperthermal oxygen atom beam source for a long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Yatani, Hideaki; Ohmae, Nobuo

    2008-07-01

    It has been an impedimental problem, for the laser detonation-type atom beam generator, that a poppet in the pulsed supersonic valve is rapidly eroded by the irradiation of powerful laser light and high temperature plasma. In order to operate the atom beam source for a long duration, a modification was made to hide the poppet from direct irradiation of laser and plasma. The alteration of device configuration resulted in great improvement in endurance of poppet more than 300,000 repetitions. Morphology of a polyimide film exposed to approximately 200,000 pulses of hyperthermal oxygen atom beam showed a shaglike carpet structure, which is a characteristic to that exposed to energetic oxygen atoms. A flux of the oxygen atom beam was estimated to be 5x10(14) atoms/cm2/pulse at a location of 30 cm away from the nozzle throat.

  16. A modification of the laser detonation-type hyperthermal oxygen atom beam source for a long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Yatani, Hideaki; Ohmae, Nobuo

    2008-07-01

    It has been an impedimental problem, for the laser detonation-type atom beam generator, that a poppet in the pulsed supersonic valve is rapidly eroded by the irradiation of powerful laser light and high temperature plasma. In order to operate the atom beam source for a long duration, a modification was made to hide the poppet from direct irradiation of laser and plasma. The alteration of device configuration resulted in great improvement in endurance of poppet more than 300 000 repetitions. Morphology of a polyimide film exposed to approximately 200 000 pulses of hyperthermal oxygen atom beam showed a shaglike carpet structure, which is a characteristic to that exposed to energetic oxygen atoms. A flux of the oxygen atom beam was estimated to be 5×1014 atoms/cm2/pulse at a location of 30 cm away from the nozzle throat.

  17. Start-up and long-term operation of the Anammox process in a fixed bed reactor (FBR) filled with novel non-woven ring carriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin; Li, Yifei; Zhang, Guangyi

    2013-04-01

    A novel kind of non-woven ring carriers was used to improve a fixed bed reactor (FBR) as Anammox reactor. The improved FBR was operated for about 1 year. The Anammox activity occurred on day 39. On day 367, the maximum total nitrogen removal rate reached 9.2 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). FISH analysis showed that Anammox bacteria predominated in the mature sludge and accounted for 78% of the total bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis occupied 70% of Anammox bacteria, which benefited keeping the stability of Anammox reactor. The FBR was proved to be a suitable reactor for start-up and long-term operation of Anammox process.

  18. Occurrence and elimination of antibiotic resistance genes in a long-term operation integrated surface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hansun; Zhang, Qin; Nie, Xiangping; Chen, Baowei; Xiao, Yuandong; Zhou, Qiubai; Liao, Wei; Liang, Ximei

    2017-04-01

    Wetland construction is a recommended domestic sewage treatment technique, owing to its simplicity and cost efficiency. Concentrations of 14 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an integrated surface flow constructed wetland (ICW) steadily operated over 10 years were investigated in the winter and summer. Domestic sewage was observed to be the primary source of ARGs in the ICW, and 77.8% and 59.5% removal rates of total targeted ARGs in the ICW were achieved in the winter and summer, respectively. Concentrations of five ARGs (sul1, tetA, tetC, tetE, and qnrS) in the winter and of six ARGs (sul1, sul3, tetA, tetC, tetE, and qnrS) in the summer were increased throughout the treatment process. Strong correlations were found between ARGs in water and those found in sediments, especially in the summer, indicating that ARGs may be exchanged between water and sediment. Strong positive correlations were also observed between concentrations of intI1 and several ARGs, implying that mobile genetic elements may play a key role in the dissemination of ARGs in an ICW. Our study results suggest aqueous ARGs could be effectively removed via an ICW and that ICWs can also act as reservoirs of specific ARGs.

  19. Value of long-term streamflow forecast to reservoir operations for water supply in snow-dominated catchments

    SciTech Connect

    Anghileri, Daniela; Voisin, Nathalie; Castelletti, Andrea F.; Pianosi, Francesca; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2016-04-12

    In this study, we develop a forecast-based adaptive control framework for Oroville reservoir, California, to assess the value of seasonal and inter-annual forecasts for reservoir operation.We use an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach to generate retrospective, one-year-long streamflow forecasts based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model. The optimal sequence of daily release decisions from the reservoir is then determined by Model Predictive Control, a flexible and adaptive optimization scheme.We assess the forecast value by comparing system performance based on the ESP forecasts with that based on climatology and a perfect forecast. In addition, we evaluate system performance based on a synthetic forecast, which is designed to isolate the contribution of seasonal and inter-annual forecast skill to the overall value of the ESP forecasts.Using the same ESP forecasts, we generalize our results by evaluating forecast value as a function of forecast skill, reservoir features, and demand. Our results show that perfect forecasts are valuable when the water demand is high and the reservoir is sufficiently large to allow for annual carry-over. Conversely, ESP forecast value is highest when the reservoir can shift water on a seasonal basis.On average, for the system evaluated here, the overall ESP value is 35% less than the perfect forecast value. The inter-annual component of the ESP forecast contributes 20-60% of the total forecast value. Improvements in the seasonal component of the ESP forecast would increase the overall ESP forecast value between 15 and 20%.

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up on the Donor Foot After Thumb Reconstruction Using Big Toe Wrap-Around Flap in Two Different Operation Methods.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Guo; Guo, Yong-Jun; Yan, Hou-Jun; Li, Qi-Ming; Ma, Bin

    2017-02-01

    The function of the donor foot has been affected after using big toe wrap-around flap for thumb reconstruction. A modified operation method has been developed to reduce the adverse effect on the donor foot. The current study compared the long-term effect of the classic and the modified operation methods on the donor foot. Gait analysis was carried out, including how the patient walked, the walking speed and walking distance, and how the patient jumped and ran. Plantar pressure was measured while the patient was standing and moving. A total of 45 patients who received the 2 different operation methods were included. The follow-up time was 4-10 years with a mean of 6.5 years. Various degrees of complications occurred for the 21 patients who received the classic operation method. For these patients, plantar pressure of the donor foot was obviously different comparing with the healthy unaffected foot while the patient was standing or walking. For the 24 patients who received the modified operation method, no obvious complications were observed and the plantar pressure of the donor foot and the healthy unaffected foot was similar while the patient was standing or walking. In conclusion, both the classic and the modified operation methods have affected the function of the donor foot after using the big toe wrap-around flap for thumb reconstruction. However, the donor foot was less affected when the modified operation method was used.

  1. Developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal stress on post-operative pain in Sprague-Dawley rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Liesbeth; Rayen, Ine; Charlier, Thierry D; Fillet, Marianne; Houbart, Virginie; van Kleef, Maarten; Steinbusch, Harry W; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2013-01-01

    Early life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Therefore, the present study investigated long-term effects of maternal adversity and/or SSRI medication use on nociception of adult Sprague-Dawley rat offspring, taking into account involvement of the HPA system. Dams were subject to stress during gestation and were treated with fluoxetine (2×/5 mg/kg/day) prior to parturition and throughout lactation. Four groups of adult male offspring were used: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Control+Fluoxetine, 3. Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, 4. Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Results show that post-operative pain, measured as hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli after hind paw incision, was decreased in adult offspring subject to prenatal stress alone and increased in offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine alone. Moreover, post-operative pain was normalized in prenatally stressed offspring exposed to fluoxetine. This was paralleled by a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) levels in prenatally stressed offspring and a normalization of serum CBG levels in prenatally stressed offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine. Thus, developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal adversity on post-operative pain in offspring and these effects may be due, in part, to the involvement of the HPA system.

  2. Long-term post-operative cognitive decline in the elderly: the effects of anesthesia type, apolipoprotein E genotype, and clinical antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; De Roquefeuil, Guilhem; Scali, Jacqueline; Bonnel, François; Adam, Jean-François; Cheminal, Jean-Claude; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in the elderly commonly observed following anesthesia has been attributed to age-related neuronal changes exacerbated by pharmacotoxic effects. However, the extent to which these changes may persist following recovery from surgery is still largely unknown. This study investigates the long-term effects of anesthesia on cognitive functioning after orthopedic surgery in 270 elderly patients over the age of 65 who completed a computerized cognitive battery before and 8 days, 4 and 13 months after surgery. Their performance was compared to that of 310 elderly controls who completed the same neuro-psychiatric evaluation at baseline and one-year interval. Multivariate analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, depressive symptomatology, vascular pathology as well as baseline cognitive performance. We found early and transient post-operative decline in reaction time and constructional praxis. With regard to long-term changes we observed improvement compared to controls in most verbal tasks (probably due to learning effects). On the other hand, a clear dissociation effect was observed for several areas of visuospatial functioning which persisted up to the 13-month follow-up. This specific pattern of visuospatial deficit was found to be independent of apolipoprotein E genotype and closely resembles what has recently been termed vascular mild cognitive impairment, in turn associated with subtle sub-cortical vascular changes. The observation of only minor differences between persons operated by general and regional anesthesia makes it difficult to attribute these changes directly to the anesthetic agents themselves, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction may be attributable at least in part to peri-operative conditions, notably stress and glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:20858969

  3. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  4. 'CATT' A project on Co-operation and Technology Transfer on Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management for EU Member States with Small Nuclear Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieson, J.; Lindberg, C.

    2006-07-01

    Many of the European Union's (EU) 25 countries have considerable inventories of long-lived radioactive waste that will remain potentially hazardous for many thousands of years. Of these, several have advanced concepts and programmes for the treatment and disposal (and other long - term management options) for spent fuel and long-lived radioactive waste. Collectively, these Member States have spent the equivalent of many billions of euros in developing such concepts and some have further developed the concepts into proposed operational facilities. Member States with small nuclear programmes, face the expensive and daunting prospect o f developing their own concepts for dealing with their spent fuel and high level waste. One answer would be to seek solutions which could take advantage of the investment costs in the technology and underpinning science already incurred in the more established programmes. Thus technology transfer between Member States in areas of high level waste and spent fuel encapsulation, repository development etc. would allow the establishment of disposal facilities within any Member State for it to deal with its own wastes. The national waste management organisations of the UK (Mirex), Sweden (SKB), German y (DBE), Lithuania (RATA), Bulgaria (DPRAO) and Slovenia (ARAO), together with JRC of the Netherlands, are to undertake a project under the auspices of the EU's 6. R and D Framework Programme (FP6). The 18 month project will examine the technical, intellectual property, legal, financial and societal implications of the idea. It goes by the acronym 'CATT' - 'Cooperation and technology transfer on long term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes'. This paper describes the CATT project which will look at technology transfer methodologies by which Member States could co-operate. It covers the potential issues which may arise and ho w these may be addressed. (authors)

  5. Enhancement of denitrifying phosphorus removal and microbial community of long-term operation in an anaerobic anoxic oxic-biological contact oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Cong; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-10-01

    A two-sludge system consisting of anaerobic anoxic oxic-biological contact oxidation (A(2)/O-BCO) was developed to treat domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (COD/TN) ratio (around 3.21) by shortening sludge retention time (SRT) for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the A(2)/O reactor and prolonging SRT for nitrifiers in the BCO reactor. Specifically, the BCO reactor was composed of three stages in series (N1, N2 and N3), so that simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removals by denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs) was achieved in the A(2)/O reactor with [Formula: see text] as the electron acceptor from the BCO reactor. Long term operational tests (600 days) were conducted with various operational parameters [e.g., hydraulic retention time (HRTs), nitrate recycling ratio (Rs), volume ratio (Vs)] to examine the denitrifying phosphorus removal performance. The system exhibited the highest removal of TN and [Formula: see text] at the HRTs of 8 h, Rs of 300% and Vs of 2:4:1. The optimal TN and [Formula: see text] removals were 80.30% and 96.61% at low COD/TN of 3.21. The species diversity and microbial community examined by the Illumina MiSeq method demonstrated the fact of two-sludge system, and the improved community structure by long-term optimization was prominent comparing with the seed sludge. Additionally, Accumulibacter and Dechloromonas were the dominant functional PAOs with 25.74% in the A(2)/O reactor, while nitrifiers (including Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira) were gradually enriched with 13.10%, 21.33%, and 31.10% in the three stages of the BCO reactor.

  6. Long-term operation of a double phase LAr LEM Time Projection Chamber with a simplified anode and extraction-grid design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, C.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Periale, L.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the successful operation of a double phase Liquid Argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC) equipped with two dimensional projective anodes with dimensions 10 × 10 cm2, and with a maximum drift length of 21 cm. The anodes were manufactured for the first time from a single multilayer printed circuit board (PCB). Various layouts of the readout views have been tested and optimised. In addition, the ionisation charge was efficiently extracted from the liquid to the gas phase with a single grid instead of two previously. We studied the response and the gain of the detector to cosmic muon tracks. To study long-term stability over several weeks, we continuously operated the chamber at fixed electric field settings. We reproducibly observe that after an initial decrease with a characteristic time of τ ≈ 1.6 days, the observed gain is stable. In 46 days of operation, a total of 14.6 million triggers have been collected at a stable effective gain of G∞ ~ 15 corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)gtrsim60 for minimum ionising tracks. During the full period, eight discharges across the LEM were observed. A maximum effective gain of 90 was also observed, corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)gtrsim400 for minimum ionising tracks, or S/N ≈ 10 for an energy deposition of 15 keV on a single readout channel.

  7. Improving the Long-Term Stability of Atmospheric Surface Deformation Predictions by Mitigating the Effects of Orography Updates in Operational Weather Forecast Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Robert; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Thomas, Maik; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    The global numerical weather prediction model routinely operated at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is typically updated about two times a year to incorporate the most recent improvements in the numerical scheme, the physical model or the data assimilation procedures into the system for steadily improving daily weather forecasting quality. Even though such changes frequently affect the long-term stability of meteorological quantities, data from the ECMWF deterministic model is often preferred over alternatively available atmospheric re-analyses due to both the availability of the data in near real-time and the substantially higher spatial resolution. However, global surface pressure time-series, which are crucial for the interpretation of geodetic observables, such as Earth rotation, surface deformation, and the Earth's gravity field, are in particular affected by changes in the surface orography of the model associated with every major change in horizontal resolution happened, e.g., in February 2006, January 2010, and May 2015 in case of the ECMWF operational model. In this contribution, we present an algorithm to harmonize surface pressure time-series from the operational ECMWF model by projecting them onto a time-invariant reference topography under consideration of the time-variable atmospheric density structure. The effectiveness of the method will be assessed globally in terms of pressure anomalies. In addition, we will discuss the impact of the method on predictions of crustal deformations based on ECMWF input, which have been recently made available by GFZ Potsdam.

  8. Improving the Long-term Stability of Geophysical Model Products by Mitigating the Effects of Orography Updates in Operational Weather Forecast Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Thomas, M.; Flechtner, F.; Dobslaw, H.

    2015-12-01

    The global numerical weather prediction model routinely operated at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is typically updated about two times a year to make use of the most recent improvements in the numerical scheme, the physical model or the data assimilation procedures for steadily improving daily weather forecasting. Even though such changes frequently affect the long-term stability of meteorologic quantities, data from the ECMWF deterministic model is frequently preferred over alternative atmospheric re-analyses due to both the availability of the data in near real-time and the substantially higher spatial resolution. However, global surface pressure time-series, which are crucial for the interpretation of geodetic observables, such as Earth rotation, surface deformation, and the Earth's gravity field, are in particular affected by changes in the surface orography of the model associated with every major improvement in horizontal resolution. Here, we attempt to harmonize surface pressure time-series from the operational ECMWF model by projecting them onto a common reference topography under consideration of the time-variable atmospheric density structure. The effectiveness of the method will be discussed globally for two major ECMWF upgrades in 2006 and 2010. We will in particular discuss the impact of the method on planned improvements of the GRACE Atmosphere and Ocean De-Aliasing Product AOD1B, and indicate further application opportunities in the context of the Global Geophysical Fluid Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Frame Service.

  9. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  10. Long-term testing of a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell short stack operated with improved polybenzimidazole-based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinar, F. Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Lobato, Justo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of a 150 cm2 high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) stack operated with modified proton exchange membranes is demonstrated. The short fuel cell stack was manufactured using a total of three 50 cm2 membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The PEM technology is based on a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The obtained results were compared with those obtained using a HT-PEMFC stack with unmodified membranes. The membranes were cast from a PBI polymer synthesized in the laboratory, and the modified membranes contained 2 wt.% micro-sized TiO2 as a filler. Long-term tests were performed in both constant and dynamic loading modes. The fuel cell stack with 2 wt.% TiO2 composite PBI membranes exhibited an irreversible voltage loss of less than 2% after 1100 h of operation. In addition, the acid loss was reduced from 2% for the fuel cell stack with unmodified membranes to 0.6% for the fuel cell stack with modified membranes. The results demonstrate that introducing filler into the membranes enhances the durability and stability of this type of fuel cell technology. Moreover, the fuel cell stack system also exhibits very rapid and stable power and voltage output responses under dynamic load regimes.

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard

    2003-06-13

    long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

  12. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2005-01-24

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  13. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2004-08-06

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2003-10-31

    system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey

    2003-01-24

    long term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on 1/2 of the gas stream at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) Is sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse a viable, long term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

  16. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

    2006-01-27

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  17. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2004-01-29

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  18. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2004-06-04

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  19. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

    2005-07-14

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  20. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2004-10-25

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  1. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac: Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2005-04-28

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  2. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

    2006-04-24

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  3. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Tom Millar

    2003-07-30

    overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON) approach.

  4. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Cindy Larson

    2005-10-24

    generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  5. Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315 days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21 days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1g VS kg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3 ± 18.1, 163.6 ± 39.5, 150.8 ± 32.9 N L CH4 kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction.

  6. Long-Term Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Public or private, K-12, college or university, no one knows their facilities better than school maintenance and operations staff--from the front-line custodians to facility managers. When it comes to planning restrooms for new construction and renovation, operational experience is especially critical. Applying best practices in advance can save…

  7. Influence of blood transfusions and preoperative anemia on long-term survival in patients operated for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos D; Karakantza, Marina; Koletsis, Efstratios; Apostolakis, Efstratios; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Filos, Kriton S; Eleni, Theodori; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2008-11-01

    It has been postulated that transfusions have immunosuppressive effects that promote tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover perioperative anemia is considered an independent prognostic factor on outcome in patients operated for malignancy. We evaluated the influence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and perioperative anemia on survival in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. From 1999 through 2005, 331 consecutive patients, male/female=295/36 (mean age 64+/-9 years), who underwent radical surgery for NSCLC were prospectively enrolled in this cohort and followed up for a mean of 27.2 months. The overall survival of patients was analyzed in relation to RBC transfusions and perioperative anemia. These parameters were analyzed in the whole cohort of patients and separately for stage I patients. Patients were divided according to perioperative transfusion, into Group A (transfused) and Group B (non-transfused) and according to the preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) level into Group 1(Hb<12g/dl) and Group 2(Hb> or =12g/dl), respectively. The overall transfusion rate was 25.7%. Univariate analysis showed that in the whole cohort of patients overall survival was significantly shorter in Group A (mean 33.6 months, 5-year survival 25.1%) compared to Group B (mean 48.0 months, 5-year survival 37.3%) (p=0.001). It also showed that patients with preoperative Hb level <12g/dl (Group 1), (mean of 33.0 months, 5-year survival 21.3%) had shorter survival compared to Group 2 patients (mean 49.3 months and 5-year survival 40.0%), respectively (p=0.002). Multivariate analysis in the whole cohort of patients showed that preoperative anemia was an independent risk factor for survival while RBC transfusion was not. In particular for stage I patients, it was shown that RBC transfusion was an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival as detected by multivariate analysis (p=0.043), while anemia was not. RBC transfusions affect adversely the survival of stage I NSCLC

  8. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  9. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  10. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion. PMID:24944216

  11. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans.

    PubMed

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Thompson, Aiko K

    2014-09-15

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion.

  12. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  13. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  14. Long-term evaluation of asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cysts. Comparison of the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computer-assisted cisternography for detection of cholesterin fragments.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, P; Fortuna, A; Cantore, G; Missori, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computer-assisted cisternography (CAc) assessment of latent late recurrences in long-term asymptomatic patients surgically treated for intracranial epidermoid cyst is here presented. MRI was exclusively utilized in one patient; CAc was exclusively employed in three patients with metalic operative clips; both CAc and MRI were employed in another four patients. CAc appears to be more reliable than MRI in detecting cholesterin fragments in asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cyst.

  15. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and increase carbon injection

  16. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  17. Impact of Total Ionizing Dose Radiation Testing and Long-Term Thermal Cycling on the Operation of CMF20120D Silicon Carbide Power MOSFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Scheick, Leif; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Power systems designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and extreme temperature exposures. Silicon carbide devices show great promise for use in future power electronics systems, but information pertaining to performance of the devices in the space environment is very scarce. A silicon carbide N-channel enhancement-mode power MOSFET called the CMF20120 is of interest for use in space environments. Samples of the device were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling to address their reliability for use in space applications. The results of the experimental work are presentd and discussed.

  18. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty.

  19. Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer's personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (1) the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (2) episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, “enabling” systems. Although these systems—ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency—are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (3) the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic) is relational rather than intrinsic—i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory. PMID:23378832

  20. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  1. Dietary 2'-Fucosyllactose Enhances Operant Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation via Gut-Brain Communication through the Vagus Nerve in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Enrique; Barranco, Alejandro; Ramirez, Maria; Gruart, Agnes; Delgado-Garcia, Jose M; Jimenez, Maria L; Buck, Rachael; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Results showed that 2´-FL but not Fuc enhanced LTP, and vagotomy inhibited the effects of oral 2´-FL on LTP and associative learning related paradigms. Taken together, the data show that dietary 2´-FL but not its Fuc moiety affects cognitive domains and improves learning and memory in rats. This effect is dependent on vagus nerve integrity, suggesting GBA plays a role in 2´-FL-mediated cognitive benefits.

  2. Dietary 2’-Fucosyllactose Enhances Operant Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation via Gut-Brain Communication through the Vagus Nerve in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Enrique; Barranco, Alejandro; Ramirez, Maria; Gruart, Agnes; Delgado-Garcia, Jose M.; Jimenez, Maria L.; Buck, Rachael; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Results showed that 2´-FL but not Fuc enhanced LTP, and vagotomy inhibited the effects of oral 2´-FL on LTP and associative learning related paradigms. Taken together, the data show that dietary 2´-FL but not its Fuc moiety affects cognitive domains and improves learning and memory in rats. This effect is dependent on vagus nerve integrity, suggesting GBA plays a role in 2´-FL-mediated cognitive benefits. PMID:27851789

  3. Consider long-term care as service alternative.

    PubMed

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share.

  4. An eye for relations: eye-tracking indicates long-term negative effects of operational thinking on understanding of math equivalence.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Dana L; McNeil, Nicole M; Brockmole, James R; Kelley, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Prior knowledge in the domain of mathematics can sometimes interfere with learning and performance in that domain. One of the best examples of this phenomenon is in students' difficulties solving equations with operations on both sides of the equal sign. Elementary school children in the U.S. typically acquire incorrect, operational schemata rather than correct, relational schemata for interpreting equations. Researchers have argued that these operational schemata are never unlearned and can continue to affect performance for years to come, even after relational schemata are learned. In the present study, we investigated whether and how operational schemata negatively affect undergraduates' performance on equations. We monitored the eye movements of 64 undergraduate students while they solved a set of equations that are typically used to assess children's adherence to operational schemata (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Participants did not perform at ceiling on these equations, particularly when under time pressure. Converging evidence from performance and eye movements showed that operational schemata are sometimes activated instead of relational schemata. Eye movement patterns reflective of the activation of relational schemata were specifically lacking when participants solved equations by adding up all the numbers or adding the numbers before the equal sign, but not when they used other types of incorrect strategies. These findings demonstrate that the negative effects of acquiring operational schemata extend far beyond elementary school.

  5. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    Prioritization by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and other multi­-criteria decision-making methods. These methods can be labor-intensive, often contain cognitive or parochial bias, and do not consider the competing prioritization between mission architectures. Strategic Decision-Making (SDM) processes cannot be properly understood unless the context of the technology is understood. This makes assessing technological change particularly challenging due to the relationships "between incumbent technology and the incumbent (innovation) system in relation to the emerging technology and the emerging innovation system." The central idea in technology dynamics is to consider all activities that contribute to the development, diffusion, and use of innovations as system functions. Bergek defines system functions within a TIS to address what is actually happening and has a direct influence on the ultimate performance of the system and technology development. ACO uses similar metrics and is expanding these metrics to account for the structure and context of the technology. At NASA technology and strategy is strongly interrelated. NASA's Strategic Space Technology Investment Plan (SSTIP) prioritizes those technologies essential to the pursuit of NASA's missions and national interests. The SSTIP is strongly coupled with NASA's Technology Roadmaps to provide investment guidance during the next four years, within a twenty-year horizon. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.

  6. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program – Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Williams

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation's electrical generation capability.

  7. Investigation of the Long-Term Performance of the 324 MHz Klystrons for Achieving the Efficient Operation of the Linac at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E.; Sato, F.; Kawamura, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Fukui, Y.; Oguri, H.

    As a part of the researches of the reliability and life time of klystrons, the cathode performance test of 324 MHz klystrons operated for 32000 hours on line has been performed at the klystron test stand. The experimental results coincide approximately with the data both reported in the literature for the cathode performance and the one obtained from the data base of RF data acquisition system. In this test, two parameters such as klystron beam perveance and knee-point were used to investigate the emission performance. It turned out that klystron beam perveance is most suitable parameter for understanding the klystron performance under operating condition on line.

  8. The midterm and long-term results of the Mustard operation in patients with transposition of the great vessels and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S; Harris, P J; Manning, J

    1986-03-01

    Eight of 43 patients with transposition of the great vessels (TGV) and either an intact ventricular septum or very small ventricular septal defect were found to have dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). The preoperative left ventricle-pulmonary artery (LV-PA) pressure gradient ranged between 14 and 60 mm Hg. In 3 patients the pulmonary artery could not be catheterized. They had a left ventricular pressure of 43, 45, and 62 mm Hg, respectively, no evidence of pulmonary vascular disease, and either echocardiographic or angiocardiographic demonstration of LVOTO. The outflow tract was explored in 3 patients at the time of the Mustard operation. Exposure of the LVOT was difficult, particularly in patients less than 6 months of age. A shallow septal myectomy was performed in 1 patient; a thin fibrous endocardial scar was resected in 2; and no procedure was performed in the third. All 8 patients survived and remain asymptomatic 1 to 11 years (mean, 5 years) after operation. The LV-PA pressure gradient has either remained the same or has increased in every patient except 1 in whom there was a slight reduction in the gradient. We conclude that dynamic LVOTO persists after the Mustard operation and is not amenable to direct surgical relief. However, an excellent clinical result can be obtained for up to 11 years after operation.

  9. Long-term operation of microbial electrosynthesis cell reducing CO2 to multi-carbon chemicals with a mixed culture avoiding methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, Suman; Yuliasni, Rustiana; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J N; Strik, David P B T B; Pant, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    In microbial electrosynthesis (MES), CO2 can be reduced preferably to multi-carbon chemicals by a biocathode-based process which uses electrochemically active bacteria as catalysts. A mixed anaerobic consortium from biological origin typically produces methane from CO2 reduction which circumvents production of multi-carbon compounds. This study aimed to develop a stable and robust CO2 reducing biocathode from a mixed culture inoculum avoiding the methane generation. An effective approach was demonstrated based on (i) an enrichment procedure involving inoculum pre-treatment and several culture transfers in H2:CO2 media, (ii) a transfer from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth and (iii) a sequential batch operation. Biomass growth and gradual acclimation to CO2 electro-reduction accomplished a maximum acetate production rate of 400mgLcatholyte(-1)d(-1) at -1V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Methane was never detected in more than 300days of operation. Accumulation of acetate up to 7-10gL(-1) was repeatedly attained by supplying (80:20) CO2:N2 mixture at -0.9 to -1V (vs. Ag/AgCl). In addition, ethanol and butyrate were also produced from CO2 reduction. Thus, a robust CO2 reducing biocathode can be developed from a mixed culture avoiding methane generation by adopting the specific culture enrichment and operation procedures without the direct addition of chemical inhibitor.

  10. Real-time Reservoir Operation Based on a Combination of Long-term and Short-term Optimization and Hydrological Ensemble Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, P.; Tilmant, A.; Boucher, M.; Anctil, F.

    2012-12-01

    In a reservoir system, benefits are usually increased if the system is operated in a coordinated manner. However, despite ever increasing computational power available to users, the optimization of a large system of reservoirs and hydropower stations remains a challenge, especially if uncertainties are included. When applying optimization methods, such as stochastic dynamic programming, the size of a problem becomes quickly too large to be solved. This situation is also known as the curse of dimensionality which limits the applicability of SDP to systems involving only two to three reservoirs. The fact that by design most reservoirs serve multiple purposes adds another difficulty when the operation is to be optimized. A method which is able to address the optimization of multi-purpose reservoirs even in large systems is stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). This approximative dynamic programming technique represents the future benefit function with a number of hyperplanes. The SDDP model developed in this study maximizes the expected net benefits associated with the operation of a reservoir system on a midterm horizon (several years, monthly time step). SDDP provides, at each time step, estimates of the marginal water value stored in each reservoir. Reservoir operators, however, are interested in day-to-day decisions. To provide an operational optimization framework tailored for short-term decision support, the SDDP optimization can be coupled with a short-term nonlinear programming optimization using hydrological ensemble forecasts. The short-term objective therefore consists of the total electricity production within the forecast horizon and the total value of water stored in all the reservoirs. Thus, maximizing this objective ensures that a short-term decision does not contradict the strategic planning. This optimization framework is implemented for the Gatineau river basin, a sub-basin of the Ottawa river north of the city of Ottawa. The Gatineau river

  11. An analysis of the operational GFS simplified Arakawa Schubert parameterization within a WRF framework: A Hurricane Sandy (2012) long-term track forecast perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassill, Nick P.

    2015-01-01

    Sandy (2012) is known as an incredibly destructive storm and one defined meteorologically by its large size, and its significant forecast track spreads among various operational models roughly 1 week before landfall. While the operational European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model accurately depicted a northeastern United States landfall, the Global Forecasting System (GFS) model consistently forecast a track toward the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model framework, Bassill suggested that these differences were primarily a function of differences between the two models' cumulus parameterization (CP). This study also uses a WRF model framework to examine the simplified Arakawa Schubert CP used in the GFS model. It is found that increasing the deep convective entrainment coefficient produces more realistic forecast tracks for forecasts initialized roughly 1 week before landfall. This occurs through a reorientation of the precipitation (and associated latent heating) around Sandy during a critical time period in which it was interacting with a series of upper troughs to its west and northwest. Reorienting the latent heating reshapes the upper tropospheric steering pattern toward the one that is more negatively tilted and consistent with observations.

  12. From Hype to an Operational Tool: Efforts to Establish a Long-Term Monitoring Protocol of Alluvial Sandbars using 'Structure-from-Motion' Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the use of 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry to accurately map landforms, its utility for reliably detecting and monitoring geomorphic change from repeat surveys remains underexplored in fluvial environments. It is unclear how the combination of various image acquisition platforms and techniques, survey scales, vegetation cover, and terrain complexities translate into accuracy and precision metrics for SfM-based construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of fluvial landforms. Although unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential to rapidly image large areas, they can be relatively costly, require skilled operators, are vulnerable in adverse weather conditions, and often rely on GPS-positioning to improve their stability. This research details image acquisition techniques for an underrepresented SfM platform: the pole-mounted camera. We highlight image acquisition and post-processing limitations of the SfM method for alluvial sandbars (10s to 100s m2) located in Marble and Grand Canyons in a remote, fluvial landscape with limited field access, strong light gradients, highly variable surface texture and limited ground control. We recommend a pole-based SfM protocol and evaluate it by comparing SfM-derived DEMs against concurrent, total station surveys and TLS derived DEMs. Error models of the sandbar surfaces are developed for a variety of surface characteristics (e.g., bare sand, steep slopes, and areas of shadow). The Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) Software is used to compare SfM DEMs from before and after the 2014 high flow release from Glen Canyon Dam. Complementing existing total-station based sandbar surveys with potentially more efficient and cost-effective SfM methods will contribute to the understanding of morphodynamic responses of sandbars to high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam. In addition, the development and implementation of a SfM-based operational protocol for monitoring geomorphic change will provide

  13. Development of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial communities during long-term operation of anaerobic reactors in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-10-15

    Biological treatment processes offer the ideal conditions in which a high diversity of microorganisms can grow and develop. The wastewater produced during these processes is contaminated with antibiotics and, as such, they provide the ideal setting for the acquisition and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This research investigated the occurrence and variation in the ARGs found during the one-year operation of the anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) used to treat pharmaceutical wastewater that contained combinations of sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline-erythromycin (STE) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST). The existence of eighteen ARGs encoding resistance to sulfamethoxazole (sul1, sul2, sul3), erythromycin (ermA, ermF, ermB, msrA, ereA), tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetM, tetS, tetQ, tetW, tetX) and class Ι integron gene (intΙ 1) in the STE and ST reactors was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Due to the limited availability of primers to detect ARGs, Illumina sequencing was also performed on the sludge and effluent of the STE and ST reactors. Although there was good reactor performance in the SBRs, which corresponds to min 80% COD removal efficiency, tetA, tetB, sul1, sul2 and ermB genes were among those ARGs detected in the effluent from STE and ST reactors. A comparison of the ARGs acquired from the STE and ST reactors revealed that the effluent from the STE reactor had a higher number of ARGs than that from the ST reactor; this could be due to the synergistic effects of erythromycin. According to the expression of genes results, microorganisms achieve tetracycline and erythromycin resistance through a combination of three mechanisms: efflux pumping protein, modification of the antibiotic target and modifying enzymes. There was also a significant association between the presence of the class 1 integron and sulfamethoxazole resistance genes.

  14. Explosive Emission Cathode Based on a Carbon Fiber for Long-Term Pulsed-Periodic Mode of Operation and its Application in a High-Power Microwave Pulse Generator Without External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutenkov, O. P.; Pegel, I. V.; Totmeninov, E. M.

    2014-09-01

    Current characteristics and operating lifetime of the explosive emission cathode based on a carbon microfiber are investigated in the pulsed-periodic mode of operation with pulse duration of about 5 ns. Long-term (for up to 3.6 million pulses) tests of the cathode operating lifetime are carried out. Specific ablation of the fiber material equal to 2.4·10-4 g/C is obtained. Change in the morphology of the fiber surface during long-time operation caused by deposition of carbon from the cathode plasma is revealed. The microscopic electric field strength on the fiber surface is estimated taking into account the surface microrelief. The efficiency of microwave generation comparable with that of a velvet cathode in low (200 kV/cm) average electric field in the gap is obtained for the Cherenkov microwave generator with vacuum diode without external magnetic field of decimeter wavelength range based on the SINUS-7 pulsed-periodic high-current electron accelerator with current pulse duration of 50 ns. The operating lifetime no less than 105 pulses is demonstrated for the carbon fiber-based cathode of the microwave generator operating in the mode of pulse batch with duration of several seconds and pulse repetition frequency of 20-50 Hz.

  15. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  16. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  17. AB055. Long term NIV

    PubMed Central

    Siopi, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation has evolved into one of the most evidence-based areas of respiratory medicine, with many indications in acute or chronic respiratory failure. From the first application of negative pressure models during poliomyelitis epidemics to the new sophisticated positive pressure models, and the development of the “intelligent ventilators”, there has been a long time course. Undoubtedly the spur was given by better understanding of respiratory physiology during sleep and the shift of healthcare towards a chronic base. Novel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) established the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to exacerbations of COPD, as well as acute pulmonary edema and weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. Long-term NIV has been used in neuromuscular diseases for many decades, first in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and then spreading to other disorders of this category, increasing survival in inherited neuromuscular diseases. NIV should be initiated early in the course of the disease, when symptomatic nocturnal hypoventilation is detected. Combined with cough augmentation (physiotherapy, insufflation-exsufflation devices) and percutaneous gastrostomy feeding, it can delay tracheostomy and invasive ventilation. In ALS patients NIV improves the quality of life and increases survival, especially when there is no bulbar involvement. The right time to initiate ventilation in this group of patients is not well established since it is difficult to detect signs and symptom of respiratory impairment. Patients seem to benefit from an early application of NIV, and their personal decisions should always be considered before any intervention. In patients with chest wall disorders NIV—despite the fact that RCTs are lacking—has proved its value in many uncontrolled trials and numerous reports. It seems to improve the work of breathing, sleep architecture, nocturnal and daytime arterial blood gases. The

  18. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    presented in Table 2. Also included in Table 2 is the average fuel economy in miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent ( gge ) and kilometers per gge ...calculated by applying the conversion factor of one gge being equivalent to 0.997 kilograms of hydrogen [4...Number Average Fuel Economy mi/kg (km/kg) Average Fuel Economy mi/ gge (km/ gge ) 1 26.9 (43.3) 26.8 (43.1) 2 25.0 (40.2) 24.9

  19. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    Economy (mi/kg) Average Fuel Economy (mi/ gge ) 1 26.9 26.8 2 25.0 24.9 3 23.2 23.1 4 22.5 22.4 5 25.7 25.6 6 33.5 33.4 7 31.7 31.6 8 25.4 25.3 9 21.8...Fleet Fuel Economy was 26.2 mi/kg or 26.1 mi/ gge • The fuel economy of the fleet of H2ICEs was comparable to the standard hybrid-electric gasoline

  20. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  1. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-30

    A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Radiation Budget Project A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Readiation Budget Dataset Using Merged CERES, ... and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent and calibrated data product (TOA irradiances ...

  2. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. PMID:22313631

  3. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  4. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  5. Strategies for Stabilizing Nitrogenous Compounds in ECLSS Wastewater: Top-Down System Design and Unit Operation Selection with Focus on Bio-Regenerative Processes for Short and Long Term Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin M.

    2011-01-01

    Water recycling and eventual nutrient recovery is crucial for surviving in or past low earth orbit. New approaches and syste.m architecture considerations need to be addressed to meet current and future system requirements. This paper proposes a flexible system architecture that breaks down pretreatment , steps into discrete areas where multiple unit operations can be considered. An overview focusing on the urea and ammonia conversion steps allows an analysis on each process's strengths and weaknesses and synergy with upstream and downstream processing. Process technologies to be covered include chemical pretreatment, biological urea hydrolysis, chemical urea hydrolysis, combined nitrification-denitrification, nitrate nitrification, anammox denitrification, and regenerative ammonia absorption through struvite formation. Biological processes are considered mainly for their ability to both maximize water recovery and to produce nutrients for future plant systems. Unit operations can be considered for traditional equivalent system mass requirements in the near term or what they can provide downstream in the form of usable chemicals or nutrients for the long term closed-loop ecological control and life support system. Optimally this would allow a system to meet the former but to support the latter without major modification.

  6. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  7. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  8. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  9. Long-Term Nutrition: A Clinician's Guide to Successful Long-Term Enteral Access in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-09-22

    Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.

  10. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  11. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Long-term performance of vertical-flow and horizontal-flow constructed wetlands as affected by season, N load, and operating stage for treating nitrogen from domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Park, Jong-Hwan; Heo, Jong-Soo; Ok, Yong-Sik; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the long-term nitrogen treatment efficiency in vertical-flow (VF)-horizontal-flow (HF) hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs), the nitrogen removal efficiency under different seasons, N loads, and three operating stages (representing age of the wetland) were evaluated over a 12-year period. The average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies in the effluent during the operation period were in the following order: summer (75.2%) > spring (73.4%) ≒ autumn (72.6%) > winter (66.4%). The removal efficiencies of TN in summer, autumn, and spring were generally higher than those in winter. At different stages of operation (years), the average TN removal rates in the effluent were in the following order: middle stage (73.4%; years 2006-2009) > last stage (72.0%; years 2010-2013) > beginning stage (70.1%; years 2002-2005). In VF-HF CWs, the amount of average TN removal (mg N m(-2) day(-1)) over the 12-year period was in the order of summer (5.5) ≒ autumn (5.1) > spring (4.3) ≒ winter (4.2) for the VF bed and in the order of summer (3.5) ≒ spring (3.5) ≒ autumn (3.3) > winter (2.7) for the HF bed, showing that the amount of TN removal per unit area (m(2)) in summer was slightly greater than that in other seasons. The amount of TN removal in the VF bed was slightly greater than that in the HF bed. Using three-dimensional simulation graphs, the maximum TN removal rate was at inflow N loads below 2.7 g m(-2) day(-1) in the summer season, whereas the minimum TN removal rate was at inflow N loads below 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1) in the winter season. Consequently, the TN removal efficiency was very stable over the 12 years of operation in VF-HF hybrid CWs. Results demonstrate that the VF-HF hybrid CWs possess good buffer capacity for treating TN from domestic sewage for extended periods of time.

  13. Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells ...

  14. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  15. Long-term-care legal update.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-04-01

    As more nurses move from the acute care setting to long-term-care and home health care, different practice issues arise. To maximize liability protection, nurses must understand the legal issues unique to each delivery system.

  16. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that long- ... least quarterly Conducted 5,417 training sessions in facilities on such topics as residents’ rights Provided 129, ...

  17. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  18. The 2014 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    Treasury from the Federal Reserve System, customs duties, estate and gift taxes, and miscellaneous fees and fines. Actual Extended Baseline...Office’s (CBO’s) most recent analysis of the outlook for the federal budget over the long term. My statement today summarizes The 2014 Long-Term Budget...Outlook, which was released yesterday.1 Between 2009 and 2012, the federal government recorded the largest budget deficits relative to the size of

  19. Evidence-based long term care design.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Margaret P

    2009-01-01

    Research on the impact of the built environment in long-term care settings continues to grow. This article focuses on work conducted and published since 2000, when an earlier review on research on dementia and design was published. The vast majority of research that addressed neurological conditions in residents in long-term care settings (assisted living and nursing homes) relates to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

  20. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  1. Long Term Stability of Coriolis Flow Meters: DESY experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckmann, T.; Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Petersen, B.; Putselyk, S.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D.; Zhirnov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of coolant flow is important operational parameter for reliable operation of cryogenic system with superconducting magnets or cavities as well as for the system diagnostics in case of non-steady-state operation, e.g. during cool-down/warm-up or other transients. Proper flowmeter is chosen according to the different parameters, e.g. turn-down, operating temperature range, leak-tightness, pressure losses, long-term stability, etc. For helium cryogenics, the Venturi tube or Orifice, as well as Coriolis flow meters are often applied. For the present time, the orifices are usually used due to their simplicity and low costs, however, low turn-down range, large pressure drop, restriction of flow area, susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations limit their useful operation range. Operational characteristics of Venturi tubes is substantially improved in comparison to orifices, however, relative high costs and susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations still limit their application to special cases. The Coriolis flow meters do not have typical drawbacks of Venturi tube and orifices, however long-term stability over many years was not demonstrated yet. This paper describes the long-term behaviour of Coriolis flow meters after many years of operation at AMTF and XMTS facilities.

  2. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  3. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  4. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    PubMed Central

    Barnham, J. J.; Roper-Hall, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary. Images PMID:6860613

  5. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely

  6. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    PubMed

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  7. 46 CFR 356.43 - Long-term or exclusive sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the vessel or the vessel's operation, management and harvesting activities. (b) Provisions of a long... control over the operation, management or harvesting activities of the vessel, vessel owner, or bareboat... DOCUMENTATION Charters, Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.43 Long-term...

  8. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  9. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  10. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  11. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  12. Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David James

    2010-01-01

    The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

  13. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  14. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  15. Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger

    2011-09-06

    In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment.

  16. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  17. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  18. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship…

  19. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  20. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  1. Long-Term Care Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding how long-term care (LTC) research contributes to policy, develops a typology of research contributions to policy with examples of each type, and suggests ways to ensure that contributions continue in the future. The article draws on in-depth interviews with LTC experts working at the interface…

  2. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  3. The aging network and managed long-term care.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer cost-effective community programs while operating within fixed, capped budgets. They have also been able to identify and maintain roles for informal caregivers, draw on community resources through donations and the use of volunteers, and create substantial political support. In this article we argue that the aging network should draw on these strengths to develop integrated long-term-care systems designed to shift the balance of state long-term-care systems from institutional to home- and community-based services. We also argue that the nonprofit aging network, because it is made up of area agencies on aging and service providers, provides a potentially more effective framework for the integration of long-term-care resources than do proprietary managed care organizations.

  4. Workshop on long-term contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The National Population Council Secretariat (NPCS) of Ghana held a three-day workshop on long-term contraceptives in 1996 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Association of Voluntary Surgical Contraception, and the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services. The session was funded by USAID. The executive director of NPCS, Dr. Richard Turkson, said that the slow rate of contraceptive acceptance was an obstacle to population control despite political concern that rapid population growth exerted an adverse impact on the economy. Only 10% of married women were using long-term or permanent methods of contraception. The hope was voiced that the participants would devise practical and cost-effective education, information, and communication (IEC) strategies to boost the demand for long-term contraceptive methods among sexually active people in Ghana. It was essential that these strategies and activities were based on a realist assessment of the demographic and social situation of the country. The examination of case studies in cultures similar to Ghana would also offer valuable lessons. The factors that hinder the acceptance of long-term methods include misconceptions, myths, and false rumors rooted in a general lack of knowledge among the people. Participants were urged to come up with strategies to counter these problems, and service providers were encouraged to improve their knowledge about contraceptive methods and counseling skills. Male involvement in contraception was also advocated. Statistics show that most Ghanians practicing contraception were using short-term methods such as foaming tablets, pills, and condoms. However, it is necessary to shift to long-term methods such as injectables, implants, and sterilization in order to achieve significant reductions in fertility.

  5. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight.

  6. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder.

  7. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  8. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  9. Breakthroughs in long term care design.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, L

    1991-01-01

    In summary, here is what design is trying to accomplish in long term care facilities: Functional access; Privacy as entitlement; Sensory optimization to improve vision and hearing; Reduced walking and wheeling distances that still allow people to be mobile; Effective or functional placement of space and equipment; The option of smaller scale, so neither residents nor staff feel like they are hanging out with a unit full of, perhaps 68, people all the time; Flexibility and adaptability

  10. Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

  11. Long term therapy of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2004-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common (lifetime prevalence: 5.1%), recurrent condition, which often heralds other psychiatric disorders, notably depression. As by definition it is a disorder progressing over months, treatment should be designed on a long term basis. And yet, few studies have been conducted beyond the classical 6-8 weeks characterizing the acute treatment phase. This is especially true of anxiolytics, but also of antidepressants, with the exception of paroxetine and venlafaxine, which are the only drugs approved in this indication in Western countries. The efficacy of psychotherapy, notably relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy, is established in the treatment of GAD, but its preferred indications and possible combination with antidepressants are still to be specified. Long term, not to say very long term studies of GAD, as well as depression, will still be required in the future to improve its management and specify therapeutic modalities (combination treatment, optimal duration, continuous or intermittent therapy, choice of psychotherapeutic techniques or agents, em leader ). Early and adequately prolonged treatment should not only result in more numerous remission periods, but also in decreased frequency of co-morbidities whether depressive, addictive, or of another nature, and should also reduce the social impact of GAD.

  12. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  13. Infective endocarditis: determinants of long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, R O M; Altwegg, S C; Zollinger, E; Täuber, M; Carrel, T; Seiler, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate predictors of long term prognosis in infective endocarditis. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care centre. Patients: 212 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis between 1980 and 1995 Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; event-free survival; and the following events: recurrence, need for late valve surgery, bleeding and embolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, congestive heart failure. Results: During a mean follow up period of 89 months (range 1–244 months), 56% of patients died. In 180 hospital survivors, overall and cardiac mortality amounted to 45% and 24%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, early surgical treatment, infection by streptococci, age < 55 years, absence of congestive heart failure, and > 6 symptoms or signs of endocarditis during active infection were predictive of improved overall long term survival. Independent determinants of event-free survival were infection by streptococci and age < 55 years. Event-free survival was 17% at the end of follow up both in medically–surgically treated patients and in medically treated patients. Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis. PMID:12067947

  14. Related studies in long term lithium battery stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-09-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  15. Related Studies in Long Term Lithium Battery Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  16. Space station experiment definition: Long term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary design of an experiment to demonstrate and evaluate long-term cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies has been performed. This Long-Term Cryogenic Fluid Storage (LTCFS) experiment is a Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment proposed by the NASA Lewis Research Center to be deployed on the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station. Technologies required by future orbital cryogenic systems such as Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) were defined, and critical technologies requiring demonstration were chosen to be included in the experiment. A three-phase test program was defined to test the following types of technologies: (1) Passive Thermal Technologies; (2) Fluid Transfer Technologies; and (3) Active Refrigeration Technologies. The development status of advanced technologies required for the LTCFS experiment is summarized, including current, past and future programs.

  17. 77 FR 74788 - Long-Term Cooling and Unattended Water Makeup of Spent Fuel Pools

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... siphoning of water. A reliable forced cooling system minimizes coolant evaporation during normal operation... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Long-Term Cooling and Unattended Water Makeup of Spent Fuel Pools AGENCY: Nuclear... long-term cooling and unattended water makeup of spent fuel pools (SFP). DATES: The docket for...

  18. 46 CFR 356.43 - Long-term or exclusive sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION Charters, Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.43 Long-term or... the vessel or the vessel's operation, management and harvesting activities. (b) Provisions of a long... owner of vessels covered by the contract or agreement in the event of loss or damage; (4)...

  19. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  20. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  1. Transverse dimension and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Vanarsdall, R L

    1999-09-01

    This article emphasizes the critical importance of the skeletal differential between the width of the maxilla and the width of the mandible. Undiagnosed transverse discrepancy leads to adverse periodontal response, unstable dental camouflage, and less than optimal dentofacial esthetics. Hundreds of adult retreatment patients corrected for significant maxillary transverse deficiency using surgically assisted maxillary expansion (similar to osseous distraction) has produced excellent stability. Eliciting tooth movement for children (orthopedics, lip bumper, Cetlin plate) in all three planes of space by muscles, eruption, and growth, develops the broader arch form (without the mechanical forces of fixed or removable appliances) and has also demonstrated impressive long term stability.

  2. Long-term management of prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Schlechte, Janet A

    2007-08-01

    Prolactinomas are a frequent cause of gonadal dysfunction and infertility, especially in young women. The regulation of prolactin secretion and the efficacy of dopamine agonists in the therapy of prolactinomas are well established. The current challenges in management of prolactinomas are related to follow-up after successful therapy. Issues and questions to be addressed in this approach to long-term management of prolactinomas include the frequency of radiographic monitoring, effect of pregnancy and menopause, safety of estrogen in women taking oral contraceptives, and the potential for discontinuation of dopamine agonist therapy.

  3. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  4. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  5. Results of a Survey of Long-Term Archiving Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA’s Heliophysics Data Management Policy calls for discipline-specific “final archives,” which will be responsible for the long-term archiving and service of Heliophysics mission data. Long-term archival functions, such as periodic revalidation of the data and migration to newer storage media when appropriate, have never been part of the Solar Data Analysis Center core capabilities. We also recognize that the largest space solar physics data set, the SDO AIA and HMI data at the Stanford Joint Science and Operations Center (JSOC), will eventually need preservation and long-term access, as will the potentially much larger data archive of DKIST observations. We have carried out a study of data archiving best practices in other disciplines and organizations, including NASA’s Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and private industry, and report on the lessons learned and possible cost models. We seek input from the broader solar physics community on the relative value of various levels of preservation effort.

  6. Long term efficacy of a pen injector.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, S F; Cronin, C C; O'Sullivan, D J

    1991-09-01

    We assessed the long term efficacy of Novopen as a form of insulin administration. Records were obtained on 48 patients who were treated with Novopen between January '86 and October '88. Six patients were excluded due to insufficient data. The study group of 42 patients comprised 22 females and 20 males of average age 33 years (range 17-66). Mean Hb.A1 rose from 10.6% to 12.1% after Novopen therapy, a rise of 14.1%. This rise is both clinically and statistically significant (p less than 0.001; 99% confidence limits 0.59-2.78). Increases in weight and insulin dose were also noted, but did not reach statistical significance. The majority of patients felt Novopen was superior to twice daily insulin in terms of ease of administration (81%) and flexibility of lifestyle (95%), and all who were using Novopen wished to continue with it. More than 50% of patients admitted to altering their dietary habits while using Novopen. Despite continuing patient satisfaction with this form of insulin administration, its long-term use may be associated with sub-optimal metabolic control.

  7. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  9. Climate Predictability and Long Term Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Liu, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The benefit of climate Long Term Memory (LTM) for long term prediction is assessed using data from a millennium control simulation with the atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM. The forecast skills are evaluated for surface temperature time series at individual grid points. LTM is characterised by the Hurst exponent in the power-law scaling of the fluctuation function which is determined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). LTM with a Hurst exponent close to 0.9 occurs mainly in high latitude oceans, which are also characterized by high potential predictability. Climate predictability is diagnosed in terms of potentially predictable variance fractions. Explicit prediction experiments for various time steps are conducted on a grid point basis using an auto-correlation (AR1) predictor: in regions with LTM, prediction skills are beyond that expected from red noise persistence; exceptions occur in some areas in the southern oceans and over the northern hemisphere continents. Extending the predictability analysis to the fully forced simulation shows large improvement in prediction skills.

  10. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  11. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers.

  12. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  13. Long-term experience with indapamide.

    PubMed

    Beling, S; Vukovich, R A; Neiss, E S; Zisblatt, M; Webb, E; Losi, M

    1983-07-01

    Indapamide, 2.5 mg administered once daily for periods up to 36 months, was found to be safe and effective for the long-term control of mild to moderate hypertension. The effects of hydrochlorothiazide, 50 mg, and indapamide, 2.5 mg, were studied in two randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials. Data from the two multicenter trials (20 study sites) were pooled for purposes of comparison. Significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with patients in both supine and standing positions, occurred in both groups within the first 8 weeks of treatment. This effect was maintained throughout the active treatment period. Success, as determined by the therapeutic success rate (percentage of patients with decreases of standing phase V diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg or to below 90 mm Hg), occurred in 53% of the patients given hydrochlorothiazide and in 56% of the indapamide-treated patients. During the study period, the nature, frequency, and severity of adverse reactions were similar for both groups. There was no clinically significant difference between the treatment groups for the laboratory assessments. Patients who completed the multicenter trials were eligible for participation in an ongoing long-term extension study of the safety of indapamide. Data are available for periods up to 36 months and demonstrate neither augmentation of clinical or laboratory adverse effects nor any potentially harmful indicators that could be attributed to prolonged treatment.

  14. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

  15. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  16. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  17. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n = 5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  18. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  19. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  20. Technology for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices.

  1. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  2. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  3. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  4. [Childhood liver transplantation. Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto

    2010-05-01

    Liver transplantation allows long-term survival (10 years or more) in 75% of children receiving transplants before 2000. The risk of mortality after the first year is 4-10% in the next 10-20 years. Chronic rejection affects 6%. The need for late retransplantation is 3-5%. However, the follow-up of these patients involves the management of diverse problems in the graft (immunological, biliary, vascular) and others related to the use of immunosuppressants (renal dysfunction, lymphoproliferative syndrome). The transition from pediatric to adult care generates special needs. Adolescence and young adulthood are associated with a lack of compliance. Adult specialists should be aware of the special features of the original diagnosis and the surgical techniques used in childhood transplantation. Final quality of life is good overall but is lower than that in healthy young persons.

  5. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  6. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].

    PubMed

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  7. Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Long-term monitoring for closed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Neurotoxicity testing during long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Ivens, I

    1990-01-01

    Several tests and methods for the investigation of neurotoxicity were performed with female Wistar rats for up to 187 days. The methods were validated by testing 10 rats treated with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) and 10 control rats. Cage side observation of the animals revealed signs of altered behavior and motor dysfunction of the IDPN-treated rats. Results of a neuromuscular screen indicated changes in gait, righting reflex, grip strength and performance of the negative geotropism test. Investigation of the animals in activity monitors and on the accelerating rotarod showed changes of several parameters. The motor nerve conduction velocity, measured 6 months after the first treatment, was reduced by 6.7 meters per second in the IDPN group compared to controls. From the results of the tests it can be concluded that the methods chosen can be used during long-term studies but may be most useful for animals not older than 12 months.

  10. Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

  11. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Caione, Paolo; Nappo, Simona Gerocarni

    2011-10-01

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence, and fertility/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical interview, creatinine clearance, uroflowmetry with ultrasound post-void urine residue, and self-administered questionnaire were recorded. Out of 45 identified records, 24 patients (53.3%) accepted to be enrolled (age 18-34 years, mean 23 years). The mean follow-up was 19.5 years (16-30 years). Out of the 21 excluded patients, 20 did not reply to the clinical interview and 1 died at age of 6 years. All the 24 patients had early endoscopic section of PUV; nine also received transient ureterocutaneostomy or vesicostomy. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in five patients and ureterocystoplasty with unilateral nephrectomy in two. At follow-up chronic renal failure was detected in 13 patients (54.1%) and 9 (37.5%) had arterial hypertension. End-stage renal disease developed in five patients (20.8%): three had successful renal transplantation and two were in dialysis. Lower urinary tract symptoms were present in seven patients (29.1%). No significant fertility deficit and sexual dysfunction were observed in 23 patients, while 1 patient was azoospermic. No paternity was reported so far. Long-term outcome of patients with previously treated PUV is mandatory. Kidney, bladder, and sexual functions should be monitored till adulthood to verify any modified behaviour.

  12. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  13. Home health, long-term care, and other compliance activities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D; Sadoff, J W

    1999-04-01

    The Federal government continues to crack down on fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry with such initiatives and tools as Operation Restore Trust and intermediate tax sanctions. Home health and long-term care organizations are the latest entities under study by the Office of Inspector General, and the result of these studies likely will be more antifraud and abuse measures being taken against these entities. All healthcare organizations should pay particular attention to their tax risk exposure. Healthcare organizations that put effective compliance programs in place should be able to reduce the overall risk of challenges to their financial practices.

  14. Long term prediction and the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Talman, R.

    1990-09-01

    Successful operation of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will depend on the stable circulation of particles for tens of millions of turns around the rings, in the presence of small nonlinear deflecting fields. One design challenge is to set specifications for the maximum allowable field imperfections of this sort, consistent with the required. stability. Another challenge is to plan for the inclusion of field compensating elements that will ameliorate the effects of errors. The tools'' available for projecting the long term stability are theoretical, both analytic and numerical, and experimental. These aspects are reviewed. 19 refs.

  15. Evaluation of long term performance of continuously running atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James L.; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2014-06-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the US Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below 2 × 10-13 and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low 10-16 s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing 6 × 10-17 at 107 s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of 7.5 × 10-19/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of 1 × 10-13 and long-term frequency stability consistent with zero drift relative to the world's primary standards at 1 × 10-18/day. The rubidium fountains are reported to the BIPM as continuously running clocks, as opposed to secondary standards, the only cold-atom clocks so reported. Here we further characterize the performance of the individual fountains and the ensemble during the first two years in an operational environment, presenting the first look at long-term continuous behavior of fountain clocks.

  16. Non-intrusive long-term monitoring approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, D.; Mangan, D.

    1998-08-01

    In order to promote internatinal confidence that the US and Russia are disarming per their commitments under Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an international verification regime may be applied to US and Russian excess fissile materials. Initially, it is envisioned that this verification regime would be applied at storage facilities; however, it should be anticipated that the verificatino regime would continue throughout any material disposition activities, should such activities be pursued. once the materials are accepted into the verification regime, it is assumed that long term monitoring will be used to maintain continuity of knowledge. The requirements for long term storage monitoring include unattended operation for extended periods of time, minimal intrusiveness on the host nation`s safety and security activities, data collection incorporating data authentication, and monitoring redundancy to allow resolution of anomalies and to continue coverage in the event of equipment failures. Additional requirements include effective data review and analysis processes, operation during storage facility loading, procedure for removal of inventory items for safety-related surveillance, and low cost, reliable equipment. A monitoring system might include both continuous monitoring of storagecontainers and continuous area monitoring. These would be complemented with periodic on-site inspections. A fissile material storage facility is not a static operation. The initial studies have shown there are a number of volid reasions why a host nation may need them to remove material from the storage facility. A practical monitoring system must be able to accommodate necessary material movements.

  17. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  18. Long-term Changes in Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S.; Lefohn, A.; Galbally, I.; Scheel, E.; Bodeker, G.; Brunke, E.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D.; Simmonds, P.; Anlauf, K.; Schmidlin, F.; Akagi, K.; Redondas, A.

    2006-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone measurements from a selected network of surface and ozonesonde sites are used to give a broad geographic picture of long-term variations. The picture of long-term tropospheric ozone changes is a varied one in terms of both the sign and magnitude of trends and in the possible causes for the changes. At mid latitudes of the S.H. three time series of ~20 years in length agree in showing increases that are strongest in the austral spring (August-October). Profile measurements show this increase extending through the mid troposphere but not into the highest levels of the troposphere. In the N.H. in the Arctic a period of declining ozone in the troposphere through the 1980s into the mid 1990s has reversed and the overall change is small. The decadal-scale variations in the troposphere in this region are related in part to changes in the lowermost stratosphere. At mid latitudes in the N.H., continental Europe and Japan showed significant increases in the 1970s and 1980s. Over North America rises in the 1970s are less than those seen in Europe and Japan, suggesting significant regional differences. In all three of these mid latitude, continental regions tropospheric ozone amounts appear to have leveled off or in some cases declined in the more recent decades. Over the North Atlantic three widely separated sites show significant increases since the late 1990s that may have peaked in recent years. In the N.H. tropics both the surface record and the ozonesondes in Hawaii show a significant increase in the autumn months in the most recent decade compared to earlier periods that drives the overall increase seen in the 30 year record. This appears to be related to a shift in the transport pattern during this season with more frequent flow from higher latitudes in the latest decade. The pattern of change, with the largest increases in the N.H. coming prior to the mid 1980s, suggests that increased positive radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone was felt

  19. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  20. Long-term outcome after anterior cervical discectomy without fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    To retrospectively study the long-term outcome of patients after anterior cervical discectomy without fusion (ACD) compared to results published on the long-term outcome after ACD with fusion (ACDF). We reviewed the charts of all patients receiving ACD surgery between 1985 and 2000 to analyze the direct post-operative results as well as complications of the surgery. Moreover, 102 patients, randomly selected, were interviewed with the neck disability index to study possible persisting complaints up to 18 years after ACD surgery. A total of 551 Patients were identified. Two months post-operative follow up at the outpatient clinic revealed that 90.1% of patients were satisfied with the result of ACD surgery. At the time of the survey, this percentage had dropped to 67.6%. In addition, 20.6% and 11.8% had obtained moderate to severe complaints, respectively, in daily-life activities. Complaints were mainly localized in the neck region and occasionally provoked radiating pain in the arm. On the short term, ACD leads to a satisfied outcome. Over the longer term, patients report increasing complaints. The increase in complaints at the time of the survey may be the result of ongoing degenerative effects. Compared to published data on ACDF, there is no superiority of any fusion technique compared to ACD alone. PMID:17262184

  1. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  2. Evaluating Long-Term Care Through the Humanbecoming Lens.

    PubMed

    Hart, Judith D

    2015-10-01

    The author describes evaluating long-term care from the humanbecoming perspective. Three core ideas are presented related to dignity and living quality, and how the humanbecoming perspective can be incorporated into long-term care evaluations that make a difference to the residents, caregivers, management, and to the outcomes of long-term care. This approach from the humanbecoming perspective can enrich evaluative information, influence long-term care outcomes, and ensure human dignity for all concerned.

  3. Long-term data storage in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  4. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  5. Long-term potentiation: peeling the onion.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

    2013-11-01

    Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'.

  6. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  7. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of the central nervous system’s (CNS’s) sensory connectivity is driven by modality-specific sensory input in early life. For the somatosensory system, this input is the physical, tactile interaction with the environment. Nociceptive circuitry is functioning at the time of birth; however, there is still considerable organization and refinement of this circuitry that occurs postnatally, before full discrimination of tactile and noxious input is possible. This fine-tuning involves separation of tactile and nociceptive afferent input to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn and the maturation of local and descending inhibitory circuitry. Disruption of that input in early postnatal life (for example, by tissue injury or other noxious stimulus), can have a profound influence on subsequent development, and consequently the mature functioning of pain systems. In this review, the impact of neonatal surgical incision on nociceptive circuitry is discussed in terms of the underlying developmental neurobiology. The changes are complex, occurring at multiple anatomical sites within the CNS, and including both neuronal and glial cell populations. The altered sensory input from neonatal injury selectively modulates neuronal excitability within the spinal cord, disrupts inhibitory control, and primes the immune system, all of which contribute to the adverse long-term consequences of early pain exposure. PMID:26174217

  8. [Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Al Yami, E A; van 't Hof, M A

    2000-04-01

    Aim of this study was to assess long-term stability of orthodontic treatment in a sample of 1016 patients until 10 years postretention. Treatment outcome was measured with the PAR-index at 6 different stages. The mean age of the patients was 12.0 +/- 3.1 year at the start of treatment to 26.3 +/- 2.9 year 10 years postretention. The results show that 67% of the orthodontic treatment result, as measured with the PAR-index, was maintained 10 years postretention. The PAR-scores for the midline and the open bite remained about the same over the years. However, the scores for the lateral occlusion, overjet, reversed overjet, overbite, and contact point displacement of the upper and lower front teeth increased gradually over time. Nearly 50% of the total relapse took place the first two years after retention. The largest change was found for the position of the lower incisors. Ten years postretention their position was even worse than at the start of treatment.

  9. Long-term in vivo pineal microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing; Liu, Tiecheng; Deng, Jie; Borjigin, Jimo

    2003-09-01

    This study describes the development of a new technique for long-term measurement of daily 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats. The technique features a number of novel improvements over previous protocols. It allows visualization of the pineal gland for accurate targeting of the guide cannula, which minimizes bleeding; incurs no direct injury to the surrounding brain tissues; and causes no interference with the sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglia. Robust releases of melatonin and indole precursors were continuously monitored quantitatively and reproducibly for more than 2 wk in the same animal. In addition, effects of pharmacological agents on in vivo pineal circadian rhythms can be studied reproducibly over time, and gene expression profiles can be correlated with physiological consequences in single animals. Using these approaches, it is found that beta-adrenergic activation leads to decreased release of 5-HT, and that increased cAMP signaling in vivo results in activation of N-acetyltransferase gene induction and melatonin production. These studies will enhance the understanding of signaling pathways that regulate pineal 5-HT and melatonin synthesis and secretion.

  10. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  11. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  12. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  13. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    PubMed

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV(-) optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV(-) ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV(-) ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  14. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  15. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study.

  16. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  17. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  18. Review of long-term results of stereotactic psychosurgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Choi, Chang-Rak

    2002-09-01

    Stereotactic psychosurgery is an effective method for treating some medically intractable psychiatric illnesses. However, it is unfamiliar and the long-term clinical results have not been reported in Asia. The long-term results of psychosurgery are evaluated and the neuroanatomical basis is discussed. Twenty-one patients underwent stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable psychiatric illnesses since 1993. All were referred from psychiatrists for these disorders. Two patients showed aggressive behavior, 12 had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seven had depression with anxiety disorders. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were performed for aggressive behavior, limbic leucotomy was performed for OCD, and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was performed for depression with anxiety. OCD was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the visual analogue scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were used for the evaluation of aggressive behavior. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was used for evaluation of depression. Ventriculography was used in the first seven patients and magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotaxy was used in the recent 14 cases for localization of the target. The lesions were made with a radiofrequency lesion generator. OAS scores in the two patients with aggressive behavior during follow up declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement. All 12 patients with OCD returned to their previous life and showed the mean YBOCS scores decreased from 34 to 3. Ten patients with OCD could be followed up (mean 45 months). All patients returned to their previous social life. In seven patients with depression with anxiety, HAMD scores declined from 28.5 to 16.5. There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except for one case of mild

  19. Adults with VATER association: long-term prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Patricia G; Weaver, David D

    2005-10-15

    VATER "association" is a common condition, with the diagnosis typically based on a characteristic constellation of congenital anomalies. Reported long-term follow-up information on VATER association is limited, thus making it difficult to prognosticate the future of infants and children with this condition. Further, there are few data on how often the initial diagnosis of VATER association is correct. Some information has been published on growth deficiency and mental retardation, but these data are minimal [Bull et al., 1985; Mapstone et al., 1986; Weaver et al., 1986] and for the most part look at children under the age of 10 years. We have undertaken a long-term follow-up of individuals with VATER association originally reported by Weaver et al. [1986] or diagnosed with VATER association by his associates and him after 1986. Out of the 50 patients, we were able to contact 20 individuals or families. Two of the 20 individuals had died: 1 at 3 days with cardiac failure due to a truncus arteriosus, and 1 at 4 years of unspecified cause. Two were unwilling to participate. Of the rest, we interviewed and examined seven persons, and interviewed another nine by telephone. Of the 16, 5 had some degree of cognitive impairment. These individuals were more likely to have congenital anomalies outside of the typical scope of VATER association, such as prune belly sequence or findings of CHARGE association. Of the nine individuals with a history of imperforate anus, five had partial or complete incontinence as adults leading to difficulties in maintaining employment. Height was at the 5th centile or less in 6 of 16 patients. Three of four patients who were trying to have children, had infertility. In two women, the infertility was thought to be related to congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system and multiple pelvic operations. We also present the long-term medical and neurologic problems in these individuals.

  20. Benchmarking 2010: measuring long-term care and consultant pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2011-07-01

    The American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, with support from the pharmacy management software company QS/1, has completed its 2010 survey to determine industry standards for long-term care pharmacy operations, consultant pharmacist practice, and the use of health information technology in the long-term care setting. The report presents data collected in this annual business benchmarking survey. Examples of data include gross profit margins of long-term care/closed-door pharmacies, pharmacists' salaries, prescription payer mix, consultant pharmacist productivity and contracting, and implementation of technology solutions such as ePrescribing, electronic medication administration records, electronic medical records, and automated dispensing.

  1. The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

  2. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  3. Modeling maintenance of long-term potentiation in clustered synapses: long-term memory without bistability.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the "clustered plasticity hypothesis" which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory.

  4. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  5. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  6. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  7. Multiphase pumping: The lessons of long-term field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elf-Aquitaine, E.L.; Taiani, S.

    1995-12-31

    The field testing of a POSEIDON rotodynamic helicoaxial pump (P302) manufactured by SULZER is being conducted since June 1994 on the Elf Aquitaine`s onshore site of the PECORADE oil field located in the south-west of France. This one-year testing program is aimed at qualifying this design of multiphase pump for future field applications. The multiphase pump has been previously tested at the IFP`s test loop of SOLAIZE for factory acceptance and performance test. This paper describes the PECORADE multiphase loop, the multiphase pump testing procedures and the results obtained in the field of performance, sensitivity, and endurance. The operational and maintenance lessons to be learned from this long-term field testing are presented from the point of view of the operator.

  8. Data Homogenization of the NOAA Long-Term Ozonesonde Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B.; Cullis, P.; Sterling, C. W.; Jordan, A. F.; Hall, E. G.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Mcconville, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA long term balloon-borne ozonesonde sites at Boulder, Colorado; Hilo, Hawaii; and South Pole Station, Antarctica have measured weekly ozone profiles for more than 3 decades. The ozonesonde consists of an electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sensor interfaced with a weather radiosonde which transmits high resolution ozone and meteorological data during ascent from the surface to 30-35 km altitude. During this 30 year time period there have been several model changes in the commercially available ECC ozonesondes and radiosondes as well as three adjustments in the ozone sensor solution composition at NOAA. These changes were aimed at optimizing the ozonesonde performance. Organized intercomparison campaigns conducted at the environmental simulation facility at the Research Centre Juelich, Germany and international field site testing have been the primary process for assessing new designs, instruments, or sensor solution changes and developing standard operating procedures. NOAA has also performed in-house laboratory tests and launched 28 dual ozonesondes at various sites since 1994 to provide further comparison data to determine the optimum homogenized data set. The final homogenization effort involved reviewing and editing several thousand individual ozonesonde profiles followed by applying the optimum correction algorithms for changes in type of sensor solution composition. The results of improved data sets will be shown with long term trends and uncertainties at various altitude levels.

  9. Long-term bioventing performance in low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.B.; Stanin, F.T.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short-term and long-term bioventing treatability testing has shown that in situ air injection and extraction is a practical method for sustaining increased oxygen levels and enhancing aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low-permeability soils. At several test sites, initial physical parameter analysis of soils and air permeability tests indicated that impacted soils (fine sandy silts and clays) had low air permeabilities. Measurements of depleted soil-gas oxygen levels and increased soil-gas carbon dioxide levels indicated that the natural process of aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was oxygen-limited. Initial treatability testing consisted of air permeability tests to measure the permeability of the soils to air and in situ respiration tests to measure the rates at which native microorganisms could biodegrade the contaminants when provided with sufficient oxygen. During the long-term treatment period, active air injection or extraction systems were operated for 1 year or longer. Soil gas was periodically monitored within the treatment zone to evaluate the success of the bioventing systems in increasing soil-gas oxygen levels in the low-permeability soils. Follow-up respiration tests and soil and soil-gas sampling were conducted to evaluate changes in respiration rates and contaminant concentrations with time.

  10. The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition.

    PubMed

    Berner, Robert A

    2003-11-20

    The long-term carbon cycle operates over millions of years and involves the exchange of carbon between rocks and the Earth's surface. There are many complex feedback pathways between carbon burial, nutrient cycling, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen, and climate. New calculations of carbon fluxes during the Phanerozoic eon (the past 550 million years) illustrate how the long-term carbon cycle has affected the burial of organic matter and fossil-fuel formation, as well as the evolution of atmospheric composition.

  11. [The Development of Long-Term Care Policies and the Impact on Nursing].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tsai, Yin-Yin; Yeh, Shin-Ting

    2015-10-01

    The government must reform and enhance current medical and long-term care services in order to respond effectively to societal ageing and labor shortage trends and to ensure sustainable operations. The post-acute care system should be reoriented on the home and community instead of the hospital. The Long Term Care Service Act integrates long-term care services that were previously dispersed amongst different departments, sets up a long-term care development fund, and improves the quality and allocation of long-term care services. Moreover, the Long Term Care Insurance Act will implement a bundle payment system to assist disabled families. The integration of automation and information technology will make long-term care more efficient. Although nurses are more skilled at elderly care and counseling than other community care professionals, nurses generally lack training in business management. Home and community-based services thus require better-trained manpower, opportunities to set care agents, and opportunities to offer flexible caring jobs. Therefore, nurses should strengthen their capabilities in post-acute care, business management, cooperation, and coordination.

  12. Pulmonary complications after long term amiodarone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Roca, J; Heras, M; Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Magriñà, J; Xaubet, A; Sanz, G

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amiodarone hydrochloride is an antiarrhythmic agent useful in arrhythmias refractory to standard therapy. Although interstitial pneumonitis is known to be its most serious side effect, several aspects of amiodarone lung toxicity are still controversial. METHODS: Pulmonary side effects were examined in a sample of 61 symptomless patients (mean (SD) age 55 (7) years) who had had long term treatment with amiodarone (daily maintenance dose 400 mg), selected from 482 men attending the University of Barcelona myocardial infarction project. To allow for the confounding effects of coronary artery disease and tobacco history on lung function, 46 patients who had taken amiodarone for more than one year were matched with a control group from the same population. Subjects underwent measurement of lung volumes, arterial blood gas analysis and an incremental bicycle exercise test. RESULTS: Most lung function values were close to predicted values, though there was a small increase in resting alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (A-aDO2) at rest (4.8 (1.4) kPa in both groups). There were no differences in the results of forced spirometry or static lung volumes between the two groups, or in the fall in A-aDO2 from rest to exercise. There was a small difference between the amiodarone and the control group in transfer factor for carbon monoxide corrected for lung volume (KCO 1.67 (0.3) and 1.83 (0.3) mmol min-1 kPa-1 l-1 respectively) and in exercise capacity (140 (25) and 120 (30)w). Only three patients showed lung function impairment consistent with pneumonitis. No relation between lung function measures and cumulative doses of amiodarone or desethylamiodarone was found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of clinically evident pulmonary side effects was 4.9%, which is lower than that reported in studies in which higher daily maintenance doses of amiodarone were given. The slightly lower KCO values and lower work load achieved by the patients taking amiodarone suggest a

  13. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  14. Radiofrequency volumetric inferior turbinate reduction: long-term clinical results.

    PubMed

    De Corso, E; Bastanza, G; Di Donfrancesco, V; Guidi, M L; Morelli Sbarra, G; Passali, G C; Poscia, A; de Waure, C; Paludetti, G; Galli, J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess long-term results of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction of inferior turbinates (RVTR). We performed a prospective long-term longitudinal evaluation of 305 patients affected by rhinitis (114 allergic and 191 non-allergic) who were unresponsive to medical treatment and underwent RVTR (January 2004 - December 2010). Subjects were followed for a mean period of 39.70 ± 19.41 months (range 24-60). Patients completed the NOSE-scale questionnaire pre- and post-operatively after 1 month and yearly for 5-years. Recurrence was assumed if the post-operative total NOSE score increased by at least 75% during follow-up and the patient restarted medical treatments. Estimation of relapse over time was performed by Kaplan-Meyer analyses. We documented overall good satisfaction of patients regarding the procedure, with a good rate of pain control and a low rate of complications. Post-operatively there was a significant improvement in nasal stuffiness, nasal obstruction and mouth breathing (p < 0.05). We observed a worsening trend for symptoms after 36 months with progressive increasing rate of recurrences that were significantly higher in allergic than non-allergic patients (p < 0.05). We also observed a slight worsening trend of global satisfaction of patients. Our study confirms the minor discomfort and low risk of side effects of RVTR. Our data showed good efficacy of the procedure in the majority of patients for at least 36 months after surgery, and in fact in this time period the cumulative probability to remain relapse-free was up to 0.8. In the following 2 years, we observed a worse temporal trend in term of recurrence rate, and in particular in allergic patients with a significant difference vs non-allergic individuals (p < 0.05).

  15. On-demand supply of slurry fuels to a porous anode of a direct carbon fuel cell: Attempts to increase fuel-anode contact and realize long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengguo; Yi, Hakgyu; Lee, Donggeun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel idea that might allow resolution of the two biggest challenges that hinder practical use of direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC). This work involved 1) the use of three types of porous Ni anode with different pore sizes, 2) size matching between the anode pores and solid fuel particles in a molten-carbonate (MC) slurry, and 3) provision of a continuous supply of fuel-MC slurry through the porous Ni anode. As a result, larger numbers of smaller pores in the anode were preferred for extending the triple phase boundary (TPB), as long as the fuel particles were sufficiently small to have full access to the inner pore spaces of the anode. For example, the maximal power density achieved in the case of optimal size matching, reached 645 mW cm-2, which is 14-times greater than that for the case of poorest size-matching and 64-times larger than that for a non-porous anode, and lasted for more than 20 h. After 20 h of steady operation at a fixed current density (700 mA cm-2), the electric potential slightly decreased due to partial consumption of the fuel. The cell performance readily recovered after restarting the supply of MC-fuel slurry.

  16. Approaches to accountability in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Berta, Whitney; Laporte, Audrey; Wodchis, Walter P

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the array of approaches to accountability in Ontario long-term care (LTC) homes. A focus group involving key informants from the LTC industry, including both for-profit and not-for-profit nursing home owners/operators, was used to identify stakeholders involved in formulating and implementing LTC accountability approaches and the relevant regulations, policies and initiatives relating to accountability in the LTC sector. These documents were then systematically reviewed. We found that the dominant mechanisms have been financial incentives and oversight, regulations and information; professionalism has played a minor role. More recently, measurement for accountability in LTC has grown to encompass an array of fiscal, clinical and public accountability measurement mechanisms. The goals of improved quality and accountability are likely more achievable using these historical regulatory approaches, but the recent rapid increase in data and measurability could also enable judicious application of market-based approaches.

  17. Approaches to Accountability in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Berta, Whitney; Laporte, Audrey; Wodchis, Walter P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the array of approaches to accountability in Ontario long-term care (LTC) homes. A focus group involving key informants from the LTC industry, including both for-profit and not-for-profit nursing home owners/operators, was used to identify stakeholders involved in formulating and implementing LTC accountability approaches and the relevant regulations, policies and initiatives relating to accountability in the LTC sector. These documents were then systematically reviewed. We found that the dominant mechanisms have been financial incentives and oversight, regulations and information; professionalism has played a minor role. More recently, measurement for accountability in LTC has grown to encompass an array of fiscal, clinical and public accountability measurement mechanisms. The goals of improved quality and accountability are likely more achievable using these historical regulatory approaches, but the recent rapid increase in data and measurability could also enable judicious application of market-based approaches. PMID:25305396

  18. [Patient education: the way for long-term follow up].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J

    2008-06-04

    Therapeutic education is now perfectly integrated in caring and medicine. Its field of application is primarily in chronic diseases for the acquisition of competences in the management of treatments, in co-operation with health professionals. In ambulatory medicine, patients and health professionals are currently running up against the difficulties of the long-term follow-up with its part of uncertainty, lassitude and economic pressure. EBM and the various models of health psychology light us only partially the way. A new type of reflexive step is emerging. This way of thinking should place in its center the concept of therapeutic relation: between science and being. We summarize here our reflexive process in the course of an interdisciplinary team gathering social sciences, art and medicine.

  19. Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Modo, M; Stroemer, R P; Tang, E; Veizovic, T; Sowniski, P; Hodges, H

    2000-12-15

    Animal models of stroke, notably transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), are used to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and transplant treatments. Long-term studies (>1 month) of the functional effects of treatments in animal models are required to predict treatments likely to improve dysfunctions associated with stroke damage. These pre-clinical studies require (1) optimum post-operative care to ensure long-term survival, (2) methods for assignment of rats to groups with equivalent impairments to reduce variability and enhance detection of treatment effects, and (3) behavioural tests that detect long-term stable deficits. For long-term functional assessment, a battery of behavioural tests sensitive to a range of deficits observed after MCAo was developed. The bilateral asymmetry test evaluated the time course of sensory neglect. Deficits of motor integration were examined in the footfault test, and motor bias was assessed by pharmacological stimulation of rotation. The water maze was used to detect long-term deficits in spatial information processing. Long-term differences between control and MCAo animals in this battery of tests indicate that the protocol provides an efficient assessment suitable for evaluating treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies of stroke, and that the post-operative care procedure and method of assignment to groups were effective.

  20. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  1. Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Artola, A; Singer, W

    1993-11-01

    In many brain areas, including the cerebellar cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, striatum and nucleus accumbens, brief activation of an excitatory pathway can produce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. In most preparations, induction of LTD has been shown to require a minimum level of postsynaptic depolarization and a rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in the postsynaptic neurone. Thus, induction conditions resemble those described for the initiation of associative long-term potentiation (LTP). However, data from structures susceptible to both LTD and LTP suggest that a stronger depolarization and a greater increase in [Ca2+]i are required to induce LTP than to initiate LTD. The source of Ca2+ appears to be less critical for the differential induction of LTP and LTD than the amplitude of the Ca2+ surge, since the activation of voltage- and ligand-gated Ca2+ conductances as well as the release from intracellular stores have all been shown to contribute to both LTD and LTP induction. LTD is induceable even at inactive synapses if [Ca2+]i is raised to the appropriate level by antidromic or heterosynaptic activation, or by raising the extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]o. These conditions suggest a rule (called here the ABS rule) for activity-dependent synaptic modifications that differs from the classical Hebb rule and that can account for both homosynaptic LTD and LTP as well as for heterosynaptic competition and associativity.

  2. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  4. Long-term survival after chronic subdural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Appukutty; Marshman, Laurence A G; Johnston, Ross

    2016-12-01

    Outcome after chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is invariably assumed favourable: however, little data regarding long term survival (LTS) exists. One study reported excess mortality restricted to year 1, but with expected actuarial rates thereafter. We aimed to determine LTS after CSDH in a retrospective analysis relative to actuarial data from age-matched controls. Data was obtained in n=155, (M:F 97:58, 69.3±2.3years). Follow-up maxima was 14.19years (mean: 4.02±3.07years, median: 5.2years). Mortality in-hospital, at 6months, 1year, 2years and 5years was n=13 (8.39%), n=22 (14.19%), n=31 (20.35%), n=42 (27.1%) and n=54 (34.84%). LTS was significantly worse than controls (5.29±0.59years vs. 17.74±1.8years, hazard ratio [HR]: 3.52, P<0.0001). Death most frequently related to pneumonia/sepsis and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Median modified Rankin score (mRS) in those discharged home (n=94, 60.65%) was 2 [IQR: 1-3]. Discharge mRS in those who died at 6months, 1year, 2years and 5years was 5 [IQR: 3-6], 5 [IQR: 4-6], 3 [IQR: 1-3], 4 [IQR: 2-5]. Discharge mRS was significantly worse with year 1 mortality (P=0.014). LTS related to discharge mRS (HR: 37.006, P<0.001), post-operative motor-score (HR: 0.581, P=0.0026), IHD (HR: 5.186, P=0.005), warfarin-use (HR: 5.93, P=0.036) and dementia (HR: 5.39, P=0.031). No long term recurrences (LTR) were recorded. Although most were discharged home with mRS=2, LTS was markedly less than previously reported: peers lived 12.4years longer. Although greater in year 1, excess mortality was not restricted to year 1, but continued throughout prolonged follow-up. LTS related to discharge disability and dependence, and co-morbid risk factors for cerebral atrophy. No LTR suggests that, once ultimately closed, the 'subdural space' remains closed. CSDH patients represent a vulnerable group who require continued long-term medical surveillance.

  5. An electric propulsion long term test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, G.; James, E.; Vetrone, R.; Bechtel, R.

    1979-01-01

    An existing test facility was modified to provide for extended testing of multiple electric propulsion thruster subsystems. A program to document thruster subsystem characteristics as a function of time is currently in progress. The facility is capable of simultaneously operating three 2.7-kW, 30-cm mercury ion thrusters and their power processing units. Each thruster is installed via a separate air lock so that it can be extended into the 7m x 10m main chamber without violating vacuum integrity. The thrusters exhaust into a 3m x 5m frozen mercury target. An array of cryopanels collect sputtered target material. Power processor units are tested in an adjacent 1.5m x 2m vacuum chamber or accompanying forced convection enclosure. The thruster subsystems and the test facility are designed for automatic unattended operation with thruster operation computer controlled. Test data are recorded by a central data collection system scanning 200 channels of data a second every two minutes. Results of the Systems Demonstration Test, a short shakedown test of 500 hours, and facility performance during the first year of testing are presented.

  6. Enhanced Polyhydroxybutyrate Production for Long-Term Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, Ryan J.; Rahman, Asif; Miller, Charles D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to polypropylene and a Youngs modulus close to polystyrene. Due to limited resources and cost of transportation, large-scale extraction of biologically produced products in situ is extremely cumbersome during space flight. To that end, we are developing a secretion systems for exporting PHA from the cell in order to reduce unit operations. PHAs granules deposited inside bacteria are typically associated with proteins bound to the granule surface. Phasin, a granule bound protein, was targeted for type I secretion by fusion with HlyA signal peptide for indirect secretion of PHAs. In order to validate our secretion strategy, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tagged to the PHA polymerase enzyme (phaC), this three part gene cassette consists of phaA and phaB and are required for PHA production. Producing PHAs in situ during space flight or planet colonization will enable mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications thereby reducing resupply requirements. Biologically produced PHAs can be used in additive manufacturing such as three dimensional (3D) printing to create products that can be made on demand during space flight. After exceeding their lifetime, the PHAs could be melted and recycled back to 3D print other products. We will discuss some of our long term goals of this approach.

  7. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  8. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will also permit

  9. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  10. Supravalvular aortic stenosis. Long-term results of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    van Son, J A; Danielson, G K; Puga, F J; Schaff, H V; Rastogi, A; Edwards, W D; Feldt, R H

    1994-01-01

    To determine long-term outcome after operation for supravalvular aortic stenosis, we reviewed the case histories of 80 patients who had repair of the localized form (group A) (n = 67) or diffuse form (group B) (n = 13) from 1956 to 1992, including 31 patients with the Williams-Beuren syndrome. Ages ranged from 7 months to 54 years (mean = 12.6 years). Forty-six patients had one or more associated cardiovascular anomalies; the most common was aortic valve stenosis (33.8%). Eighteen patients had 22 previous cardiovascular operations, and 28 patients had one or more additional anomalies repaired during their initial procedure at our institution. In group A, the aortic root was enlarged with a teardrop-shaped patch (n = 61) or a pantaloon-shaped patch (n = 6). In group B, patch enlargement of the aorta was confined to the root (n = 4) or extended into the ascending aorta or aortic arch (n = 7); one patient had a graft placed between the ascending and descending thoracic aorta and one patient had a left ventricular-aortic conduit. There were no deaths in group A; two patients in group B in whom patch enlargement was confined to the aortic root died during the operation (2.5%). Follow-up extended to 33.4 years (mean = 14.2 years); there were five late deaths in group A and one in group B. Survival excluding operative mortality was 94% at 10 years and 91% at 20 years. All patients were in functional class I or II. There was no significant difference between patients with a teardrop-shaped or pantaloon-shaped patch in terms of late gradient, survival, or aortic insufficiency. By Cox multivariate model, the only independent predictor of late death for all patients was associated aortic valve disease (p = 0.02), which was also a risk factor for late reoperation (p = 0.02). In group B, overall survival was better in patients who received an extended patch versus aortic root patch only (p = 0.02). We reached the following conclusions: (1) Associated aortic valve disease was

  11. A long-term ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Pierce, W S; Snyder, A J; Rosenberg, G; Weiss, W J; Pae, W E; Waldhausen, J A

    1993-03-01

    An implantable, electrically powered pump that will provide tether-free circulatory support is being developed. The blood pump consists of a seamless polyurethane sac within a polysulfone case. Björk-Shiley Monostrut valves provide unidirectional flow. The blood sac is compressed by a pusher plate with a stroke of 1.9 cm and actuated by a brushless direct-current electric motor and motion translator. The current unit is completely sealed, and inductive coupling techniques provide the electrical energy. The system has an implantable electronic control system as well as a battery that provides 30 minutes of operation when the external coil is disconnected. During normal operation, however, the pump is powered by a portable battery pack or by house current. The unit can pump 8.5 L/min at physiologic pressures. Twenty-six animals have had circulatory support for a period of more than 1 week. The average period of pumping was 62 days; the longest was nearly 8 months. Experiments were terminated in 18 animals because of pump-related problems and in 8 because of biologically related problems. Studies to date are very encouraging and suggest that, with further refinement, a reliable 2-year assist pump that will have important clinical application can be developed.

  12. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society.

  13. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  14. Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalic, Sharon Wofford; Elliott, Delbert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the short- and long-term consequences of working during adolescence. Responses from 1,725 adolescents reveal that the negative short-term effects are in the domains of school, family and friend bonding, beliefs, and substance use. The long-term beneficial effect is that the duration of early work helps employability in adulthood. (GR)

  15. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  16. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  17. Prediction of Long Term Degradation of Insulating Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Physical changes .......................................................................................................... 20 4.2 Thermal performance ...to address the enduring challenge of developing and evaluating the long-term performance of a thermal insula- tion for shelter systems that provides...properties of selected insulation ma- terials based on the differences in thermal conductivity and R-values. 3. Predict the long-term performance of selected

  18. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  19. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... base-level of Long Term Support for 1998, the Administrator shall calculate the difference between the.... (2) To calculate Long Term Support for calendar year 1998, the Administrator shall adjust the base...; and (4) The line port costs in excess of basic analog service pursuant to § 69.130 of this...

  20. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... base-level of Long Term Support for 1998, the Administrator shall calculate the difference between the.... (2) To calculate Long Term Support for calendar year 1998, the Administrator shall adjust the base...; and (4) The line port costs in excess of basic analog service pursuant to § 69.130 of this...

  1. Perceptions of control and long-term recovery from rape.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Cadell, S; Jansen, K

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between perceptions of control and symptoms of both long-term depression and post-traumatic stress was examined. Enduring beliefs of personal competence and control were found to be associated with lower rates of depression and stress and to be stronger predictors of long-term recovery than were rape-specific attributions. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  2. A new image for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  3. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to...

  4. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to...

  5. The Effect of Modality on Long-Term Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of visual and auditory modes of input on long-term memory were examined in two experiments, each with 40 and 80 undergraduates, respectively. In both experiments, visual stimulus attributes were a more salient dimension than were auditory features in the long-term encoding and retrieval process. (SLD)

  6. Pediatric Facial Fractures and Potential Long-Term Growth Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jonathan; Phillips, John

    2011-01-01

    Fractures of the pediatric craniofacial skeleton can be challenging to manage. The initial injury and subsequent treatment can cause long-term growth disturbances yielding problematic secondary deformities. This review considers the normal growth of the craniofacial skeleton and typical facial fracture presentations in children and discusses the potential long-term sequelae from these injuries and their management. PMID:22379506

  7. CHOPIN, a heuristic model for long term transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Latorre-Bayona, G. . Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica); Perez-Arriaga, I.J. . Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica)

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the long term transmission expansion planning model CHOPIN. In CHOPIN, the network expansion is formulated as the static optimization problem of minimizing the global annual cost of electricity production, which is obtained as the sum of the annualized network investment cost, the operation cost and the reliability cost. The solution method takes advantage of the natural decomposition between the investment and operation submodels. The investment submodel is solved by a new heuristic procedure that in practice has invariably yielded the optimal plan. At the operation level CHOPIN optimizes over a multiplicity of scenarios which are characterized by the demand, the hydraulicity and the availability of components. The network is represented by any one out of four options: DC load flow (DCLF), transportation model and two hybrid models. Any of these models may consider the ohmic losses. The model is very efficient computationally; this fact was verified on test examples, as well as on the actual transmission expansion planning of the Spanish system.

  8. A perspective on long-term care for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care represents a significant burden to the approximately 7 million elderly in need, their families, and the Medicaid program. Concerns exist about access, quality, cost, and the distribution of the burden of care. In this article each area is discussed, highlighting the principal issues, identifying the unique aspects that pertain to long-term care, and exploring the implications for research and policy development. Future trends, especially the growth of the elderly population, are expected to affect significantly the provision of long-term care. The considerable uncertainty about how these trends may impact on long-term care is described, and the critical role social choice will play in shaping the future long-term care system is emphasized. PMID:10312975

  9. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  10. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  11. A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Pablo; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-16

    Recently, metal halide perovskite materials have become an exciting topic of research for scientists of a wide variety of backgrounds. Perovskites have found application in many fields, starting from photovoltaics and now also making an impact in light-emitting applications. This new class of materials has proven so interesting since it can be easily solution processed while exhibiting materials properties approaching the best inorganic optoelectronic materials such as GaAs and Si. In photovoltaics, in only 3 years, efficiencies have rapidly increased from an initial value of 3.8% to over 20% in recent reports for the commonly employed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite. The first light emitting diodes and light-emitting electrochemical cells have been developed already exhibiting internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 15% for the former and tunable light emission spectra. Despite their processing advantages, perovskite optoelectronic materials suffer from several drawbacks that need to be overcome before the technology becomes industrially relevant and hence achieve long-term application. Chief among these are the sensitivity of the structure toward moisture and crystal phase transitions in the device operation regime, unreliable device performance dictated by the operation history of the device, that is, hysteresis, the inherent toxicity of the structure, and the high cost of the employed charge selective contacts. In this Account, we highlight recent advances toward the long-term viability of perovskite photovoltaics. We identify material decomposition routes and suggest strategies to prevent damage to the structure. In particular, we focus on the effect of moisture upon the structure and stabilization of the material to avoid phase transitions in the solar cell operating range. Furthermore, we show strategies to achieve low-cost chemistries for the development of hole transporters for perovskite solar cells, necessary to be able to compete with other

  12. Long term measurement network for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Hays, Cynthia J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives were: to obtain selected instruments which were not standard equipment on the Portable Automated Mesometeorological (PAM) and Data Control Platform (DCP) stations; to assist in incorporation of these instruments onto the PAM and DCP stations; to help provide routine maintenance of the instruments; to conduct periodic instrument calibrations; and to repair or replace malfunctioning instruments when possible. All of the objectives were or will be met soon. All instruments and the necessary instrument stands were purchased or made and were available for inclusion on the PAM and DCP stations before the beginning of the IFC-1. Due to problems beyond control, the DCP stations experienced considerable difficulty in becoming operational. To fill some of the gaps caused by the DCP problems, Campbell CR21-X data loggers were installed and the data collected on cassette tapes. Periodic checks of all instruments were made, to maintain data quality, to make necessary adjustments in certain instruments, to replace malfunctioning instruments, and to provide instrument calibration. All instruments will be calibrated before the beginning of the 1988 growing season as soon as the weather permits access to all stations and provides conditions that are not too harsh to work in for extended periods of time.

  13. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  14. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  15. Long Term Mean Local Time of the Ascending Node Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinley, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Significant error has been observed in the long term prediction of the Mean Local Time of the Ascending Node on the Aqua spacecraft. This error of approximately 90 seconds over a two year prediction is a complication in planning and timing of maneuvers for all members of the Earth Observing System Afternoon Constellation, which use Aqua's MLTAN as the reference for their inclination maneuvers. It was determined that the source of the prediction error was the lack of a solid Earth tide model in the operational force models. The Love Model of the solid Earth tide potential was used to derive analytic corrections to the inclination and right ascension of the ascending node of Aqua's Sun-synchronous orbit. Additionally, it was determined that the resonance between the Sun and orbit plane of the Sun-synchronous orbit is the primary driver of this error. The analytic corrections have been added to the operational force models for the Aqua spacecraft reducing the two-year 90-second error to less than 7 seconds.

  16. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    SciTech Connect

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation between

  17. Long-term monitoring of marine gas leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickenbom, Kai; Faber, Eckhard; Poggenburg, Jürgen; Seeger, Christian; Furche, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations is one of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study. Although offshore operations are significantly more expensive than comparable onshore operations, the growing public resistance against onshore CCS projects makes sub-seabed storage a promising option. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is always the possibility of leakage from the reservoir. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. The basic design of the monitoring system builds on our experience in volcano monitoring. Early prototypes were composed of a raft floating on the surface of a mud volcano, carrying sensors for CO2 flux and concentration, data storage and transmission, and power supply by battery-buffered solar panels. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, connected by a flexible tube. This setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. A system for unattended long-term monitoring in a marine environment has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of a funnel-shaped gas collector, a sensor head and pressure housings for electronics and power supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data

  18. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  19. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  20. Medical care evaluation studies in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, J G

    1979-02-01

    This report describes the selection, design, conduct, analysis, and application of medical care evaluation studies in long-term care facilities (skilled nursing homes) in a regional program in the Rochester region of upstate New York. Eight examples are presented to highlight methodologic approaches and problems. They are classified under four general headings: Administration Audits, Diagnosis-specific Studies, Care Modality-specific Studies, and General Outcome Indicators. The implementation of results and recommendations from the studies is discussed and an application of "tracer" methodology for assessing the components of care activities in long-term facilities is described. Problems and challenges in long-term quality care are outlined.

  1. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  2. Long-term storage of bionanodevices by freezing and lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja; Wada, Yuuko; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Hess, Henry; Satir, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Successful long-term storage of a "smart dust" device integrating biomolecular motors and complex protein assemblies has been demonstrated using freezing or lyophilization, which implies that fabrication and application can be separated even for complex bionanodevices.

  3. Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntoon, Jacqueline E.; Ridky, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a web-based, inquiry-oriented activity that enables students to examine long-term global climate change. Supports instruction in other topics such as population growth. (Contains 34 references.) (DDR)

  4. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  5. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  6. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  7. Long-term pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahe, V; Balogh, A

    2000-03-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and has a poor prognosis, although it is often thought to be a minor complaint. This disorder has a chronic course of 5-15 years and longer. Long-term treatment with the commonly used benzodiazepines is controversial because of concerns over tolerance and dependence. We performed a thorough search of the literature for clinical trials of a duration of over 2 months conducted in patients with generalized anxiety disorder in order to identify any successful long-term treatment of this disorder. Only eight long-term reports of studies conducted in well-defined homogeneous groups of patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder were found with the methodology of these studies presenting a number of limiting factors. The results are inconclusive and no reference drug could be identified. In addition, an adequate evaluation of the long-term treatment of GAD has not yet been performed.

  8. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  9. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  10. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  11. Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Carbon emissions from the Arctic tundra could increase drastically as global warming thaws permafrost. Clues now obtained about the long-term effects of such thawing on carbon dioxide emissions highlight the need for more data.

  12. Lead and Copper Rule Long-Term Revisions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal for the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) Long-Term Revisions is to improve public health protection provided by the by making substantive changes based on topics that were identified in the 2004 National Review.

  13. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data.

  14. Finance issue brief: long-term care insurance.

    PubMed

    Mintz, E

    1999-08-03

    States are turning their attention to long-term care insurance, spurred by a 1996 federal law and an increasingly urgent need for more options to finance the care of their rapidly growing elderly populations.

  15. Back to the Future: Long-Term Seismic Archives Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    Archives of digital seismic data recorded by seismometer networks around the world have grown tremendously over the last several decades helped by the deployment of seismic stations and their continued operation within the framework of monitoring seismic activity. These archives typically consist of waveforms of seismic events and associated parametric data such as phase arrival time picks and the location of hypocenters. Catalogs of earthquake locations are fundamental data in seismology, and even in the Earth sciences in general. Yet, these locations have notoriously low spatial resolution because of errors in both the picks and the models commonly used to locate events one at a time. This limits their potential to address fundamental questions concerning the physics of earthquakes, the structure and composition of the Earth's interior, and the seismic hazards associated with active faults. We report on the comprehensive use of modern waveform cross-correlation based methodologies for high- resolution earthquake location - as applied to regional and global long-term seismic databases. By simultaneous re-analysis of two decades of the digital seismic archive of Northern California, reducing pick errors via cross-correlation and model errors via double-differencing, we achieve up to three orders of magnitude resolution improvement over existing hypocenter locations. The relocated events image networks of discrete faults at seismogenic depths across various tectonic settings that until now have been hidden in location uncertainties. Similar location improvements are obtained for earthquakes recorded at global networks by re- processing 40 years of parametric data from the ISC and corresponding waveforms archived at IRIS. Since our methods are scaleable and run on inexpensive Beowulf clusters, periodic re-analysis of entire archives may thus become a routine procedure to continuously improve resolution in existing catalogs. We demonstrate the role of seismic archives

  16. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caughlan, L.; Oakley, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    For an ecological monitoring program to be successful over the long-term, the perceived benefits of the information must justify the cost. Financial limitations will always restrict the scope of a monitoring program, hence the program's focus must be carefully prioritized. Clearly identifying the costs and benefits of a program will assist in this prioritization process, but this is easier said than done. Frequently, the true costs of monitoring are not recognized and are, therefore, underestimated. Benefits are rarely evaluated, because they are difficult to quantify. The intent of this review is to assist the designers and managers of long-term ecological monitoring programs by providing a general framework for building and operating a cost-effective program. Previous considerations of monitoring costs have focused on sampling design optimization. We present cost considerations of monitoring in a broader context. We explore monitoring costs, including both budgetary costs--what dollars are spent on--and economic costs, which include opportunity costs. Often, the largest portion of a monitoring program budget is spent on data collection, and other, critical aspects of the program, such as scientific oversight, training, data management, quality assurance, and reporting, are neglected. Recognizing and budgeting for all program costs is therefore a key factor in a program's longevity. The close relationship between statistical issues and cost is discussed, highlighting the importance of sampling design, replication and power, and comparing the costs of alternative designs through pilot studies and simulation modeling. A monitoring program development process that includes explicit checkpoints for considering costs is presented. The first checkpoint occur during the setting of objectives and during sampling design optimization. The last checkpoint occurs once the basic shape of the program is known, and the costs and benefits, or alternatively the cost

  17. Long term patient-reported benefit from ptosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maycock, N; MacGregor, C; Saunders, D A; Parkin, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the long term impact of ptosis surgery on health-related quality-of-life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) patient-reported outcome measure. Patients and methods A retrospective case note review was carried out on all patients who had undergone ptosis surgery (6 November 2008 to 5 December 2010) by one surgeon at Royal Bournemouth Hospital. Patient demographics, surgical technique, and complications were recorded. The GBI questionnaire data was obtained by telephone interview. Results A total of 62 ptosis operations (33 right, 29 left, of which 18 were bilateral) on 44 patients; 20 male, 24 female were included. Median age 77 years (range: 17–95 years). One wound dehiscence occurred, but no redo ptosis procedures were required. GBI data was obtained on 32 patients (45 ptosis procedures) at a mean follow-up period of 42.8 months postoperatively (range 31–67 months). The mean total GBI score for ptosis surgery was +21.36 (range 0–58.33; 95% confidence interval: 17.28–25.43, P<0.05). Conclusion Patients derived a highly significant benefit to their health-related quality-of-life from ptosis surgery measured by the GBI that was maintained for up to 5 years. PMID:25882327

  18. Long-term infusional systems: complications in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, M; Bochicchio, A M; Capobianco, A M; Di Leo, P; Mancino, G; Cammarota, A

    2001-01-01

    Long-term central vein catheters have found clinical application in different fields of medicine and particularly in oncology. In fact, the continuous infusion of some drugs has become the standard treatment in a wide variety of cancers, but central vein catheters are not without risks. The authors report their experience with central vein catheters. From January 1,1998, to December 31, 1999, 98 central vein catheters were placed in neoplastic patients. Seventy-seven (78.6%) Groshong and 16 (16.3%) Port-a-cath catheters were used. The central vein catheters were placed under local anesthesia. Before placement of the central vein catheters, the patients were checked by chest X-ray and neck ultrasonography. The procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control. The central vein catheters were flushed periodically with normal saline solution and sodium heparin. Sterile transparent adhesive dressings were used to occlude the operative site. The median follow-up of patients was 9 catheter months (range, 1-24 months). There were a few early and late clinically evident complications. The early complications were dislodgement in 5 cases (5.1%). The late complications were: fibrin sleeve in 1 case (1.1%), thrombosis in 2 cases (2.1%) and skin infection in 4 cases (4.1%). The low prevalence of major complications related to implants and management of these supports an increased use in oncology.

  19. Long-term outcomes and predictors in pediatric liver retransplantation.

    PubMed

    Dreyzin, Alexandra; Lunz, John; Venkat, Veena; Martin, Lillian; Bond, Geoffrey J; Soltys, Kyle A; Sindhi, Rakesh; Mazariegos, George V

    2015-12-01

    Historically, 9-29% of pediatric liver transplant recipients have required retransplantation. Although outcomes have improved over the last decade, currently published patient and graft survival remain lower after retransplant than after primary transplant. Data from liver retransplantation recipients at our institution between 1991 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to depict patient and graft survival. Predictors of survival were analyzed using a series of Cox proportional hazards models. Predictors were analyzed separately for patients who had "early" (≤ 30 days after primary transplant) and "late" retransplants. Eighty-four patients underwent retransplant at a median time of 241 days. Sixty percent had late retransplants. At one, five, and 10 yr, actuarial patient and graft survival were 73%/71%, 66%/63%, and 58%/53%, respectively. Since 2002, patient and graft survival improved to 86%/86% at one yr and 93%/87% at five yr. While operative complications were a common cause of death after earlier retransplants, since 2002, infection has been the only cause of death. Significant morbidities at five-yr follow-up include renal dysfunction (15%), diabetes (13%), hypertension (26%), chronic rejection (7%), and PTLD (2%). Current survival after pediatric liver retransplantation has improved significantly, but long-term immunosuppressant morbidity remains an opportunity for improvement.

  20. Quantitative analysis of motion control in long term microgravity.

    PubMed

    Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Anolli, A; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the 179-days EUROMIR '95 space mission, two in-flight experiments have foreseen quantitative three-dimensional human movement analysis in microgravity. For this aim, a space qualified opto-electronic motion analyser based on passive markers has been installed onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and 8 in flight sessions have been performed. Techhology and method for the collection of kinematics data are described, evaluating the accuracy in three-dimensional marker localisation. Results confirm the suitability of opto-electronic technology for quantitative human motion analysis on orbital modules and raise a set of "lessons learned", leading to the improvement of motion analyser performance with a contemporary swiftness of the on-board operations. Among the experimental program of T4, results of three voluntary posture perturbation protocols are described. The analysis suggests that a short term reinterpretation of proprioceptive information and re-calibration of sensorimotor mechanisms seem to end within the first weeks of flight, while a continuous long term adaptation process allows the refinement of motor performance, in the frame of never abandoned terrestrial strategies.

  1. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ragland, John D.; Cools, Roshan; Frank, Michael; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Preston, Alison; Ranganath, Charan; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) is a multifactorial construct, composed of different stages of information processing and different cognitive operations that are mediated by distinct neural systems, some of which may be more responsible for the marked memory problems that limit the daily function of individuals with schizophrenia. From the outset of the CNTRICS initiative, this multidimensionality was appreciated, and an effort was made to identify the specific memory constructs and task paradigms that hold the most promise for immediate translational development. During the second CNTRICS meeting, the LTM group identified item encoding and retrieval and relational encoding and retrieval as key constructs. This article describes the process that the LTM group went through in the third and final CNTRICS meeting to select nominated tasks within the 2 LTM constructs and within a reinforcement learning construct that were judged most promising for immediate development. This discussion is followed by each nominating authors' description of their selected task paradigm, ending with some thoughts about future directions. PMID:18927344

  2. Long-term/strategic scenario for reusable booster stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Martin; Manfletti, Chiara; Burkhardt, Holger

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the final design status of a partially reusable space transportation system which has been under study for five years within the German future launcher technology research program ASTRA. It consists of dual booster stages, which are attached to an advanced expendable core. The design of the reference liquid fly-back boosters (LFBB) is focused on LOX/LH2 propellant and a future advanced gas-generator cycle rocket motor. The preliminary design study was performed in close cooperation between DLR and the German space industry. The paper's first part describes recent progress in the design of this reusable booster stage. The second part of the paper assesses a long-term, strategic scenario of the reusable stage's operation. The general idea is the gradual evolution of the above mentioned basic fly-back booster vehicle into three space transportation systems performing different tasks: Reusable First Stage for a small launcher application, successive development to a fully reusable TSTO, and booster for a super-heavy-lift rocket to support an ambitious space flight program like manned Mars missions. The assessment addresses questions of technical sanity, preliminary sizing and performance issues and, where applicable, examines alternative options.

  3. Long term outcome of trichiasis surgery in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Burton, M J; Bowman, R J C; Faal, H; Aryee, E A N; Ikumapayi, U N; Alexander, N D E; Adegbola, R A; West, S K; Mabey, D C W; Foster, A; Johnson, G J; Bailey, R L

    2005-01-01

    Background: Trichiasis surgery is believed to reduce the risk of losing vision from trachoma. There are limited data on the long term outcome of surgery and its effect on vision and corneal opacification. Similarly, the determinants of failure are not well understood. Methods: A cohort of people in the Gambia who had undergone surgery for trachomatous trichiasis 3–4 years earlier was re-assessed. They were examined clinically and the conjunctiva was sampled for Chlamydia trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and general bacterial culture. Results: In total, 141/162 people were re-examined. Recurrent trichiasis was found in 89/214 (41.6%) operated eyes and 52 (24.3%) eyes had five or more lashes touching the globe. Corneal opacification improved in 36 of 78 previously affected eyes. There was a general deterioration in visual acuity between surgery and follow up, which was greater if new corneal opacification developed or trichiasis returned. Recurrent trichiasis was associated with severe conjunctival inflammation and bacterial infection. C trachomatis was detected in only one individual. Conclusions: Recurrent trichiasis following surgery is a common potentially sight threatening problem. Some improvement in the cornea can occur following surgery and the rate of visual loss tended to be less in those without recurrent trichiasis. The role of conjunctival inflammation and bacterial infection needs to be investigated further. Follow up of patients is advised to identify individuals needing additional surgical treatment. PMID:15834088

  4. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  5. Analysis of the SPS Long Term Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Velotti, Francesco; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Drøsdal, Lene; Fraser, Matthew; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika

    2016-06-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last accelerator in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain, and has to deliver the two high-intensity 450 GeV proton beams to the LHC. The transport from SPS to LHC is done through the two Transfer Lines (TL), TI2 and TI8, for Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) respectively. During the first LHC operation period Run 1, a long term drift of the SPS orbit was observed, causing changes in the LHC injection due to the resulting changes in the TL trajectories. This translated into longer LHC turnaround because of the necessity to periodically correct the TL trajectories in order to preserve the beam quality at injection into the LHC. Different sources for the SPS orbit drifts have been investigated: each of them can account only partially for the total orbit drift observed. In this paper, the possible sources of such drift are described, together with the simulated and measured effect they cause. Possible solutions and countermeasures are also discussed.

  6. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  7. Congenital hepatic fibrosis: the long-term prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, D N; Okonkwo, S; Choa, R G

    1978-01-01

    The long-term prognosis in congenital hepatic fibrosis has been assessed in 30 patients, 13 treated at Newcastle and 17 from other British centres. Twenty-four patients had been followed-up for more than five years from diagnosis. Shunt operations, performed in 18 patients, were successful in controlling haemorrhage with a low mortality (1/18), low incidence of recurrent haemorrhage (3/18) and portal-systemic encephalopathy (3/18) but with a higher incidence of postoperative jaundice (7/18). About a third of the survivors had some evidence of hepatic dysfunction but none had chronic portal systemic encephalopathy. Intelligence quotient was close to normal but educational achievement and job status were low. Serum albumin fell after shunt surgery and a few patients developed ascites: anaemia and hypersplenism however, were corrected by surgery. Blood ammonia is raised in survivors with congenital hepatic fibrosis and rises further after a normal meal; further observations are needed on cerebral function after several decades of survival. PMID:680586

  8. Long-term care: a substantive factor in financial planning.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 percent of women will enter a nursing home at some point in their lives. About one-third of men living to age 65 will also need nursing home care. Planning for long-term care is even more important since Medicare covers very little of the cost of such care. The Indiana Partnership Plan is one program designed to help fund the long-term care costs while allowing individuals protect other financial assets.

  9. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  10. The Long-Term Behavior of Known & Suspected Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, A.

    2017-03-01

    The long-term evolution of classical novae is poorly understood. I discuss here an in-progress project designed to better understand the post-eruption behavior of novae and test the Hibernation theory of nova evolution. The project has two main parts: (1) a modern survey of Galactic nova magnitudes, and (2) construction of long-term light curves using primarily archival photographic plates.

  11. Long-term Morphological Modeling at Coastal Inlets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    The CMS consists of an integrated numerical modeling system for simulating wave, current, water levels, sediment transport and morphology change ...In order to quantify the physical effects of long-term, regional climactic changes in the environment, numerical morphodynamic models must be able...components of long-term, regional climactic changes in the environment. Numerical morphodynamic models must be able to reproduce the known generic

  12. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  13. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours.

  14. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents.

  15. Motivating the paraprofessional in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Vance, A; Davidhizar, R

    1997-06-01

    Motivating the paraprofessional employee in the long-term care setting is one of the biggest challenges facing health care supervisors. Unlike their counterparts in industry, whose work may produce tangible results and rewards, long-term care professionals often must face patients who show little or no change over time. Supervisors must have understanding and knowledge of motivational techniques that will involve and challenge paraprofessionals.

  16. Long term experience with the “industrial” 3He vapour-pressure thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, V.; Vafeiadis, T.

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of very good experience with a prototype of a 3He vapour-pressure thermometer installed in the magnet feed box (MFB – prototype of LHC magnet test bench), an upgraded version of this thermometer was developed with emphasis on the improvement of its long term stability, reliability and “series” production. The thermometer is working typically around 1.9 K. This article summarises the key points of the prototype design, its upgrade leading to the “industrial/series” realization, the long term experience and the calibration crosscheck of these thermometers after 15 years of operation.

  17. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  18. Older Workers: An Opportunity to Expand the Long-Term Care/Direct Care Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwalek, Melanie; Straub, Victoria; Kosniewski, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined issues related to using older workers in frontline jobs in long-term care from employers' and prospective employees' perspectives. Design and Methods: Telephone surveys were conducted with employers representing 615 nursing homes and 410 home health agencies, and 1,091 low-income participants aged 40+ in Operation ABLE…

  19. Effects of a Long-Term Participatory Action Research Project on Science Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo; Markic, Silvija

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of long-term co-operation between science educators and science teachers concerning the teachers' continuous professional development, based on Participatory Action Research in science education. The discussion is based on a six-year case study observing a group of about ten German chemistry teachers by chemistry…

  20. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, David L.; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E.; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J.; Magill, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. PMID:26123954

  1. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use.

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Long Term Success Rate of Different Interventions in Benign Biliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Huszár, Orsolya; Kokas, Bálint; Mátrai, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Pétervári, Erika; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Márta, Katalin; Zsiborás, Csaba; Varjú, Péter; Szücs, Ákos

    2017-01-01

    Background Benign biliary stricture is a rare condition and the majority of the cases are caused by operative trauma or chronic inflammation based on various etiology. Although the initial results of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical treatment are impressive, no comparison about long term stricture resolution is available. Aims The goal of this study was to compare the long term disease free survival in benign biliary strictures with various etiology after surgery, percutaneous transhepatic—and endoscopic treatment. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched by computer and manually for published studies. The investigators selected the publications according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, processed the data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Meta-analysis of data of 24 publications was performed to compare long term disease free survival of different treatment groups. Results Compared the subgroups surgery resulted in the highest long term stricture resolution rate, followed by the percutaneous transhepatic treatment, the multiple plastic stent insertion and covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS), however the difference was not significant. All compared methods are significantly superior to the single plastic stent placement. Long term stricture resolution rate irrespectively of any therapy is still not more than 84%. Conclusions In summary, the use of single plastic stent is not recommended. Further randomized studies and innovative technical development are required for improving the treatment of benign biliary strictures. PMID:28076371

  3. Planning long-term vegetation studies at landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term ecological research is receiving more attention now than ever before. Two recent books, Long-term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives, edited by Gene Likens (1989), and Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective, edited by Paul Risser (1991), prompt the question, “Why are these books so thin?” Except for data from paleoecological, retrospective studies (see below), there are exceptionally few long-term data sets in terrestrial ecology (Strayer et al. 1986; Tilman 1989; this volume). In a sample of 749 papers published in Ecology, Tilman (1989) found that only 1.7% of the studies lasted at least five field seasons. Only one chapter in each of the review books dealt specifically with expanding both the temporal and the spatial scales of ecological research (Berkowitz et al. 1989; Magnuson et al. 1991). Judging by the growing number of landscape-scale long-term studies, however, such as the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (Callahan 1991), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP; Palmer et al. 1991), the U.S. Army’s Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program (Diersing et al. 1992), and various agencies’ global change research programs (CEES 1993), there is a growing interest to expand ecological research both temporally and spatially.

  4. Optimization Strategies for Long-Term Ground Water Remedies (with Particular Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet has been prepared to assist environmental case managers from Federal and State agencies, environmental program managers from private organizations, and environmental contractors with optimization of operating long-term ground water remedies

  5. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis: Demonstration of Improved Long-Term Performance

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; R. C. O'Brien; G. Tao

    2011-11-01

    Long-term performance is an ongoing issue for hydrogen production based on high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). For commercial deployment, solid-oxide electrolysis stacks must achieve high performance with long-term degradation rates of {approx}0.5%/1000 hours or lower. Significant progress has been achieved toward this goal over the past few years. This paper will provide details of progress achieved under the Idaho National Laboratory high temperature electrolysis research program. Recent long-term stack tests have achieved high initial performance with degradation rates less than 5%/khr. These tests utilize internally manifolded stacks with electrode-supported cells. The cell material sets are optimized for the electrolysis mode of operation. Details of the cells and stacks will be provided along with details of the test apparatus, procedures, and results.

  6. Long-term treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin in phenylketonuria: treatment strategies and prediction of long-term responders.

    PubMed

    Hennermann, Julia B; Roloff, Sylvia; Gebauer, Christine; Vetter, Barbara; von Arnim-Baas, Annabel; Mönch, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsive phenylketonuria has been described more than 10 years ago. However, criteria for the identification of long-term BH4 responsive patients are not yet established. 116 patients with phenylketonuria, aged 4-18 years, were screened for potential long-term BH4 responsiveness by at least two of the following criteria: positive neonatal BH4 loading test, putative BH4 responsive genotype, and/or milder phenotype. Patients had to be on permanent dietary treatment. 23 patients fulfilled these criteria and were tested for long-term BH4 responsiveness: 18/23 were long-term BH4 responsive, 5/23 were not. On long-term BH4 treatment over a period of 48 ± 27 months in a dose of 14.9 ± 3.3mg/kg/day phenylalanine tolerance was increased from 452 ± 201 mg/day to 1593 ± 647 mg/day, corresponding to a mean increase of 1141 ± 528 mg/day. Dietary phenylalanine intake was increased stepwise according to a clear defined protocol. In 8/18 patients, diet was completely liberalized; 10/18 patients still received phenylalanine-free amino acid formula with 0.63 ± 0.23 g/kg/day. The most predictive value for long-term BH4 responsiveness was the combination of pretreatment phenylalanine of < 1200 μmol/L, pretreatment phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio of <15, phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio of <15 on treatment, phenylalanine tolerance of >20mg/kg/day at age 3 years, positive neonatal BH4 loading, and at least one putative BH4 responsive mutation (p = 0.00024). Our data show that long-term BH4 responsiveness may be predicted already during neonatal period by determining maximum pretreatment phenylalanine and phenylalanine/tyrosine concentrations, neonatal BH4 loading and PAH genotype. A clear defined protocol is necessary to install long-term BH4 treatment.

  7. Issues of Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratov, C. B.; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern multi-layer insulation (MLI) allows to sharply reduce the heat leak into cryogenic propellant storage tanks through the tank surface and, as a consequence, significantly extend the storage duration. In this situation the MLI penetrations, such as support struts, feed lines, etc., become one of the most significant challenges of the tanks heat management. This problem is especially acute for liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, since currently no efficient cryocoolers exist that operate at very low LH2 temperatures (20K). Even small heat leaks under microgravity conditions and over the period of many months give rise to a complex slowly-developing, large-scale spatiotemporal physical phenomena in a multi-phase liquid-vapor mixture. These phenomena are not well-understood nor can be easily controlled. They can be of a potentially hazardous nature for long-term on-orbital cryogenic torage, propellant loading, tank chilldown, engine restart, and other in-space cryogenic fluid management operations. To support the engineering design solutions that would mitigate these effects a detailed physics-based analysis of heat transfer, vapor bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence and collapse is required in the presence of stirring jets of different configurations and passive cooling devices such as MLI, thermodynamic vent system, and vapor-cooled shield. To develop physics-based models and correlations reliable for microgravity conditions and long-time scales there is a need for new fundamental data to be collected from on-orbit cryogenic storage experiments. Our report discusses some of these physical phenomena and the design requirements and future studies necessary for their mitigation. Special attention is payed to the phenomena occurring near MLI penetrations.

  8. Long-term treatment of major depressive disorder with paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Duboff, E A

    1993-12-01

    Recurrent unipolar depression is a common, but undertreated disorder. Many patients require long-term maintenance therapy, and full doses of antidepressant agents may be preferred for the prevention of relapse. We report results of a 1-year, multicenter, open-label study of paroxetine (10 to 50 mg/day) in 433 patients with major depressive disorder, with additional data from 110 patients who entered a long-term extension of the study. The primary measures of efficacy were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) total and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity of illness scores. During the first 6 weeks of therapy, the mean HAM-D total declined approximately 50% (from 27.9 to 13.5), with continued improvement, at an attenuated rate, throughout the first year. At the end of 1 year, the mean HAM-D total was 6.9. Similarly, the CGI severity of illness score declined from 4.6 at baseline to 2.8 at week 6 and to 1.7 at the end of 1 year. Remission was maintained in the population that entered the long-term extension, with mean HAM-D total and CGI severity of illness scores of 6.4 and 1.8, respectively, after 2.5 years, and 4.2 and 1.3 after 4 years. The most common adverse events reported during long-term treatment with paroxetine were somnolence, nausea, headache, and sweating. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no clear correlation between the concentrations of paroxetine in plasma and either clinical efficacy or tolerability. There was no increased drug accumulation during long-term treatment. Side effects tended to occur early during therapy; and no new side effects emerged during the long-term extension. These results suggest that paroxetine is effective and well tolerated in the long-term treatment of depression.

  9. Energy scavenging for long-term deployable wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mathúna, Cian O; O'Donnell, Terence; Martinez-Catala, Rafael V; Rohan, James; O'Flynn, Brendan

    2008-05-15

    The coming decade will see the rapid emergence of low cost, intelligent, wireless sensors and their widespread deployment throughout our environment. While wearable systems will operate over communications ranges of less than a meter, building management systems will operate with inter-node communications ranges of the order of meters to tens of meters and remote environmental monitoring systems will require communications systems and associated energy systems that will allow reliable operation over kilometers. Autonomous power should allow wireless sensor nodes to operate in a "deploy and forget" mode. The use of rechargeable battery technology is problematic due to battery lifetime issues related to node power budget, battery self-discharge, number of recharge cycles and long-term environmental impact. Duty cycling of wireless sensor nodes with long "SLEEP" times minimises energy usage. A case study of a multi-sensor, wireless, building management system operating using the Zigbee protocol demonstrates that, even with a 1 min cycle time for an 864 ms "ACTIVE" mode, the sensor module is already in SLEEP mode for almost 99% of the time. For a 20-min cycle time, the energy utilisation in SLEEP mode exceeds the ACTIVE mode energy by almost a factor of three and thus dominates the module energy utilisation thereby providing the ultimate limit to the power system lifetime. Energy harvesting techniques can deliver energy densities of 7.5 mW/cm(2) from outdoor solar, 100 microW/cm(2) from indoor lighting, 100 microW/cm(3) from vibrational energy and 60 microW/cm(2) from thermal energy typically found in a building environment. A truly autonomous, "deploy and forget" battery-less system can be achieved by scaling the energy harvesting system to provide all the system energy needs. In the building management case study discussed, for duty cycles of less than 0.07% (i.e. in ACTIVE mode for 0.864 s every 20 min), energy harvester device dimensions of approximately 2 cm on a

  10. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse.

  11. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  12. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  13. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  14. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  15. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia.

  16. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; ...

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  17. An Exotic Long-Term Pattern in Stock Price Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Background To accurately predict the movement of stock prices is always of both academic importance and practical value. So far, a lot of research has been reported to help understand the behavior of stock prices. However, some of the existing theories tend to render us the belief that the time series of stock prices are unpredictable on a long-term timescale. The question arises whether the long-term predictability exists in stock price dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we analyze the price reversals in the US stock market and the Chinese stock market on the basis of a renormalization method. The price reversals are divided into two types: retracements (the downward trends after upward trends) and rebounds (the upward trends after downward trends), of which the intensities are described by dimensionless quantities, and , respectively. We reveal that for both mature and emerging markets, the distribution of either retracements or rebounds shows two characteristic values, 0.335 and 0.665, both of which are robust over the long term. Conclusions/Significance The methodology presented here provides a way to quantify the stock price reversals. Our findings strongly support the existence of the long-term predictability in stock price dynamics, and may offer a hint on how to predict the long-term movement of stock prices. PMID:23284734

  18. Seismic Performance of Dry Casks Storage for Long- Term Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Luis; Sanders, David; Yang, Haori; Pantelides, Chris

    2016-12-30

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long-term seismic performance of freestanding and anchored Dry Storage Casks (DSCs) using experimental tests on a shaking table, as well as comprehensive numerical evaluations that include the cask-pad-soil system. The study focuses on the dynamic performance of vertical DSCs, which can be designed as free-standing structures resting on a reinforced concrete foundation pad, or casks anchored to a foundation pad. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) is initially stored in fuel-storage pools to control the fuel temperature. After several years, the fuel assemblies are transferred to DSCs at sites contiguous to the plant, known as Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs). The regulations for these storage systems (10 CFR 72) ensure adequate passive heat removal and radiation shielding during normal operations, off-normal events, and accident scenarios. The integrity of the DSCs is important, even if the overpack does not breach, because eventually the spent fuel-rods need to be shipped either to a reprocessing plant or a repository. DSCs have been considered as a temporary storage solution, and usually are licensed for 20 years, although they can be relicensed for operating periods of up to 60 years. In recent years, DSCs have been reevaluated as a potential mid-term solution, in which the operating period may be extended for up to 300 years. At the same time, recent seismic events have underlined the significant risks DSCs are exposed. The consideration of DCSs for storing spent fuel for hundreds of years has created new challenges. In the case of seismic hazard, longer-term operating periods not only lead to larger horizontal accelerations, but also increase the relative effect of vertical accelerations that usually are disregarded for smaller seismic events. These larger seismic demands could lead to casks sliding and tipping over, impacting the concrete pad or adjacent casks. The casks

  19. Long-term variations in the gamma-ray background on SMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurfess, J. D.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Johnson, W. N.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term temporal variations in the various components of the background radiation detected by the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission are presented. The SMM gamma-ray spectrometer was launched in February, 1980 and continues to operate normally. The extended period of mission operations has provided a large data base in which it is possible to investigate a variety of environmental and instrumental background effects. In particular, several effects associated with orbital precession are introduced and discussed.

  20. Long-term management of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weightman, Cherie

    2006-07-01

    This article explores the challenges of long-term case management for patients who have multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently there is scant research into district nursing input into long-term management of patients who have MS. Until now the role of the community nurses has been confined to palliation or terminal care, focusing on the more physical manifestations of MS. The contemporary role of district nurse is going to evolve to include proactive approaches. Governmental initiatives demand proactive services, and place emphasis on self-care for patients with MS. Themes that emerge from this article relate to the pre-existing skills--such as managing patients with complex needs and the advanced assessment skills--that will be required to achieve this. What is clear is that community nurses already possess many of the prerequisite skills needed for long-term management, and they should not be daunted by this prospect.

  1. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding of the mechanisms of RNA decay will be crucial for developing expectations on its long-term survival. PMID:23618361

  2. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  3. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  4. Documenting Long-term Earth System Evolution With Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, J. A.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Cramer, B.; Karl, T.; Privette, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite observations play a critical role in documenting earth system evolution, both in terms of characterizing prior and current evolution of the Earth and providing a baseline against which future measurements can be compared. Given that the construction of the necessary long-term data sets requires the use of multiple instruments on multiple platforms, each of which may have their own characteristics, drifts, and degradation, this represents a significant challenge to the scientific community. Over the last 30-or so years, going back to the launch of the Nimbus 7 in 1978, earth scientists learned significant lessons about how to create accurate and stable long-term data records. Sponsoring agencies have tried to capture the lessons and use them as a basis for planning for future systems. This presentation will examine and present future approaches to maximize the quality of the long-term data records produced from earth satellites.

  5. Long-term effects of nanoparticles on nutrition and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Wang, Hui; Huang, Qing; Li, Jiang; Yan, Juan; He, Dannong; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2014-09-24

    Nanoparticles have shown great potential in biological and biomedical applications due to their distinct physical and chemical properties. In the meanwhile, the biosafety of nanoparticles has also raised intense concerns worldwide. To address such concerns, great efforts have been made to examine short-term effects of nanoparticles on cell survival and proliferation. More recently, exploration of long-term effects of nanomaterials, particularly those with promising biomedical applications in vivo, has aroused significant interest. For example, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are generally considered non-toxic to cell growth, whereas recent studies suggest that AuNPs might have long-term effects on cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. In this Review, recent advances in this direction are summarized. Further, possible mechanisms under which nanoparticles regulate metabolic signaling pathways, potential long-term effects on cellular anabolic or catabolic processes, and their implications in human health and metabolic disorders are discussed.

  6. [Renal side effects of long-term lithium therapy].

    PubMed

    Ibbeken, C; Becker, J U; Baumgärtel, M W

    2012-01-01

    Lithium is widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Long-term administration of lithium often leads to side effects concerning the subjects: nephrology, endocrinology and surgery. This review emphasizes nephrotoxicity.Lithium treatment may disturb responsiveness to antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Furthermore long-term lithium therapy may trigger hyperparathyreoidism with hypercalcemia and chronic interstitial nephritis with development of microcysts. Long-term patients have an increased risk to develop impaired renal function. Lithium-induced endstage renal disease is rare. Termination of lithium treatment may decrease the risk of progression.To ensure security of lithium treatment regular controls of urine osmolarity, lithium-, creatinine- , thyroid stimulating hormone- and calcium-levels are essential. Patients with decreased renal function should be referred to a specialist early.

  7. Long-term visual tracking based on correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Quanlu; Lao, Songyang; Bai, Liang

    2017-03-01

    In order to accomplish the long term visual tracking task in complex scenes, solve problems of scale variation, appearance variation and tracking failure, a long term tracking algorithm is given based on the framework of collaborative correlation tracking. Firstly, we integrate several powerful features to boost the represent ability based on the kernel correlation filter, and extend the filter by embedding a scale factor into the kernelized matrix to handle the scale variation. Then, we use the Peak-Sidelobe Ratio to decide whether the object is tracked successfully, and a CUR filter for re-detection the object in case of tracking failure is learnt with random sampling. Corresponding experiment is performed on 17 challenging benchmark video sequences. Compared with the 8 existing state-of-the-art algorithms based on discriminative learning method, the results show that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance on several indexes, and is robust to complex scenes for long term visual tracking.

  8. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  9. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  10. Viability of long-term gene therapy in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Patrick J; Wise, Andrew K; Flynn, Brianna O; Nayagam, Bryony A; Richardson, Rachael T

    2014-04-22

    Gene therapy has been investigated as a way to introduce a variety of genes to treat neurological disorders. An important clinical consideration is its long-term effectiveness. This research aims to study the long-term expression and effectiveness of gene therapy in promoting spiral ganglion neuron survival after deafness. Adenoviral vectors modified to express brain derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3 were unilaterally injected into the guinea pig cochlea one week post ototoxic deafening. After six months, persistence of gene expression and significantly greater neuronal survival in neurotrophin-treated cochleae compared to the contralateral cochleae were observed. The long-term gene expression observed indicates that gene therapy is potentially viable; however the degeneration of the transduced cells as a result of the original ototoxic insult may limit clinical effectiveness. With further research aimed at transducing stable cochlear cells, gene therapy may be an efficacious way to introduce neurotrophins to promote neuronal survival after hearing loss.

  11. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  12. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  13. Assessing the market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Rice, J A; Taylor, S

    1984-02-01

    Traditionally, long-term care services have been used by a diverse marketplace. The chronically ill, developmentally disabled, mentally ill and aging population has looked to long-term care support services as a means of physical and emotional support. Much of the time these services were housed together for the sake of efficiency. The enormous burden these services are creating on the economy, and the growing aging population, have forced the recognition that long-term care service delivery systems must change. Alternate programming for long-term care services that reach out into the community and into individual homes is becoming an attractive approach to meeting the growing demands of the marketplace. Home health, specialized housing and creative funding mechanisms such as HMOs, are examples of initiatives undertaken by healthcare organizations that view diversification as a vehicle for survival. Market research techniques that have been used in other industries are being adapted to the healthcare industry to ensure the proper mix of services that are demanded by older, more knowledgeable consumers. The programs of the future will be market driven, with the ability of the individual to pay for such services playing a significant role. The healthcare provider of today is in a position to serve the community in new ways. By becoming an integral link in the long-term care system and by developing new programs, the organization can serve as a catalyst for change. It is up to the governing bodies and managers of these facilities to become visionaries and to accept responsibility for assessing the market for long-term care services and to guide their organization into the future.

  14. Morphodynamic length scale and long term river meandering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.

    2009-12-01

    The fully nonlinear simulation of the lateral migration of meandering channels, combined with an analytical description of the linearized flow field, gives a powerful and yet computationally accessible tool to investigate short and long term evolution of alluvial rivers. In the present contribution we focus on the long term behavior of meandering rivers. This class of dynamical systems is driven by the coexistence of various intrinsically nonlinear mechanisms which determine the possible occurrence of two different morphodynamic regimes: the sub-resonant and the super-resonant regime. Investigating the full range of morphodynamic conditions, we end up with a new morphodynamic length scale associated with spatially oscillating disturbances, accounting for both curvature-forced variations in velocity and depth and alternate bars. Once normalized with this length scale, the relevant morphologic features of the simulated long term patterns (i.e. the probability density function of the local channel curvature and the geometric characteristics of the oxbow lakes) tend to collapse on two distinct behaviors, depending on the dominant morphologic regime. The long term river meandering dynamics is then investigated. The occurrence of cutoff events is a key mechanism in the dynamics of these systems. They introduce a strong source of nonlinearity in the evolution of river meandering, which strongly contributes to the formation of the complex planform patterns usually observed in nature. To detect the possible signatures of a chaotic behavior or a self-organized criticality state triggered in river meandering dynamics by the repeated occurrence of cutoffs, some robust nonlinear methodologies have been applied to both the spatial series of local curvatures and the time series of long term channel sinuosity. The temporal distribution of cutoff inter-arrivals is also investigated. The results are consistent and show that, at least from a modelling point of view, no evidence of

  15. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  16. The Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselmann, K.; Latif, M.; Hooss, G.; Azar, C.; Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C. C.; Johannessen, O. M.; Kemfert, C.; Welp, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial time scale of climate change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important first step, to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market-based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short-term targets and long-term goals.

  17. Storability Investigations of Water Long-Term Storage Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    previously for the other tankage and then descaled in a pickling solution of 33.2% HN03 , 1.6% HF, and 65.2% water at 140°F for 3 minutes. The titanium...AD/A-004 462 STORABILITY INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER LONG-TERM STORAGE EVALUATION E. M. Vander Wall, et al I Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company Prc pared for...Investigations of Water , Long-Term ,Annual Storage Evaluation 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU THOR(s) 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMPEIR(.) Vander Wall, E. M

  18. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, R. P.; Biswas, S.; Das, S.; Ghosal, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Mondal, A.; Nag, D.; Nayak, T. K.; Patra, R. N.; Prasad, S. K.; Raha, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S.; Swain, S.

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long-term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  19. Metabolic bone diseases during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Acca, M; Ragno, A; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E

    2007-01-01

    Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a procedure commonly applied to patients with advanced forms of intestinal malabsorption. Among TPN complications, bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia, are a common finding. Initially considered to be a manifestation of aluminium toxicity which followed massive contamination with the element of the solutions used in TPN, metabolic osteopathy during TPN is currently considered a multiform syndrome, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, which may manifest itself with vague or clear clinical pictures. In this review, we analyse clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of the most common bone metabolic diseases in patients undergoing long-term TPN.

  20. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  1. Long-term Outcomes in Youths with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    White, Neil H

    2015-08-01

    In this article, the author reviews the long-term outcomes and their precursors of type 1 diabetes starting in youth. The author also contrasts the changing incidence of these long-term complications as we have moved from the pre-Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) to the post-DCCT standard of care and reviews the emerging data related to complications in youths with type 2 diabetes. Finally, the author reviews the recent understanding related to the effects of diabetes on the brain and cognition.

  2. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  3. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  4. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  5. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  6. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  7. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  8. Long-term results of arterial switch repair of transposition of the great vessels.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elizabeth D.; Wernovsky, Gil

    1998-01-01

    The arterial switch operation has become the preferred surgical procedure for transposition of the great arteries worldwide. The low operative mortality at "low-risk" institutions has been well documented. The advantages of the arterial switch compared with atrial-level repairs include a lower incidence of arrhythmias and the likelihood of normal systemic ventricular function over the long term. However, the long-term sequelae of this operation must be continually evaluated, including the fate of the supravalvular pulmonary and aortic anastomoses, growth of the aortic root, competency of the neoaortic valve, patency of the coronary arteries, effects on the conduction system, and adequacy of ventricular function. These anatomic results, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcomes of these patients, are summarized in this review. Copyright 1998 by W.B. Saunders Company

  9. Using long-term lysimeter data to analyze hydrological trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetz, Thomas; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Roesseler, Anne-Kathrin; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the terrestrial water cycle. Recent studies based on analysis of experimental and observations-based data have shown that over the last decades the magnitude of evapotranspiration (both potential and actual) has been affected by global climate change although the sign and size of the change in ET differ strongly between regions around the globe, as well as between datasets (e.g. Teuling et al. 2009, Jung et al. 2010, Sheffield et al. 2012). Basically, there are two approaches that are available to measure actual evapotranspiration in situ (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2010): the measurement from micrometeorological approaches (in particular the Eddy Covariance method) and the determination of evapotranspiration by measuring the components of the soil water balance. Evett et al. (2012) showed that Eddy Covariance measurements of actual evapotranspiration obtained in irrigated cotton fields was 31 to 45% lower than estimates obtained from soil water balance measurements using lysimeters. Forcing the closure of the energy balance with more data than typically available at EC stations, the difference was still about 17%. Despite the fact that lysimeter systems, especially the weighing based systems, are ideal tools to determine actual evapotranspiration no global assessment has been made of available data at present that might be valuable to assess the impact of climate change on actual evapotranspiration. A screening of literature showed that many data are either not reported or made available through research reports rather than peer reviewed literature. Typically lysimeter studies have been used for well-designed experimental studies for the assessment of flow and transport processes in cropped systems that were limited in time. Still at present, we have lysimeter systems operational that have long term time series available on soil hydrological fluxes. Recently, a few studies were reported that analyzed long term series of

  10. Long-term functional outcome and satisfaction of patients with hypospadias repaired in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hoag, Chris C; Gotto, Geoff T; Morrison, Kevin B; Coleman, Gerald U; MacNeily, Andrew E

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Potential long-term sequelae of hypospadias and its surgical correction include difficulties in voiding, sexual function, psychosexual adjustment and self-appraisal. These difficulties often evolve long after surgical repair as children grow to adulthood. Despite this, patient-driven data on long-term functional outcomes and satisfaction are limited, leaving the true success of hypospadias surgery essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to address these deficiencies. Methods We conducted a chart review for all patients operated on by a single urologist from 1981 to 1988. Extensive efforts were made to obtain accurate current address information for patients. A database of patient demographics and pathology, operative details and complications was created. A 22-item questionnaire was mailed to study subjects. Telephone follow-up by an independent research nurse bolstered response rates. Responses from returned questionnaires were pooled and analyzed. Results The chart review included 115 patients. Of 100 patients (with address information) who were sent questionnaires, 28 ultimately responded. The chart review group was comparable to groups in other published studies. Despite a slightly higher initial major complication rate (57.2%), respondents reported few long-term complications (11% fistula, 29% persistent chordee and 10% stricture) and excellent urinary and sexual functional results. The most common functional complaints were spraying and hesitancy during micturition. Overall, 86% of patients were satisfied with their surgical result, and 52% wished they had been provided longer follow-up. Conclusion Long-term outcomes data are critical to an honest account of success rates for hypospadias surgery. Obtaining these data remains challenging. In this series, despite high initial complication rates, most patients reported excellent long-term functional results and were quite satisfied with their overall outcome. PMID:18542723

  11. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2012-10-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to

  12. Interference Effects in Young Children's Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of interference on young children's long-term memory using paired-association recall and free recall. The results indicated that children were susceptible to interference, the locus of interference effects was at storage, and that both younger (preschool) and older (kindergarten) children experienced similar…

  13. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ensure stability of employment and development of job skills for persons who are blind or have...

  14. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  15. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  16. The Aging Network and Managed Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer…

  17. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  19. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of an Urban Farming Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonti, Nancy Falxa; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Daftary-Steel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the…

  1. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  2. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  3. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  4. Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends--population…

  5. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development.

  6. Annotated Bibliography of Intramural Research on Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    As components of the National Center for Health Services Research Division of Intramural Research, the Long-Term Care Studies Program and the Aging Studies Program were established to define the problems of caring for the chronically ill and the elderly and to study the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services to these…

  7. Long-Term English Learners Writing Their Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    High school teacher C. Lynn Jacobs noted that the long-term English language learners in her class had improved in reading comprehension but still lacked writing skills. Inspired by a state humanities project, she worked with the students to publish a collection of stories and poems. Writing about their lives provided the motivation, and writing…

  8. Long term management practices influenced soil aggregation and carbon dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation protects soil organic C (SOC) against rapid decomposition, improves soil quality, and reduces soil erosion potential. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of long-term (21 yrs.) management practices on SOC, water stable aggregate (WSA), and aggregate-associated ...

  9. Noise-Making amongst the Elderly in Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David Patrick; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Nurses in long-term care facilities indicated that about 30 percent of residents presented noise-making behavior. From descriptions, typology of noise-making was identified: purposeless and perseverative noise-making, noise-making in response to environment, noise-making to elicit response from environment, "chatterbox" noise-making,…

  10. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  11. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  12. Rhinovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Longtin, Jean; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne Luise; Patel, Samir; Eshaghi, Alireza; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2010-09-01

    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities. Using surveillance data, we found that rhinovirus caused 59% (174/297) of respiratory outbreaks in these facilities during 6 months in 2009. Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza.

  13. Rhinovirus Outbreaks in Long-term Care Facilities, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne-Luise; Patel, Samir; Eshaghi, Alireza; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities. Using surveillance data, we found that rhinovirus caused 59% (174/297) of respiratory outbreaks in these facilities during 6 months in 2009. Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza. PMID:20735934

  14. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  15. Long Term Effects of Drug Use on General Mental Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Charles C.

    A private corporation conducted a study for the United States Air Force in 1973, investigating the long term effects of drug use on general mental ability. The air force personnel selected for participation in the study were 3741 known drug users and 6772 controls. Subjects received requests to sign a form allowing their high schools to release…

  16. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    PubMed

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities.

  17. Descriptive Characteristics of Long-Term Private Practice Psychotherapy Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    Data from public and private sectors reveal that few persons stay in psychotherapy long enough to be classified as "long-term" clients. Those who do remain in psychotherapy for a long time are rarely studied because attention has generally been focused on terminators. Demographic, treatment, and psychometric characteristics of 64 long-term…

  18. Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

  19. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies.

  20. Security basics for long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The need for Long-Term Care (LTC) facilities is growing, the author reports, and along with it the need for programs to address the major security concerns of such facilities. In this article he explains how to apply the IAHSS Healthcare Security Industry Guidelines and the Design Guidelines to achieve a safer LTC facility.

  1. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... customer has title to, control over, or bears the risk of loss from, the property manufactured or... under a long-term contract will subject all other items in that contract to section 460. (2) Hybrid... construction activities (hybrid contract) generally must be classified as two contracts, a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... customer has title to, control over, or bears the risk of loss from, the property manufactured or... under a long-term contract will subject all other items in that contract to section 460. (2) Hybrid... construction activities (hybrid contract) generally must be classified as two contracts, a...

  4. Case report: Long-term cognitive sequelae of sarin exposure.

    PubMed

    Loh, Yince; Swanberg, Margaret M; Ingram, M Victoria; Newmark, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    The long-term sequelae of acute sarin exposure are not well understood. The largest clinical cohort resulted from the 1994 and 1995 attacks in Japan. Observers noted mostly psychiatric sequelae, with a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We describe neurocognitive findings that may represent sequelae of low-level sarin exposure in Iraq.

  5. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  6. Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

  7. Gender Relations, Family Relations and Long-Term Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard; Hutson, Susan

    The relationship between long-term youth unemployment and family relationships and that between youth unemployment and courtship and marriage patterns were examined in a study conducted in two towns in South Wales. Thirty-seven young men and 26 young women between the ages of 18 and 25 who had been unemployed for 6 months or longer were…

  8. Long Term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis With earlier cancer diagnosis among older cancer patients, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have long lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose and properly manage the long term toxicities of cancer treatment, in order to maintain quality of life of older cancer survivors PMID:26614861

  9. PLUME-SCALER-EVALUATING LONG-TERM MONITORING WELL NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...

  10. Mathematics Learning Development: The Role of Long-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.; Caterino, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between long-term memory retrieval and mathematics calculation and mathematics problem solving achievement among elementary, middle, and high school students in nationally representative sample of US students, when controlling for fluid and crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, and processing speed. As…

  11. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  12. Dilution as a Model of Long-Term Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark; Baguley, Thom

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a model of long term forgetting based on 3 ideas: (a) Memory for a stimulus can be described by a population of accessible traces; (b) probability of retrieval after a delay is predicted by the proportion of traces in this population that will be defined as correct if sampled; and (c) this population is diluted over time by…

  13. [Psychosocial issues of long-term cancer survivors].

    PubMed

    Weis, J; Faller, H

    2012-04-01

    Although cancer incidence rates are increasing, recent statistical studies suggest that cancer patients are showing higher cure rates as well as improved overall survival rates for most cancer locations. These advances are explained by improved strategies in early diagnoses as well as improved cancer therapies. Therefore, the number of long-term cancer survivors has also increased, but only few studies, especially within the last years, have focused on psychosocial issues of this subgroup. Some studies show that overall quality of life of long-term cancer survivors is quite high and comparable to that of the normal population. Nevertheless, a substantial percentage of former patients shows reduced quality of life and suffers from various sequelae of cancer and its treatment. This review focuses on the most common psychosocial issue of long-term survivors such as reduced psychological wellbeing, neuropsychological deficits and cancer-related fatigue syndrome. Finally, recommendations for problem-oriented interventions as well as improvement of psychosocial care of long-term survivors are given.

  14. Perceptions of Abuse in the Long-Term Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, D.; And Others

    Although elder abuse has received much attention in recent years, little is known about long-term care staff perceptions of active and passive abuse. Health care professionals (N=72) responsible for direct care of patients within a 275-bed skilled nursing facility completed questionnaires on elder abuse. Responses were from physicians (N=6),…

  15. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... earned on any hypothetical overpayment of tax, attributable to accounting for the long-term contract... taxpayer may determine the income from an exempt construction contract using any accounting method... of accounting), regardless of a taxpayer's overall method of accounting. See § 1.461-4(d)(2)(ii)...

  16. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  17. Air Force Research Laboratory’s Focused Long Term Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) mission is to provide support to the Air Force (AF) and the warfighters with... Air Force Research Laboratory’s Focused Long Term Challenges Leo J Rose Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory , 101 W Eglin Blvd...This technology vision, which was born in our Air Force Research Laboratory , builds on the Air Force’s traditional kill

  18. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  19. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  20. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  1. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  3. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... care providers and detect any problems early. What Causes Late Effects Some cancer treatments damage healthy cells. The damage ... cells grow. Radiation therapy has a more direct effect on long-term growth ... surgery is performed, it may cause changes in the growth or function of an ...

  4. Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Remedial Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightbill, Mary

    The long-term effects (after 3 to 5 years) of remedial reading instruction were examined. Comparison was made on reading achievement scores and on achievement ratios between a group of 16 former remedial reading clinic students, aged 12 to 20, and a matched group which did not receive remedial instruction. In addition, 45 former remedial readers…

  6. Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils' Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Bianco, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that a teacher has a substantial impact on how much pupils learn. However, research on the long-term effects of teachers is scarce, and the results obtained so far are inconsistent. Some studies have concluded that teacher effects are relatively permanent, while others claim that they fade away more or less rapidly…

  7. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  8. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  9. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  10. Recommendations for Long Term Care in an Elderly Medicaid Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Shirley S.; McAuley, William J.

    The State of Virginia has had a statewide nursing home preadmission screening program since 1977 and has made efforts to ensure appropriate placement of individuals in long term care settings. In a major effort to divert certain individuals from institutionalization, a personal care option has been provided. Using data from the Preadmission…

  11. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  12. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  13. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  14. Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of…

  15. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  16. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  17. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  18. Effective Counseling Strategies for Supporting Long-Term Suspended Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janet L.; Sparks, Eric; Lewis, Rita G.; Niedrich, Kris; Hall, Mary; Johnson, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Long-term suspended (LTS) students are barred from the school system for lengthy periods, leaving them at risk of academic failure and vulnerable from lack of services. A program in a North Carolina public school system provided counselors to work with each LTS student. Outcome data were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of counseling…

  19. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    .... Functions and Responsibilities of the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman G. State Agency Responsibilities... for Aging in areas related to: 1. The roles, responsibilities and relationship of the State agency on... the individual roles and responsibilities of the Ombudsman (or representatives of the Office)...

  20. Arkansas Long Term Care Facility Nursing Assistant Training Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock.

    This curriculum is designed for use in developing training programs for nursing assistants who provide nursing or nursing-related services to residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Implementation provisions provide a general overview of the basic requirements found in Arkansas' Nursing Assistant Training Program "Rules and Regulations." The…