Science.gov

Sample records for long-term performance assessments

  1. Diagnostic Performance of Self-Assessment for Constipation in Patients With Long-Term Opioid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tafelski, Sascha; Bellin, Felicitas; Denke, Claudia; Beutlhauser, Torsten; Fritzsche, Thomas; West, Christina; Schäfer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Constipation is a prevalent comorbidity affecting ∼50% of patients with long-term opioid therapy. In clinical routine different diagnostic instruments are in use to identify patients under risk. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of an 11-item Likert scale for constipation used as a self-assessment in opioid-treated patients. This trial was conducted as a retrospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany. Patients with long-term opioid therapy treated in 2 university-affiliated outpatient pain facilities at the Charité hospital were included from January 2013 to August 2013. Constipation was rated in a self-assessment using a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 (Con-NRS) and compared with results from a structured assessment based on ROME-III criteria. Altogether, 171 patients were included. Incidence of constipation was 49% of patients. The receiver-operating characteristic of Con-NRS achieved an area under the curve of 0.814 (AUC 95% confidence interval 0.748–0.880, P < 0.001). Con-NRS ≥ 1 achieved sensitivity and specificity of 79.7% and 77.2%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 70.3% and 81.6%, respectively. Overall diagnostic performance of a concise 11-item Likert scale for constipation was moderate. Although patients with long-term opioid therapy are familiar with numeric rating scales, a significant number of patients with constipation were not identified. The instrument may be additionally useful to facilitate individualized therapeutic decision making and to control therapeutic success when measured repetitively. PMID:26683935

  2. Evaluation of microbial activity for long-term performance assessments of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Wang, Yifeng

    2005-06-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments and play a major role in the biogeochemical recycling of various elements. In this paper, we have developed a general approach for a systematic evaluation of microbial impact on the long-term performance of the repository. We have demonstrated that data on microbial population alone are not sufficient for the evaluation of microbial impact on repository performance and a sensible approach for such evaluation must be based on the consideration of environmental constraints on microbial reaction pathways. We have applied our approach to both the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). We have demonstrated that the effect of microbial activity on the near-field chemistry in the Yucca Mountain repository is negligible because of limited nutrient supply and harsh environmental conditions created by waste emplacement. Whereas for the WIPP, we have shown that, due to the presence of a large quantity of organic materials and nutrients in the wastes, a significant microbial activity can potentially be stimulated and its impact on repository performance can be evaluated with carefully designed incubation experiments coupled with performance assessment calculations. The impact of microbial gas generation on disposal room chemistry in the WIPP can be mitigated by introducing MgO as a backfill material.

  3. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  4. Assessment of the effect of castration upon arrival on long-term growth performance of stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing records were used to quantify the impact of castration and dehorning of calves upon arrival at a stocker unit on long-term growth performance and morbidity. Male calves (n = 1,105; BW = 186 ± 24 kg) received over a three-year period were used to assess the effects of castration and dehorni...

  5. The Performance of a Method for the Long-Term Equating of Mixed-Format Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Akihito; Tate, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was the development of a procedure to predict the equating error associated with the long-term equating method of Tate (2003) for mixed-format tests. An expression for the determination of the error of an equating based on multiple links using the error for the component links was derived and illustrated with simulated data.…

  6. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  7. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1993-09-18

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing head values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  8. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  9. Long term performance session summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hanauer, S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents brief summaries of reports given on plutonium disposal. Topics include: performance of waste forms; glass leaching; ceramic leaching; safeguards and security issues; safeguards of vitrification; and proliferation risks of geologic disposal.

  10. Long-term performance assessment of grouted phosphate/sulfate waste from N Reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sewart, G.H.; Farris, W.T.; Huizenga, D.G.; McMakin, A.H.; Streile, G.P.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    Phosphate sulfate waste (PSW) is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste include contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, the Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 38 refs., 17 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Long-term performance of filtration layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by

  12. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  13. Long-term Short Implants Performance: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Essential Assessment Parameters.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Bortolini, Sergio; Martinolli, Matteo; Alfenas, Bruna Fernandes Moreira; Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Natali, Alfredo; Berzaghi, Andrea; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Lack of standard criteria in the outcome assessment makes it difficult to draw conclusions on the clinical performance of short implants and, under these circumstances, determine the reasons for implant failure. This study evaluated, through a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis, the essential parameters required to assess the long-term clinical performance of short and extra-short implants. Electronic databases (Pubmed-MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Database, Embase, and Lilacs) were searched by two independent reviewers, without language limitation, to identify eligible papers. References from the selected articles were also reviewed. The review included clinical trials involving short dental implants placed in humans, published between January 2000 and March 2014, which described the parameters applied for outcome's measurements and provided data on survival rates. Thirteen methodologically acceptable studies were selected and 24 parameters were identified. The most frequent parameters assessed were the marginal bone loss and the cumulative implant survival rate, followed by implant failure rate and biological complications such as bleeding on probing and probing pocket depths. Only cumulative implant survival rate data allows meta-analysis revealing a positive effect size (from 0.052 (fixed) to 0.042 (random)), which means that short implant appears to be a successful treatment option. Mechanical complications and crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio measurement were also commonly described, however, considering the available evidence; no strong conclusions could be drawn since different methods were used to assess each parameter. By means of this literature review, a standard evaluation scheme is proposed, being helpful to regiment further investigations and comparisons on future studies. PMID:26312967

  14. Assessment of long-term performance and chromate reduction mechanisms in a field scale permeable reactive barrier.

    PubMed

    Flury, Ibettina; Frommer, Jakob; Eggenberger, Urs; Mäder, Urs; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2009-09-01

    An innovative full-scale implementation of a permeable reactive barrier, consisting of a double-row of cylinders filled with zerovalent iron shavings, for chromate remediation was monitored over four years. Solid samples were analyzed to elucidate (i) the relevant corrosion mechanisms and products, (ii) the pathways of chromate reduction and immobilization, and (iii) the long-term performance of the barrier situated in a hydrological and geochemical complex groundwater regime. Sampling and analysis of groundwater and reactive material revealed an oxidative iron corrosion zone evolving in the inflow and a zone of anaerobic iron corrosion in the center and outflow of the barrier. Chromate reduction was mainly confined to the inflow region. The formation and thickness of corrosion rinds depended on sampling time, position, and depth, as well as on the size, shape, and graphite content In the inflow, the corrosion rinds mostly consisted of goethite and ferrihydrite. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed two distinct Cr(III) species, most likely resulting from homogeneous and heterogeneous redox reaction pathways, respectively. The longevity and long-term effectiveness of the PRB appears to be primarily limited by reduced corrosion rates of the ZVI-shavings because of the thick layers of Fe-hydroxides.

  15. CUMAS: a seafloor multi-sensor module for volcanic hazard monitoring - First long-term experiment and performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Vassallo, M.; Stabile, T. A.; Elia, L.; Beranzoli, L.

    2009-12-01

    providing continuous geophysical data to the Monitoring Center of the Campi Flegrei volcanic areas, managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The long-term operational performance of CUMAS is presented here, together with the first results from the analysis of the geophysical long time-series acquired. Examples of the acquired signals, especially geophysical data, will be presented to point out the high quality in term of signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, earthquake recordings obtained from the hydrophone resulted of comparable quality to the seismic data acquired on land by the permanent network, thus demonstrating the suitability of hydrophones to monitor the seismic activity of the caldera.

  16. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  17. Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  19. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  20. Assessment of dynamic and long-term performance of an innovative multi-story timber building via structural monitoring and dynamic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Gaul, Andrew; Jager, Simon; Desgeorges, Yohann

    2012-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight non-composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of approximately 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The analysis of monitoring results starts with a discussion of the monitoring of long-term deformations. Next, the assessment of the floor vibration serviceability performance is outlined. Then, the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed. The system identification results from seismic shaking records are also discussed. Finally, updating of a finite element model of the building is conducted.

  1. Is It Just a Bad Class? Assessing the Long-Term Stability of Estimated Teacher Performance. Working Paper 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on work estimating the stability of value-added estimates of teacher effects, an important area of investigation given public interest in workforce policies that implicitly assume effectiveness is a stable attribute within teachers. The results strongly reject the hypothesis that teacher performance is completely stable…

  2. Long-term assessment of best cathode position to maximise microbial fuel cell performance in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Clara; Garfí, Marianna; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-09-01

    The cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) implemented in constructed wetlands (CWs) is generally set in close contact with water surface to provide a rich oxygen environment. However, water level variations caused by plants evapotranspiration in CWs might decrease MFC performance by limiting oxygen transfer to the cathode. Main objective of this work was to quantify the effect of water level variation on MFC performance implemented in HSSF CW. For the purpose of this work two MFCs were implemented within a HSSF CW pilot plant fed with primary treated domestic wastewater. Cell voltage (Ecell) and the relative distance between the cathode and the water level were recorded for one year. Results showed that Ecell was greatly influenced by the relative distance between the cathode and the water level, giving an optimal cathode position of about 1 to 2cm above water level. Both water level variation and Ecell were daily and seasonal dependent, showing a pronounced day/night variation during warm periods and showing almost no daily variation during cold periods. Energy production under pronounced daily water level variation was 40% lower (80±56mWh/m(2)·day) than under low water level variation (131±61mWh/m(2)·day). Main conclusion of the present work is that of the performance of MFC implemented in HSSF CW is highly dependent on plants evapotranspiration. Therefore, MFC that are to be implemented in CWs shall be designed to be able to cope with pronounced water level variations.

  3. The long-term performance of DXA bone densitometers.

    PubMed

    Wells, J; Ryan, P J

    2000-07-01

    Long-term performance of a bone mass measuring device is an important criterion when considering the purchase of such equipment and has been regarded as an important feature of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The performance of a 6-year-old bone densitometer, the Lunar DPX alpha, which has undertaken 1500 scans annually over this period, was assessed. The short-term coefficient of variation calculated from 15 measurements with repositioning on a single day, using the Lunar aluminium phantom, was 0.242%. Long-term precision, also calculated by the coefficient of variation, was 0.548%. The manufacturer's quality control (QC) procedure was performed daily and allowed the machine to be used except on 15 occasions when bone density measurements could be acquired after rebooting. However, a 2.2% shift in phantom values occurred in July 1996 owing to a photomultiplier tube failure, but this did not produce a failure in the Lunar QC. The optical disc drive was replaced in July 1997. The machine failed to back up on six occasions over the last 2 years owing to software corruption and the acquired femur data were not saved on seven occasions owing to overloading of the memory buffer. In conclusion, expected hardware failure and minor software problems have occurred. We were concerned that the manufacturer's QC failed to detect a 2% shift in the phantom bone mineral density values and recommend regular measurements of the Lunar aluminum phantom in addition to the daily QC measurement of the tissue-equivalent block. We were nevertheless impressed by the long-term stability and reproducibility of the Lunar DPX alpha.

  4. Long Term Performance Monitoring Of ASCAT-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Craig; Figa-Saldana, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on the METOP series of satellites is a six beam, real aperture, vertical polarised, C-band radar designed primarily to provide global ocean winds for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models. Its dense coverage also makes it useful for near real time use by operational weather forecasters. The basic measurement provided by the ASCAT is the Normalised Radar Cross Section (NRCS) for which other important applications have emerged in recent years over land and sea ice areas, where it provides information on parameters such as soil moisture, snow and ice properties [1] [2]. Seven years after the start of the ASCAT mission, a reprocessing of the full mission is taking place and a long-term analysis of instrument performance and product quality is being carried out, covering instrument health events and trends as well as an evaluation of calibration accuracy and stability. This assessment is important in order to evaluate the long term data record of geophysical parameters derived from the ASCAT measurements. METOP-A was launched in 2006 and METOP-B in 2012. Dual operations of METOP-A and B are the current baseline and this situation is reviewed yearly with regard to the health of platform and instruments. The next satellite in the series, METOP-C, will be launched 2018 and is expected to operate until 2022.

  5. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  6. Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

    Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

  7. Assessing the performances of low impact development alternatives by long-term simulation for a semi-arid area in Tianjin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Li, Yu; Niu, Shuai; Zhou, Shu H

    2014-01-01

    For areas that are urbanized rapidly, the practice of low impact development (LID) has gained an important place in stormwater management and urban planning due to its capability and beneficial effects in restoring the original hydrological cycle. The performances of LID alternatives can vary substantially due to different climate conditions. This study investigated the performances of five LID alternatives under a semi-arid climate in northern China on water balance and flood control. A numerical model, Storm Water Management Model version 5 (US Environmental Protection Agency), was employed to run 10 years' rainfall events for these objectives. Two evaluation methods were proposed in this study: the efficiency index for water balance and a performance radar chart. The investigation of the five LID alternatives revealed that these LID alternatives functioned differently in flood control and water balance, and porous pavement performed best in all indices except the lag time. The two evaluation methods, in conjunction with the long-term numerical simulation, can facilitate design and decision making by providing a clear picture of the performance and functions for these LID alternatives.

  8. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  9. The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.

    SciTech Connect

    David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

    2001-10-18

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will

  10. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  11. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  12. Design of mechanical components for long-term performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvinski, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of a NASA program designed to study advanced techniques for determining the long-term performance of rocket engine components. Aging and operational degradation mechanisms of metal valve seats are identified. Characterization of metal valve seat surfaces by optical signature analysis is described. The results of the development of a long-life 'zero leakage' metal valve seal designed to avoid failure by contamination, stress/strain, fatigue, and the deterioration of the surface by wear is reported. An analysis of a specific seat design showed that material strain prevention along all axes would prevent these failures. The design provided for refurbishment of the sealing surfaces during each valve cycle, thereby preventing cumulative surface damage.

  13. Impact of total pancreatectomy: short- and long-term assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Louise; Jamal, Wisam; Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Corcos, Olivier; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to assess the outcome of a total pancreatectomy (TP). Methods From 1993 to 2010, 56 patients underwent an elective TP for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (n = 42), endocrine tumours (n = 6), adenocarcinoma (n = 5), metastases (n = 2) and chronic pancreatitis (n = 1). Morbidity and survival were analysed. Long-term survivors were assessed prospectively using quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaires. Results Five patients developed gastric venous congestion intra-operatively. Post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 45% and 3.6%, respectively. An anastomotic ulcer occurred in seven patients, but none after proton pump inhibitor therapy. There were five inappropriate TPs according to definitive pathological examination. Overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 62% and 55% respectively; five deaths were related to TP (two postoperative deaths, one hypoglycaemia, one ketoacidosis and one anastomotic ulcer). Prospective evaluation of 25 patients found that 14 had been readmitted for diabetes and that all had hypoglycaemia within the past month. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 7.8% (6.3–10.3). Fifteen patients experienced weight loss. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a decrease in QoL predominantly because of fatigue and diarrhoea, and the QLQ-PAN26 showed an impact on bowel habit, flatulence and eating-related items. Discussion Morbidity and mortality rates of TP are acceptable, although diabetes- and TP-related mortality still occurs. Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency impacts on the long-term quality of life. PMID:23458647

  14. Long-term performance of motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that motor-operated valves (MOVs) important to safety be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. Despite these requirements, operating experience and research revealed problems with the performance of MOVs in operating nuclear power plants. In response to the concerns about MOV performance, the NRC issued Generic Letter (GL) 89-10, {open_quotes}Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,{close_quotes} and its supplements. Most licensees have completed the aspects of their GL 89-10 programs associated with the review of MOV design bases, verification of MOV switch settings initially, testing of MOVs under design-basis conditions where practicable, and improvement of evaluations of MOV failures and necessary corrective action. Licensees are establishing processes to ensure that the long-term aspects of their MOV programs, such as periodic verification of MOV capability and the trending of MOV problems, are maintained. The NRC staff is developing a generic letter to address periodic verification of MOV design-basis capability.

  15. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  16. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    PubMed

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance.

  17. Quantitative assessment of seismic source performance: Feasibility of small and affordable seismic sources for long term monitoring at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Ivandic, Monika; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We apply a range of quantitative pre-stack analysis techniques to assess the feasibility of using smaller and cheaper seismic sources, than those currently used at the Ketzin CO2 storage site. Results from two smaller land sources are presented alongside those from a larger, more powerful source, typically utilized for seismic acquisition at the Ketzin. The geological target for the study is the Triassic Stuttgart Formation which contains a saline aquifer currently used for CO2 storage. The reservoir lies at a depth of approximately 630 m, equivalent to a travel time of 500 ms along the study profile. The three sources discussed in the study are the Vibsist 3000, Vibsist 500 (using industrial hydraulic driven concrete breaking hammers) and a drop hammer source. Data were collected for the comparison using the three sources in 2011, 2012 and 2013 along a 984 m long line with 24 m receiver spacing and 12 m shot spacing. Initially a quantitative analysis is performed of the noise levels between the 3 surveys. The raw shot gathers are then analyzed quantitatively to investigate the relative energy output, signal to noise ratio, penetration depth, repeatability and frequency content for the different sources. The performance of the sources is also assessed based on stacked seismic sections. Based on the results from this study it appears that both of the smaller sources are capable of producing good images of the target reservoir and can both be considered suitable as lower cost, less invasive sources for use at the Ketzin site or other shallow CO2 storage projects. Finally, the results from the various pre-stack analysis techniques are discussed in terms of how representative they are of the final stacked sections.

  18. Subjective Memory Ability and Long-Term Forgetting in Patients Referred for Neuropsychological Assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Sieberen P; Geurts, Sofie; de Werd, Maartje M E

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after 1 week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits. PMID:27199838

  19. Subjective Memory Ability and Long-Term Forgetting in Patients Referred for Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Sieberen P.; Geurts, Sofie; de Werd, Maartje M. E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after 1 week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits. PMID:27199838

  20. Subjective Memory Ability and Long-Term Forgetting in Patients Referred for Neuropsychological Assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Sieberen P; Geurts, Sofie; de Werd, Maartje M E

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after 1 week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  1. Performance assessment of a commonly used "accumulation and wash-off" model from long-term continuous road runoff turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Bonhomme, Céline; Al Ali, Saja; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    The suitability of a commonly used accumulation and wash-off model for continuous modelling of urban runoff contamination was evaluated based on 11-month turbidity and flow-rate records from an urban street. Calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed using a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling method for both suspended solids loads (discharge rates) and concentration modelling. Selected models failed at replicating suspended solids concentration over the complete monitoring period. The studied dataset indeed suggests that the accumulation process is rather unpredictable and cannot be satisfactorily represented with usual accumulation models unless short periods are considered. Regarding suspended solid loads modelling, noticeably better performance was achieved, but similar results could as well be obtained with much simpler constant concentration models. Unless providing very accurate estimates of concentrations in runoff, accounting for their temporal variability during rain events may therefore not always be necessary for pollutant loads modelling, as loads are in fact mostly explained by runoff volumes.

  2. Performance assessment of a commonly used "accumulation and wash-off" model from long-term continuous road runoff turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Bonhomme, Céline; Al Ali, Saja; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    The suitability of a commonly used accumulation and wash-off model for continuous modelling of urban runoff contamination was evaluated based on 11-month turbidity and flow-rate records from an urban street. Calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed using a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling method for both suspended solids loads (discharge rates) and concentration modelling. Selected models failed at replicating suspended solids concentration over the complete monitoring period. The studied dataset indeed suggests that the accumulation process is rather unpredictable and cannot be satisfactorily represented with usual accumulation models unless short periods are considered. Regarding suspended solid loads modelling, noticeably better performance was achieved, but similar results could as well be obtained with much simpler constant concentration models. Unless providing very accurate estimates of concentrations in runoff, accounting for their temporal variability during rain events may therefore not always be necessary for pollutant loads modelling, as loads are in fact mostly explained by runoff volumes. PMID:25909578

  3. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations.

    PubMed

    Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jirí; Hamplová, Lenka; Urbanová, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale.

  4. Feasibility assessment of Doppler radar long-term physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of applying doppler radar technique for a long-term health monitoring. Doppler radar was used to detect and eliminate periods of significant motion. This technique was verified using a human study on 17 subjects, and it was determined that for 15 out of 17 subjects there was no significant motion for over 85% of the measurement interval in supine positions. Majority of subjects exhibited significantly less motion in supine position, which is promising for sleep monitoring, and monitoring of hospitalized patients. PMID:22254615

  5. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  6. Feasibility assessment of Doppler radar long-term physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of applying doppler radar technique for a long-term health monitoring. Doppler radar was used to detect and eliminate periods of significant motion. This technique was verified using a human study on 17 subjects, and it was determined that for 15 out of 17 subjects there was no significant motion for over 85% of the measurement interval in supine positions. Majority of subjects exhibited significantly less motion in supine position, which is promising for sleep monitoring, and monitoring of hospitalized patients.

  7. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Coal-Liquefaction Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1980-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.M. Deutch (Under Secretary of DOE), E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has studied and reviewed currently funded coal-liquefaction technologies. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term development of coal-liquefaction technologies. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  8. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  9. Assessing Long Term Freshwater Needs in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, E. T.; White, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this research is to understand how humans rely on freshwater at local and regional scales in selected parts of the Arctic, how these dependencies have changed in the recent past, and how they are likely to change in the future. The study seeks to incorporate likely effects of climate change on the hydrologic cycle and water availability. This poster describes results to date on historical and future water demand on the Seward Peninsula. Water use can be divided into domestic and industrial water use. Historic domestic water demand, that is, water used for drinking, cooking and cleaning, has increased over the past 40 years as piped water and sewer systems were installed in many villages. Domestic demand can increase by as much as 900 percent when a community installs piped water. Predictions of future water use indicate that the demand for freshwater could rise to considerably higher levels than current usage in the next century due to upgrades to water systems and increases to populations. Historically, industrial water use on the Seward Peninsula was primarily due to mining activities. Preliminary results suggest that water use in the Nome Mining District decreased proportionally with the decline of placer mining operations last century, but the planned construction of a new gold mine in the Nome area could significantly increase freshwater use for mining in the future. The long-term goal of this study is to use historic pressures on the freshwater resource to better understand its vulnerability. Predictions indicate that the domestic demand for freshwater will rise in the future due to population growth and changes to water treatment and delivery technology. The poster addresses current water use on the Seward Peninsula and possible future water demand.

  10. Towards a common benchmark for long-term process control and monitoring performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C; Jeppsson, U; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2004-01-01

    The COST/IWA benchmark simulation model has been available for seven years. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of biological wastewater treatment processes. The fact that the benchmark has resulted in more than 100 publications, not only in Europe but also worldwide, demonstrates the interest for such a tool in the research community. In this paper, an extension of the benchmark simulation model no. 1 (BSM1) is proposed. It aims at facilitating evaluation of two closely related operational tasks: long-term control strategy performance and process monitoring performance. The motivation for the extension is that these two tasks typically act on longer time scales. The extension proposed here consists of 1) prolonging the evaluation period to one year (including influent files), 2) specifying time varying process parameters and 3) including sensor and actuator failures. The prolonged evaluation period is necessary to obtain a relevant and realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbances. Also, a prolonged evaluation period allows for a number of long-term control actions/handles that cannot be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one week BSM1 evaluation period. In the paper, models for influent file design, parameter changes and sensor failures, initialization procedure and evaluation criteria are discussed. Important remaining topics, for which consensus is required, are identified. The potential of a long-term benchmark is illustrated with an example of process monitoring algorithm benchmarking.

  11. Long-term effects of home rehabilitation on physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Wijkstra, P J; van der Mark, T W; Kraan, J; van Altena, R; Koëter, G H; Postma, D S

    1996-04-01

    A pilot study was set up to assess the long-term effects of once weekly versus once monthly follow-up of pulmonary rehabilitation after a comprehensive home rehabilitation program on physical performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during an 18-mo period. Thirty-six patients with a mean FEV1 of 1.3 +/- 0.4 L (43% pred) were included in the study. Groups A and B (n = 23) visited the physical therapist twice weekly for 3 mo. Thereafter, 11 patients (Group A) had a follow-up of pulmonary rehabilitation once a week, and 12 patients (Group B) had a follow-up once a month. Thirteen patients received no rehabilitation at all (Group C). Long-term home rehabilitation does not appear to improve exercise tolerance; however, on the other hand, there is a deterioration in vital capacity (p < 0.01), walking distance (p < 0.01), and maximal work load (p < 0.05), as shown in the control group. A small improvement in exertional dyspnea (p < 0.01) after 18 mo and inspiratory muscle function (p < 0.05) after 12 mo was shown only in Group A. Because of the insufficient number of patients enrolled in this pilot study, no clear benefit on physical performance of long-term home rehabilitation with either weekly or monthly supervision could be demonstrated.

  12. Long-Term Performance of the SERF PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.

    2003-05-01

    This paper provides the changes in performance ratings of two photovoltaic (PV) systems located on the roof of the Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. For the period of May 1994 to April 2002, the performance rating of the two PV systems decreased at the rate of 1% per year. Most of the changes in performance rating are attributed to changes in the performance of the PV arrays. But about a fifth of the observed changes were from the inverter not tracking the peak-power as effectively as the PV arrays aged.

  13. Long-term Radiographic Assessment of Cemented Polyethylene Acetabular Cups

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Graham; Porter, Neil; Fisher, John; Older, John

    2008-01-01

    In vitro studies demonstrating excessive wear in polyethylene cups sterilized using gamma irradiation and stored in air led to the abandonment of this sterilization technique. We evaluated the clinical wear performance of a metal femoral component on a polyethylene cup in a hip prosthesis from a selected subset of implants in a group of patients followed for at least 20 years and assessed the time dependency of variation in penetration rates. We measured penetration in 33 polyethylene cups in 25 patients who had a Charnley low-friction arthroplasty between 1982 and 1984. All patients had Charnley Ogee® cups implanted for more than 20 years and sterilized using the gamma irradiation in air technique. If degradation occurred over time in vivo, it was not reflected by an increased penetration rate with increasing time in vivo; even after 20 years of implantation, the degree of wear remained low. This suggests gamma irradiation affects wear on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene by reducing wear secondary to the crosslinking, by increasing wear as shown through in vitro studies of heavily oxidized samples, or by oxidation resulting from prolonged shelf life. The effect of progressive oxidation in vivo does not appear to affect wear in vivo. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196419

  14. Long-Term Nutrient Performance in a Bioinfiltration Rain Garden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this study is to gain a better understanding of the nutrients and metals removal mechanisms involved in a bioinfiltration stormwater abatement system, predict the useful life of a bioinfiltration BMP for the removal of certain contaminants and assess toxicity of stor...

  15. Assessment of GE food safety using '-omics' techniques and long-term animal feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E

    2013-05-25

    Despite the fact that a thorough, lengthy and costly evaluation of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants (including compositional analysis and toxicological tests) is imposed before marketing some European citizens remain sceptical of the safety of GE food and feed. In this context, are additional tests necessary? If so, what can we learn from them? To address these questions, we examined data from 60 recent high-throughput '-omics' comparisons between GE and non-GE crop lines and 17 recent long-term animal feeding studies (longer than the classical 90-day subchronic toxicological tests), as well as 16 multigenerational studies on animals. The '-omics' comparisons revealed that the genetic modification has less impact on plant gene expression and composition than that of conventional plant breeding. Moreover, environmental factors (such as field location, sampling time, or agricultural practices) have a greater impact than transgenesis. None of these '-omics' profiling studies has raised new safety concerns about GE varieties; neither did the long-term and multigenerational studies on animals. Therefore, there is no need to perform such long-term studies in a case-by-case approach, unless reasonable doubt still exists after conducting a 90-day feeding test. In addition, plant compositional analysis and '-omics' profiling do not indicate that toxicological tests should be mandatory. We discuss what complementary fundamental studies should be performed and how to choose the most efficient experimental design to assess risks associated with new GE traits. The possible need to update the current regulatory framework is discussed.

  16. Hippocampal CA1 Kindling but Not Long-Term Potentiation Disrupts Spatial Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, L. Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2006-01-01

    Long-term synaptic enhancement in the hippocampus has been suggested to cause deficits in spatial performance. Synaptic enhancement has been reported after hippocampal kindling that induced repeated electrographic seizures or afterdischarges (ADs) and after long-term potentiation (LTP) defined as synaptic enhancement without ADs. We studied…

  17. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS: LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of research efforts at EPA on the application, monitoring, and performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for groundwater restoration. Over the past 10 years, research projects conducted by research staff at EPA's National Risk M...

  18. Long term performance of wearable transducer for motion energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarry, Scott A.; Behrens, Sam

    2010-04-01

    Personal electronic devices such as cell phones, GPS and MP3 players have traditionally depended on battery energy storage technologies for operation. By harvesting energy from a person's motion, these devices may achieve greater run times without increasing the mass or volume of the electronic device. Through the use of a flexible piezoelectric transducer such as poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and integrating it into a person's clothing, it becomes a 'wearable transducer'. As the PVDF transducer is strained during the person's routine activities, it produces an electrical charge which can then be harvested to power personal electronic devices. Existing wearable transducers have shown great promise for personal motion energy harvesting applications. However, they are presently physically bulky and not ergonomic for the wearer. In addition, there is limited information on the energy harvesting performance for wearable transducers, especially under realistic conditions and for extended cyclic force operations - as would be experienced when worn. In this paper, we present experimental results for a wearable PVDF transducer using a person's measured walking force profile, which is then cycled for a prolonged period of time using an experimental apparatus. Experimental results indicate that after an initial drop in performance, the transducer energy harvesting performance does not substantially deteriorate over time, as less than 10% degradation was observed. Longevity testing is still continuing at CSIRO.

  19. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: Assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. Results The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Conclusions Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the

  20. The impact of impurities on long-term PEMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Lopes, Thiago; Rockward, Tommy; Mukundan, Rangachary; Sansinena, Jose - Maria; Kienitz, Brian

    2009-06-23

    Electrochemical experimentation and modeling indicates that impurities degrade fuel cell performance by a variety of mechanisms. Electrokinetics may be inhibited by catalytic site poisoning from sulfur compounds and CO and by decreased local proton activity and mobility caused by the presence of foreign salt cations or ammonia. Cation impurity profiles vary with current density, valence and may change local conductivity and water concentrations in the ionomer. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia species may be electrochemically active under fuel cell operating conditions. The primary impurity removal mechanisms are electrooxidation and water fluxes through the fuel cell.

  1. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  2. The buried reference electrode: A critical long term performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, T.; Geyer, W.

    1998-12-31

    Accurate monitoring of cathodic protection relies upon the proficiency of the test personnel and the proper operation of the required equipment. The equipment consists of properly insulated test leads, an electronic volt meter with a known internal circuit resistance, and a reference electrode. The proper operation of each piece of equipment is critical to the accuracy of the cathodic protection test results. However, the reference electrode is not often suspected of being responsible for unexpected cathodic protection readings. This paper will provide background on the use of portable reference electrodes and data used to evaluate the performance of buried reference electrodes installed adjacent to a single, catholically protected, underground storage tank. Data accumulated at the test site clearly indicates that not all buried reference electrodes provide identical results.

  3. Long Term Trend Analysis and Assessment of Water Quality in the Penchala River, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, M. F.; Haris, H. B.; Mohd Sidek, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion produces negative impacts on the natural environment, especially river water quality. Studies assessing long term changes of water quality have been recognized as a key tool for understanding ongoing processes in watersheds and for providing an essential background for evaluation of rapid changes within industrialized and populated urban areas. Unfortunately, only limited studies are available for developing countries such as Malaysia. Thus, a long term study was conducted to evaluate water quality trends at Pencala river basin that has undergone extensive land use changes related to industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Fifteen physical and chemical variables were analysed in river water samples collected every month over a period of 13 years, between 1997 and 2009. The trend study was performed using the Mann-Kendall Seasonal test and the Sen's Slope estimator. Results revealed that most water quality parameters showed a downward trend for yearly average concentration. The water quality index (WQI) for Pencala River was improved from Class V to Class IV, according to National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia. BOD, COD, NH3-N and SS show trends toward decreasing concentrations over time. The improvements seen in water quality appear to be the result of improved wastewater treatment and other water quality improvement efforts achieved through government initiative. Continued long-term and high frequency monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for effective water resources management.

  4. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  5. Modelling Tradescantia fluminensis to assess long term survival

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Sue M.; Ponder-Sutton, Agate; Plank, Michael J.; Lamoureaux, Shona L.; Bourdôt, Graeme W.; Kelly, Dave

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple Poisson process model for the growth of Tradescantia fluminensis, an invasive plant species that inhibits the regeneration of native forest remnants in New Zealand. The model was parameterised with data derived from field experiments in New Zealand and then verified with independent data. The model gave good predictions which showed that its underlying assumptions are sound. However, this simple model had less predictive power for outputs based on variance suggesting that some assumptions were lacking. Therefore, we extended the model to include higher variability between plants thereby improving its predictions. This high variance model suggests that control measures that promote node death at the base of the plant or restrict the main stem growth rate will be more effective than those that reduce the number of branching events. The extended model forms a good basis for assessing the efficacy of various forms of control of this weed, including the recently-released leaf-feeding tradescantia leaf beetle (Neolema ogloblini). PMID:26082865

  6. Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    One of the main functions of the upcoming International Space Station (ISS) will be to provide a venue for testing proposed countermeasures for their ability to protect humans from the debilitating effects of longterm space flight. However, several limiting factors preclude an evaluation process similar to that used in clinical trials which traditionally are implemented with large sample sizes of subjects, including control groups, and with blind or double-blind application of treatments according to factorial or other balanced experimental designs. In particular, only very limited numbers of human subjects will be available for actual field testing in the ISS With no more than 125 subjects planned to fly on all ISS missions over 10 years, it is not possible to test extensive combinations of some 15-20 proposed countermeasures. Furthermore because of safety concerns and operational considerations, it is unlikely that anything other than the current best guess at the most effective countermeasure package will ever be used on ISS. In particular, control or placebos will not be allowed. In view of these limitations, historical data and groundbased or animal studies will have to be used to compensate for small sample sizes and lack of controls in the field. As a result, statistical analysis methodology will have to be developed which allows for the integration of these disparate data types into a meaningful evaluation process. The process must be sequential, providing objective rules for deciding through time whether to reject or modify an ineffective countermeasure, or whether to certify one as effective. Additional output should include performance characteristics for all relevant physiological systems, including uncertainty analyses and estimates of accept/reject decision error rates.

  7. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The application of existing and new technology to the problem of determining the long-term performance capability of liquid rocket propulsion feed systems is discussed. The long term performance of metal to metal valve seats in a liquid propellant fuel system is stressed. The approaches taken in conducting the analysis are: (1) advancing the technology of characterizing components through the development of new or more sensitive techniques and (2) improving the understanding of the physical of degradation.

  8. A wearable sensor for unobtrusive, long-term assessment of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ming-Zher; Swenson, Nicholas C; Picard, Rosalind W

    2010-05-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a sensitive index of sympathetic nervous system activity. Due to the lack of sensors that can be worn comfortably during normal daily activity and over extensive periods of time, research in this area is limited to laboratory settings or artificial clinical environments. We developed a novel, unobtrusive, nonstigmatizing, wrist-worn integrated sensor, and present, for the very first time, a demonstration of long-term, continuous assessment of EDA outside of a laboratory setting. We evaluated the performance of our device against a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved system for the measurement of EDA during physical, cognitive, as well as emotional stressors at both palmar and distal forearm sites, and found high correlations across all the tests. We also evaluated the choice of electrode material by comparing conductive fabric with Ag/AgCl electrodes and discuss the limitations found. An important result presented in this paper is evidence that the distal forearm is a viable alternative to the traditional palmar sites for EDA measurements. Our device offers the unprecedented ability to perform comfortable, long-term, and in situ assessment of EDA. This paper opens up opportunities for future investigations that were previously not feasible, and could have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and understanding of psychological or neurological conditions. PMID:20172811

  9. Assessment Of Errors In Long-Term Mass Balance Records From Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, R. S.; van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS maintains a long-term glacier mass balance monitoring program at Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers in Alaska. The records produced by this program are a major component of the world’s mountain glacier balance inventory due to the scarcity of such long-term measurements. Recent data that show rapid glacier volume loss in Alaska further emphasize the importance of these records. An integral part of the long-term mass balance program is repeated assessment of the validity of the methods because bias errors in mass balance data are cumulative. Long-term glacier mass balance records in Alaska have previously been shown to be in good agreement with geodetically determined volume changes despite a minimal network of mass balance stakes. Because the rates of negative mass balance and change in glacier geometry have recently increased, this work reassess whether or not the existing stake networks and method of determining glacier-average balance are still working adequately.

  10. Assessment of the long-term risks of inadvertent human intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wuschke, D.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel wastes. The program has focused on the concept of disposal of spent fuel in durable containers in an engineered facility, or vault, 500 to 1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock in the Canadian Shield. An essential goal of this program has been to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the facility against safety criteria established by Canada's regulatory agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). These criteria are expressed in terms of risk, where risk is defined as the sum over all significant scenarios of the product of the probability of the scenario, the magnitude of the resultant dose, and the probability of a health effect per unit dose. This paper describes the methodology developed to assess the long-term risk from inadvertent human intrusion into such a facility and the results of its application to a conceptual design of such a facility.

  11. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  12. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from ground water monitoring ...

  13. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground-water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from studies conducted over ...

  14. Long-term performance of landfill covers - results of lysimeter test fields in Bavaria (Germany).

    PubMed

    Henken-Mellies, Wolf-Ulrich; Schweizer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season. The three-layer systems of the two other test fields performed much better. Most of the water which percolated through the top soil profile drained sideways in the drainage layer. Only 1-3% of precipitation percolated through the sealing layer. The long-term effectiveness of the mineral sealing layer depended on the ability of the top soil layer to protect it from critical loss of soil water/critical increase of suction. In dry summers there was even a loss in soil water content at the base of the 2.0 m thick soil cover. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the long-term aspect when assessing the effectiveness of landfill covers: The hydraulic conductivity at the time of construction gives only an initial (minimum) value. The hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay layer or of the geosynthetic clay liner may increase substantially, if there is no long-lasting protection against desiccation (by a thick soil cover or by a geomembrane). This has to be taken into account in landfill cover design. PMID:20937619

  15. Assessment of disc injury in subjects exposed to long-term whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Drerup, B; Granitzka, M; Assheuer, J; Zerlett, G

    1999-01-01

    exhibited deviations from normal. In addition, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was performed to assess whether the trabecular bone density of the third lumbar vertebra deviated from normal. The results showed no significant difference in change of stature while standing, carrying or sitting between exposed machine operators and non-exposed operators. Likewise, MRI examinations revealed no significant differences in the water content of the discs averaged over the lumbar spine. In addition, QCT examinations revealed no significant difference in the trabecular bone density of the third lumbar vertebra. The study thus revealed no significant difference between a cohort with long-term exposure and non-exposed controls with respect to viscoelastic properties of discs as determined by stadiometry, average water content of lumbar discs and trabecular bone density of L3.

  16. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research brief presents findings over the past four years at two sites where detailed investigations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have focused on the long-term performance of PRBs under a Tri-Agency Permeable Reactive Barrier Initiative (TRI). This ...

  17. Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

  18. GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

  19. Influence of Misaligned Parents' Aspirations on Long-Term Student Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Hester; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of misaligned parents' aspirations, its relationship with student background characteristics, and its effects on long-term student performance. It is defined as the difference between parents' educational ambitions for their child and the child's actual capacities. Multilevel regression analyses on a sample of…

  20. Quantitative Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of countermeasures (CM) for the effects of space travel on humans for long term space missions. An example of bone mineral density (BMD) is examined to show specific quantitative measures for failure and success.

  1. Editorial: Assessment Issues and Long-Term Effects of Childhood Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1997-01-01

    This editorial reviews and comments on three recent studies: two on assessment issues or areas of diagnostic difficulty for pediatricians concerned with child abuse and neglect, and one on the long-term effects of childhood abuse and experiences of early attachment. (DB)

  2. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  3. A Modified Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale for Use in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossbarger, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Terminology in the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale of DSM-IV often is irrelevant to the realities of nursing homes, assisted living centers, and similar facilities in which residents encounter stressors that are unique to their living environment and circumstances. As the mental health needs of long-term care residents are…

  4. Evaluation of Self-Assessment Tests for Predicting Long-Term Knowledge Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, John, Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    To determine if posttests administered immediately following a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program are reliable predictors of long-term knowledge retention, a portion of three posttests used in three successive CPE programs was readministered to attendees of those programs 8 to 21 weeks later. Posttests do not reliably assess long-term…

  5. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of an Environmental Education Program: A Pragmatic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Joanne M.; Halverson, Wesley F.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the nature and extent of behavioral changes exhibited by participants of an action oriented environmental program which focused on Lake Michigan's water quality. Outlines the program's objectives and assesses long-term behavioral modifications resulting from involvement in the decision-making process. (ML)

  6. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    SciTech Connect

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G.; Chau, T.

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  7. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  8. Short-term and long-term within-person variability in performance: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Minbashian, Amirali; Luppino, Daniella

    2014-09-01

    Previous research on within-person variability in performance has largely examined short-term fluctuations and long-term changes in performance separately. The present study proposes a model-based on the cognitive-affective personality system meta--theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995)--that integrates short-term and long-term performance variability within the 1 framework. Key propositions of the model include that short-term performance fluctuations are contingent on variability in situational cues and that situational cue-performance contingencies change over time. To test the propositions, performance data for 393 professional male tennis players were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that 2 types of situational cues--resource allocation cues and task complexity--interact in complex ways to account for short-term performance variability. Moreover, as predicted, the contingency of performance on the situational cues changed over time, highlighting the importance of an integrated approach to short-term and long-term performance variability. The implications of these findings are discussed for studies of performance at work and practical applications that managers can employ to increase work performance. Furthermore, parallels are drawn with previous studies from the broader literature on dynamic job performance. PMID:25019419

  9. Relationship between cognitive impairment and nutritional assessment on functional status in Calabrian long-term-care

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. Methods One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. Results A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (P<0.001), as did MMSE correlated with Activity Daily Living (P<0.001) and BI (P<0.05). MNA correlated with BI (P<0.001) and albumin (P<0.001). The follow-up showed a strong correlation between cognitive deterioration and worsening of nutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). Conclusion The present study clearly shows that

  10. Designing long-term fish community assessments in connecting channels: Lessons from the Saint Marys River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeff; Rogers, Mark W.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette K.; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Long-term surveys are useful in understanding trends in connecting channel fish communities; a gill net assessment in the Saint Marys River performed periodically since 1975 is the most comprehensive connecting channels sampling program within the Laurentian Great Lakes. We assessed efficiency of that survey, with intent to inform development of assessments at other connecting channels. We evaluated trends in community composition, effort versus estimates of species richness, ability to detect abundance changes for four species, and effects of subsampling yellow perch catches on size and age-structure metrics. Efficiency analysis revealed low power to detect changes in species abundance, whereas reduced effort could be considered to index species richness. Subsampling simulations indicated that subsampling would have allowed reliable estimates of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population structure, while greatly reducing the number of fish that were assigned ages. Analyses of statistical power and efficiency of current sampling protocols are useful for managers collecting and using these types of data as well as for the development of new monitoring programs. Our approach provides insight into whether survey goals and objectives were being attained and can help evaluate ability of surveys to answer novel questions that arise as management strategies are refined.

  11. Long-term characterization of residential runoff and assessing potential surrogates of fecal indicator organisms.

    PubMed

    Reano, Dane C; Haver, Darren L; Oki, Lorence R; Yates, Marylynn V

    2015-05-01

    Investigations into the microbiological impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies, especially during storm conditions, have yielded general paradigms that influence runoff abatement and control management strategies. To determine whether these trends are present in other runoff sources, the physical, chemical, and microbiological components of residential runoff from eight neighborhoods in Northern and Southern California were characterized over the course of five years. Sampling occurred regularly and during storm events, resulting in 833 data sets. Analysis of runoff data assisted in characterizing residential runoff, elucidating differences between dry and storm conditions, and identifying surrogates capable of assessing microbiological quality. Results indicate that although microbial loading increases during storm events similar to urban runoff, annual microbial loading in these study sites principally occurs during dry conditions (24% storm, 76% dry). Generated artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models assessed surrogate performance by accurately predicting Escherichia coli concentrations from validation data sets (R(2) = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), but required input from other fecal indicator organism (FIO) variables to maintain performance (R(2) = 0.27 and 0.18, respectively, without FIO). This long-term analysis of residential runoff highlights characteristics distinct from urban runoff and establishes necessary variables for determining microbiological quality, thus better informing future management strategies.

  12. Long-term performance and characterization of microbial desalination cells in treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiping; Xu, Pei; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-09-01

    Microbial desalination cell represents a new technology for simultaneous wastewater treatment, water desalination, and energy production. This study characterized the long-term performance of MDC during wastewater treatment and identified the key factors that caused performance decline. The 8-month operation shows that MDC performance decreased over time, as indicated by a 47% decline in current density, a 46% drop in Columbic efficiency, and a 27% decrease in desalination efficiency. Advanced electrochemical, microscopy, and spectroscopy analyses all confirmed biofouling on the anion exchange membrane, which increased system resistance and reduced ionic transfer and energy conversion efficiency. Minor chemical scaling was found on the cation exchange membrane surface. Microbial communities became less diverse at the end of operation, and Proteobacteria spp. was dominant on both anode and AEM fouling layer surface. These results provide insights into the viability of long-term MDC operation on reactor performance and direct system development through membrane optimization.

  13. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer

  14. Clinical and radiological assessment of effects of long-term corticosteroid therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Beeraka, Swapna Sridevi; Natarajan, Kannan; Patil, Rajendra; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Kolaparthi, Venkata Suneel Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Corticosteroids (Cs) are used widely for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. They have the potential to cause dramatic improvement as well as produce equally dramatic adverse effects. The clinical misuse like over prescription of the drug should be avoided. Long-term administration may cause many adverse effects leading to impaired oral health. Oral health is usually not considered during management of patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and radiological changes in the jaw bones of the patients under long-term corticosteroid therapy. Materials and Methods: Oral health of 100 patients under long-term corticosteroid therapy with a minimum of 3 months duration was compared with sex- and age-matched 100 healthy controls. The clinical examination included complete examination of the mouth and periodontal status. Radiographic evaluation of bone with the help of intra oral periapical radiograph and digital orthopantomograph and levels of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and random blood sugar were assessed. ‘Chi-square test’, ‘Kolmogorov-Smirnov test’ and ‘Mann-Whitney U test’ were used for statistical analysis. P > 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Patients on steroids exhibited significantly higher levels of candidiasis and clinical attachment loss of the periodontal ligament, probing pocket depth. Bone density was significantly lower in the study group than that in the control group. Random blood glucose was significantly higher and significant lower levels of calcium were observed in patients on steroids. Conclusion: Long-term use of Cs may affect oral health adversely leading to candidiasis as well as impair bone metabolism leading to a considerable decrease in the mandibular bone mineral density. PMID:24348627

  15. Evaluating the Long-Term Performance of Geosynethic Clay Liners Exposed to Freeze-Thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K. Podgorney; Jesse E. Bennett

    2006-02-01

    Geosynethic clay liners have become an increasingly common component in landfill liner and cover systems since their introduction in the early 1980’s. An important consideration for landfills and covers constructed in the frost zone of cold climates is the possible deterioration in performance due to freeze-thaw cycling over the design life of the liner or cover system, which can be up to 1,000 years. The literature contains several examples showing that geosynethic clay liners can withstand a limited number of freeze-thaw events, but data on long-term performance are lacking The objective of this study was to examine the long-term performance of geosynethic clay liners exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles, encompassing their application as a final cover as well as a bottom liner. Laboratory analysis of hydraulic conductivity was performed after as many as 150 freeze-thaw cycles, with no appreciable changes observed. Based upon an analytical heat transfer analysis, this equates to [at least] 150 years of field service for placement depths greater then approximately 30 cm below the surface of the liner. The long-term insusceptibility of GCLs to increased hydraulic conductivity as a response to repeated freeze-thaw cycling is largely due to the self-healing characteristics of the sodium bentonite used in their construction. GCLs perform well and maintain efficiency as a barrier to flow after 150 freeze-thaw cycles. Other factors, such as permeant chemistry, physical disturbance, desiccation, etc., may be much more important factors to consider when planning for the long-term performance of GCLs.

  16. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children.

    PubMed

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  17. Design Principles and Concepts for Enhancing Long-Term Cap Performance and Confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Robert P. Breckenridge; Gregory J. White; Jacob J. Jacobson; Hilary I. Inyang

    2005-10-01

    The siting of new landfills is becoming increasing difficult as the public and stakeholders want more confidence of performance for longer times and landfill owners want to store more waste in the least area while knowing and limiting their long-term liabilities. These changes motivate re-examination of long-term performance mechanisms and their implications for cap and barrier designs. Accordingly, in this paper we first consider design principles from the standpoint of long-term performance and management, including the ability to monitor and repair barriers. We then consider some design concepts that may implement these principles, especially evapo-transpiration (ET) caps. We suggest five design principles based on experience in the cap and barrier field as well as other engineering disciplines. These principles are as follows: · Establish a clear and defendable design basis. · Design for ease of monitoring and repair. · Analyze the barrier as a dynamic system, not static. · Work with nature, not against. · Recognize that increased complexity can reduce, not enhance, net performance. ET caps are an excellent embodiment of these design principles. We apply the design principles to ET caps, as well as variants such as erosion armor, capillary breaks, bio-intrusion layers, and low permeability material layers.

  18. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  19. Modeling the Long-Term Isolation Performance of Natural and Engineered Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-07-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. This evolution of cap-rock permeability can be assessed through reactive transport modeling, an advanced computational method based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by the influx event. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfrac apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish saline aquifer and EOR/sequestration settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible impact on mineral reaction rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters, because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation. Specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. As a result, while the extent of

  20. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Soto, Rafael; Martian, Pete; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2003-02-01

    , the INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S. J.; Jacobson, J. J.; Martian, P.; Martineau, R.; Soto, R.

    2003-02-25

    INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

  3. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition. PMID:26869978

  4. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF LONG-TERM SALINITY CHANGES IN AN IRRIGATED STREAM-AQUIFER SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Person, Mark

    1985-01-01

    Changes in salinity in groundwater and surface water in the Arkansas River valley of southeastern Colorado are primarily related to irrigation practices. A solute transport model was applied to an 11-mile reach of the valley to compute salinity changes in response to spatially and temporally varying stresses. The model was calibrated in 1973 using detailed field measurements made during 1971 and 1972. In 1973 the calibrated model was used to predict that a gradual long-term increase in groundwater salinity of about 2-3% per year would occur if the observed irrigation practices continued. The study area was resampled during the winter of 1982 to help evaluate if any long-term changes in salinity are actually occurring. Nonparametric and parametric statistical tests were used to help assess the significance of observed changes in groundwater salinity.

  6. ED 06-1 ASSESSMENT OF LONG-TERM BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY.

    PubMed

    An, Hyonggin

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between blood pressure levels and the risk of cardiovascular diseases has been established for a long time. In recent years, many studies have showed that the risk also depends on the increased blood pressure variability (BPV). BPV is characterized by short-term variability occurring within a 24 hour period (e.g., beat-to-beat, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, and day-to-night changes) and also by long-term variability occurring over prolong periods of time (e.g., days, weeks, seasons, and years). Even though some studies have indicated the stabilizing BPV lowers the risk of cardiovascular complication, the clinical implications BPV (especially for long-term BPV) can vary substantially depending on the assessment methods, time interval, and analysis. In this presentation, I will review the pros and cons of methods widely used for BPV assessment. In addition, statistical methods for within-subject long-term BVP data will be also presented. PMID:27642904

  7. Performance requirements for design of landfill covers for long term protection

    SciTech Connect

    Guros, F.B.; Thiers, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Performance requirements are presented for landfill covers designed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Specialized design technology is discussed which addresses the issues of long term isolation of waste materials and integrity of cover components. The basis for the designs are given for UMTRAP and WSSRAP which resulted in the performance requirements established for each project. Performance requirements for each cover component are summarized, together with resulting cover components which meet the requirements.

  8. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance–contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition. PMID:26869978

  9. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  10. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  11. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Study Design Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. Results There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. Conclusion The results of the present study did not

  12. Improvement of capabilities of the Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for investigating SOFC long term performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Galdamez, Rinaldo A.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.

    2012-04-30

    This report provides an overview of the work performed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) modeling during the 2012 Winter/Spring Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A brief introduction on the concept, operation basics and applications of fuel cells is given for the general audience. Further details are given regarding the modifications and improvements of the Distributed Electrochemistry (DEC) Modeling tool developed by PNNL engineers to model SOFC long term performance. Within this analysis, a literature review on anode degradation mechanisms is explained and future plans of implementing these into the DEC modeling tool are also proposed.

  13. Using the balanced scorecard to align strategy and performance in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, M

    1998-01-01

    The Sisters of Charity of Ottawa Health Service (SCOHS) is a Canadian health care corporation that has adapted Kaplan and Norton's balanced scorecard to enhance strategic management and measurement in a multisite health care facility comprising long term care, continuing complex care, rehabilitative services, palliative care and ambulatory care. This article discusses how the SCOHS has incorporated the following principles into the balanced scorecard: demonstration of cause and effect; inclusion of outcomes and performance drivers; linkage to fiscal and utilization indicators; and integration of the mission and values of the organization. Examples of corporate level outcomes and performance measures are provided in the form of lead and lag indicators. PMID:10187659

  14. Criteria to assess and select sites for long-term avian monitoring in an urbanizing landscape.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lorne P; Milne, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    A methodology was developed to prioritize the suitability of sites for long-term monitoring of avian populations, including vulnerable species, both to enhance assessment of changes in ecological resources and to facilitate land-use planning at the regional scale. This paper argues that a successful monitoring program begins with a site prioritization procedure that integrates scores based on spatial controls with ecological and socio-economic indicators, particularly those dependent on community involvement. The evaluation strategy in this study combines 1) spatial controls such as land ownership and accessibility, with 2) biological and habitat indicators such as vulnerable species and habitat connectivity, and 3) community and agency variables such as volunteer commitment and agency priorities. In total, a set of ten indicators was identified. This strategy was applied to predominantly agricultural landscapes, which are experiencing increasing human pressures, in three sub-watersheds of the Credit River, Southern Ontario. Specifically, bird populations were recorded during the breeding seasons of 2000-2002 in nine land units or habitat types including marsh, deciduous forest, and grasslands as mapped by Credit Valley Conservation (CVC) following Ecological Land Classification (ELC) guidelines. CVC selected sites for long-term monitoring in 2002 and the relationships between the scored (or ranked) sites and the selected long-term monitoring sites are discussed.

  15. Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

    2014-12-15

    On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner.

  16. An Account of Performance in Accessing Information Stored in Long-Term Memory. A Fixed-Links Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…

  17. Assessment of the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term watershed monitoring in an urban slough system.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kathleen

    2006-07-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at eight sites within the Buffalo Slough, near Portland, Oregon, to (1) measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and organochlorine (OC) compounds in the slough, (2) assess the usefulness of SPMDs as a tool for investigating and monitoring hydrophobic compounds throughout the Columbia Slough system, and (3) evaluate the utility of SPMDs as a tool for measuring the long-term effects of watershed improvement activities. Data from the SPMDs revealed clear spatial and seasonal differences in water quality within the slough and indicate that for hydrophobic compounds, this time-integrated passive-sampling technique is a useful tool for long-term watershed monitoring. In addition, the data suggest that a spiking rate of 2-5 microg/SPMD of permeability/performance reference compounds, including at least one compound that is not susceptible to photodegradation, may be optimum for the conditions encountered here.

  18. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solaron (air) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron Corporation air-type solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Solaron Model 2001, air-type solar collector has a gross area of 19 square feet and the weight is 160 pounds. The absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of 1/8-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 5/8-inch fiberglass batting.

  19. Effects of long term storage on aerospace nickel cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the long term effects on aerospace nickel cadmium cells is described. A number of 6Ah and 12Ah capacity cells which were stored in shorted condition for 9 to 11 years at the Goddard Space Flight Center were selected for the study. Of the three tests which were initiated (initial and final destruction analyses of the test cells, electrical characterization tests, and life cycling tests) only the electrical characterization tests are completed; the other tests are scheduled to be completed by February 1987. The preliminary electrial performance data from the life cycling test and chemical composition data from the destructive testing indicate no anomalous behavior.

  20. Long term stability and expected performance of a guided wave SHM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attarian, V.; Cegla, F.; Cawley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Safe operation of aerospace and energy infrastructure relies on manually inspecting plate-like structures. Structural health monitoring with permanently installed, sparse arrays of guided wave sensors promises to automate and increase reliability of maintenance. Temperature compensated subtraction between monitored Lamb wave signals and baselines has enabled detection of <1.5% reflectors in densely featured plates experiencing ambient thermal fluctuation. This work investigates reliability of long term monitoring using this approach through analysis of thermally cycled sensor data and simulations of transducer performance.

  1. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    PubMed Central

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallic heater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could be attained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb) heater elements.

  2. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  3. The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, C.; Thwaite, C.; Curzon, D.; Rao, G.

    2006-01-01

    Tests approx.8 yrs ago showed Sony HC do not imbalance. AEA developed a theory (ESPC 2002): a) Self-discharge (SD) decreases with state-of-charge (SOC); b) Cells diverge to a state of dynamic equilibrium; c) Equilibrium spread depends on cell SD uniformity. Balancing model verified against test data. Short-term measures of SD difficult in Sony cells and very small values, depends on technique. Long-term evidence supports lower SD at low SD. Battery testing best proof of performance, typically mission specific tests.

  4. Geoethical issues in long-term assessment of geohazards and related mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-term assessment of large-impact and relatively (or very) infrequent geohazards like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions is nowadays a common practice for geoscientists and many groups have been and are involved in producing global and regional hazard maps in response of an increasing demand of the society. Though the societal needs are the basic motivations for such studies, often this aspect is not pondered enough and a lack of communication between geoscientists and the society might be a serious limit to the effective exploitation of the hazard assessment products and to the development of adequate mitigation policies. This paper is an analysis of the role of geoscientists in the process of the production of long-term assessments of dangerous natural phenomena (such as mapping of seismic, tsunami and volcanic hazards), with special emphasis given to the role of communicators and disseminators (with respect to the general public, to authorities, to restricted specialized audiences…), but also of providers of active support to the planners who should be given key elements for making decision. Geoethics imposes geoscientists to take clear and full responsibilities on the products resulting from their assessments, but also to be aware that these products are valuable insofar they are scientifically sound, known, understandable, and utilizable by a wide universe of users.

  5. SHORT AND LONG-TERM FIRE IMPACTS ON HANFORD BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Mandis, M. L.; Buelow, Laura C.

    2009-03-05

    A critical unknown in long-term engineered barrier use is the post-fire hydrologic function where institutional controls are in-tact but there are no resources to implement maintenance activities such as re-planting. This objective of this study was to simulate wild fire on an engineered barrier at the Hanford Site and document the post-fire changes in barrier performance. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic conditions; plant floristics and density; and animal use were characterized pre- and post-burn. Fuel load on the surface ranged from 4.7 to 5.71 tons/acre. Fire was initiated by drip torch and measurements of flame height and temperature were made at nine locations on the barrier surface. Flame heights exceeded 30 ft and temperatures ranged from 250 C at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 C at 1 m above the surface. Soil organic matter, soil wettability, and hydraulic conductivity all decreased significantly relative to pre-fire conditions. Post-fire samples showed an increase in major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity measured in 1:1 extracts whereas organic matter decreased. Decreases in wettabilty and organic matter are indicative of conditions more conducive to runoff and soil loss. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of post-fire recovery in a post-institutional control environment. This should lead to enhanced stakeholder acceptance regarding the long-term efficacy of ET barriers. This study will also support improvements in the design of ET barriers and performance monitoring systems. Such improvements are needed to best meet the long-term commitment to the safe in-place isolation of waste for hundreds if not thousands of years.

  6. Performance and long term stability of mesoporous silica membranes for desalination.

    PubMed

    Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Diniz da Costa, João C; Wang, David K

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the preparation of silica membranes by a two-step sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanolic solution by employing nitric acid and ammonia as co-catalysts. The sols prepared in pH 6 resulted in the lowest concentration of silanol (Si-OH) species to improve hydrostability and the optimized conditions for film coating. The membrane was tested to desalinate 0.3-15 wt % synthetic sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at a feed temperature of 22 °C followed by long term membrane performance of up to 250 h in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Results show that the water flux (and salt rejection) decrease with increasing salt concentration delivering an average value of 9.5 kg m-2 h-1 (99.6%) and 1.55 kg m-2 h-1 (89.2%) from the 0.3 and 15 wt % saline feed solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the permeate salt concentration was measured to be less than 600 ppm for testing conditions up to 5 wt % saline feed solutions, achieving below the recommended standard for potable water. Long term stability shows that the membrane performance in water flux was stable for up to 150 h, and slightly reduced from thereon, possibly due to the blockage of large hydrated ions in the micropore constrictions of the silica matrix. However, the integrity of the silica matrix was not affected by the long term testing as excellent salt rejection of >99% was maintained for over 250 h.

  7. Performance and Long Term Stability of Mesoporous Silica Membranes for Desalination

    PubMed Central

    Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Wang, David K.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the preparation of silica membranes by a two-step sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanolic solution by employing nitric acid and ammonia as co-catalysts. The sols prepared in pH 6 resulted in the lowest concentration of silanol (Si–OH) species to improve hydrostability and the optimized conditions for film coating. The membrane was tested to desalinate 0.3–15 wt % synthetic sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at a feed temperature of 22 °C followed by long term membrane performance of up to 250 h in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Results show that the water flux (and salt rejection) decrease with increasing salt concentration delivering an average value of 9.5 kg m–2 h–1 (99.6%) and 1.55 kg m–2 h–1 (89.2%) from the 0.3 and 15 wt % saline feed solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the permeate salt concentration was measured to be less than 600 ppm for testing conditions up to 5 wt % saline feed solutions, achieving below the recommended standard for potable water. Long term stability shows that the membrane performance in water flux was stable for up to 150 h, and slightly reduced from thereon, possibly due to the blockage of large hydrated ions in the micropore constrictions of the silica matrix. However, the integrity of the silica matrix was not affected by the long term testing as excellent salt rejection of >99% was maintained for over 250 h. PMID:24956942

  8. Assessing Treatment Options Based on Expected Long-Term Results: Case Report Demonstrates 6-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Douglas E

    2015-05-01

    A patient whose chief concern was the esthetics of her anterior teeth presented for a second opinion after it had been recommended that crowns be placed throughout her mouth. Examination revealed numerous defective and some fractured restorations with recurring caries. With treatment goals including creating and maintaining a healthy periodontal environment, leveling the occlusal plane, and decreasing biomechanical risk, the treatment plan incorporated an interdisciplinary approach that utilized orthodontics, a Kois deprogrammer, and implant therapy. Demonstrating 6-year outcomes, this report discusses use of a method to assess treatment options based on expected long-term results.

  9. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O.; Hunter, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  10. A comparison of methods to assess long-term changes in Sonoran Desert vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, S.M.; Webb, R.H.; Hubbard, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the condition of vegetation cover and composition is critical for assessing the structure and function of ecosystems. To effectively quantify the impacts of a rapidly changing environment, methods to track long-term trends of vegetation must be precise, repeatable, and time- and cost-efficient. Measuring vegetation cover and composition in arid and semiarid regions is especially challenging because vegetation is typically sparse, discontinuous, and individual plants are widely spaced. To meet the goal of long-term vegetation monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and other arid and semiarid regions, we determined how estimates of plant species, total vegetation, and soil cover obtained using a widely-implemented monitoring protocol compared to a more time- and resource-intensive plant census. We also assessed how well this protocol tracked changes in cover through 82 years compared to the plant census. Results from the monitoring protocol were comparable to those from the plant census, despite low and variable plant species cover. Importantly, this monitoring protocol could be used as a rapid, "off-the shelf" tool for assessing land degradation (or desertification) in arid and semiarid ecosystems.

  11. Muscle performance relates to physical function and quality of life in long-term chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Harbo, Thomas; Andersen, Henning; Overgaard, Kristian; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity and distribution of assessed muscle weakness and to relate muscle performance to measures of function and quality of life in long-term chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Fourteen patients with 8.7 years (3.3-11.5) of confirmed CIDP consecutively referred to the referral center for CIDP patients at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, during the period 1992-2002 were compared with matched healthy controls. The main outcome parameter was muscle performance assessed with isokinetic dynamometry. Overall disability sum score (ODSS), neurological symptom score (NSS), neuropathy impairment score (NIS), health-related quality-of-life survey (SF-36), nerve conduction studies, physical fitness, hand and walking performance, and quantitative sensory testing were secondary variables. The mean (95% CI) isokinetic strength of all measured muscles was reduced by 19.4% (5.9-32.8%) (p < 0.01). In the legs, distal weakness was predominant, strength at ankle being 37.0% (14.7-59.2%) reduced. Isokinetic strength was closely related to manual muscle strength, ODSS, NIS, walking performance, and physical components of SF-36. In conclusion, isokinetic strength relates to measures of function, impairments, gait performance, and physical components of health-related quality of life in long-term CIDP. Furthermore, a detailed characterization of severity and distribution of weakness has been provided using this technique. PMID:18844787

  12. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-12-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms.

  13. Soil heavy metal dynamics and risk assessment under long-term land use and cultivation conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelei; Xu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Long-term agricultural development and cultivation conversions affect soil heavy metal balance and the regional environmental safety. In this study, heavy metal parameters were used to identify changes in soil properties in response to land use and cultivation conversions. The integrated soil quality index, which involves seven heavy metal indices, was proposed to assess the environmental risk of long-term human activities in Northeast China. We used the remote sensing and geographical data for the four-term land use distribution from 1979 to 2009 to identify the spatial patterns of regional land use conversions. Then, 41 samples from the top 20 cm of the soil at sites corresponding to these seven types of conversions were collected (permanent dry land, dry land converted from wetland, dry land converted from forest, permanent wetland, permanent forest, paddy land converted from dry land, and paddy land converted from wetland). Based on the local soil properties and tillage practices, the following seven heavy metal parameters were employed: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn). The conversion of farmland from wetland resulted in an increase in the concentration of Pb and Cr in the soil. In contrast, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd decreased when wetland was converted into farmland because the tillage practices washed these heavy metals away. During the conversion of dry land and paddy land to wetland, the levels of Pb increased by approximately 28.6% and 24.7%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the concentration of As increased by 32.5% and 14.1%, respectively. The integrated index also demonstrated that the farmlands were not contaminated by the heavy metals during long-term agricultural development. PMID:25060313

  14. Long term performance studies of large oil-free bakelite resistive plate chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganai, R.; Roy, A.; Shiroya, M. K.; Agarwal, K.; Ahammed, Z.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-09-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) experiment in the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), India and the near detector in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab are two such examples. A single gap bakelite RPC of dimension 240 cm × 120 cm, with gas gap of 0.2 cm, has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for > 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It has shown an efficiency > 95% with an average time resolution of ~ 0.83 ns at the point of measurement at ~ 8700 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have been discussed.

  15. The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

    2009-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 μm were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key points There is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats. Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats. The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area increased

  16. Long-term performance and cost goals for solar thermal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. A.

    1985-04-01

    Long term performance and cost goals recently developed for the solar thermal technology are described. These goals were developed in support of the draft 1985 to 1989 National Solar Thermal Technology Program Five Year Research and Development Plan, and are intended to aid in planning research activities needed to make solar thermal energy an option which is both technically and economically attractive (DOE 1984). Goals were developed for both utility electric applications and for industrial process heat applications. Solar thermal technology goals are intended to provide targets, which when met, would result in the widespread usage of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. The goals described include system goals and component goals. System goals are energy price targets which must be met for solar thermal to be economically viable in a given market. Component goals are performance and cost targets for the primary elements of a solar thermal plant (concentrators, receivers, etc.) which would allow achievement of the system level goal.

  17. The Rush to Remediate: Long Term Performance Favors Passive Systems at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.; Cauthen, K.; Beul. R. R.

    2003-02-24

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the long-term performance of groundwater remediation systems at SRS and compare active versus passive systems. The presentation will focus on the limited effectiveness of active pump and treat systems and share the experience with more passive and natural systems such as soil vapor extraction, barometric pumping, bioremediation, and phytoremediation. Three remediation projects are presented. In each case the waste source is capped with clay or synthetic barriers; however, extensive groundwater contamination remains. The first project features the cleanup of the largest plume in the United States. The second project entails solvent and vinyl chloride remediation of groundwater beneath a hazardous waste landfill. The third project discusses tritium containment from a 160-acre radioactive waste disposal area. Special emphasis is placed on performance data from alternate technology cleanup. The goals are to share remediation data, successes and lessons learned, while making a case for passive systems use in groundwater remediation.

  18. Evaluating long-term performance of in situ vitrified waste forms: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P.; Olson, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an emerging technology for the remediation of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The concept relies on the principle of Joule heating to raise the temperature of a soil between an array of electrodes above the melting temperature. After cooling, the melt solidifies into a massive glass and crystalline block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. Determining the long-term performance of ISV products in a changing regulatory environment requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms controlling the dissolution behavior of the material. A series of experiments was performed to determine the dissolution behavior of samples produced from the ISV processing of typical soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area. Dissolution rate constant measurements were completed at 90{degrees}C over the pH range 2 to 11 for one sample obtained from a field test of the ISV process.

  19. Evaluating long-term performance of in situ vitrified waste forms: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P.; Olson, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an emerging technology for the remediation of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The concept relies on the principle of Joule heating to raise the temperature of a soil between an array of electrodes above the melting temperature. After cooling, the melt solidifies into a massive glass and crystalline block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. Determining the long-term performance of ISV products in a changing regulatory environment requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms controlling the dissolution behavior of the material. A series of experiments was performed to determine the dissolution behavior of samples produced from the ISV processing of typical soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area. Dissolution rate constant measurements were completed at 90[degrees]C over the pH range 2 to 11 for one sample obtained from a field test of the ISV process.

  20. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation. PMID:26527339

  1. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

  2. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability. PMID:18850284

  3. Defining Molecular Sensors to Assess Long-Term Effects of Pesticides on Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    L’Héritier, Fanny; Marques, Maud; Fauteux, Myriam; Gaudreau, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of dioxins and dioxin-like pollutants has massively increased in the environment due to human activity. These chemicals are particularly persistent and accumulate in the food chain, which raises major concerns regarding long-term exposure to human health. Most dioxin-like pollutants activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor, which regulates xenobiotic metabolism enzymes that belong to the cytochrome P450 1A family (that includes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1). Importantly, a crosstalk exists between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR. More specifically, ERα represses the expression of the CYP1A1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 2-hydroxyestradiol. However, (ERα) does not repress the CYP1B1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 4-hydroxyestradiol, one of the most genotoxic estrogen metabolites. In this review, we discuss how chronic exposure to xenobiotic chemicals, such as pesticides, might affect the expression of genes regulated by the AhR–ERα crosstalk. Here, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms that mediate this crosstalk repression, and particularly on how ERα represses the AhR target gene CYP1A1, and could subsequently promote breast cancer. Finally, we propose that genes implicated in this crosstalk could constitute important biomarkers to assess long-term effects of pesticides on human health. PMID:25257533

  4. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  5. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Sunworks single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The sunworks collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder, and is coated with Enthon selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 similar to .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 similar to .20. It has a single glass cover of 3/16 inches tempered glass and weighs about 115 pounds. The overall dimensions of the collector are 36 x 84 x 4 inches.

  6. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, D.; Evdokimov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Shchukin, A.; Vasilyev, I.

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  7. Long-term effects of the transient COD concentration on the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mateo, S; Gonzalez Del Campo, A; Lobato, J; Rodrigo, M; Cañizares, P; Fernandez-Morales, F J

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the long-term effects of transient chemical oxygen demands (COD) concentrations over the performance of a microbial fuel cell were studied. From the obtained results, it was observed that the repetitive change in the COD loading rate during 12 h conditioned the behavior of the system during periods of up to 7 days. The main modifications were the enhancement of the COD consumption rate and the exerted current. These enhancements yielded increasing Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) when working with COD concentrations of 300 mg/L, but constant CEs when working with COD concentrations from 900 to 1800 mg/L. This effect could be explained by the higher affinity for the substrate of Geobacter than that of the nonelectrogenic organisms such as Clostridia. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:883-890, 2016.

  8. Long-term effects of the transient COD concentration on the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mateo, S; Gonzalez Del Campo, A; Lobato, J; Rodrigo, M; Cañizares, P; Fernandez-Morales, F J

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the long-term effects of transient chemical oxygen demands (COD) concentrations over the performance of a microbial fuel cell were studied. From the obtained results, it was observed that the repetitive change in the COD loading rate during 12 h conditioned the behavior of the system during periods of up to 7 days. The main modifications were the enhancement of the COD consumption rate and the exerted current. These enhancements yielded increasing Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) when working with COD concentrations of 300 mg/L, but constant CEs when working with COD concentrations from 900 to 1800 mg/L. This effect could be explained by the higher affinity for the substrate of Geobacter than that of the nonelectrogenic organisms such as Clostridia. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:883-890, 2016. PMID:27072066

  9. Long-term assessment of prostaglandin analogs and timolol fixed combinations vs prostaglandin analogs monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-Wei; Gan, Lin-Yang; Yao, Xiang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To draw a Meta-analysis over the comparison of the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety between the commonly used fixed-combinations of prostaglandin analogs and 0.5% timolol with prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) monotherapy. METHODS After searching the published reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the fixed combination of PGAs/timolol therapy (FCs) and PGAs monotherapy with treatment duration at least 6mo were included. The efficacy outcomes were mean diurnal IOP, percentage of participants whose IOP were lower than 18 mm Hg, incidence of visual field change, while the safety outcomes included corneal side effects, hyperemia and eye irritation. The analysis was carried out in RevMan version 5.3 software. RESULTS After six-month medical intervention, the mean diurnal IOP of FCs was lower than PGAs (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.82 to -0.46, P=0.001); the percentage of target IOP achieving between FCs and PGAs showed no significant difference (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.43, P=0.10). No statistically significant differences of the incidence of hyperemia (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.01, P=0.06) and eye irritation (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51, P=0.12) between the FCs and PGAs monotherapy were detected. Only one research involved in corneal events, result of this trial revealed no difference between two intervention groups regarding corneal effects (central endothelial cell density, MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.72 to 0.32, P=0.45; central corneal thickness, MD -0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.00, P=0.23). The evaluation of visual field change was not performed due to the limited duration of the trials included in this Meta-analysis. CONCLUSION The long-term efficacy of the FCs overweighed the PGAs monotherapy in lowering IOP, but in the incidence of hyperemia and eye irritation syndromes, the differences are not statically significant. More RCTs with detailed and authentic data over the assessments of

  10. Short- and long-term transfer of urethral catheterization skills from simulation training to performance on patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inexperienced interns are responsible for most iatrogenic complications after urethral catheterization (UC). Although training on simulators is common, little is known about the transfer of learned skills to real clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of UC simulated skills training on performance on real patients and to examine whether watching a video of the procedure immediately before assessment enhanced clinical performance. Methods This was an experimental study of the effect of a UC simulation-based skills course on medical students’ short-term (after one week) and long-term (after six weeks) performance. The additional effect of video instruction before performance testing on real patients was studied in a randomized trial. Sixty-four students participated in the study, which was preceded by a pilot study investigating the validity aspects of a UC assessment form. Results The pilot study demonstrated sufficient inter-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.86, and a significant ability to discriminate between trainee performances when using the assessment form, p= 0.001. In the main study, more than 90% of students demonstrated an acceptable performance or better when tested on real patients. There was no significant difference in the total score between the one-week and the six-week groups when tested on real patients and no significant difference between the video and the control groups. Conclusions Medical students demonstrated good transfer of UC skills learned in the skills lab to real clinical situations up to six weeks after training. Simulated UC training should be the standard for all medical school curricula to reduce avoidable complications. However, this study did not demonstrate that an instructional video, as a supplement to simulated skills training, improved clinical UC performance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN:ISRCTN90745002 PMID:23433258

  11. A probabilistic quantitative risk assessment model for the long-term work zone crashes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-11-01

    Work zones especially long-term work zones increase traffic conflicts and cause safety problems. Proper casualty risk assessment for a work zone is of importance for both traffic safety engineers and travelers. This paper develops a novel probabilistic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model to evaluate the casualty risk combining frequency and consequence of all accident scenarios triggered by long-term work zone crashes. The casualty risk is measured by the individual risk and societal risk. The individual risk can be interpreted as the frequency of a driver/passenger being killed or injured, and the societal risk describes the relation between frequency and the number of casualties. The proposed probabilistic QRA model consists of the estimation of work zone crash frequency, an event tree and consequence estimation models. There are seven intermediate events--age (A), crash unit (CU), vehicle type (VT), alcohol (AL), light condition (LC), crash type (CT) and severity (S)--in the event tree. Since the estimated value of probability for some intermediate event may have large uncertainty, the uncertainty can thus be characterized by a random variable. The consequence estimation model takes into account the combination effects of speed and emergency medical service response time (ERT) on the consequence of work zone crash. Finally, a numerical example based on the Southeast Michigan work zone crash data is carried out. The numerical results show that there will be a 62% decrease of individual fatality risk and 44% reduction of individual injury risk if the mean travel speed is slowed down by 20%. In addition, there will be a 5% reduction of individual fatality risk and 0.05% reduction of individual injury risk if ERT is reduced by 20%. In other words, slowing down speed is more effective than reducing ERT in the casualty risk mitigation.

  12. Assessment of long-term impact of formal certified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program among nurses

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, P. P.; Raj, L. Suja; Dash, P. K.; Sarma, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines are periodically renewed and published by the American Heart Association. Formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Despite widespread training CPR is often poorly performed. Hospital educators spend a significant amount of time and money in training health professionals and maintaining basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) skills among them. However, very little data are available in the literature highlighting the long-term impact of these training. Aims: To evaluate the impact of formal certified CPR training program on the knowledge and skill of CPR among nurses, to identify self-reported outcomes of attempted CPR and training needs of nurses. Setting and Design: Tertiary care hospital, Prospective, repeated-measures design. Subjects and Methods: A series of certified BLS and ACLS training programs were conducted during 2010 and 2011. Written and practical performance tests were done. Final testing was undertaken 3–4 years after training. The sample included all available, willing CPR certified nurses and experience matched CPR noncertified nurses. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS for Windows version 21.0. Results: The majority of the 206 nurses (93 CPR certified and 113 noncertified) were females. There was a statistically significant increase in mean knowledge level and overall performance before and after the formal certified CPR training program (P = 0.000). However, the mean knowledge scores were equivalent among the CPR certified and noncertified nurses, although the certified nurses scored a higher mean score (P = 0.140). Conclusions: Formal certified CPR training program increases CPR knowledge and skill. However, significant long-term effects could not be found. There is a need for regular and periodic recertification. PMID:27303137

  13. Response feedback triggers long-term consolidation of perceptual learning independently of performance gains

    PubMed Central

    Dobres, Jonathan; Watanabe, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as a long-term performance enhancement on a visual task, and is typically thought of as a manifestation of plasticity in visual processing. It is thought that neural representations relevant to a recently learned task are consolidated over the course of hours or days and made robust against the effects of deterioration and interference. However, recent work has shown that when these representations are reactivated by further task exposure, they become plastic again and are vulnerable to deterioration effects. Here we used a perceptual learning paradigm in combination with performance feedback (knowledge of task accuracy provided to the observer in real-time) to investigate behavioral factors that influence consolidation. Subjects were trained to detect two coherent motion directions embedded in noise over several days. It was found that without feedback, performance improvements accrued during training rapidly deteriorated upon exposure to novel, neighboring motion directions. However, when one of the two directions was consistently paired with feedback during training, the paired direction was resilient against the effects of deterioration. This benefit coincides with a gradual inhibition of learning for the unpaired stimuli. Furthermore, this stabilizing effect operates independently of the magnitude of performance gains during training and suggests a useful behavioral marker for the study of consolidation processes. PMID:22904354

  14. Long-term performance evaluation of wood fibre fills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilian, A.P.; Ferry, C.D.

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to determine the long-term performance of wood fiber embankments, that were constructed by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) beginning in 1972. At the time of their construction, concern existed that wood fiber fills would only provide a 15 to 20 year service life. Performance of existing wood fiber fills was evaluated based on the quality of the wood fiber material, quality of the effluent, and condition of the pavement. A visual classification system rating the wood fiber from fresh to completely decomposed was developed and used in order to establish a criteria from which all wood fiber material could be rated. Visual examination in conjunction with laboratory tests were used as determining aspects for the effluent quality. The WSDOT Pavement Management System was used to evaluate relative pavement performance. Site descriptions are presented giving specific characteristics and properties of the fills inventoried. An analysis of this information was done to determine the effectiveness of the fills. Over half the wood fiber samples were found to be nearly fresh or fresh and none were found to be completely decomposed. In all but one case, the pavement quality over the wood fiber fills surpassed the comparative highway segment rating indicating the wood fill's performance exceeded that of the surrounding area.

  15. Assessment of body composition in long-term hemodialysis patients: rationale and methodology.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shubho R; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Khilnani, Resham; Zhu, Fansan; Heymsfield, Steven B; Kaysen, George A; Levin, Nathan W

    2005-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is seen in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is even more pronounced in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis treatment. Both entities have great impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Analysis of body composition is an integral part of nutritional assessment and includes the estimation of muscle, fat, and fat-free mass, as well as the extracellular water compartment. Clinical assessment of these compartments is difficult, and gold-standard methods such as tracer dilution, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are expensive, cumbersome, and rarely available. We report an ongoing study of body composition in hemodialysis patients involving deuterium and sodium bromide dilution, total body potassium counting, magnetic resonance imaging, whole-body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy, and anthropometry. The goals of the study are (1) to validate bioimpedance technology against gold-standard methods for assessment of the various body compartments, (2) to directly quantify visceral adipose tissue mass, a potential source of cytokine production (adipokines) promoting chronic inflammation, and to study its relation to inflammatory markers, and (3) to directly quantify visceral organ mass and to study its relation to uremia toxin generation as assessed by protein catabolic rate and resting energy expenditure. Preliminary results based on up to 40 hemodialysis patients are reported.

  16. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future. PMID:26580736

  17. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future.

  18. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  19. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  20. Long-term performance of the steel-cement interface in CO2 sequestration wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term performance of CO2 storage reservoirs will require that wells (injection, monitoring, and pre-existing) continue to provide isolation of the buoyant CO2 plume. Short-term leakage concerns are driven by the quality of the well completions, particularly placement of Portland cement. However, operational and CO2-injection induced stresses in the reservoir may introduce small defects in the well isolation system, allowing migration of small quantities of CO2 and brine. Evidence for such leaks has been observed in a CO2-enhanced oil recovery well (Carey et al. 2007) and in a natural CO2 reservoir (Crow et al. 2010). The key question in long-term performance is whether these leaks will grow as wellbore materials degrade or whether carbonate precipitation reactions will self-heal the defects. In this study, we focus on the interface between steel casing and Portland cement. In a properly completed well, Portland cement provides a protective, alkaline environment for carbon steel that precludes the possibility of external corrosion. The protective cement can be damaged either by the formation of small gaps at the interface, known as microannuli, or by the carbonation of cement which eliminates cement alkalinity. To investigate these issues, we conducted experiments on cement-steel composites at conditions ranging from atmospheric to high-pressure to determine the susceptibility of steel to corrosion in the presence of well-bonded cement, carbonated cement, and cement separated from the steel by varying gap distances. The presence of cement greatly reduces corrosion rates of steel because an iron carbonate scale forms rapidly and provides a mass-transfer barrier. Similarly, a small gap at the cement-steel interface provides a mass-transfer barrier. Our results show that scale formation provides a more significant barrier to corrosion and that even small gaps (<100 um) do not enhance protection in the cement-steel system. For steel embedded in cement, corrosion

  1. A performance-based system for the long-term management of municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy W F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-04-01

    Landfills have been the dominant alternative for disposal of solid waste and there are tens of thousands of closed landfills throughout the world that require a long-term management strategy. In contrast to approaches based on time or target values, this paper describes a performance-based methodology for evaluation of post-closure care (PCC). Using the methodology, critical components of PCC at a landfill, including leachate and gas management, groundwater monitoring and cover integrity, are considered to determine whether a landfill meets defined conditions for functional stability and can transition from regulated PCC to a post-regulatory custodial care program representing de minimus care activities only. The methodology is predicated on understanding the biological, chemical, and physical behavior of a landfill and the presence of sufficient data to verify expected trends in landfill behavior. If an evaluation suggests that a change can be made to PCC, the landfill owner must perform confirmation monitoring and then surveillance monitoring at a decreasing frequency to verify that the change is protective of human health and the environment. A hypothetical case study showed that using the methodology to evaluate site-specific PCC requirements could result in increased environmental protection at comparable cost by spending available funds where they are most needed.

  2. A Performance Analysis of Long-term Acute-Care Hospitals Owned by Large, Multistate Investor-Owned Companies.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Preethy; Liu, Xinliang; McCue, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive assessment of the operating performance of for-profit long-term acute-care hospitals owned by multistate, investor-owned companies (large FP LTCHs) compared with FP LTCHs owned by smaller FP companies (small FP LTCHs) and nonprofit LTCHs (NP LTCHs). The study used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services cost report data for 290 LTCHs from 2010 through 2012 to compare the financial performance of large and small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs. The study found that the median operating profit margin for large FP LTCHs was 8.06%, which was twice as high as that of the small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs (4.78% and 2.80%, respectively). Larger size, serving a greater proportion of private pay and more complex patients and incurring lower operating expenses, including salary expenses, may account for the higher operating margin of the large FP LTCHs. PMID:27111686

  3. Influence of different mesh filter module configurations on effluent quality and long-term filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Loderer, Christian; Wörle, Anna; Fuchs, Werner

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a new type of wastewater treatment system became the focus of scientific research: the mesh filter activated sludge system. It is a modification of the membrane bioreactor (MBR), in which a membrane filtration process serves for sludge separation. The main difference is that a mesh filter is used instead of the membrane. The effluent is not of the same excellent quality as with membrane bioreactors due to the much lager pore sizes of the mesh. Nevertheless, it still resembles the quality of currently used standard treatment system, the activated sludge process. The new process shows high future potential as an alternative where a small footprint of these plants is required (3 times lower footprint than conventional activated sludge systems because of neglecting the secondary clarifier and reducing the biological stage). However, so far only limited information on this innovative process is available. In this study, the effect of different pore sizes and different mesh module configurations on the effluent quality was investigated varying the parameters cross-flow velocity (CFV) and flux rate. Furthermore the long-term filtration performance was studied in a pilot reactor system and results were compared to the full-scale conventional activated sludge process established at the same site. The results demonstrate that the configuration of the filter module has little impact on effluent quality and is only of importance with regard to engineering aspects. Most important for a successful operation are the hydrodynamic conditions within the filter module. The statement "the higher the pore size the higher the effluent turbidity" was verified. Excellent effluent quality with suspended solids between 5 and 15 mg L(-1) and high biological elimination rates (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 90-95%, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) 94-98%, total nitrogen (TN) 70-80%, and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) 95-99%) were achieved and also compared to those of conventional

  4. Influence of different mesh filter module configurations on effluent quality and long-term filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Loderer, Christian; Wörle, Anna; Fuchs, Werner

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a new type of wastewater treatment system became the focus of scientific research: the mesh filter activated sludge system. It is a modification of the membrane bioreactor (MBR), in which a membrane filtration process serves for sludge separation. The main difference is that a mesh filter is used instead of the membrane. The effluent is not of the same excellent quality as with membrane bioreactors due to the much lager pore sizes of the mesh. Nevertheless, it still resembles the quality of currently used standard treatment system, the activated sludge process. The new process shows high future potential as an alternative where a small footprint of these plants is required (3 times lower footprint than conventional activated sludge systems because of neglecting the secondary clarifier and reducing the biological stage). However, so far only limited information on this innovative process is available. In this study, the effect of different pore sizes and different mesh module configurations on the effluent quality was investigated varying the parameters cross-flow velocity (CFV) and flux rate. Furthermore the long-term filtration performance was studied in a pilot reactor system and results were compared to the full-scale conventional activated sludge process established at the same site. The results demonstrate that the configuration of the filter module has little impact on effluent quality and is only of importance with regard to engineering aspects. Most important for a successful operation are the hydrodynamic conditions within the filter module. The statement "the higher the pore size the higher the effluent turbidity" was verified. Excellent effluent quality with suspended solids between 5 and 15 mg L(-1) and high biological elimination rates (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 90-95%, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) 94-98%, total nitrogen (TN) 70-80%, and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) 95-99%) were achieved and also compared to those of conventional

  5. Long-term performance of the VISIR/VLT instrument before the upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycka, Danuta; Momany, Yazan; Lundin, Lars; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Käufl, Hans U.; Smette, Alain; Kerber, Florian; Van Den Ancker, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The ESO's VLT Spectrometer and Imager for the Mid-Infrared (VISIR) has been in operation at the Paranal Observatory since 2005. It is equipped with two DRS (formerly Boeing) 256 × 256 BIB arrays. The project to replace detectors into new Raytheon, 1k × 1k AQUARIUS devices as well as to modify observing modes, software, etc. is underway. The VISIR upgrade creates a well defined break point in the instruments' characteristics. For nearly 7 years of the VISIR operations we have been collecting and processing calibration data, in particular observations of the imaging and spectroscopic standard stars, within a regular data flow operation scheme. The derived quality control parameters have been systematically written into a database, which allows the analysis of their temporal behavior. We present an overview of the long term variations of the VISIR quality control parameters: sensitivity, conversion factor and mean background level estimations. The results will be later used to compare performance of VISIR before and after the upgrade.

  6. Construction and performance of a long-term earthen liner experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Keros; Krapac, Ivan G.; Bonaparte, Rudolph

    1990-01-01

    In land burial schemes, compacted soil barriers with low hydraulic conductivity are commonly used in cover and liner systems to control the movement of liquids and prevent groundwater contamination. An experimental liner measuring 8 x 15 x 0.9 m was constructed with design criteria and equipment to simulate construction of soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded with a 29.5 cm deep pond on April 12, 1988. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years using 4 large-ring (1.5 m OD) and 32 small-ring (0.28 m OD) infiltrometers, and a water-balance that accounts for total infiltration and evaporation. Average long-term infiltration fluxes based on two years of monitoring are 5.8 x 10-9 cm/s, 6.0 x 10-8 cm/s and 5.6 x 10-8 for the large-ring, small-ring, and water-balance data, respectively. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the liner based on small-ring data, estimated using Darcy's Law and the Green-Ampt Approximation, is 3 x 10-8 and 4 x 10-8 cm/s, respectively. All sets of data indicate that the liner's performance exceed that which is required by the U.S. EPA.

  7. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method. PMID:27483270

  8. [Pay for performance (P4P). Long-term effects and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, M; Gültekin, N

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of experience and research, a wide array of results on evaluation and long-term effects of pay for performance (P4P) programs have been published. These data do not only give insight into most of the problems of implementation, but also into aspects which, in part, may attenuate the high expectations at the beginning of the discussion. P4P programs exhibit a ceiling effect, some improvements are reversed after incentives are cancelled, and improvements show opportunity costs as absent improvements for indicators, which are not object to financial incentives (in some cases for the same disease). These observations can be explained by the hypothesis that P4P programs have characteristics of fee-for-service reimbursement, if symmetric information is available for insurance and provider. P4P programs are local instruments. While integration of healthcare is considered as an important issue, they should be combined with programs and incentives which foster further vertical and horizontal integration. For Germany, further research in the implementation and effects of P4P programs is necessary.

  9. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-07-28

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method.

  10. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method. PMID:27483270

  11. Comparative test of ecological assessment methods of lowland streams based on long-term monitoring data of macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Gebler, Daniel; van de Weyer, Klaus; Birk, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    Ecological assessment of water courses is required by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Assessment by means of macrophytes is impeded by insufficient knowledge on the relations between assessment scores and the dynamics of environmental parameters. Data from a long-term observation of macrophyte dynamics over 21 years in two lowland rivers were used for testing the performance of six widely used assessment methods. Six sample sites situated in two lowland streams were selected. Four sites were classified as of moderate habitat quality and two sites as of poor habitat quality in the context of WFD. Assessment methods generally showed a poor performance in recognizing the ecological status of the annual observations. Status was more often over- than underestimated. Performance of methods differed among individual rivers and among river zones. Assessment scores mostly showed a steady decline, even though all sites obviously remained in the same habitat quality class throughout the observation period. Variation of most environmental factors was largely unrelated to assessment scores. Fluctuations of assessment scores were partly related to single natural disturbance events such as high discharge. Increased shading by marginal trees was reflected negatively by most assessment scores. Assessment scores were highly correlated with species richness and total abundance. The best overall performance was shown by the North-Rhine Westphalian (NRW) method. In contrast to single metric methods it can be adapted to individual properties of a reach in a flexible way. Macrophyte assessment based on the pressure-impact framework did not lead to a satisfying result in our case study. Improvement of species assessment scores and inclusion of functional properties such as growth form may help to overcome the present difficulties.

  12. Comparative test of ecological assessment methods of lowland streams based on long-term monitoring data of macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Gebler, Daniel; van de Weyer, Klaus; Birk, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    Ecological assessment of water courses is required by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Assessment by means of macrophytes is impeded by insufficient knowledge on the relations between assessment scores and the dynamics of environmental parameters. Data from a long-term observation of macrophyte dynamics over 21 years in two lowland rivers were used for testing the performance of six widely used assessment methods. Six sample sites situated in two lowland streams were selected. Four sites were classified as of moderate habitat quality and two sites as of poor habitat quality in the context of WFD. Assessment methods generally showed a poor performance in recognizing the ecological status of the annual observations. Status was more often over- than underestimated. Performance of methods differed among individual rivers and among river zones. Assessment scores mostly showed a steady decline, even though all sites obviously remained in the same habitat quality class throughout the observation period. Variation of most environmental factors was largely unrelated to assessment scores. Fluctuations of assessment scores were partly related to single natural disturbance events such as high discharge. Increased shading by marginal trees was reflected negatively by most assessment scores. Assessment scores were highly correlated with species richness and total abundance. The best overall performance was shown by the North-Rhine Westphalian (NRW) method. In contrast to single metric methods it can be adapted to individual properties of a reach in a flexible way. Macrophyte assessment based on the pressure-impact framework did not lead to a satisfying result in our case study. Improvement of species assessment scores and inclusion of functional properties such as growth form may help to overcome the present difficulties. PMID:26476066

  13. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  14. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  15. Assessment of children's long-term exposure to magnetic fields (The Geomet study)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, M.D. ); Koontz, M.D.; Mehegan, L.L.; Dietrich, F.M.; Nagda, N.L. )

    1992-11-01

    Past epidemiologic studies have had conflicting results concerning a possible association between childhood cancer and magnetic field exposure, perhaps because indirect measures of exposure were used. This pilot study was conducted to assess day-today and seasonal variations in children's exposure, the contributions of different environments to total exposure, and the level of measurement/observational detail needed to accurately predict or classify children's exposures. Twenty-eight children in two age groups (8 to 11 years and under 4 years) were personally monitored for exposure to magnetic fields. All subjects were monitored for two consecutive days during winter or spring, and 12 of the subjects were monitored during both seasons. Surrogates for exposure were developed from observation of wiring configurations, indoor/outdoor spot measurements of field strength, and continuous stationary monitoring at selected indoor locations in parallel with personal monitoring. The results indicate that a single monitoring episode may be insufficient for characterization of long-term exposure, and spot measurements at one point in time may not be adequate to predict exposure. For this study, wire codes and measures based on parallel stationary monitoring in the child's bedroom were the best surrogates for personal exposure.

  16. Assessment of the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term watershed monitoring in an urban slough system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at eight sites within the Buffalo Slough, near Portland, Oregon, to (1) measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and organochlorine (OC) compounds in the slough, (2) assess the usefulness of SPMDs as a tool for investigating and monitoring hydrophobic compounds throughout the Columbia Slough system, and (3) evaluate the utility of SPMDs as a tool for measuring the long-term effects of watershed improvement activities. Data from the SPMDs revealed clear spatial and seasonal differences in water quality within the slough and indicate that for hydrophobic compounds, this time-integrated passive-sampling technique is a useful tool for long-term watershed monitoring. In addition, the data suggest that a spiking rate of 2-5 ??g/SPMD of permeability/performance reference compounds, including at least one compound that is not susceptible to photodegradation, may be optimum for the conditions encountered here. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  17. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  18. PROJECTED IMPACT OF SULFATE ATTACK ON THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF A CONCRETE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.

    2009-12-11

    Saltstone is a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the DOE Savannah River Site with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime. The wet mix is poured into a concrete repository for on-site disposal. Solidified Saltstone is a dense, alkaline, reducing, micro-porous, monolithic, cementitious matrix, containing a solution of salts within its pore structure. Sodium sulfate concentrations in the pore fluid are around 0.15 mol/L, and external sulfate attack on concrete barriers is expected to occur over time. To predict the long-term performance of concrete repositories, the STADIUM{reg_sign} code was used to simulate the reactive transport processes leading to formation of ettringite, an expansive mineral phase often associated with spalling or cracking. STADIUM{reg_sign} is a multi-ionic transport model based on a split operator approach that separates ionic movement and chemical reactions. Ionic transport is described by the extended Nernst-Planck equation for unsaturated media, and accounts for electrical coupling between ionic species, chemical activity, transport due to water content gradient, and temperature effects. STADIUM{reg_sign} does not predict whether physical damage will occur, or the impact on transport properties should fracturing occur. Thus the presence of ettringite was assumed to coincide with physical damage for the purpose of estimating effective transport properties. Effective properties for concrete barriers were estimated assuming complete hydraulic failure behind the ettringite front and unaltered properties ahead of the front. The ettringite front advances at a rate dependent on the diffusion coefficient assumed for the failed zone. A sensitivity study indicates a service life ranging from thousands to tens of thousands of years, depending on the barrier thickness and sulfate exposure conditions among other factors.

  19. Development, operation, and long-term performance of a full-scale biocurtain utilizing bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Dybas, Michael J; Hyndman, David W; Heine, Robert; Tiedje, James; Linning, Katrina; Wiggert, David; Voice, Thomas; Zhao, Xianda; Dybas, Leslie; Criddle, Craig S

    2002-08-15

    A full-scale field evaluation of bioaugmentation was conducted in a carbon tetrachloride (CT)- and nitrate-impacted aquifer at Schoolcraft, MI. The added organism was Pseudomonas stutzeri KC (strain KC), a denitrifying bacterium that cometabolically degrades CT without producing chloroform (CF). To introduce and maintain strain KC in the aquifer, a row of closely spaced (1-m) injection/extraction wells were installed normal to the direction of groundwater flow near the leading edge of the CT plume. The resulting system of wells was used to establish and maintain a "biocurtain" for CT degradation through the intermittent addition of base to create favorable pH conditions; inoculation; and weekly addition of acetate (electron donor), alkali, and phosphorus. Although half of the test zone was inoculated twice, the long-term performance of both sections was indistinguishable: both had high CT removal efficiencies (median of 98-99.9%) and similar levels of strain KC colonization (>10(5) strain KC/g). Sustained and efficient (98%) removal of CT has now been observed over 4 yr. Transient low levels of CF (<20 ppb) and H2S (<2 ppm) were observed, but both disappeared when the concentration of acetate in the weekly feed was reduced. Nitrate removal efficiencies ranged from 60% at low acetate concentrations to nearly 100% at high acetate concentrations. We conclude that closely spaced wells and intermittent substrate addition are effective means of delivering organisms and substrates to subsurface environments. At the Schoolcraft site, we achieved uniform removal efficiencies over a significant vertical depth (15 m), despite significant variability in hydraulic conductivity. This was accomplished by pumping 65% (v/v) of the natural gradient flow passing through the biocurtain during a given week in a single 6-h pumping event. Approximately 18,600 m3 of contaminated groundwater was treated during the project. PMID:12214659

  20. The Power of Successive Relearning: Improving Performance on Course Exams and Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John; Sciartelli, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Practice tests and spaced study are both highly potent for enhancing learning and memory. Combining these two methods under the conditions in which they are most effective (i.e., practice tests that invoke successful retrieval from long-term memory and spacing study across days) yields a promising learning technique referred to as "successive…

  1. Nursing Assistants for Long-Term Care. Performance-Based Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This guide is intended to assist students enrolled in programs to train nursing assistants for employment in an Indiana long-term health care facility. The first part discusses human development (growth, aging, and dying); communication with residents; sexuality; legal, ethical, and professional responsibilities of nursing assistants in long-term…

  2. An individual-based model simulating goat response variability and long-term herd performance.

    PubMed

    Puillet, L; Martin, O; Sauvant, D; Tichit, M

    2010-12-01

    Finding ways of increasing the efficiency of production systems is a key issue of sustainability. System efficiency is based on long-term individual efficiency, which is highly variable and management driven. To study the effects of management on herd and individual efficiency, we developed the model simulation of goat herd management (SIGHMA). This dynamic model is individual-based and represents the interactions between technical operations (relative to replacement, reproduction and feeding) and individual biological processes (performance dynamics based on energy partitioning and production potential). It simulates outputs at both herd and goat levels over 20 years. A farmer's production project (i.e. a targeted milk production pattern) is represented by configuring the herd into female groups reflecting the organisation of kidding periods. Each group is managed by discrete events applying decision rules to simulate the carrying out of technical operations. The animal level is represented by a set of individual goat models. Each model simulates a goat's biological dynamics through its productive life. It integrates the variability of biological responses driven by genetic scaling parameters (milk production potential and mature body weight), by the regulations of energy partitioning among physiological functions and by responses to diet energy defined by the feeding strategy. A sensitivity analysis shows that herd efficiency was mainly affected by feeding management and to a lesser extent by the herd production potential. The same effects were observed on herd milk feed costs with an even lower difference between production potential and feeding management. SIGHMA was used in a virtual experiment to observe the effects of feeding strategies on herd and individual performances. We found that overfeeding led to a herd production increase and a feed cost decrease. However, this apparent increase in efficiency at the herd level (as feed cost decreased) was related

  3. Long-term performance of visual and electronic identification devices in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2009-04-01

    Dairy goat kids born during a 3-yr period (n = 97) and their mothers (n = 29) were used for a long-term evaluation of the performance of 9 types of identification (ID) devices. Kids wore multiple ID devices: visual ear tags (V1, tip-tag, n = 47; V2, official, n = 50), electronic ear tags (E1, button-button, n = 46; E2, flag-button, n = 46), electronic rumen boluses (B1, mini-bolus 14 g, n = 92; B2, mini-bolus 20 g, n = 28; B3, standard bolus 75 g, n = 34) and glass-encapsulated transponders injected in the forefeet (T1, 15 mm, n = 75; T2, 12 mm, n = 100). Visual ear tags were applied at birth and removed in yearlings, whereas electronic ear tags were applied after bolusing with B1 (6.7 kg BW and 30 d, on average); B2 were administered in the event of a B1 loss, and B3 in case of a B2 loss and in goat does. At d 60 of age, kids were allocated into 2 groups to evaluate the effects of rearing system on ID. Treatments were: weaned (n = 46), and not weaned (n = 46) where kids suckled a milk substitute until d 150. Readability of ID devices (read/readable x 100) was monitored from 1 to 3 yr of age, depending on device and year of birth. Long-term readability was analyzed using a nonparametric survival analysis. A total of 3.3% infections and 6.5% tissue reactions were reported for electronic ear tags, but ears were fully healed in yearlings. Weaning numerically reduced B1 losses at d 150 (weaned, 84.8% vs. not weaned, 73.3%). Readability of visual ear tags in yearlings (V1, 82.9%; V2, 94.0%) was lower than for electronic ear tags (E1 and E2, 100%). Mini-bolus readability in yearlings did not differ by type (B1, 71.4%; B2, 84.6%) or with visual ear tags. No effect of inject type was reported (T1, 92.0%; T2, 96.0%). Survival analysis after yr 3 gave the greatest readability value for E1 (100%), which did not differ from B3 (96.8%). The lowest readability was estimated for B1 (66.3%), followed by E2 (79.8%), B2 (81.4%), and T1 (90.4%). In conclusion, button

  4. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  5. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

  6. Hematopoietic effects of benzene inhalation assessed by long-term bone marrow culture.

    PubMed

    Abraham, N G

    1996-12-01

    The strong and long-lasting hematotoxic effect after benzene exposure in vivo (300 ppm, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) was assessed in mice with bone marrow cells grown in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). Bone marrow cultures initiated 1 day after the last benzene exposure did not produce adequate numbers of hematopoietic cells over 3 weeks, and, in most cases, no erythroid or myeloid clonogenic cells could be recovered. The adherent cell layer of these cultures had a lowered capacity for supporting in vitro hematopoiesis after the second seeding with normal bone marrow cells compared with control cultures. Two weeks after the last benzene exposure, body weight, hematocrit, bone marrow cellularity, and committed hematopoietic progenitor content (BFU-E and CFU-GM) were regenerated to normal or subnormal values, whereas hematopoiesis in LTBMC was very poor. Over 8 weeks, little or no significant committed progenitor production was observed. Treatment of mice exposed to benzene with hemin (three doses of 3 micrograms/g bw i.v. over 2 weeks for a total dose of 9 micrograms/g) partially overcame the toxic effect of benzene on the hematopoietic system as measured by the LTBMC method. Cultures from mice treated with hemin had a modest recovery of BFU-E and CFU-GM clonogenic potential after 5 to 6 weeks in LTBMC. In contrast, little or no recovery was obtained for the adherent cell layer clonogenic capacity, even after hemin treatment. These results clearly indicate a strong, long-lasting toxic effect on the bone marrow stroma and a limited recovery of hematopoietic potential by clonogenic cells of the nonadherent population after in vivo hemin treatment.

  7. Long-Term Slip History Discriminates Among Occurrence Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Ferry, M. A.; Jalobeanu, A.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) community relies on one or a combination of stochastic models to compute occurrence probabilities for large earthquakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to extracting the maximum information from long catalogues of large earthquakes (CLE) based on instrumental, historical, archeological and paleoseismological data (Biasi et al, 2009, Parsons, 2008, Rhoades and Dissen 2003). However, the models remain only and insufficiently constrained by these rare single-slip event data. Therefore, the selection of the models and their respective weights is necessarily left with the appreciation of a panel of experts (WGCEP, 2003). Since cumulative slip data with high temporal and spatial resolution are now available, we propose here a new approach to incorporate these pieces of evidence of mid- to long-term fault behavior into the next generation of PSHA: the Cumulative Offset-Based Bayesian Recurrence Analysis (COBBRA). Applied to the Jordan Valley segment of the Dead Sea Fault, the method yields the best combination of occurrence models for full-segment ruptures knowing the available single-event and cumulative data. Not only does our method provide data-driven, objective weights to the competing models, but it also allows to rule out time-independence, and to compute the cumulative probability of occurrence for the next full-segment event reflecting all available data. References: Biasi, G. P. & Weldon, R. J., II. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 99, 471-498, doi:10.1785/0120080287 (2009). Parsons, T. J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2007JB004,998.216 (2008) Rhoades, D. A., and R. J. V. Dissen, New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 46, 479-488 (2003). Working Group On California Earthquake Probabilities. Earthquake Probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2002-2031. (2003).

  8. Long-term culture of sponge explants: conditions enhancing survival and growth, and assessment of bioactivity.

    PubMed

    de Caralt, Sònia; Agell, Gemma; Uriz, María-J

    2003-07-01

    Sponges are an important source of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical interest. This is the main reason for the increasing interest of sponge culture recent years. The optimal culture system depends on the species to be cultured: while some species easily produce sponge aggregates after dissociation (primmorphs), others show a great capacity to regenerate after fragmentation (explants). Corticium candelabrum is a Mediterranean bacteriosponge that can undergo asexual reproduction. We have taken advantage of this capability and cultured C. candelabrum explants under several experimental conditions. To find the best conditions for obtaining functional explants, we assayed a range of conditions, including seasons of collection, culture temperature, filtered versus filtered-sterile seawater, addition of antibiotics and proportion of ectosome. We monitored the changes in shape and ultrastructure during the formation of explants. After 24 h, TEM images showed the aquiferous system disarranged, in particular at the sponge periphery. From 2 to 4 weeks later, the aquiferous system regenerated, and fragments became functional sponges (explants). Explants were cultured under two regimes: in vitro and in a closed aquarium system. Antibiotics were only added to the in vitro culture to assess their effect on the symbiotic bacteria, which remained healthy despite the presence of antibiotics. Two food regimens (marine bacteria and green algae) were assayed for their ability to satisfy the metabolic requirements of explants. We monitored explant survival and growth. Explants showed a high long-term survival rate (close to 100%). Growth rates were higher in the closed aquarium system, without antibiotic addition, and fed with algae. Explants cultures were hardly contaminated because manipulation was reduced to a minimum and we used sterilized seawater. C. candelabrum produces bioactive molecules, which may play a defensive role in the sponge and may have pharmaceutical

  9. Assessment of long-term outcomes for the STRokE DOC telemedicine trial.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Brett C; Raman, Rema; Ernstrom, Karin; Tafreshi, Gilda M; Huisa, Branko; Stemer, Andrew B; Hemmen, Thomas M

    2012-05-01

    Telemedicine can provide stroke evaluations in locations with limited available expertise. The reliability of telestroke has been established. Decision making efficacy has been shown in the National Institutes of Health's STRokE DOC trial. No prospective trial has assessed long-term telestroke outcomes, however. In an institutional review board-approved trial (NCT00936455), we contacted patients originally enrolled in the STRokE DOC trial. A telephone script was used to verify consent. Patients were asked standardized questions regarding disposition, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, mortality, and recurrent stroke for 2 retrospective time points (6 and 12 months postevent) and one current time point. Blind was maintained. Primary outcome measures of mortality and percent mRS score of 0-1 [%mRS(0-1)] at 6 months are reported. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for continuous variables, and Fisher's exact was used for categorical variables. Of the original 222 participants, 75 patients or surrogates could be contacted. Mean time from enrollment was 3.96 ± 1.0 years (range, 2.33-5.45 years). Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 8 ± 7 (5 ± 8 for telephone; 12 ± 8 for telemedicine; P = .002). The rate of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) use was 31%. Six-month %mRS(0-1) outcome was not different, at 42%. Mortality after imputation to the entire study sample also was not different, at 18%. There was no difference in the rate of recurrent stroke (P = .61). Some 85% of patients were home at 6 months. This study reports a good 6-month outcome for stroke patients evaluated by telemedicine or telephone. This design is limited by the time since original enrollment and resultant inability to contact participants. Although these findings can add to the limited data on telemedicine outcomes, a prospective trial is needed.

  10. Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

  11. NAEP 1999 Long-Term Trend Technical Analysis Report: Three Decades of Student Performance. NCES 2005-484

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy L.; McClellan, Catherine A.; Stoeckel, Joan J.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an update to the technical analysis procedures documenting the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as presented in "The NAEP 1996 Technical Report" (Allen, Carlson, and Zelenak, 1999). It describes how the 1999 long-term trend data were incorporated into the trend analyses. Since no national main or state…

  12. Coronary Bypass Surgery in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension: Assessment of Early and Long Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Nevzat; Murat Disli, Olcay; Donmez, Koksal; Erdil, Feray; Cengiz Colak, Mehmet; Battaloglu, Bektas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effects of preoperative pulmonary hypertension (PH) on early and long term results in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery and the effects of coronary bypass surgery on PH. Methods: Among 2325 patients who underwent elective isolated coronary artery bypass surgery between March 2003 and March 2012, 287 patients with high preoperative pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) ≥30 mmHg were examined. Patients’ data were obtained by retrospective examination of our clinic’s database. 69 patients who had complete parameters included in the study. Results: There was no increase in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification 84% of cases. Preoperative and postoperative values of the mean ejection fraction and mean PAP of patients was respectively 45.28 ± 9.67 (25–65), 46.03 ±12.4 (20–65) (p = 0.447), 36.67 ± 6.81 (30–60) mmHg, 37.81 ± 10.07 (20–70) mmHg (p = 0.378). The late mortality of cases was 5.79%. In our study, during 33.9 ± 17 (9–100) months follow up period, life expectancy was calculated as 94.7 months. Conclusion: Preoperative evaluation of these patients for appropriate medical treatment at peroperative and postoperative period, coronary bypass can be performed with low morbidity and mortality rates. In the late period after surgical revascularization PH showed no significant change and had no adverse effect on quality of life. PMID:25753326

  13. Retention of trace metals by solidified/stabilized wastes: assessment of long-term metal release.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, R; Humez, A N; Mingelgrin, U; Benchara, A; Meducin, F; Prost, R

    2004-03-01

    Toxic elements found in wastes may have a negative impact on the environment, especially through the contamination of groundwater and plants. To reduce their mobility and availability, French regulations mandate the solidification and stabilization of toxic wastes. Many methods to stabilize and solidify wastes exist, among them the Ecofix process which employs low cost materials and consists of mixing wastes with lime, aluminum hydroxide, and silica. To evaluate the long-term behavior of solidified/stabilized (S/S) samples, their alteration under saturated conditions was studied in a water extractor, a Soxhlet-like device, used to follow the weathering of rocks. Kinetic measurements have shown that the release of Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu was very slow, indicating a strong retention of these elements by the S/S materials prepared by the Ecofix process. To elucidate the mechanisms of retention of the trace metals, the mineral phases that existed in the S/S samples throughout and at the end of the extraction runs were studied by X-ray diffraction and by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations and electron microprobe analyses of the S/S samples were also performed at different stages of weathering. These observations revealed that assorted calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) were the predominant phases in the S/S preparations and that gradual alterations occurred in the structure of the investigated materials. The overall Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H phases decreased as the enhanced alteration progressed. Although trace metals in oxide, hydroxide, and carbonate forms were found in the S/S materials, the bulk of the trace metals was incorporated in the matrix of the C-S-H phases.

  14. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  15. The Effect of Frequent Quizzes on Short- and Long-Term Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, James R.; Soehren, Stephen E.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined effects of frequent quizzes on dental student performance in a course on introductory radiology. Results indicated the group (N=36) with frequent quizzes performed significantly better than the control group (n=35) on midterm and final examinations (but not post-tests), and assessed course content and instructor more…

  16. Assessment of long-term channel changes in the Mekong River using remote sensing and a channel-evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    River-channel changes are a key factor affecting physical, ecological and management issues in the fluvial environment. In this study, long-term channel changes in the Mekong River were assessed using remote sensing and a channel-evolution model. A channel-evolution model for calculating long-term channel changes of a measndering river was developed using a previous fluid-dynamic model [Zolezzi and Seminara, 2001], and was applied in order to quantify channel changes of two meandering reaches in the Mekong River. Quite few attempts have been made so far to combine remote sensing observation of meandering planform change with the application of channel evolution models within relatively small-scale gravel-bed systems in humid temperate regions. The novel point of the present work is to link state-of-art meandering planform evolution model with observed morphological changes within large-scale sand-bed rivers with higher bank height in tropical monsoonal climate regions, which are the highly dynamic system, and assess the performance. Unstable extents of the reaches could be historically identified using remote-sensing technique. The instability caused i) bank erosion and accretion of meander bends and ii) movement or development of bars and changes in the flow around the bars. The remote sensing measurements indicate that maximum erosion occurred downstream of the maximum curvature of the river-center line in both reaches. The model simulations indicates that under the mean annual peak discharge the maximum of excess longitudinal velocity near the banks occurs downstream of the maximum curvature in both reaches. The channel migration coefficients of the reaches were calibrated by comparing remote-sensing measurements and model simulations. The diffrence in the migration coefficients between both reaches depends on the diffrence in bank height rather than the geotechnical properties of floodplain sediments. Possible eroded floodplain areas and accreted floodplain

  17. Long-term multi-hazard assessment for El Misti volcano (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Constantinescu, Robert; Biass, Sébastien; Tonini, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    We propose a long-term probabilistic multi-hazard assessment for El Misti Volcano, a composite cone located <20 km from Arequipa. The second largest Peruvian city is a rapidly expanding economic centre and is classified by UNESCO as World Heritage. We apply the Bayesian Event Tree code for Volcanic Hazard (BET_VH) to produce probabilistic hazard maps for the predominant volcanic phenomena that may affect c.900,000 people living around the volcano. The methodology accounts for the natural variability displayed by volcanoes in their eruptive behaviour, such as different types/sizes of eruptions and possible vent locations. For this purpose, we treat probabilistically several model runs for some of the main hazardous phenomena (lahars, pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), tephra fall and ballistic ejecta) and data from past eruptions at El Misti (tephra fall, PDCs and lahars) and at other volcanoes (PDCs). The hazard maps, although neglecting possible interactions among phenomena or cascade effects, have been produced with a homogeneous method and refer to a common time window of 1 year. The probability maps reveal that only the north and east suburbs of Arequipa are exposed to all volcanic threats except for ballistic ejecta, which are limited to the uninhabited but touristic summit cone. The probability for pyroclastic density currents reaching recently expanding urban areas and the city along ravines is around 0.05 %/year, similar to the probability obtained for roof-critical tephra loading during the rainy season. Lahars represent by far the most probable threat (around 10 %/year) because at least four radial drainage channels can convey them approximately 20 km away from the volcano across the entire city area in heavy rain episodes, even without eruption. The Río Chili Valley represents the major concern to city safety owing to the probable cascading effect of combined threats: PDCs and rockslides, dammed lake break-outs and subsequent lahars or floods

  18. Preliminarily Assessment of Long-term Cloud Top Heights in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. J.; Po-Hsiung, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Xitou region, as the epitome of mid-elevation forest ecosystem and known as a famous forest recreation area in Taiwan. Although two disasters, "921 earthquake" in 1999 and typhoon Toraji in 2001, heavily hit this area and cause a significant reduction in visitors from 1 to about 0.4 million per year, the tourists have returned after the reconstruction in 2003 and approached 1.5 million high since 2010. The high quantity of tourists obviously drives the development of tourism industry which, unfortunately, increases the local sources of heating. A preliminarily analysis showed the warming rate was 0.29 oC/decade for June 2005 to May 2013 while from the 1940s to the 1980s, it was only 0.1 oC/decade. The warming pattern in Xitou region is similar to the global warming situation that a more dramatic trend happened during the past 10 years. The change of land use, which derived from the pressure of tourism industry, might accelerate regional climate warming. For the purpose of understanding cloud response to anthropogenic forcing, the long-term 1-km spatial resolution cloud top heights (cth) data sets (collection 6) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were assessed. The results showed the annual cloud event amounts of the Terra and Aqua changed insignificantly since 2003 disregard of the cth. However, the cloud fraction of the cth less than 2000m was 18% in 2003 and dropped dramatically to 7% since 2011. Correspondingly, the cth between 2000m to 4000m was increased from 35% in 2003 to 45% in 2014. Further analysis the nighttime events indicated similar pattern but only 6% different between 2003 and 2014. The Aqua daytime events showed a more dramatic fraction anomaly which was decreased 18% at the cth less than 2000m and increased 18% at the cth between 2000m to 4000m. This preliminary assessment represents the cloud is pushing higher which might be caused by the anthropogenic forcing during the last decade. However, this study also found

  19. Development of testing and analysis methodology to assess the long term durability of polymeric composites at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to help assess the state-of-the-art in evaluating the long term durability of polymeric matrix composites (PMCs) and to recommend future activities. Design and evaluation of PMCs at elevated temperatures were discussed. The workshop presentations, the findings of the workshop sessions are briefly summarized.

  20. 76 FR 68769 - Bridging the Idea Development Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term Initiative and Total Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...-Term Initiative and Total Product Life Cycle Approaches for Evidence Development for Surgical Medical... Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term (IDEAL) initiative and Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) frameworks related... device life cycle; and Integrating innovation, evaluation, and dissemination pathways for medical...

  1. 75 FR 46946 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty International Center's Research and Training Programs Summary:...

  2. Long-term follow-up of endoscopic third ventriculostomy performed in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Stovell, Matthew G; Zakaria, Rasheed; Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Gallagher, Mathew J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Hayhurst, Caroline; Mallucci, Conor L

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an effective treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus and avoids the risk for foreign-body infection associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. The short-term failure rate of ETV strongly depends on the indications for its use but is generally thought to be lower in the long term than that of VP shunts. However, few studies are available with long-term follow-up data of ETV for hydrocephalus in children. The authors reviewed the long-term success of ETV at their institution to investigate the rate of any late failures of this procedure. METHODS Between April 1998 and June 2006, 113 children (including neonates and children up to 16 years old) had primary or secondary ETV for different causes of hydrocephalus. The patients' medical records and the authors' electronic operation database were reviewed for evidence of additional surgery (i.e., repeat ETV or VP shunt insertion). These records were checked at both the pediatric and adult neurosurgical hospitals for those patients who had their care transferred to adult services. RESULTS The median length of follow-up was 8.25 years (range 1 month to 16 years). Long-term follow-up data for 96 patients were available, 47 (49%) of whom had additional ETV or VP shunt insertion for ETV failure. Twenty patients (21%) had a second procedure within 1 month, 17 patients (18%) between 1 and 12 months, 7 patients (7%) between 1 and 5 years, and 3 patients (3%) between 5 and 8 years. CONCLUSIONS In the authors' series, ETV had an initial early failure rate for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus as reported previously, and this rate significantly depended on patient age and hydrocephalus etiology. Once stabilized and effective, ETV appeared to be durable but not guaranteed, and some late decline in effectiveness was observed, with some ETV failures occurring many years later. Thus, successful ETV in children cannot be guaranteed for life, and some form of follow-up is

  3. Echocardiographic Assessment of Ischaemic Mitral Regurgitation, Mechanism, Severity, Impact on Treatment Strategy and Long Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Nabil; Dzubur, Alen; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Kovacevic, Katarina; Kulic, Mehmed; Sokolovic, Sekib; Terzic, Ibrahim; Haxihibeqiri-Karabdic, Ilirijana; Hondo, Zorica; Brdzanovic, Snjezana; Miseljic, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The commonest mitral regurgitation etiologies are degenerative (60%), rheumatic post-inflammatory, 12%) and functional (25%). Due to the large number of patients with acute MI, the incidence of ischaemic MR is also high. Ischaemic mitral regurgitation is a complex multifactorial disease that involves left ventricular geometry, the mitral annulus, and the valvular/subvalvular apparatus. Ischaemic mitral regurgitation is an important consequence of LV remodeling after myocardial infarction. Research Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the role of echocardiography in detecting and assessment of mitral regurgitation mechanism, severity, impact on treatment strategy and long term outcome in patients with myocardial infarction during the follow up period of 5 years. Also one of objectives to determine if the absence or presence of ischaemic MR is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and methods: The study covered 138 adult patients. All patients were subjected to echocardiography evaluation after acute myocardial infarction during the period of follow up for 5 years. The patients were examined on an ultrasound machine Philips iE 33 xMatrix, Philips HD 11 XE, and GE Vivid 7 equipped with all cardiologic probes for adults and multi-plan TEE probes. We evaluated mechanisms and severity of mitral regurgitation which includes the regurgitant volume (RV), effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA), the regurgitant fraction (RF), Jet/LA area, also we measured the of vena contracta width (VC width cm) for assessment of IMR severity, papillary muscles anatomy and displacement, LV systolic function ± dilation, LV regional wall motion abnormality WMA, LV WMI, Left ventricle LV remodeling, impact on treatment strategy and long term mortality. Results: We analyzed and follow up 138 patients with previous (>16 days) Q-wave myocardial infarction by ECG who underwent TTE and TEE

  4. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment supports organic yields, soil quality, and economic performance in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The main goals of the project are to evalua...

  5. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These ground water treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings (Peerless Meta...

  6. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  7. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    contribution by synthesizing information from research in power market economics, power system reliability, and environmental impact assessment, to develop a comprehensive methodology for analyzing wind power in the context of long-term energy planning.

  8. Assessing long-term health and cost outcomes of patient-centered medical homes serving adults with poor diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Pagán, José A; Carlson, Erin K

    2013-10-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an integrated primary care delivery model particularly suited for patients with poor diabetes control. Although PCMH models targeting adults with diabetes have shown some early success, little is known about the long-term benefits of medical homes in terms of health and cost outcomes. The performance of a PCMH model in adults with poor diabetes control was assessed using simulated controlled trial data obtained from the Archimedes model of disease progression and health care utilization. Using the Cardio-Metabolic Risk data set, we compared health and cost outcomes over a 20-year period between adults with poor diabetes control (HbA1c >9%) receiving standard care and these same adults receiving care under a PCMH model with a 49% HbA1c intervention improvement rate at a per-beneficiary per-month care management cost of $20 per month. The results suggest that the PCMH model has the potential to not only reduce the proportion of the population with bilateral blindness, foot amputations, and myocardial infarctions-and the mortality rate-but it can also do so in a cost-effective manner ($7898 per quality-adjusted life year). The PCMH model is cost saving for the population 50 to 64 years old and it is particularly cost-effective for men ($883 per quality-adjusted life year). Moreover, these effects are relatively large for adults 30 to 49 years old (lower bilateral blindness and death rates), women (lower foot amputation and death rates), and men (lower bilateral blindness and myocardial infarction rates). The PCMH model has potential long-term benefits to both patients with poor diabetes control as well as health care systems and providers willing to invest in this health care delivery approach. PMID:23799676

  9. Accelerated long-term assessment of thermal and chemical stability of bio-based phase change materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems incorporated with phase change materials (PCMs) have potential applications to control energy use by building envelopes. However, it is essential to evaluate long term performance of the PCMs and cost effectiveness prior to full scale implementation. For this rea...

  10. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  11. A performance evaluation of coating systems for long term aqueous immersion service

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.

    1994-11-08

    The static immersion of coated steel panels in various media representative of chemical and waste processes around the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was terminated after 16 months exposure for evaluation of coating performance and comparison with observations collected following 1, 6, and 11 months exposure. In each environment, a wide range of coating performance was observed, including some coatings unsuitable for use in the test environment (despite the high recommendation of the vendor). Further, coating performance as a function of time suggests a test duration of at least several months is required to fully assess candidate coating performance for specific applications. The performance of many coatings, particularly in the most alkaline environment, was adversely affected by the imposition of supplemental cathodic protection on the coated test panels.

  12. Long-term engraftment of single genetically modified human epidermal holoclones enables safety pre-assessment of cutaneous gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Fernando; Dellambra, Elena; Rico, Laura; Bondanza, Sergio; Murillas, Rodolfo; Cattoglio, Claudia; Mavilio, Fulvio; Jorcano, José L; Zambruno, Giovanna; Del Rio, Marcela

    2007-09-01

    Predicting the risks of permanent gene therapy approaches involving the use of integrative gene-targeting vectors has become a critical issue after the unfortunate episode of a clinical trial in children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID). Safety pre-assessment of single isolated gene-targeted stem cells or their derivative clones able to regenerate their tissue of origin would be a major asset in addressing untoward gene therapy effects in advance. Human epidermal stem cells, which have extensive proliferative potential in vitro, theoretically offer such a possibility as a method of assessment. By means of optimized organotypic culture and grafting methods, we demonstrate the long-term in vivo regenerative capacity of single gene-targeted human epidermal stem cell clones (holoclones). Both histopathological analysis of holoclone-derived grafts in immunodeficient mice and retroviral insertion site mapping performed in the holoclone in vitro and after grafting provide proof of the feasibility of pre-assessing genotoxicity risks in isolated stem cells before transplantation into patients. Our results provide an experimental basis for previously untested assumptions about the in vivo behavior of epidermal stem cells prospectively isolated in vitro and pave the way for a safer approach to cutaneous gene therapy.

  13. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L.; Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C.; Whitney, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including

  14. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  15. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Consiglio, A.; Meucci, A.; Cremonesi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’ tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r2>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage. PMID:26623308

  16. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Meucci, A; Cremonesi, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r(2)>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  17. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  18. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  19. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems.

    PubMed

    Brattebo, Benjamin O; Booth, Derek B

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the long-term effectiveness of permeable pavement as an alternative to traditional impervious asphalt pavement in a parking area. Four commercially available permeable pavement systems were evaluated after 6 years of daily parking usage for structural durability, ability to infiltrate precipitation, and impacts on infiltrate water quality. All four permeable pavement systems showed no major signs of wear. Virtually all rainwater infiltrated through the permeable pavements, with almost no surface runoff. The infiltrated water had significantly lower levels of copper and zinc than the direct surface runoff from the asphalt area. Motor oil was detected in 89% of samples from the asphalt runoff but not in any water sample infiltrated through the permeable pavement. Neither lead nor diesel fuel were detected in any sample. Infiltrate measured 5 years earlier displayed significantly higher concentrations of zinc and significantly lower concentrations of copper and lead.

  20. Long-term assessment of motor and cognitive behaviours in the intraluminal perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-03-17

    The endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a commonly used model in rats as it is performed without a craniotomy and accurately mimics the physiological effects of SAH in humans. The long-term behavioural profile of the model, however, has not been characterized. Given that humans often have cognitive deficits following SAH, we set out to characterize the behavioural profile as well as the spontaneous temperature changes of rats following intraluminal perforation. Rats were pre-trained on three motor tasks (tapered beam, limb-use asymmetry and the horizontal ladder tasks) prior to receiving a SAH. The animals were then assessed on post-surgical days 3, 7, 14 and 21 on these tasks. At the completion of motor testing, the rats were assessed on a moving platform version of the Morris water task. Despite significant mortality (33%), SAH did not result in lasting motor deficits on any of the tasks examined. However, the SAH group did show a minor cognitive impairment in the Morris water task. In addition, SAH produced a slight, but significant elevation in body temperature (vs. sham operated rats) despite an acute decrease in general home cage activity. The majority of the animals did not have any observable infarcts and the SAH did not significantly affect cortical thickness. In summary, the endovascular perforation model of SAH results in no lasting motor deficits and only minor cognitive impairment in survivors, which alone would be difficult to evaluate in neuroprotection or rehabilitation studies. PMID:19059287

  1. Bayesian event tree for long-term volcanic hazard assessment: Application to Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.

    2010-05-01

    In modern volcanology one of the most important goals is to perform hazard and risk assessment of volcanoes near urbanized areas. Previous work has been done to assess volcanic hazard in the form of event tree structures containing possible eruptive scenarios. Probability methods have been applied to these structures to estimate the long term probability for each scenario. However, most of these event tree models show restrictions in the eruptive scenarios they consider and/or on the possibility of having volcanic unrest triggered by other forces than magmatic. In this paper, we present a Bayesian event tree structure which accounts for external triggers (geothermal, seismic) as a source of volcanic unrest and looks at the hazard from different types of magma composition and different vent locations (as opposite to a central vent only). We apply the model to the particular case of Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes, two alkaline composite volcanoes that have erupted 1.8-3 km3 of mafic and felsic magmas from different vent sites during the last 35 ka, situated on a densely populated island, one of the biggest tourist destinations of Europe, and for which limited geological and no historical data exist. Hence, the importance of volcanic hazard assessment for risk-based decision-making in land use planning and emergency management. A previous attempt to estimate the volcanic hazard for Teide-Pico Viejo has been done using an event tree structure based on Elicitation of Expert Judgment. The new method overcomes some limitations of the previous method, including human decision bias, epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties, restrictions on the segmentation complexity of the event tree structure, and automatically updating. The main steps are the following: (1) Design an extensive tree-shaped Bayesian network with possible eruptive scenarios following the case of Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. (2) Build a Bayesian model to estimate the long term volcanic hazard for each

  2. Long Term Performance Metrics of the GD SDR on the SCaN Testbed: The First Year on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer; Wilson, Molly C.

    2014-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SCaN Testbed was installed on the ISS in August of 2012. After installation, the initial checkout and commissioning phases were completed and experimental operations commenced. One goal of the SCaN Testbed is to collect long term performance metrics for SDRs operating in space in order to demonstrate long term reliability. These metrics include the time the SDR powered on, the time the power amplifier (PA) is powered on, temperature trends, error detection and correction (EDAC) behavior, and waveform operational usage time. This paper describes the performance of the GD SDR over the first year of operations on the ISS.

  3. Long-term performance and microbial ecology of a two-stage PN-ANAMMOX process treating mature landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Li, Huosheng; Zhou, Shaoqi; Ma, Weihao; Huang, Pengfei; Huang, Guotao; Qin, Yujie; Xu, Bin; Ouyang, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Long-term performance of a two-stage partial nitritation (PN)-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process treating mature landfill leachate was investigated. Stable partial nitritation performance was achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using endpoint pH control, providing an effluent with a ratio of NO2(-)-N/NH4(+)-N at 1.23 ± 0.23. High rate nitrogen removal over 4 kg N/m(3)/d was observed in the ANAMMOX reactor in the first three months. However, during long-term operation, the ANAMMOX reactor can only stably operate under nitrogen load of 1 kg N/m(3)/d, with 85 ± 1% of nitrogen removal. The ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the PN-SBR were mainly affiliated to Nitrosomonas sp. IWT514, Nitrosomonas eutropha and Nitrosomonas eutropha, the anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the ANAMMOX reactor were mainly affiliated to Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  4. Assessing climate change and socio-economic uncertainties in long term management of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Dawson, Richard; Walsh, Claire; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Glenis, Vassilis

    2015-04-01

    Long term management of water resources is challenging for decision makers given the range of uncertainties that exist. Such uncertainties are a function of long term drivers of change, such as climate, environmental loadings, demography, land use and other socio economic drivers. Impacts of climate change on frequency of extreme events such as drought make it a serious threat to water resources and water security. The release of probabilistic climate information, such as the UKCP09 scenarios, provides improved understanding of some uncertainties in climate models. This has motivated a more rigorous approach to dealing with other uncertainties in order to understand the sensitivity of investment decisions to future uncertainty and identify adaptation options that are as far as possible robust. We have developed and coupled a system of models that includes a weather generator, simulations of catchment hydrology, demand for water and the water resource system. This integrated model has been applied in the Thames catchment which supplies the city of London, UK. This region is one of the driest in the UK and hence sensitive to water availability. In addition, it is one of the fastest growing parts of the UK and plays an important economic role. Key uncertainties in long term water resources in the Thames catchment, many of which result from earth system processes, are identified and quantified. The implications of these uncertainties are explored using a combination of uncertainty analysis and sensitivity testing. The analysis shows considerable uncertainty in future rainfall, river flow and consequently water resource. For example, results indicate that by the 2050s, low flow (Q95) in the Thames catchment will range from -44 to +9% compared with the control scenario (1970s). Consequently, by the 2050s the average number of drought days are expected to increase 4-6 times relative to the 1970s. Uncertainties associated with urban growth increase these risks further

  5. Assessment of inceptisols soil quality following long-term cropping in a calcareous environment.

    PubMed

    Rezapour, Salar; Samadi, A

    2012-03-01

    The combination of morphological, clay mineralogy, physicochemical, and fertilitical properties of inceptisols were compared for monitoring soil quality response following long-term agricultural activities. For this target, fifty-nine paired surface soils belonging to five subgroups of inceptisols from the major sugar beet growing area and the adjoining virgin lands were described, sampled, and analyzed. The soils were alkaline and calcareous as characterized by high pH, ranging from 7.2 to 8, and calcium carbonate equivalent, ranging from 60 to 300 g kg(-1). Following long-term sugar beet cultivation, morphological properties modifications were reflected as weakening of structure, hardening of consistency, and brightening of soil color. Although, the quantity of clay minerals did not significantly change through long-term cropping, some modifications in the XRD pattern of illite and smectite were observed in the cultivated soils compared to the adjoining virgin lands mainly as a result of potassium depletion. Without significant variation, sand content decreased by 4-55% and silt and clay increased by 3-22% and 2-15%, respectively, in the cultivated soils than to that of the virgin lands. Both negative and positive aspects of soil quality were reflected regarding soil chemical and fertilitical properties and the role of negative effects far exceeded the role of positive effects. Typic calcixerepts was known to be more degraded through a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.001) in mean value of soil organic carbon (a drop of 24%), total N (a drop of 23%), available K (a drop of 42%), exchangeable K (a drop of 45%), potassium adsorption ratio and potassium saturation ratio (a drop of 44% and 42%, respectively) and a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in EC (a rise of 53%). Soil quality index, calculated based on nine soil properties [coarse fragments, pH, SOC, total N, ESP, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K), and available phosphorus], indicated that 60% of the all soil

  6. Long-term persistence of throughfall yield assessed by small footprint LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Sebastian; Levia, Delphis F.; Nieschulze, Jens; Schulz, Florian; Michalzik, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Throughfall (TF) represents an important relocation mechanism for the spatial distribution of intercepted precipitation and hence associated nutrients in wooded ecosystems. To date, a broad range of studies showed that the spatial patterns of TF distribution exhibit a pronounced temporal stability. These studies, however, have examined TF temporal stability at the tree scale or they were computed from event-based data. Here, we seek to evaluate the utility of temporally aggregated TF data at one, three, and six year intervals to determine whether such long-term TF monitoring data could serve as the basis for TF temporal persistence measurements for both beech and spruce forests. In addition, we examine the temporal persistence of TF in relation to small footprint LiDAR data. In context of the German Science Foundation (DFG) founded "Biodiversity Exploratories" (www.biodiversity-exploratories.de) we studied water-bound nutrient fluxes on a set of three differently managed forest plots (spruce plantation, age class forest beech, unmanaged beech) in central Germany throughout the vegetation periods of 2010 - 2015. For long-term monitoring purposes, TF samples were collected in biweekly routine sampling intervals using X-shaped transects of 20 bulk samplers (axis length 32 m) per experimental plot. In this study, we aim to identify canopy structural parameters explaining the temporal patterns observed. We therefore used small footprint LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data to calculate several canopy structural parameters on base of a gridded canopy model (grid cell resolution = 0.75 m). As LiDAR allows a three-dimensional description of the complex forest canopy structure it might help to extend our understanding of complex canopy processes influencing the spatial dispersal of precipitation water, and hence associated nutrient fluxes, in wooded ecosystems. Preliminary data analysis reveals that normalized TF values identify a number of TF collectors on each of the

  7. Application of micro-porous polycarbonate membranes in dye-sensitized solar cells: Cell performance and long-term stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Lo, Pei Wen; Hung, Ling-Yung; Tung, Yung Liang

    This research investigates the cell performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) containing micro-porous polycarbonate (PC) film as the frame work material to stabilize the electrolyte solution. The track-etched PC film has cylindrical pore geometry, which is beneficial for ion transport in the electrolyte trapped inside the PC film. The photovoltaic efficiency of the DSSC with 0.2-μm PC membrane is 5.75 ± 0.73% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2, which is slightly lower than that (6.34 ± 0.44%) of cells without PC film. The differences in fill factor and open-circuit voltage between the DSSCs with and without PC film are not statistically significant. The long-term cell performance is carried out at continuous illumination of 100 mW cm -2 (1 sun) and in darkness at 60 °C for up to 1000 h. There is no significant efficiency difference between the cells with and without PC film in light soaking (4.33% vs. 4.52%) for 960 h. In darkness, however, the cells with PC film demonstrate much higher efficiency (at 2.37%) than cells without PC (0.85%) after 1000 h. The improved long-term efficiency data and the higher percentage of working cells confirm the superior lifetime and performance using the micro-porous PC film.

  8. Quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment from long-term space-borne InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Catani, F.; Casagli, N.; Li, R.

    2011-12-01

    Preparing reliable landslide hazard and risk maps is an essential part for landslide studies and nowadays many approaches have been developed for quantitative hazard and risk assessment. However, very few of these hazard and risk maps was reported updated after their first generation. In this study, aiming at a continuous update of landslide hazard and risk maps, a novel approach for quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment was developed, chiefly based on long-term satellite InSAR products - Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) point targets. The study was performed in the Arno river basin (central Italy) where most of mass movements are slow-moving landslides which are properly within the detection precision of PSI point targets. In the Arno river basin, the initial hazard and risk assessment were performed by Catani et al. (2005) using all datasets before 2001 whereas in this study the previous hazard and risk maps were updated using PSI point targets processed from 4 years (2003-2006) of RADARSAT images. Those PSI point targets were then used to generate a landslide hotspot map through PSI Hotspot and Clustering Analysis (PSI-HCA). Landslide hazard and risk maps for five temporal predictions of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 years were produced based on this landslide hotspot map with the exposure of losses estimated in euro. In particular, the result indicates that a potential loss of approximate 3.22 billion euro were expected in the upcoming 30 years due to these slow-moving landslides detected by PSI point targets.

  9. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes; Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos; Azevedo, Clério Francisco; Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard; Taets, Gunnar de Cunto; do Nascimento, Emília Matos; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). Conclusion The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for

  10. Perceived Barriers to Effective Job Performance Among Nursing Assistants in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Parmelee, Patricia A.; Laszlo, Mary C.; Taylor, Jo A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This research explored perceived barriers to job performance among a national sample of nursing assistants (NAs). Specific objectives were (a) to clarify which of the problems identified by previous research are most troublesome for NAs, (b) to develop a reliable quantitative measure of perceived barriers to job performance, and (c) to test construct validity of the measure vis-à-vis work-related psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Methods: Nursing assistants attending the 2006 national conference of the National Association of Health Care Assistants completed a paper-and-pencil survey including 33 barriers to job performance and standardized measures of empowerment and job satisfaction. The barries were also rated by a small sample of NAs at a single Georgia nursing home. Results: Factor analysis of barriers items yielded a 30-item Nursing Assistants Barriers Scale (NABS) comprising 6 subscales: Teamwork, Exclusion, Respect, Workload, Work Stress, and New NAs. Lack of teamwork and exclusion from communication processes were rated as most problematic by both samples. The 6 NABS subscales were significantly and independently associated with empowerment and satisfaction; different barriers predicted the two constructs. Discussion: This study is a first step toward quantitative assessment of NAs' perceptions of barriers to doing their jobs. Primary limitations are the select sample and use of a job satisfaction measure that may have artificially inflated correlations with the NABS. Nonetheless, results confirm the validity of the new scale as an operationalization of the barriers construct. Conclusion: The concept of barriers to job performance is a unique construct from work empowerment and satisfaction with one's job. Nursing assistants clearly differentiate various barriers, converging on workload and lack of teamwork as most problematic. Further work is needed to substantiate validity and reliability of the NABS, particularly with respect

  11. Including long-term biological index performance in a multi-criteria Decision Support System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, T.; Bowen, Z.; Bovee, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) was developed for the reservoirs operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation that incorporates biological resources in a palette of decision variables. A scoring technique was developed for the DSS to help to evaluate the long-term effects of proposed reservoir system operations on those variables. The biological component of the DSS was developed to help Bureau of Reclamation reservoir operators evaluate the effects of different scenarios of reservoir operations on a variety of water-related biological resources. In this DSS, Reclamation's Reservoir Operations Modeling System (ROMS) is linked to modules evaluating power production, flood control benefits, irrigation water deliveries, municipal and industrial water supplies, habitat for endemic fish communities, tailwater fisheries, nesting habitat for shorebirds, reservoir recreation, reservoir fisheries, and regeneration of riparian cottonwood forests. Operation scenarios generated in ROMS are scored for each decision variable by comparison to a target range of a decision variable for a reference location and time period. The score for a variable is calculated based on the ratio between the percent of time that target conditions are met under alternative operating conditions and under the reference condition, respectively. A scoring technique was developed that recognizes that under either natural or highly managed conditions the reference target is not met at all times. Higher scores are achieved for environmental decision variables by operations scenarios that approach natural seasonal and annual variability in habitat availability.

  12. Use of non evaporable getter pumps to ensure long term performances of high quantum efficiency photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sertore, Daniele Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura; Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio

    2014-05-15

    High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20 l s{sup −1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8⋅10{sup −8} Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6 day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2⋅10{sup −9} Pa was achieved after a 2 day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.

  13. Assessing Forest Carbon Response to Climate Change and Disturbances Using Long-term Hydro-climatic Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trettin, C.; Dai, Z.; Amatya, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term climatic and hydrologic observations on the Santee Experimental Forest in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina were used to estimate long-term changes in hydrology and forest carbon dynamics for a pair of first-order watersheds. Over 70 years of climate data indicated that warming in this forest area in the last decades was faster than the global mean; 35+ years of hydrologic records showed that forest ecosystem succession three years following Hurricane Hugo caused a substantial change in the ratio of runoff to precipitation. The change in this relationship between the paired watersheds was attributed to altered evapotranspiration processes caused by greater abundance of pine in the treatment watershed and regeneration of the mixed hardwood-pine forest on the reference watershed. The long-term records and anomalous observations are highly valuable for reliable calibration and validation of hydrological and biogeochemical models capturing the effects of climate variability. We applied the hydrological model MIKESHE that showed that runoff and water table level are sensitive to global warming, and that the sustained warming trends can be expected to decrease stream discharge and lower the mean water table depth. The spatially-explicit biogeochemical model Forest-DNDC, validated using biomass measurements from the watersheds, was used to assess carbon dynamics in response to high resolution hydrologic observation data and simulation results. The simulations showed that the long-term spatiotemporal carbon dynamics, including biomass and fluxes of soil carbon dioxide and methane were highly regulated by disturbance regimes, climatic conditions and water table depth. The utility of linked-modeling framework demonstrated here to assess biogeochemical responses at the watershed scale suggests applications for assessing the consequences of climate change within an urbanizing forested landscape. The approach may also be applicable for validating large

  14. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures.

  15. Initial development of patient-reported instrument assessing harm, efficacy, and misuse of long-term opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Becker, William C; Fiellin, David A; Black, Anne C; Kostovich, Carol T; Kerns, Robert D; Fraenkel, Liana

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines on long-term opioid therapy recommend frequent reassessment of harm, efficacy, and misuse of these potentially harmful and sometimes ineffective medications. In primary care, there is a need for a brief, patient-reported instrument. This report details the initial steps in the development of such an instrument. An interdisciplinary team of clinician-scientists performed four discrete steps in this study: (1) conceptualization of the purpose and function of the instrument, (2) assembly of an item pool, (3) expert rating on which items were most important to include in the instrument, and (4) modification of expert-selected items based on a reading level check and cognitive interviews with patients. A diverse panel of 47 subject matter experts was presented with 69 items to rate on a 1-9 scale in terms of importance for inclusion in the instrument. The panel highly rated 37 items: 8 related to harm, 4 related to efficacy, and 25 related to misuse. These 37 items were then tested for patient comprehension and modified as needed. Next steps in development will include further item reduction, testing against a gold standard, and assessment of the instrument's effect on clinical outcomes.

  16. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue - a quality assessment of water content and thallium binding.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Adil; Faustino, Patrick J; Khan, Mansoor A; Yang, Yongsheng

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue (PB) drug product (DP) and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) under laboratory storage conditions by monitoring the loss in water content and the corresponding change of the in vitro thallium binding capacity that represents product performance. The bound water content and the in vitro thallium binding capacity of PB DPs and APIs were measured in 2003 and 2013, respectively. Water content, a critical quality attribute that directly correlates to the thallium (Tl) binding capacity was measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thallium binding study was conducted by testing PB in buffered solutions over the human gastrointestinal pH range with thallium concentrations ranging from 600 to 1,500 ppm. Samples were incubated at physiological temperature of 37°C in a shaking water bath to mimic gastric flux and intestinal transport. The binding equilibrium was reached at 24h. Following incubation, each sample was filtered and the free thallium was analyzed using a validated inductively coupled plasma spectroscopic method (ICP). The Langmuir isotherm was plotted to calculate maximum binding capacity (MBC). Compared with 2003, the water content of DP-1 decreased by about 14.1% (from 15.6 to 13.4 mol), and the MBC of DP-1 decreased by about 12.5% (from 714 to 625 mg/g) at pH 7.5. When low concentration of thallium (600 ppm) was used at pH 7.5, the Tl binding remained comparable for both API-1 (286 vs 276 mg/g) and DP-1 (286 vs 268 mg/g). Similarly, the Tl binding remained unchanged for both API-1 (237 vs 255 mg/g) and DP-1 (234 vs 236 mg/g) at pH 5.0. However, at pH 1.0 the binding was reduced 32.3% and 25.9% for API-1 and DP-1, respectively. Since the majority of binding takes place in the upper GI tract where pH around 5 can be expected, and therefore, the Tl binding capacity of PB should be comparable for new and aged samples. The findings that Tl binding changes with the water

  17. Short-Duration and Intensive Training Improves Long-Term Reaching Performance in Individuals With Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeshin; Kim, Sujin; Winstein, Carolee J; Gordon, James; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple sessions of reach training lead to long-term improvements in movement time and smoothness in individuals post-stroke. Yet such long-term training regimens are often difficult to implement in actual clinical settings. In this study, we evaluated the long-term and generalization effects of short-duration and intensive reach training in 16 individuals with chronic stroke and mild to moderate impairments. Participants performed 2 sessions of unassisted intensive reach training, with 600 movements per session, and with display of performance-based feedback after each movement. The participants' trunks were restrained with a belt to avoid compensatory movements. Training resulted in significant and durable (1 month) improvements in movement time (20.4% on average) and movement smoothness (22.7% on average). The largest improvements occurred in individuals with the largest initial motor impairments. In addition, training induced generalization to nontrained targets, which persisted in 1-day and in 1-month retention tests. Finally, there was a significant improvement in the Box and Block test from baseline to 1-month retention test (23% on average). Thus, short-duration and intensive reach training can lead to generalized and durable benefits in individuals with chronic stroke and mild to moderate impairments.

  18. Assessing the Uncertainty of Raman Lidar Independent Water Vapor Calibration Means for Long Term Water Vapor Trend Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. N.; Whiteman, D. N.; Venable, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) both have lidar groups that desire to detect long term water vapor trends using Raman lidars. However, traditional calibration efforts make the lidar water vapor data dependent on water vapor measurements from other instruments. Also the traditional calibration efforts are known to be the largest source of systematic uncertainty to Raman Lidar water vapor data. Recently the lamp mapping technique (LMT) has been introduced as a source of independent calibration for Raman lidar water vapor data. However the systematic uncertainty from the LMT, as it applies to Raman Lidar water vapor data, needs to be investigated. Therefore the purpose of this research is to investigate the uncertainty and stability of the LMT as an independent calibration source and assess its capability to be used to support Raman Lidar long-term water vapor trend studies.

  19. Accelerated ageing of an EAF black slag by carbonation and percolation for long-term behaviour assessment.

    PubMed

    Gurtubay, L; Gallastegui, G; Elias, A; Rojo, N; Barona, A

    2014-07-01

    The efficient reuse of industrial by-products, such as the electric arc furnace (EAF) black slag, is still hindered by concern over their long-term behaviour in outdoor environments. The aim of this study was to develop an accelerated ageing method to simulate the long-term natural carbonation of EAF slag exposed to the elements. The degree of carbonation achieved in a freshly produced slag after accelerated ageing and in a slag used on a fifteen-year-old unpaved road was very similar. The influence of particle size on accelerated carbonation was assessed, with it being concluded that the slag sample with a particle size bigger than 5-6 mm underwent slight carbonation over time when it was exposed to CO2. The accelerated ageing procedure based on percolating a previously carbonated water solution through the slag column allowed gradual leaching with simulated acid rain, as well as providing information about the gradual and total chemical release from the slag. Three classification groups were established according to the release rate of the determined elements. The joint use of the accelerated carbonation method and the percolation test is proposed as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment concerning the long-term air exposure of EAF black slag.

  20. Performance of multilayer optical coatings under long-term 532nm laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulios, D.; Konoplev, O.; Chiragh, F.; Vasilyev, A.; Stephen, M.; Strickler, K.

    2013-11-01

    The effects of long-term exposure to high intensity 532 nm radiation on various dielectric-coated optics are studied. To investigate potential photodarkening effects on optical surfaces, an accelerated life test platform was constructed where optics were exposed to 532 nm radiation from a short-pulse, high repetition rate fiber amplifier at total doses up to 1 trillion shots. The first run of trillion-shot tests were conducted on e-beam deposited and ion beam sputtering (IBS) coated high reflecting mirrors with onsurface intensities ranging from 1.0-1.4 GW/cm2. It was found that the e-beam coated mirrors failed catastrophically at less than 150 billion shots, while the IBS coated mirror was able to complete the trillionshot test with no measurable loss of reflectivity. Profiling the IBS mirror surface with a high-resolution white light interferometer post-irradiation revealed a ~10 nm high photocontamination deposit at the irradiation site that closely matched the intensity profile of the laser spot. Trillion-shot surface exposure tests were also conducted at multiple surface sites of an LBO frequency doubling crystal at ~1.5 GW/cm2 at multiple surface sites. The transmitted power and on-surface beam size were monitored throughout the tests, and periodic measurements of the beam quality and waist location of the transmitted light were also made using an M2 meter. No changes in transmitted power or M2 were observed in any of the tests, but 3D surface profiling revealed laser-induced contamination deposits at each site tested.

  1. Long-term performance of passive materials for removal of ozone from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Cros, C J; Morrison, G C; Siegel, J A; Corsi, R L

    2012-02-01

    The health effects associated with exposure to ozone range from respiratory irritation to increased mortality. In this paper, we explore the use of three green building materials and an activated carbon (AC) mat that remove ozone from indoor air. We studied the effects of long-term exposure of these materials to real environments on ozone removal capability and pre- and post-ozonation emissions. A field study was completed over a 6-month period, and laboratory testing was intermittently conducted on material samples retrieved from the field. The results show sustained ozone removal for all materials except recycled carpet, with greatest ozone deposition velocity for AC mat (2.5-3.8 m/h) and perlite-based ceiling tile (2.2-3.2 m/h). Carbonyl emission rates were low for AC across all field sites. Painted gypsum wallboard and perlite-based ceiling tile had similar overall emission rates over the 6-month period, while carpet had large initial emission rates of undesirable by-products that decayed rapidly but remained high compared with other materials. This study confirms that AC mats and perlite-based ceiling tile are viable surfaces for inclusion in buildings to remove ozone without generating undesirable by-products. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS The use of passive removal materials for ozone control could decrease the need for, or even render unnecessary, active but energy consuming control solutions. In buildings where ozone should be controlled (high outdoor ozone concentrations, sensitive populations), materials specifically designed or selected for removing ozone could be implemented, as long as ozone removal is not associated with large emissions of harmful by-products. We find that activated carbon mats and perlite-based ceiling tiles can provide substantial, long-lasting, ozone control.

  2. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-07-16

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  3. Assessment of long-term erosion in a mountain vineyard, Aosta Valley (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Zecca, Odoardo; Barmaz, Andrea; Godone, Franco; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    Tillage and chemical weeding are common soil management techniques adopted in mountain vineyards, with high slope gradient, to maintain bare soil. Both techniques exposes the soil to degradation, favoring runoff and soil losses, that may cause relevant on-site and off-site damage. Steep mountain slopes makes optimum conditions for grape-growing. In the mountain region of Aosta Valley, NW Italy, the vineyards were, in the past, traditionally grown on terraces supported by dry stone walls. Since the 1960s the plantation of vines in the direction of the slope became more and more widespread, also on very steep slopes. Generally, no particular measure to channel and control surface water is adopted in this area due to the low rainfall (560 mm/year). Nevertheless in steep mountain slope rainfall events can cause important runoff erosion. In order to evaluate the long-term effect of vineyard management techniques on soil erosion, a study was carried out on a mountain slope vineyard located near Aosta, at about 900 m above the sea level. The vineyard was planted at the end of 1960s and is managed by the Institut Agricole Régional. The rows are accommodated oriented along the slope, which is about 45%. The inter-rows' soil management of the vineyard included chemical weeding and, in first year after plantation, the adoption of irrigation (by fixed overhead sprinklers) and hilling-up/taking-out the soil around the vine plants, to protect them from cold weather. The long-term soil erosion rate was determined adopting the technique of botanical benchmark (Casalí et al.,2009). The grafting callus was used as a marker to identify the paleo-surface at the time of planting. A detailed topographic survey was carried out to determine the present surface of the vineyard while the current position of the grafting callus was recorded for a number of plants. The original position of the callus was estimated by data obtained by farmers and by a survey on reference vineyards. Two

  4. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  5. Practice Guidelines for Assessing Pain in Older Persons with Dementia Residing in Long-Term Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Theresa Dever; Marchildon, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Frail patients with dementia most frequently present with musculoskeletal pain and mobility concerns; therefore, physiotherapy interventions for this population are likely to be of great benefit. However, physiotherapists who work with older adults with dementia confront a considerable challenge: the communication impairments that characterize dementia make it difficult to assess pain and determine its source. For an effective physiotherapy programme to be implemented, valid pain assessment is necessary. This paper is intended to provide practice guidelines for pain assessment among older persons with dementia. Summary of Key Points: Over the last several years, there has been tremendous research progress in this area. While more research is needed, several promising assessment methodologies are available. These methodologies most often involve the use of observational checklists to record specific pain behaviours. Recommendations: We encourage the ongoing and regular evidence-based pain assessment of older persons with dementia, using standardized procedures. Without regular and systematic assessment, pain problems will often go undetected in this population. Given the need for systematic pain assessment and intervention for long-term care populations with mobility concerns and muculoskeletal pain problems, we call for increased involvement of physical therapists in long-term care facilities. PMID:21359040

  6. Global assessment of surfing conditions: seasonal, interannual and long-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, A.; Losada, I.; Mendez, F.

    2012-12-01

    International surfing destinations owe a great debt to specific combinations of wind-wave, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. As surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, a multivariable standardized index on the basis of expert judgment is proposed to analyze surf resource in a worldwide domain. Data needed is obtained by combining several datasets (reanalyses): 60-year satellite-calibrated spectral wave hindcast (GOW, WaveWatchIII), wind fields from NCEP/NCAR, global sea surface temperature from ERSST.v3b, and global tides from TPXO7.1. A summary of the global surf resource is presented, which highlights the high degree of variability in surfable events. According to general atmospheric circulation, results show that west facing low to middle latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in Southern Hemisphere. Month to month analysis reveals strong seasonal changes in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing those in North Atlantic or North Pacific. Interannual variability is investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional climate patterns showing a great influence at both, global and regional scales. Analysis of long term trends shows an increase in the probability of surfable events over the west facing coasts on the planet (i.e. + 30 hours/year in California). The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers and surf related stakeholders, coastal planning, education, and basic research.; Figure 1. Global distribution of medium quality (a) and high quality surf conditions probability (b).

  7. A long-term assessment of pesticide mixture effects on aquatic invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Simone; Lawler, Sharon P; Geist, Juergen; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    To understand the potential effects of pesticide mixtures on aquatic ecosystems, studies that incorporate increased ecological relevance are crucial. Using outdoor mesocosms, the authors examined long-term effects on aquatic invertebrate communities of tertiary mixtures of commonly used pesticides: 2 pyrethroids (permethrin, λ-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos). Application scenarios were based on environmentally relevant concentrations and stepwise increases of lethal concentrations from 10% (LC10) to 50% (LC50) based on laboratory tests on Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus; repeated applications were meant to generally reflect runoff events in a multiple-grower or homeowner watershed. Pyrethroids rapidly dissipated from the water column, whereas chlorpyrifos was detectable even 6 wk after application. Twelve of 15 macroinvertebrate and 10 of 16 zooplankton taxa responded to contaminant exposures. The most sensitive taxa were the snail Radix sp., the amphipod H. azteca, the water flea Daphnia magna, and copepods. Environmentally relevant concentrations had acute effects on D. magna and H. azteca (occurring 24 h after application), whereas lag times were more pronounced in Radix sp. snails and copepods, indicating chronic sublethal responses. Greatest effects on zooplankton communities were observed in environmentally relevant concentration treatments. The results indicate that insecticide mixtures continue to impact natural systems over multiple weeks, even when no longer detectable in water and bound to particles. Combinations of indirect and direct effects caused consequences across multiple trophic levels. PMID:26565581

  8. Impact of long-term reclaimed wastewater irrigation on agricultural soils: a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C; Zhang, Yuan

    2010-11-15

    The effect of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on the alteration of soil properties and accumulation of trace metals in soil profiles was investigated by monitoring different plots from Palmdale, California that had been irrigated with effluents for various lengths of time (3, 8, and 20 years, respectively). The non-effluent-irrigated plot served as the control and provided reference "background" values. Total metals at different soil depths were analyzed by acid digestion, and EDTA-extractable metals were analyzed as available fraction. Results show that soil pH values were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in plots with 20-year irrigation to a depth of 140 cm, while EC was elevated for all three plots compared with control. OM, TC and TN contents increased in the top 10-cm soil layers in plots with 8- and 20-year effluent irrigation. Irrigation with effluents also increased both the total and EDTA-extractable metals in the fields. It showed that long-term effluent irrigation could be of agricultural interest due mainly to its organic matter concentrations and nutrients input, however, trace contaminants such as heavy metals in the upper horizons may be accumulated, which may eventually lead to deterioration of soil and groundwater quality and affect the sustainability of land-based disposal of effluent.

  9. The assessment of auditory function in CSWS: lessons from long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle

    2009-08-01

    In Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), the prominent and often first symptom is auditory verbal agnosia, which may affect nonverbal sounds. It was early suggested that the subsequent decline of speech expression might result from defective auditory analysis of the patient's own speech. Indeed, despite normal hearing levels, the children behave as if they were deaf, and very rapidly speech expression deteriorates and leads to the receptive aphasia typical of LKS. The association of auditory agnosia more or less restricted to speech with severe language decay prompted numerous studies aimed at specifying the defect in auditory processing and its pathophysiology. Long-term follow-up studies have addressed the issue of the outcome of verbal auditory processing and the development of verbal working memory capacities following the deprivation of phonologic input during the critical period of language development. Based on a review of neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies of auditory and phonologic disorders published these last 20 years, we discuss the association of verbal agnosia and speech production decay, and try to explain the phonologic working memory deficit in the late outcome of LKS within the Hickok and Poeppel dual-stream model of speech processing.

  10. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  11. Observations from Long-Term Performance Monitoring of the TOPEX Radar Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1998-01-01

    From its August 1992 launch to the present, we have performed performance analysis and engineering assessment for the TOPEX radar altimeter. We continually update databases containing: (1) on-board engineering parameters such as temperatures, voltages, and currents; (2) internal calibration mode indications of bias changes in range and power estimates; and (3) global over-ocean averages of geophysical quantities such as significant waveheight (SWH) and ocean surface radar backscattering cross-section (sigmaO). For some time now we have seen an apparent increase in the TOPEX cycle-average SWH, amounting now to an increase of about 10% from our earlier mission value of about 2.8 m. Recently several investigators have reported that the TOPEX SWH is increasing relative to ERS-2 and to ocean buoy measurements. We examined the past six years of waveform data from an internal calibration mode (Cal 1) which samples the altimeter's point target response (ptr), and found that the ptr sidelobes are apparently greater now than at start of mission. Modeling studies indicate that the sidelobe enhancement can account for most of the increase in the TOPEX SWH estimate; that is, the SWH increase is not real but result of some drift within the altimeter. Our modeling indicates that the TOPEX range estimates will change less than a centimeter for ptr changes seen to date. An approximate recipe for correcting the TOPEX SWH values will be made available on our web site (http://topex.wffnasa.gov/). We emphasize that a radar altimeter is a complex system requiring continuing calibration and monitoring throughout its entire lifetime.

  12. The Long-term Performance of NOAA's Operational Open Ocean Tsunameter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, J.; Bouchard, R. H.; Petraitis, D. C.; Rutledge, T. M.; Boudreaux, T. J.; Robbie, M. D.; Yarborough, S.; Fornea, G.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has operated and maintained the full 39-station array of open ocean tsunameters since 2008 using the second generation Deep-ocean Reporting and Assessment of Tsunamis technology. The array provides real-time, ocean bottom measurements to Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) located in Hawai'i and Alaska. These measurements aid them in detecting the presence or absence of tsunamis in the open ocean and in determining the essential characteristics of a tsunami to support the TWC. Thirty-two of the stations span the Pacific Ocean, while seven are located in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. The sensors are located on the ocean floor to depths of 6000 m and the system must deliver measurements from that depth to the TWCs in 3 minutes or less. These vast horizontal and vertical distances and the often extreme conditions of the open ocean raise considerable challenges in maintaining necessary and sufficient measurements to support the TWCs. To support this effort, NDBC aims to maintain and generally achieves a goal of 80% real-time data availability. Data availability is the percentage of measurements received versus the number of expected measurements. Using seven years of data we examine operational performance parameters such as real-time and retrospective data availability and tsunami detection for trends, patterns, and the factors affecting performance and reliability of the array. We will also discuss the initial results of the Field Evaluation of the 4th Generation technology.

  13. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  14. Environmental assessment of energy production based on long term commercial willow plantations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Murphy, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The present paper analyzed the environmental assessment of short rotation willow plantations in Sweden based on the standard framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from the International Standards Organisation. The analysis is focused on two alternative management regimes for willow plantations dedicated to biomass production for energy purposes. The data used included the averages of a large sample of commercial plantations. One of the scenarios is carried out under nitrogen based fertilized conditions and the other under non-fertilized management with total biomass yields (dry weight) of 140t/ha and 86t/ha over a 21 and 22-year life time respectively. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of the potentials for abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition, an energy analysis was performed using the cumulative energy demand method (CED). The application of nitrogen based fertilizers allows an increase in the biomass yield per ha of up to 40% although the contributions to almost all impact categories, particularly the eutrophication potential and toxicity potential impact categories are also considerably higher. Conversely, due to the higher biomass yields achieved with fertilization of these willow plantations, that regime presents a better overall environmental profile in terms of energy yield and global warming potential. PMID:22369863

  15. Environmental assessment of energy production based on long term commercial willow plantations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Murphy, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The present paper analyzed the environmental assessment of short rotation willow plantations in Sweden based on the standard framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from the International Standards Organisation. The analysis is focused on two alternative management regimes for willow plantations dedicated to biomass production for energy purposes. The data used included the averages of a large sample of commercial plantations. One of the scenarios is carried out under nitrogen based fertilized conditions and the other under non-fertilized management with total biomass yields (dry weight) of 140t/ha and 86t/ha over a 21 and 22-year life time respectively. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of the potentials for abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition, an energy analysis was performed using the cumulative energy demand method (CED). The application of nitrogen based fertilizers allows an increase in the biomass yield per ha of up to 40% although the contributions to almost all impact categories, particularly the eutrophication potential and toxicity potential impact categories are also considerably higher. Conversely, due to the higher biomass yields achieved with fertilization of these willow plantations, that regime presents a better overall environmental profile in terms of energy yield and global warming potential.

  16. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Libbey-Owens-Ford (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Thermal performance tests were conducted on the Libbey-Owens-Ford liquid collector, following long term exposure to natural weathering conditions. Visual inspection of the collector, prior to the retest, indicated noticeable clouding of the inner cover glass, probably resulting from outgassing of the insulation. The absorber plate also showed some discoloration. The test results indicated that performance degradation had occurred at inlet temperatures significantly above ambient. The change in the slope of the efficiency curve, from the original data, is a direct indicator of an increase in the collector heat loss coefficient.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of teaching general practitioners to carry out structured assessments of their long term mentally ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, T.; Burns, T.; Freeling, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of teaching general practitioners to carry out structured assessments of their long term mentally ill patients. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Sixteen group general practices in South Thames (west) region. SUBJECTS--440 adults disabled by long term mental illness. INTERVENTIONS--Patients were identified by using practice data with help from local psychiatric and social services. In eight practices the practitioners were taught a structured assessment schedule to use with patients every six months for two years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Changes in drug treatments, referrals, consultation rates, and recording of preventive health data in the two years after intervention. RESULTS--Follow up data were available on 373 patients (84.7%). At least one structured assessment was recorded for 127 patients in the intervention group but only 29 had four assessments recorded. Participating practitioners considered the structured assessment to be time consuming and reported that it did not often lead directly to changes in treatment or referrals. Changes in treatment with neuroleptic drugs and referrals to community psychiatric nurses, however, were significantly more frequent in the intervention group (differences for intervention group minus control group adjusted for activity in two years before intervention were 14.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3% to 24.33%; P < 0.01) for neuroleptic drugs and 13.3% (2.0% to 24.6%; P < 0.05) for referrals). There were no significant differences in psychiatric admissions, use of the Mental Health Act, drug overdoses, prescriptions, referrals or admissions for physical problems, consultation rates, continuity of care, or recording of preventive data. CONCLUSIONS--Teaching general practitioners about the problems of long term mentally ill patients may increase their involvement in patients' psychiatric care. Regular structured assessments do not seem feasible in routine surgery appointments. More

  18. Short-term versus long-term rainfall time series in the assessment of potable water savings by using rainwater in houses.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Enedir; Cardoso, Karla Albino; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini

    2012-06-15

    The main objective of this article is to assess the possibility of using short-term instead of long-term rainfall time series to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in houses. The analysis was performed considering rainfall data from 1960 to 1995 for the city of Santa Bárbara do Oeste, located in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The influence of the rainfall time series, roof area, potable water demand and percentage rainwater demand on the potential for potable water savings was evaluated. The potential for potable water savings was estimated using computer simulations considering a set of long-term rainfall time series and different sets of short-term rainfall time series. The ideal rainwater tank capacity was also assessed for some cases. It was observed that the higher the percentage rainwater demand and the shorter the rainfall time series, the larger the difference between the potential for potable water savings and the greater the variation in the ideal rainwater tank size. The sets of short-term rainfall time series considered adequate for different scenarios ranged from 1 to 13 years depending on the roof area, percentage rainwater demand and potable water demand. The main finding of the research is that sets of short-term rainfall time series can be used to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater, as the results obtained are similar to those obtained from the long-term rainfall time series.

  19. Surgical management of acromegaly: Long term functional outcome analysis and assessment of recurrent/residual disease

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Deepu; Das, Nitu K.; Sharma, Siddhiraj; Jindal, Yogesh; Jain, Vijendra K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Functional growth hormone producing adenomas have long-term deleterious effects on the visual apparatus, the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, and often predispose to malignancies. Since persistence of acromegaly affects outcome and quality of life, therapeutic interventions become mandatory. Aim: This study represents an analysis of long-term clinical and endocrinal outcome of 115 patients of acromegaly after surgical management. Setting and Design: Tertiary care retrospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients (male:female ratio: 1:1.09) with acromegalic features were studied. Apart from acromegalic features, their main clinical presentation also included headache, diminution of vision, field defects, ptosis, irregular menstruation, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Six of them presented with apoplexy. Their preoperative endocrinal evaluation included basal and suppressed growth hormone (GH), prolactin and thyroid levels. On the basis of axial and coronal CT scan or multiplanar MR imaging or both, the tumors were classified according to their suprasellar and parasellar extension (Hardy's grade). Transnasal trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) (n = 37) and sublabial, rhinoseptal TSS (n = 72) were the preferred approaches. Six patients with significant parasellar extensions underwent trans-cranial explorations. The patients were followed up at 6 and 12 weeks and then at 6 monthly intervals. Hormonal and CT/MR evaluation were also done. Attainment of random GH value less than 2.5 µg/L, and the nadir GH value after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) less than 1 µg/L were used as the criteria of cure. Findings: The patients were preoperatively in Hardy's tumor grade 0 (29), A (21), A+E (3), B (21), B+E (5), C (9), C+E (10), D (1) D+E (11), E (5), respectively. One hundred and one patients were available for follow-up (FU; median FU duration: 84 months; range: 6 to 132 months). Surgical cure was achieved

  20. Assessing Multivariate Constraints to Evolution across Ten Long-Term Avian Studies

    PubMed Central

    Teplitsky, Celine; Tarka, Maja; Møller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Balbontín, Javier; Burke, Terry A.; Doutrelant, Claire; Gregoire, Arnaud; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis; Gustafsson, Lars; de Lope, Florentino; Marzal, Alfonso; Mills, James A.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Yarrall, John W.; Charmantier, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background In a rapidly changing world, it is of fundamental importance to understand processes constraining or facilitating adaptation through microevolution. As different traits of an organism covary, genetic correlations are expected to affect evolutionary trajectories. However, only limited empirical data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate the extent to which multivariate constraints affect the rate of adaptation, focusing on four morphological traits often shown to harbour large amounts of genetic variance and considered to be subject to limited evolutionary constraints. Our data set includes unique long-term data for seven bird species and a total of 10 populations. We estimate population-specific matrices of genetic correlations and multivariate selection coefficients to predict evolutionary responses to selection. Using Bayesian methods that facilitate the propagation of errors in estimates, we compare (1) the rate of adaptation based on predicted response to selection when including genetic correlations with predictions from models where these genetic correlations were set to zero and (2) the multivariate evolvability in the direction of current selection to the average evolvability in random directions of the phenotypic space. We show that genetic correlations on average decrease the predicted rate of adaptation by 28%. Multivariate evolvability in the direction of current selection was systematically lower than average evolvability in random directions of space. These significant reductions in the rate of adaptation and reduced evolvability were due to a general nonalignment of selection and genetic variance, notably orthogonality of directional selection with the size axis along which most (60%) of the genetic variance is found. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic correlations can impose significant constraints on the evolution of avian morphology in wild populations. This could have important impacts on evolutionary

  1. Long-term macrobioerosion in the Mediterranean Sea assessed by micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, Claudia; Titschack, Jürgen; Schönberg, Christine Hanna Lydia; Ehrig, Karsten; Boos, Karin; Baum, Daniel; Illerhaus, Bernhard; Asgaard, Ulla; Granville Bromley, Richard; Freiwald, André; Wisshak, Max

    2016-06-01

    Biological erosion is a key process for the recycling of carbonate and the formation of calcareous sediments in the oceans. Experimental studies showed that bioerosion is subject to distinct temporal variability, but previous long-term studies were restricted to tropical waters. Here, we present results from a 14-year bioerosion experiment that was carried out along the rocky limestone coast of the island of Rhodes, Greece, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, in order to monitor the pace at which bioerosion affects carbonate substrate and the sequence of colonisation by bioeroding organisms. Internal macrobioerosion was visualised and quantified by micro-computed tomography and computer-algorithm-based segmentation procedures. Analysis of internal macrobioerosion traces revealed a dominance of bioeroding sponges producing eight types of characteristic Entobia cavity networks, which were matched to five different clionaid sponges by spicule identification in extracted tissue. The morphology of the entobians strongly varied depending on the species of the producing sponge, its ontogenetic stage, available space, and competition by other bioeroders. An early community developed during the first 5 years of exposure with initially very low macrobioerosion rates and was followed by an intermediate stage when sponges formed large and more diverse entobians and bioerosion rates increased. After 14 years, 30 % of the block volumes were occupied by boring sponges, yielding maximum bioerosion rates of 900 g m-2 yr-1. A high spatial variability in macrobioerosion prohibited clear conclusions about the onset of macrobioerosion equilibrium conditions. This highlights the necessity of even longer experimental exposures and higher replication at various factor levels in order to better understand and quantify temporal patterns of macrobioerosion in marine carbonate environments.

  2. Assessment of long-term phosphorus retention in an integrated constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán N

    2015-01-01

    Due to the nature of the phosphorus (P) removal mechanisms associated with constructed wetlands, the sustainability of P treatment is usually of high interest. As a result, a 4-year dataset from a typical multi-celled integrated constructed wetland (ICW) located at Glaslough in Co. Monaghan, Ireland was evaluated to determine the effects of long-term P loadings and hydrological inputs on P treatment. The ICW was intensively monitored year-round from February 2008 through March 2012 for total P and molybdate reactive phosphate (MRP). Domestic wastewater was loaded at 16.4 ± 0.96 g m(2) year(-1) for total P and 11.2 ± 0.74 g m(2) year(-1) for MRP. Average mass reductions over the monitoring period were 91.4 and 90.1%, respectively. The area-based kinetic coefficients (K(20)) of 11.8 for total P and 15.6 m year(-1) for MRP indicated a high area-specific retention rate. The ICW appeared to have a sustained capacity for P adsorption and retention, but the treatment was influenced mainly by external hydrological inputs and fluctuations in wastewater loadings. Linear regression analyses showed a reduction in mass retention of both total P and MRP with increased effluent flow volumes. Monthly mass reductions exceeded 90% when the effluent flow volumes were less than 200 m(3) day(-1). When monthly effluent flow volumes exceeded 200 m(3) day(-1), nonetheless, mass reductions became highly variable. Designs and management of ICW systems should adopt measures to limit external hydrological loadings in order to maintain sufficient P treatment.

  3. Assessing the long-term impact of drug court participation on recidivism with generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H; Koetse, Willem; Lattimore, Pamela K

    2007-11-01

    Drug courts are one of the most common strategies for dealing with the large proportion of criminal offenders who are drug-involved, yet methodological limitations limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many existing evaluations of their effectiveness. The current study examined the long-term impact of drug court participation compared to regular probation on the recidivism of 475 drug-involved offenders under supervision in Hillsborough County, Florida. Using a combination of self-reported data (collected through in-person interviews at baseline, i.e., the beginning of supervision) and administrative records, the study employed a repeated measures framework (examining five 6-month time periods from baseline to 30 months post-baseline) and generalized estimating equations to compare the likelihood of being arrested between drug court participants and a matched sample of comparison offenders. The results indicate that participation in drug court was associated with a significant decrease in the likelihood of being arrested in the 12-18 months post-baseline time period. Although the drug court effect was somewhat delayed (it was not significant prior to 12 months) and short-lived (it was not significant after 18 months), the fact that significant program effects were observed during a time period that coincides with the conclusion of drug court participation for graduates and a time period well beyond initial program exposure, suggests that drug court participants are more likely than comparable offenders not exposed to drug court to remain arrest free when no longer under community supervision.

  4. Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2003-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  5. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater. PMID:27221291

  6. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater.

  7. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  8. Geochemical modelling for predicting the long-term performance of zeolite-PRB to treat lead contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiri-Nyarko, Franklin; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta; Malina, Grzegorz; Kasela, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb2 +) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV = ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb2+, considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, and K+) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca2 + for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV = 250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers.

  9. Geochemical modelling for predicting the long-term performance of zeolite-PRB to treat lead contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Nyarko, Franklin; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta; Malina, Grzegorz; Kasela, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb(2+)) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV=ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb(2+), considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca(2+) for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV=250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers.

  10. Long-Term Effects of Teacher Performance Pay: Experimental Evidence from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    While the idea of teacher performance-pay is increasingly making its way into policy, the evidence on the effectiveness of such programs is both limited and mixed. The central questions in the literature on teacher performance pay to date have been whether teacher performance pay based on test scores can improve student achievement, and whether…

  11. Methodology for predicting long-term fuel-cell performance from short-term testing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, D.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.; Ware, C.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a methodology for predicting long-term fuel cell performance from short-term testing, utilizing a perturbation testing technique. The technique applies small changes of predetermined levels in a predetermined sequence to the operating variables such that the decay mechanisms are not altered. This technique was tested on the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), because this technology is approaching a mature stage. The initial series of perturbation tests appear to be reasonably successful and a methodology is now available for further refinements. The progress made during the study is detailed.

  12. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AT A LONG-TERM FOOD PROCESSING LAND TREATMENT SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine the performance of a full scale, operating overland flow land (GEL) treatment system treating nonhazardous waste. Performance was evaluated in terms of treatment of the applied waste and the environmental impact of the system, partic...

  13. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. Methods A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. Conclusion These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation. PMID:27468341

  14. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Assessment of welfare of finishing beef cattle kept on different types of floor after short- or long-term housing.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Gottardo, F; Tessitore, E; Guzzo, L; Ricci, R; Cozzi, G

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1 ± 0.5 v. 6.5 ± 0.4 s; P<0.05) and lower risk of hairless patches (odds ratio=0.09; 95% confidence interval=0.01 to 0.68; P<0.05) were already observed after 1 month. Heavy bulls after a long-term housing on FS showed a higher prevalence of bursitis, hairless patches and lesions/swellings than animals on DL. Bulls on fully slatted floor were at higher risk of early culling (odds ratio=6.44; 95% confidence interval=1.57 to 26.37; P<0.01), mainly due to musculoskeletal system pathologies/lameness. Deep litter proved to be a valid alternative to slatted floor, making animals more confident to interact with powerful movements such as mounting at the end of the finishing period. A negative aspect of the deep litter was the poor cleanliness of the bulls. Compared with the fully slatted floor, there were higher odds ratios for dirty bulls at both, the short- (odds ratio=25.09; 95% confidence interval=8.96 to 70.22; P<0.001) and the long-term housing (odds ratio=276.13; 95% confidence interval=98.21 to 776.38; P<0.001). In order to improve health and welfare of beef cattle finished at a heavy weight, deep litter systems are a promising alternative to fully slatted floors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls.

  16. Exercise as Countermeasure for Decrements of Performance and Mood During Long-Term Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Piacentini, Maria F.; Meeusen, Romain; Brummer, Vera; Struder, Heiko K.

    2008-06-01

    In order to prepare for crewed exploratory missions to Moon and Mars, currently ESA is participating in two isolation studies, MARS 500 and on the antarctis station CONCORDIA. The aim of the present study is to identify exercise as a countermeasure to confinement addicted changes in mood. It is planned (1) to look at influences of exercise on the serotonergic system, which is known to have mood regulating effects and (2) to record changes in brain cortical activity due to exercise. Mood and performance tests will be carried out several times during the confinement. We hypothesize that impairments in mood due to the isolated and confined environment together with a lack of physical exercise lead to decreases in mental and perceptual motor performance whereas physical exercise linked with an activation of the serotonergic system will improve mood and therefore performance irrespectively of the environmental restrictions.

  17. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  18. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS: LESSONS LEARNED, FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, a synthesis of research findings by EPA has been prepared and presented in an EPA report titled Capstone Report on the Application, Monitoring, and Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Ground-Water Remediation (EPA/600/R-03/045 a,b). Another report has also be...

  19. A Contextualized View on Long-Term Predictors of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Reimann, Giselle; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Several studies show that parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's academic competence are important predictors of children's subsequent academic performance. However, there is a lack of evidence on what precedes these perceptions as well as the dynamics within a comprehensive model. The aim of this study was to investigate the…

  20. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements. PMID:23918061

  1. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach. We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results. Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance. Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements.

  2. Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Philip J. A.; Sterr, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Although a proportion of individuals report chronic cognitive difficulties after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), results from behavioral testing have been inconsistent. In fact, the variability inherent to the mTBI population may be masking subtle cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that this variability could be reduced by accounting for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in the sample. Thirty-six participants with mTBI (>1 year post-injury) and 36 non-head injured controls performed information processing speed (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task, PVSAT) and working memory (n-Back) tasks. Both groups were split by PCS diagnosis (4 groups, all n = 18), with categorization of controls based on symptom report. Participants with mTBI and persistent PCS had significantly greater error rates on both the n-Back and PVSAT, at every difficulty level except 0-Back (used as a test of performance validity). There was no difference between any of the other groups. Therefore, a cognitive deficit can be observed in mTBI participants, even 1 year after injury. Correlations between cognitive performance and symptoms were only observed for mTBI participants, with worse performance correlating with lower sleep quality, in addition to a medium effect size association (falling short of statistical significance) with higher PCS symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety. These results suggest that the reduction in cognitive performance is not due to greater symptom report itself, but is associated to some extent with the initial injury. Furthermore, the results validate the utility of our participant grouping, and demonstrate its potential to reduce the variability observed in previous studies. PMID:23408228

  3. Structural Analyses of Stirling Power Convertor Heater Head for Long-Term Reliability, Durability, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Shah, Ashwin; Arya, Vinod K.; Krause, David L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Deep-space missions require onboard electric power systems with reliable design lifetimes of up to 10 yr and beyond. A high-efficiency Stirling radioisotope power system is a likely candidate for future deep-space missions and Mars rover applications. To ensure ample durability, the structurally critical heater head of the Stirling power convertor has undergone extensive computational analyses of operating temperatures (up to 650 C), stresses, and creep resistance of the thin-walled Inconel 718 bill of material. Durability predictions are presented in terms of the probability of survival. A benchmark structural testing program has commenced to support the analyses. This report presents the current status of durability assessments.

  4. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  5. Long-term field performance of biosand filters in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Andrew J; Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; McNair, James N; Frobish, Daniel J

    2013-05-01

    A field study assessing the sustainability and efficacy of 55 biosand filters installed during 1999-2010 was conducted in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti during 2011. Twenty-nine filters were still in use. Duration of filter use ranged from < 1 to 12 years. Water quality, microbial analysis, and flow rate were evaluated for each functioning filter. Kaplan-Meier analysis of filter lifespans showed that filter use remained high (> 85%) up to seven years after installation. Several filters were still in use after 12 years, which is longer than documented in any previous study. Filtered water from 25 filters (86%) contained Escherichia coli concentrations of < 10 most probable number of coliforms/100 mL. Recontamination of stored filtered water was negligible. Bacterial removal efficiency was 1.1 log(10). Comparable results from previous studies in the same region and elsewhere show that biosand filter technology continues to be an effective and sustainable water treatment method in developing countries worldwide.

  6. Developing a pressure ulcer risk assessment scale for patients in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Lepisto, Mervi; Eriksson, Elina; Hietanen, Helvi; Lepisto, Jyri; Lauri, Sirkka

    2006-02-01

    Previous pressure ulcer risk assessment scales appear to have relied on opinions about risk factors and are based on care setting rather than research evidence. Utilizing 21 existing risk assessment scales and relevant risk factor literature, an instrument was developed by Finnish researchers that takes into account individual patient risk factors, devices and methods applied in nursing care, and organizational characteristics. The instrument underwent two pilot tests to assess the relevance and clarity of the instrument: the first involved 43 nurses and six patients; the second involved 50 nurses with expertise in wound care. Changes to questionnaire items deemed necessary as a result of descriptive analysis and agreement percentages were completed. After pilot testing, the final instrument addressed the following issues: 1) patient risks: activity, mobility in bed, mental status, nutrition, urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, sensory perception, and skin condition; 2) devices and methods used in patient care: technical devices, bed type, mattress, overlay, seat cushions, and care methods; and 3) staff number and structure, maximum number of beds, and beds in use (the last group of questions were included to ensure participants understood the items; results were not analyzed). The phases of the study provided an expeditious means of data collection and a suitable opportunity to assess how the instrument would function in practice. Instrument reliability and validity were improved as a result of the pilot testing and can be enhanced further with continued use and assessment.

  7. Long-Term Creep of a Thin-Walled Inconel 718 Stirling Power-Convertor Heater Head Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy R.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy and NASA have identified Stirling power convertors as candidate power supply systems for long-duration, deep-space science missions. A key element for qualifying the flight hardware is a long-term durability assessment for critical hot section components of the power convertor. One such critical component is the power convertor heater head. The heater head is a high-temperature pressure vessel that transfers heat to the working gas medium of the convertor, which is typically helium. An efficient heater head design is the result of balancing the divergent requirements of thin walls for increased heat transfer versus thick walls to lower the wall stresses and thus improve creep resistance and durability. In the current design, the heater head is fabricated from the Ni-base superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718, Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV). Although IN 718 is a mature alloy system (patented in 1962), there is little long-term (>50,000-hr) creep data available for thin-specimen geometries. Since thin-section properties tend to be inferior to thicker samples, it is necessary to generate creep data using specimens with the same geometry as the actual flight hardware. Therefore, one facet of the overall durability assessment program involves generating relatively short-term creep data using thin specimens at the design temperature of 649 C (1200 F).

  8. Assessing the long-term impact of public investments in comparative effectiveness research: conceptual framework and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rich, Eugene C; Esposito, Dominick; Kimmey, Laura D; Valenzano, Christal Stone; Yong, Pierre L

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 directed US$1.1 billion to the US Department of Health and Human Services for support of comparative effectiveness research (CER). As part of this investment, US Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a midstream evaluation of the ARRA CER portfolio. One goal of the evaluation was to identify issues to consider for a future evaluation of the long-term impact of this portfolio and other CER investments. In planning the ARRA CER evaluation, we developed and revised a conceptual framework and related policy research questions that may be useful to future efforts to assess the impact of CER or patient-centered outcomes research investments. In addition, we explored methodological challenges related to designing an evaluation to assess investments in CER that may be informative to any future plans to evaluate the long-term impact of ARRA CER as well subsequent investments made from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund. PMID:25494572

  9. Assessing short and long-term educational impact of visits to hospice via a combination of qualitative methods.

    PubMed

    Goh, E C L; Hsu, C-Y S

    2014-05-01

    While qualitative methods have gained considerable recognition in medical education research, employing multiple qualitative data sources in assessing long-term educational impact is rare. Utilising in-depth data analysis method to six cross-sectional cohorts (2004-2009) of students' reflection papers (n = 213), this article demonstrates how students experienced subtle but important shifts in their attitudes (including personal, professional and spiritual domains) after making field visits to a hospice centre as part of the Special Needs Dentistry module. For retrospective assessment of learning retention, a pilot focus group was conducted with three junior faculty members who participated in the field visits to a hospice during their own undergraduate training. A subsequent focus group was conducted with graduates of the 2008 (n = 8) cohort using a refined discussion guide arising from the analysis of pilot group results. Graduates were unanimous in stating that the visits had sown 'seeds' in their minds and hearts, seeds which started to grow after they completed dental school and began to practice. This is demonstrative of the long-term positive educational impact of the pedagogical design that entailed a special site visit coupled with post-visit debrief and written reflection. PMID:24521143

  10. Journeys through the valley of death: multimethod psychological assessment and personality transformation in long-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Finn, Stephen E

    2011-03-01

    The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) is based on the assumption that an in-depth understanding of clients' underlying emotional, personality, and interpersonal patterns will facilitate their treatment. In this article I show how such an understanding can be achieved through multimethod psychological assessment, and how useful such information can be in long-term psychotherapy with high-achieving, successful clients who struggle with forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Such treatments are extremely difficult, because when these clients attach to their psychotherapists, many of them temporarily become more symptomatic. I illustrate these points with a detailed account of my long-term therapy with a resilient but highly traumatized young man. Repeated use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach with my client helped guide us in our work, and also helped create an important therapeutic "opening" into the underlying traumatic material. This and other experiences have convinced me that it is extremely useful for psychologists to have training in both assessment and psychotherapy.

  11. Assessing short and long-term educational impact of visits to hospice via a combination of qualitative methods.

    PubMed

    Goh, E C L; Hsu, C-Y S

    2014-05-01

    While qualitative methods have gained considerable recognition in medical education research, employing multiple qualitative data sources in assessing long-term educational impact is rare. Utilising in-depth data analysis method to six cross-sectional cohorts (2004-2009) of students' reflection papers (n = 213), this article demonstrates how students experienced subtle but important shifts in their attitudes (including personal, professional and spiritual domains) after making field visits to a hospice centre as part of the Special Needs Dentistry module. For retrospective assessment of learning retention, a pilot focus group was conducted with three junior faculty members who participated in the field visits to a hospice during their own undergraduate training. A subsequent focus group was conducted with graduates of the 2008 (n = 8) cohort using a refined discussion guide arising from the analysis of pilot group results. Graduates were unanimous in stating that the visits had sown 'seeds' in their minds and hearts, seeds which started to grow after they completed dental school and began to practice. This is demonstrative of the long-term positive educational impact of the pedagogical design that entailed a special site visit coupled with post-visit debrief and written reflection.

  12. Assessing the long-term impact of public investments in comparative effectiveness research: conceptual framework and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rich, Eugene C; Esposito, Dominick; Kimmey, Laura D; Valenzano, Christal Stone; Yong, Pierre L

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 directed US$1.1 billion to the US Department of Health and Human Services for support of comparative effectiveness research (CER). As part of this investment, US Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a midstream evaluation of the ARRA CER portfolio. One goal of the evaluation was to identify issues to consider for a future evaluation of the long-term impact of this portfolio and other CER investments. In planning the ARRA CER evaluation, we developed and revised a conceptual framework and related policy research questions that may be useful to future efforts to assess the impact of CER or patient-centered outcomes research investments. In addition, we explored methodological challenges related to designing an evaluation to assess investments in CER that may be informative to any future plans to evaluate the long-term impact of ARRA CER as well subsequent investments made from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund.

  13. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios.

  14. Is long term creatine and glutamine supplementation effective in enhancing physical performance of military police officers?

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-09-29

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p<0,05). However, these differences were not observed when the univaried intragroups and intergroups analysis was performed (p>0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers. PMID:25713653

  15. Is long term creatine and glutamine supplementation effective in enhancing physical performance of military police officers?

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-09-29

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p<0,05). However, these differences were not observed when the univaried intragroups and intergroups analysis was performed (p>0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.

  16. Long-term effects of graduated compression stockings on cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Priego, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; Aparicio, I; Giménez, J V; Cortell-Tormo, J M; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-09-01

    The use of graduated compression stockings (GCS) in sport has been increasing in the last years due to their potential positive effects for athletes. However, there is little evidence to support whether these types of garments actually improve cardiorespiratory performance. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory responses of GCS during running after three weeks of regular use. Twenty recreational runners performed three tests on different days: test 1) - a 5-min maximal effort run in order to determine the participants' maximal aerobic speed; and tests 2) and 3) - a fatigue running test of 30 minutes at 80% of their maximal aerobic speed with either GCS or PLACEBO stockings at random. Cardiorespiratory parameters (minute ventilation, heart rate, relative oxygen consumption, relative carbon dioxide production, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and oxygen pulse) were measured. Before each test in the laboratory, the participants trained with the randomly assigned stockings (GCS or PLACEBO) for three weeks. No significant differences between GCS and PLACEBO were found in any of the cardiorespiratory parameters. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that running with GCS for three weeks does not influence cardiorespiratory parameters in recreational runners. PMID:26424925

  17. Tenth interim status report: Model 9975 O-ring fixture long-term leak performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-08-26

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 °F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 °F.

  18. Long-term fate of carbon in deeply rooted terrestrial sediment assessed by molecular proxies: sequestration vs. mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenberg, G. L.; Gocke, M. I.; Huguet, A.; Derenne, S.; Kolb, S.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable amounts of atmospheric CO2 are incorporated in plant belowground biomass and thus contribute to soil OM. However, associated with rooting, microorganisms enter the soil and, due to priming effects, might improve C mineralisation. Although these processes are well known for recent topsoils, it remains unclear if and how microorganisms contribute to long-term C dynamics in the subsoil and underlying soil parent material. This study comprises several state-of-the-art techniques like bacterial DNA and lipid molecular proxies to trace living and fossil microbial biomass in modern and ancient root systems. Throughout a 13 m thick loess-paleosol sequence in SW Germany, which has been penetrated by several generations of roots since the last glacial maximum, both bulk (Corg and Ccarb) and molecular changes in the rhizosphere were assessed at different depth intervals. Phospholipid fatty acids, DNA and intact polar glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers argue for the presence of living microorganisms in the rhizosphere not only of living but also ancient (≥3 ky) roots, which is associated with long-term C dynamics after the lifetime of the root. In the surrounding of living and ancient roots either C enrichment or C depletion was determined, depending on depth and rooting intensity. Especially in areas with high root densities (up to 20.000 root features like biopores, recent and calcified roots m-2), rhizomicrobial degradation led to decrease of C contents. In depth intervals of lower root feature densities (<<100 m-2), C accumulation was observed in the rhizosphere and rhizomicrobial degradation was limited. The penetration of subsoil and underlying sediment by roots does not necessarily lead to additional C stabilization in the long-term, despite locally abundant root features and high portions of incorporated root- and rhizomicrobial-derived OM on a molecular level. At the contrary, priming effects may lead to considerable C loss in densely rooted sediment.

  19. Assessment of bone microarchitecture in postmenopausal women on long-term bisphosphonate therapy with atypical fractures of the femur.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Maria Belen; Diehl, Maria; Buttazzoni, Mirena; Galich, Ana; Silveira, Fernando; Bogado, Cesar E; Zanchetta, Jose Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Reports of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in patients receiving long- term bisphosphonate therapy have raised concerns regarding the genesis of this rare event. Using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we conducted a study to evaluate bone microarchitecture in patients who had suffered an AFF during long-term bisphosphonate treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate if bone microarchitecture assessment could help explain the pathophysiology of these fractures. We compared bone volumetric density and microarchitectural parameters measured by HR-pQCT in the radius and tibia in 20 patients with AFFs with 35 postmenopausal women who had also received long-term bisphosphonate treatment but had not experienced AFFs, and with 54 treatment-naive postmenopausal women. Control groups were similar in age, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). Mean age of the 20 patients with AFFs was 71 years, mean lumbar spine T-score was -2.2, and mean femoral neck T-score was -2. Mean time on bisphosphonate treatment was 10.9 years (range, 5-20 years). None of the patients had other conditions associated with AFFs such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes or glucocorticoid use. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters measured by HR-pQCT between postmenopausal women with or without treatment history and with or without history of atypical fractures. We could not find any distinctive microarchitecture features in the peripheral skeleton of women who had suffered an atypical fracture of the femur while receiving bisphosphonate treatment. This suggests that risk of developing an atypical fracture is not related to bone microarchitecture deterioration. Our results indicate that there may be other individual factors predisposing to atypical fractures in patients treated with bisphosphonates, and that those are independent of bone microarchitecture. In the future, identification of those factors could

  20. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  1. Evaluating measures to assess soil health in long-term agroecosystem trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring and assessing soil health is an important component of any land management system with a vision of sustaining soil resources. Soil organic matter(SOM)characteristics are key to soil health and responsive to tillage regime and crop management. As metrics of soil health, we evaluated surfac...

  2. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  3. The Performance of Desire: Gender and Sexual Negotiation in Long-Term Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    We integrate theoretical traditions on the social construction of gender, heterosexuality, and marriage with research and theory on emotion work to guide a qualitative investigation of how married people understand and experience sex in marriage. Results, based on 62 in-depth interviews, indicate that married men and women tend to believe that sex is integral to a good marriage and that men are more sexual than women. Moreover, husbands and wives commonly experience conflict around sex and undertake emotion work to manage their own and their spouse’s feelings about sex. We refer to this emotion work as “performing desire” and show how it is linked to gendered experiences in marriage and to competing cultural discourses around gender, heterosexuality, and marriage. PMID:21833150

  4. AST-to-platelet ratio index in non-invasive assessment of long-term graft fibrosis following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rashmi S; Neves Souza, Lara; Isted, Alexander; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Cotoi, Corina; Amin, Saista; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Long-term graft fibrosis occurs in the majority of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Serial biopsies to monitor graft health are impractical and invasive. The APRI has been evaluated in pediatric liver disease, but not in the context of post-transplantation fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the validity of APRI as a predictor of long-term graft fibrosis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective, observational study of a cohort of children who underwent liver transplantation at King's College Hospital between 1989 and 2003, with a relevant dataset available. Protocol liver biopsies were performed at 10-yr follow-up and fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, with S3-6 denoting "significant fibrosis." APRI was calculated concurrently with biopsy. A total of 39 asymptomatic patients (20 males; median age at transplant, 1.43 yr) underwent protocol liver biopsies at a median of 10.39 yr post-transplantation. APRI was associated with significant fibrosis (p = 0.012). AUROC for APRI as a predictor of significant fibrosis was 0.74 (p = 0.013). The optimal cutoff APRI value for significant fibrosis was 0.45 (sensitivity = 0.67; specificity = 0.79; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.79). APRI appears to be a useful non-invasive adjunct in the assessment of significant graft fibrosis in the long-term follow-up of pediatric liver transplant survivors. PMID:26806646

  5. AST-to-platelet ratio index in non-invasive assessment of long-term graft fibrosis following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rashmi S; Neves Souza, Lara; Isted, Alexander; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Cotoi, Corina; Amin, Saista; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Long-term graft fibrosis occurs in the majority of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Serial biopsies to monitor graft health are impractical and invasive. The APRI has been evaluated in pediatric liver disease, but not in the context of post-transplantation fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the validity of APRI as a predictor of long-term graft fibrosis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective, observational study of a cohort of children who underwent liver transplantation at King's College Hospital between 1989 and 2003, with a relevant dataset available. Protocol liver biopsies were performed at 10-yr follow-up and fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, with S3-6 denoting "significant fibrosis." APRI was calculated concurrently with biopsy. A total of 39 asymptomatic patients (20 males; median age at transplant, 1.43 yr) underwent protocol liver biopsies at a median of 10.39 yr post-transplantation. APRI was associated with significant fibrosis (p = 0.012). AUROC for APRI as a predictor of significant fibrosis was 0.74 (p = 0.013). The optimal cutoff APRI value for significant fibrosis was 0.45 (sensitivity = 0.67; specificity = 0.79; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.79). APRI appears to be a useful non-invasive adjunct in the assessment of significant graft fibrosis in the long-term follow-up of pediatric liver transplant survivors.

  6. Progress report: long-term benthic monitoring and assessment program for the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay (July 1986-October 1987). Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, A.F.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Scott, L.C.; Dickens, V.A.; Ranasinghe, J.A.

    1988-05-01

    The long-term benthic monitoring and assessment study for the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay is an integral component of the interdisciplinary Chesapeake Bay monitoring and assessment program. The major long-term objectives of the program are to: (1) determine the effectiveness of Baywide pollution abatement programs; (2) measure the cumulative, long-term impacts of power plant operations on Bay benthic resources; and (3) assess the status and trends for Bay water quality and biological resources. Sampling of benthic communities, sediments, and water quality was conducted from July 1, 1984 through December 1987 at 70 stations in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

  7. FIFTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-11-01

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{sup reg.} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for six years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Sixty-seven mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested at nominal six month intervals to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 36 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200--350 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in 5 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 and 350 F, and in all 3 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at higher temperatures. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 30--48 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KAMS. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200--300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 or 300 F for 19 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51--95%. This is significantly greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAMS field surveillance (23% average). For GLT O-rings, service life based on the room temperature leak rate criterion is comparable to that predicted by compression stress relaxation (CSR) data at higher temperatures (350--400 F). While there are no comparable failure data yet at aging temperatures below 300 F, extrapolations of the data for GLT O-rings suggests that CSR model predictions provide a conservative prediction of

  8. FIFTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.

    2011-04-11

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for six years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Sixty-seven mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested at nominal six month intervals to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 36 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-350 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in 6 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 and 350 F, and in all 3 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at higher temperatures. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 30-48 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KAMS. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 or 300 F for 19 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-95%. This is significantly greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAMS field surveillance (23% average). For GLT O-rings, service life based on the room temperature leak rate criterion is comparable to that predicted by compression stress relaxation (CSR) data at higher temperatures (350-400 F). While there are no comparable failure data yet at aging temperatures below 300 F, extrapolations of the data for GLT O-rings suggests the CSR model predictions provide a conservative prediction of service

  9. Long-Term Anti-Corrosion Performance of a Conducting Polymer-Based Coating System for Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tongyan; Yu, Qifeng

    2016-06-01

    The long-term durability of a two-layer coating system was evaluated by two accelerated corrosion tests, i.e., the ASTM B117 Salt spray test and the ASTM D5894 Cyclic salt fog/UV exposure test, and a series of surface analyses. The coating system was developed for protecting structural steels from corrosion, including a functional primer made of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) and a protective topcoat. The standard pull-off test per ASTM D4541 was employed for characterizing the adhesion of the coating systems to substrate, aided by visual examination of the surface deterioration of the samples. The ICP-based systems demonstrated superior long-term anti-corrosion capacity when a polyurethane topcoat is used. The ICP-based primer made of a waterborne epoxy gave poorer anti-corrosion performance than the ICP-based primer made of regular non-waterborne epoxy, which can be attributed to the lower adhesion the waterborne epoxy demonstrated to the substrate surface. The zinc-rich control systems showed good anti-corrosion durability; however, they may produce excessive oxidative products of zinc to cause coating delamination. Based on the test results, the two-layer coating system consisting of an ICP-based primer and a polyurethane topcoat outperforms the conventional zinc-rich coating systems for corrosion protection of steels.

  10. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users.

  11. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users. PMID:27105031

  12. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org.

  13. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  14. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org. PMID:24238917

  15. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John G.; Brandt, Craig C.; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    2011-06-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  16. Can administrative data identify active diagnoses for long-term care resident assessment?

    PubMed

    Berlowitz, Dan R; Hickey, Elaine C; Saliba, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Many veterans receive rehabilitation services in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes. Efficient methods for the identification of active diagnoses could facilitate care planning and outcomes assessment. We set out to determine whether diagnostic data from VA databases can be used to identify active diagnoses for Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments. We evaluated diagnoses being considered for inclusion in MDS version 3.0 and present in at least 15% of a sample of VA nursing home residents. A research nurse following a standardized protocol identified active diagnoses from the medical records of 120 residents. A clinical nurse also identified active diagnoses in 58 of these patients. Inpatient and outpatient diagnoses from the VA National Patient Care Database were identified for the past year. We calculated kappa, sensitivity, and specificity values, considering the nurses' assessments the gold standard. We found that kappa values comparing research nurses and databases were generally poor, with only 8 of the 19 diagnoses having a value >0.60. Levels of agreement between the clinical nurse and administrative data were generally similar. We conclude that VA administrative data cannot be used to accurately identify active diagnoses for nursing home residents. How best to efficiently collect these important data remains uncertain.

  17. SEVENTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-08-30

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 54-72 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 30 - 36 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51 – 96%. This is greater than seen to date for any packages inspected during KAC field

  18. SIXTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-08-31

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for seven years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 33 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 F and higher temperatures, and in 7 fixtures aging at 300 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 41-60 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 F will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging within the past year at an intermediate temperature of 270 F, with hopes that they may leak before the 200 F fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200-300 F for up to 26 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-96%. This is greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAC field surveillance (24% average). For GLT O-rings, separate service life estimates have been made based on the O-ring fixture leak test data and based on compression stress relaxation

  19. NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-08-06

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The earliest 300 °F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 ºF fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the

  20. EIGHTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2013-09-03

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 61 - 85 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KArea Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leaktight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 41 - 45 months. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures.

  1. Safety and Long-Term Performance of Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    manufacturers. The results are varied and in some cases, unexpected. This paper presents a summary of the tests carried out on a few li-ion pouch cell designs from various cell manufacturers. The data will include performance under different conditions specifically cycling under vacuum conditions with and without restraints as well as safety test data. The presentation will also include detailed analysis of the pouch material for the cells studied.

  2. Sub-Regional Assessment of Bone Loss in the Axial Skeleton in Long-Term Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Thomas F.; Baumann, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    No informed consents or scans were performed in this period. There are no current problems with the spaceflight component of the project, which is working very smoothly. The data are of excellent quality, the subjects are enrolling and are being scheduled without difficulty. We expect to have one baseline visit in the next monthly reporting period.

  3. Sub-regional Assessment of Bone Loss in the Axial Skeleton in Long-Term Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Thomas F.; Baumann, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    No scanning was performed this month. At this point, 14 subjects are enrolled in the program 11 have received baseline measurements. Five subjects have completed the pre-flight and return CT scans. The accomplishments of the study up to this point are described in the Operational Accomplishments Report submitted to Dr. Lakshmi Putcha for the Increment 3 flight.

  4. Hydrogeochemical and biological processes affecting the long-term performance of an iron-based permeable reactive barrier.

    PubMed

    Zolla, Valerio; Freyria, Francesca Stefania; Sethi, Rajandrea; Di Molfetta, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide diffusion of zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), there is still a great uncertainty about their longevity and long-term performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological and the hydrogeochemical processes that take place at a Fe(0) installation located in Avigliana, Italy, and to derive some general considerations about long-term performance of PRBs.The examined PRB was installed in November 2004 to remediate a chlorinated solvents plume (mainly trichloroethene and 1,2-dichloroethene). The investigation was performed during the third year of operation and included: (1) groundwater sampling and analysis for chlorinated solvents, dissolved CH(4), dissolved H(2) and major inorganic constituents; (2) Fe(0) core sampling and analysis by SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy for the organic fraction; (3) in situ permeability tests and flow field monitoring by water level measurements.The study revealed that iron passivation is negligible, as the PRB is still able to effectively treat the contaminants and to reduce their concentrations below target values. Precipitation of several inorganic compounds inside the PRB was evidenced by SEM-EDS and XRD analysis conducted on iron samples. Groundwater sampling evidenced heavy sulfate depletion and the highest reported CH(4) concentration (>5,000 microg/L) at zero-valent iron PRB sites. These are due to the intense microbial activity of sulfate-reducers and methanogens, whose proliferation was most likely stimulated by the use of a biopolymer (i.e. guar gum) as shoring fluid during the excavation of the barrier. Slug tests within the barrier evidenced an apparent hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude lower than the predicted value. This occurrence can be ascribed to biofouling and/or accumulation of CH(4)(g) inside the iron filings.This experience suggests that when biopolymer shoring is planned to be used, long-term column tests should be performed beforehand

  5. Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

  6. Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project: Case Study on Carey Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

  7. Non-destructive testing on aramid fibres for the long-term assessment of interventions on heritage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceravolo, R.; De Marchi, A.; Pinotti, E.; Surace, C.; Zanotti Fragonara, L.

    2015-07-01

    High strength fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) are composite materials made of fibres such as carbon, aramid and/or glass, and a resin matrix. FRPs are commonly used for structural repair and strengthening interventions and exhibit high potential for applications to existing constructions, including heritage buildings. In regard to aramid fibres, uncertainties about the long-term behaviour of these materials have often made the designers reluctant to use them in structural engineering. The present study describes simple and non-destructive nonlinearity tests for assessing damage or degradation of structural properties in Kevlar fibres. This was obtained by using high precision measurements to detect small deviations in the dynamic response measured on fibres and ropes. The change in dynamic properties was then related to a damage produced by exposure of the sample to UV rays for a defined time period, which simulated long-term sun exposure. In order to investigate the sensitivity of such an approach to damage detection, non-linearity characterisation tests were conducted on aramid fibres in both damaged and undamaged states. With the purpose of carrying out dynamic tests on small fibre specimens, a dedicated instrumentation was designed and built in cooperation with the Metrology Laboratory of the Department of Electronics at the Politecnico di Torino.

  8. Long-term toxicity assessment of soils in a recovered area affected by a mining spill.

    PubMed

    Romero-Freire, A; García Fernández, I; Simón Torres, M; Martínez Garzón, F J; Martín Peinado, F J

    2016-01-01

    Residual pollution in the Guadiamar Green Corridor still remains after Aználcollar mine spill in 1998. The polluted areas are identified by the absence of vegetation, soil acidic pH and high concentrations of As, Pb, Zn and Cu. Soil toxicity was assessed by lettuce root elongation and induced soil respiration bioassays. In bare soils, total As and Pb concentrations and water-extractable levels for As, Zn and Cu exceeded the toxicity guidelines. Pollutants responsible for toxicity were different depending on the tested organism, with arsenic being most toxic for lettuce and the metal mixture to soil respiration. Soil properties, such as pH or organic carbon content, are key factors to control metal availability and toxicity in the area. According to our results, there is a risk of pollution to living organisms and the soil quality criteria established in the area should be revised to reduce the risk of toxicity.

  9. Continuous assessment of back and upper arm postures by long-term inclinometry in carpet weavers.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Davood; Motamedzade, Majid; Salehi, Reza; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2014-03-01

    Awkward back and shoulder postures have been suggested to be a cause of back and shoulder discomfort in carpet weavers. This study aimed at continuous assessment of the upper arm and back postures and estimation of biomechanical load subtasks using inclinometers during 4 h. Median of trunk flexion angle in weavers was 18° and 13° during knotting and compacting subtasks, respectively. The weavers worked with arms elevated greater than 45° for %4.5 of the work time. The average cumulative compression load for males and females were estimated at 22 MN-S and 13 MN-S, respectively. In addition to poor workstation design, constrained posture of the trunk and low elevation and velocity for both arms may be the main risk factors for developing fatigue and disorders in the back and shoulder regions among carpet weavers. Therefore, any ergonomic interventions should be focused on reducing trunk flexion and the constrained postures of weavers.

  10. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  11. A Flex-Model for long-term assessment of community-residing older adults following disasters.

    PubMed

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; McDonough, JoEllen; McCall, Amber; Smith, Deborah; Looney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    For the rapidly growing older adult population, disaster consequences are frequently life disruptive and even life threatening. By 2050, it is estimated that the global older adult population will reach 22 percent of the total. With declining health, this population poses a particular risk needing to be addressed in emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. The purpose of this article is to describe a Flex-Model (F-M) for the long-term assessment of older adults following a disaster. An F-M is a series of three-dimensional representations of an archetype with flexible components, both linear and parallel, that can be adapted to situations, time, place, and needs. The model incorporates the Life Patterns Model and provides a template that can be adjusted to meet the needs of a local community, healthcare providers, and emergency management officials, regardless of the country or region, during the months after a disaster. The focus is on changes resulting from the disaster including roles, relationships, support systems, use of time, self-esteem, and life structure. Following a baseline assessment, each of these life patterns is assessed through the model with options for interventions over time. A pilot study was conducted in Georgia to gain information that would be helpful in developing a more specific assessment tool following a severe winter storm. While this is a local study, the findings can nevertheless be used to refine and focus the F-M for future implementation. Results indicated that older adults used high-risk heating and lighting sources and many were totally responsible for their own welfare. Findings have implications for emergency preparedness and long-term recovery. PMID:26537697

  12. Increasing the Frequency and Timeliness of Pain Assessment and Management in Long-Term Care: Knowledge Transfer and Sustained Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jaime; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Hunter, Paulette V.; Savoie, Maryse L.; Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although feasible protocols for pain assessment and management in long-term care (LTC) have been developed, these have not been implemented on a large-scale basis. Objective. To implement a program of regular pain assessment in two LTC facilities, using implementation science principles, and to evaluate the process and success of doing so. Methods. The implementation protocol included a pain assessment workshop and the establishment of a nurse Pain Champion. Quality indicators were tracked before and after implementation. Focus groups and interviews with staff were also conducted. Results. The implementation effort was successful in increasing and regularizing pain assessments. This was sustained during the follow-up period. Staff members reported enthusiasm about the protocol at baseline and positive results following its implementation. Despite the success in increasing assessments, we did not identify changes in the percentages of patients reported as having moderate-to-severe pain. Discussion. It is our hope that our feasibility demonstration will encourage more facilities to improve their pain assessment/management practices. Conclusions. It is feasible to implement regular and systematic pain assessment in LTC. Future research should focus on ensuring effective clinical practices in response to assessment results, and determination of longer-term sustainability. PMID:27445619

  13. Increasing the Frequency and Timeliness of Pain Assessment and Management in Long-Term Care: Knowledge Transfer and Sustained Implementation.

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Williams, Jaime; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Hunter, Paulette V; Savoie, Maryse L; Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although feasible protocols for pain assessment and management in long-term care (LTC) have been developed, these have not been implemented on a large-scale basis. Objective. To implement a program of regular pain assessment in two LTC facilities, using implementation science principles, and to evaluate the process and success of doing so. Methods. The implementation protocol included a pain assessment workshop and the establishment of a nurse Pain Champion. Quality indicators were tracked before and after implementation. Focus groups and interviews with staff were also conducted. Results. The implementation effort was successful in increasing and regularizing pain assessments. This was sustained during the follow-up period. Staff members reported enthusiasm about the protocol at baseline and positive results following its implementation. Despite the success in increasing assessments, we did not identify changes in the percentages of patients reported as having moderate-to-severe pain. Discussion. It is our hope that our feasibility demonstration will encourage more facilities to improve their pain assessment/management practices. Conclusions. It is feasible to implement regular and systematic pain assessment in LTC. Future research should focus on ensuring effective clinical practices in response to assessment results, and determination of longer-term sustainability. PMID:27445619

  14. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  15. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-08-07

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6-17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36-48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child's cognitive development requires further investigation.

  16. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6-17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36-48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child's cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  17. Long-Term Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderweil, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Examines an approach to school maintenance budgeting that can improve the ability of schools to obtain maintenance and repair funds. The approach is based on the use of the Facilities Condition Index as a budgeting tool, where maintenance is viewed as keeping the physical value of facilities as close to 100% of replacement cost as possible. (GR)

  18. Long term effects of cocaine on the heart assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3T

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cocaine is an addictive, sympathomimetic drug with potentially lethal effects. The prevalence and features of cocaine cardiotoxicity are not well known. We aimed to assess these effects using a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol in a large group of asymptomatic cocaine users. Methods Consecutive (n = 94, 81 males, 36.6 ±7 years), non-selected, cocaine abusers were recruited and had a medical history, examination, ECG, blood test and CMR. The CMR study included measurement of left and right ventricular (LV, RV) dimensions and ejection fraction (EF), sequences for detection of myocardial oedema and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Images were compared to a cohort of healthy controls. Results Years of regular cocaine use were 13.9 ± 9. When compared to the age-matched healthy cohort, the cocaine abusers had increased LV end-systolic volume, LV mass index and RV end-systolic volume, with decreased LVEF and RVEF. No subject had myocardial oedema, but 30% had myocardial LGE indicating myocardial damage. Conclusions CMR detected cardiovascular disease in 71% of this cohort of consecutive asymptomatic cocaine abusers and mean duration of abuse was related to probability of LV systolic dysfunction. PMID:24758161

  19. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    PubMed

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-01

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. PMID:26612859

  20. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    PubMed

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life.

  1. Effect of Creep of Ferritic Interconnect on Long-Term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-08-01

    High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  2. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems (“Arbequina,” Arbequina IRTA-i·18, “Arbosana,” “Fs-17,” and “Koroneiki”) and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha−1 for the cultivar “Arbequina.” Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha−1. Only “Fs-17” did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha−1) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for “Arbequina,” both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha−1 for the lowest density (780 trees ha−1) to 29.9 t ha−1 for the highest (2254 trees ha−1). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  3. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards.

    PubMed

    Díez, Concepción M; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems ("Arbequina," Arbequina IRTA-i·18, "Arbosana," "Fs-17," and "Koroneiki") and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha(-1) for the cultivar "Arbequina." Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha(-1). Only "Fs-17" did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha(-1)) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for "Arbequina," both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha(-1) for the lowest density (780 trees ha(-1)) to 29.9 t ha(-1) for the highest (2254 trees ha(-1)). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation. PMID:27602035

  4. Using the fluorescence red edge effect to assess the long-term stability of lyophilized protein formulations.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ken K; Grobelny, Pawel J; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2015-04-01

    Nanosecond relaxation processes in sugar matrices are causally linked through diffusional processes to protein stability in lyophilized formulations. Long-term protein degradation rates track mean-squared displacement (⟨u(2)⟩) of hydrogen atoms in sugar glasses, a parameter describing dynamics on a time scale of picoseconds to nanoseconds. However, measurements of ⟨u(2)⟩ are usually performed by neutron scattering, which is not conducive to rapid formulation screening in early development. Here, we present a benchtop technique to derive a ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate based on the fluorescence red edge effect. Glycerol, lyophilized trehalose, and lyophilized sucrose were used as model systems. Samples containing 10(-6) mole fraction of rhodamine 6G, a fluorophore, were excited at either 532 nm (main peak) or 566 nm (red edge), and the ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate was determined based the corresponding Stokes shifts. Results showed reasonable agreement between ⟨u(2)⟩ from neutron scattering and the surrogate from fluorescence, although deviations were observed at very low temperatures. We discuss the sources of the deviations and suggest technique improvements to ameliorate these. We expect that this method will be a valuable tool to evaluate lyophilized sugar matrices with respect to their ability to protect proteins from diffusion-limited degradation processes during long-term storage. Additionally, the method may have broader applications in amorphous pharmaceutical solids. PMID:25786057

  5. Assessment of Safety and Long-Term Outcomes of Initial Treatment With Placebo in TADS

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The authors examined whether initial assignment to receive placebo for 12 weeks followed by open active treatment as clinically indicated was associated with different levels of benefit and risk of harm across 36 weeks as compared with initial assignment to receive active treatments. Method Adolescents with major depressive disorder (N=439) were randomly assigned to receive an initial 12 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment with fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with placebo; those assigned to placebo received open active treatment as clinically indicated after 12 weeks of placebo. Assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for 36 weeks. The primary outcome measures were response and remission based on scores on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised and the Clinical Global Impression improvement subscale. Results At week 36, the response rate was 82% in the placebo/open group and 83% in the active treatment groups. The remission rate was 48% in the placebo/open group and 59% in the active treatment groups, a difference that approached statistical significance. Patients who responded to placebo generally retained their response. Those who did not respond to placebo subsequently responded to active treatment at the same rate as those initially assigned to active treatments. There were no differences between groups in rates of suicidal events, study retention, or symptom worsening. Conclusions Remission rates at 9 months were lower in patients treated initially with placebo, but 3 months of placebo treatment was not associated with any harm or diminished response to subsequent treatment. PMID:19147693

  6. Assessing role activities of individuals receiving long-term hemodialysis: psychometric testing of the revised Inventory of Functional Status-Dialysis (IFS-Dialysis).

    PubMed

    Thomas-Hawkins, Charlotte

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the revised IFS-Dialysis, a theory-based self-report measure of the extent to which individuals receiving long-term hemodialysis are actually performing role activities. The IFS-Dialysis was administered to 186 individuals receiving hemodialysis. Chronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliability, and structural equation modeling was used to assess the construct validity of the revised measure. Alpha reliability for the total instrument was 0.88, and subscale alpha coefficients ranged from 0.75 to 0.85. Construct validity of the IFS-Dialysis was supported by the significant relationship of each item to its respective subscale latent variable, and model testing indicated a good fit of the measurement model to the data. The IFS-Dialysis can be used to obtain clinical assessments of the extent to which individuals receiving long-term hemodialysis treatments are engaging in role activities. Interventions can then be implemented to facilitate an optimal level of activity performance for each individual.

  7. Sevoflurane Anesthesia Improves Cognitive Performance in Mice, but Does Not Influence In Vitro Long-Term Potentation in Hippocampus CA1 Stratum Radiatum

    PubMed Central

    Haseneder, Rainer; Starker, Laura; Berkmann, Jasmin; Kellermann, Kristine; Jungwirth, Bettina; Blobner, Manfred; Eder, Matthias; Kochs, Eberhard; Rammes, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a result of the effects of surgery or anesthesia is under debate. In this study, we investigated the impact of sevoflurane anesthesia on cognitive performance and cellular mechanisms involved in learning and memory. Methods Male C57Bl6/J mice (4–5 months) were exposed to one minimum alveolar concentration sevoflurane for two hours. After 24 h, cognitive performance of mice was assessed using the modified hole board test. Additionally, we evaluated hippocampal long-term potentiation and expression levels of different receptor subunits by recording excitatory postsynaptic field potentials and using the western blot technique, respectively. Non-anesthetized mice served as controls. Results In anesthetized mice, neither cognitive performance nor long-term potentiation was impaired 24 h after anesthesia. Interestingly, sevoflurane anesthesia induced even an improvement of cognitive performance and an elevation of the expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor type 1 and 2B subunits in the hippocampus. Conclusions Since NMDA receptor type 1 and 2B subunits play a crucial role in processes related to learning and memory, we hypothesize that sevoflurane-induced changes in NMDA receptor subunit composition might cause hippocampus-dependent cognitive improvement. The data of the present study are in favor of a minor role of anesthesia in mediating postoperative cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23724087

  8. Development and Testing of a Simple Calibration Technique for Long-Term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnan, S.; Harbor, J.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrological studies are significant part of every engineering, developmental project and geological studies done to assess and understand the interactions between the hydrology and the environment. Such studies are generally conducted before the beginning of the project as well as after the project is completed, such that a comprehensive analysis can be done on the impact of such projects on the local and regional hydrology of the area. A good understanding of the chain of relationships that form the hydro-eco-biological and environmental cycle can be of immense help in maintaining the natural balance as we work towards exploration and exploitation of the natural resources as well as urbanization of undeveloped land. Rainfall-Runoff modeling techniques have been of great use here for decades since they provide fast and efficient means of analyzing vast amount of data that is gathered. Though process based, detailed models are better than the simple models, the later ones are used more often due to their simplicity, ease of use, and easy availability of data needed to run them. The Curve Number (CN) method developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is one of the most widely used hydrologic modeling tools in the US, and has earned worldwide acceptance as a practical method for evaluating the effects of land use changes on the hydrology of an area. The Long-Term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model is a basic, CN-based, user-oriented model that has gained popularity amongst watershed planners because of its reliance on readily available data, and because the model is easy to use (http://www.ecn.purdue.edu/runoff) and produces results geared to the general information needs of planners. The L-THIA model was initially developed to study the relative long-term hydrologic impacts of different land use (past/current/future) scenarios, and it has been successful in meeting this goal. However, one of the weaknesses of L-THIA, as well as other

  9. Long-Term Adoption of Caries Management by Risk Assessment Among Dental Students in a University Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. Methods We extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic, from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and by the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries-risk category. Additionally, we identified patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy. Results The percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-2008 to 92.8% in 2013-2014. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year doctoral program or in the final year of training. Conclusions Extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. In dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment. PMID:25941147

  10. Spatio-temporal occurrence of eruptions in El Hierro (Canary Islands). Sequential steps for long-term volcanic hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; María Morales, José; Galindo, Inés; Geyer, Adelina

    2014-05-01

    Long term volcanic hazard assessment requires the attainment of several sequential steps, including the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios to get qualitative and representative results. Volcanic hazard assessment has not been yet systematically conducted in the Canary Islands, in spite of being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest and latest island affected by an eruption in the Canary Islands. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where), and the temporal probability (when) on the island. Looking at the past eruptive behavior of the island, and assuming future eruptive patterns will be similar, we try to identify the most likely set of volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards that could occur in the future (eg. lava flows, pyroclastic fallout, and pyroclastic density currents) and estimate their probability of occurrence. The final result shows the first volcanic hazard map of the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of long term volcanic hazard at El Hierro Island with regard to previous studies. The obtained results should represent the main pillars on which to build risk mitigation programs as it is required for territorial planning and to develop emergency plans. This research was partially funded by IGME, CSIC and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO"), and MINECO grant GL2011-16144-E.

  11. Long-term adoption of caries management by risk assessment among dental students in a university clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. The authors extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries risk category. Additionally, patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy were identified. Results showed that the percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-08 to 92.8% in 2013-14. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year DDS program or in the final year of training. These results demonstrate that extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines at this dental school clinic. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. The eventual success of this program suggests that, in dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment.

  12. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  13. Detraining: loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part II: Long term insufficient training stimulus.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Padilla, S

    2000-09-01

    This part II discusses detraining following an insufficient training stimulus period longer than 4 weeks, as well as several strategies that may be useful to avoid its negative impact. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of athletes declines markedly but remains above control values during long term detraining, whereas recently acquired VO2max gains are completely lost. This is partly due to reduced blood volume, cardiac dimensions and ventilatory efficiency, resulting in lower stroke volume and cardiac output, despite increased heart rates. Endurance performance is accordingly impaired. Resting muscle glycogen levels return to baseline, carbohydrate utilisation increases and the lactate threshold is lowered, although it remains above untrained values in the highly trained. At the muscle level, capillarisation, arterial-venous oxygen difference and oxidative enzyme activities decline in athletes and are completely reversed in recently trained individuals, contributing significantly to the long term loss in VO2max. Oxidative fibre proportion is decreased in endurance athletes, whereas it increases in strength athletes, whose fibre areas are significantly reduced. Force production declines slowly, and usually remains above control values for very long periods. All these negative effects can be avoided or limited by reduced training strategies, as long as training intensity is maintained and frequency reduced only moderately. On the other hand, training volume can be markedly reduced. Cross-training may also be effective in maintaining training-induced adaptations. Athletes should use similar-mode exercise, but moderately trained individuals could also benefit from dissimilar-mode cross-training. Finally, the existence of a cross-transfer effect between ipsilateral and contralateral limbs should be considered in order to limit detraining during periods of unilateral immobilisation.

  14. Model coupling methodology for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical numerical simulations in integrated assessment of long-term site behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The integrated assessment of long-term site behaviour taking into account a high spatial resolution at reservoir scale requires a sophisticated methodology to represent coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes of relevance. Our coupling methodology considers the time-dependent occurrence and significance of multi-phase flow processes, mechanical effects and geochemical reactions (Kempka et al., 2014). Hereby, a simplified hydro-chemical coupling procedure was developed (Klein et al., 2013) and validated against fully coupled hydro-chemical simulations (De Lucia et al., 2015). The numerical simulation results elaborated for the pilot site Ketzin demonstrate that mechanical reservoir, caprock and fault integrity are maintained during the time of operation and that after 10,000 years CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism and mineralization occurs on the order of 10 % to 25 % with negligible changes to porosity and permeability. De Lucia, M., Kempka, T., Kühn, M. A coupling alternative to reactive transport simulations for long-term prediction of chemical reactions in heterogeneous CO2 storage systems (2014) Geosci Model Dev Discuss 7:6217-6261. doi:10.5194/gmdd-7-6217-2014. Kempka, T., De Lucia, M., Kühn, M. Geomechanical integrity verification and mineral trapping quantification for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site by coupled numerical simulations (2014) Energy Procedia 63:3330-3338, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.361. Klein E, De Lucia M, Kempka T, Kühn M. Evaluation of longterm mineral trapping at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage: an integrative approach using geo-chemical modelling and reservoir simulation. Int J Greenh Gas Con 2013; 19:720-730. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.05.014.

  15. Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Mohammad N.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this paper are to document and evaluate regional long-term trends and occurrences of nitrate in the ground water of agricultural watersheds. In Whatcom County, Washington, elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water are of great concern. Whatcom County is recognized by heavy agricultural activities, especially an intensive dairy farm industry. Historical nitrate concentration data from 1990 to 2000 were compiled from different agencies and assembled into a single composite database. A geographic information system was used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen data. The analysis was conducted for the whole area as well as for individual watersheds and for different land use classes. In addition, nitrate concentration variability with descriptive parameters such as sampling depth, ground water recharge, dissolved oxygen, and on-ground nitrogen loadings was also investigated. The analysis showed that the areas with nitrate concentrations above the maximum contaminant level are areas characterized by heavy agricultural activities. The shallow surficial aquifers of the study area were found to contain high mean nitrate concentrations when compared to non-surficial aquifers. The analysis showed that high nitrate presence corresponds to areas with both high ground water recharge and high on-ground nitrogen loadings. In addition, the nitrate concentration decreased with increasing sampling depth. In general, the trend of long-term nitrate concentration remained elevated in shallow aquifers due to the persistent on-ground nitrogen loadings produced by agriculture-related land use practices. Finally, the watersheds were prioritized for management intervention, alternatives, and data monitoring based on a number of decision variables.

  16. The freshwater planarian Polycelis felina as a sensitive species to assess the long-term toxicity of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2011-07-01

    Behavioural endpoints are a good link between physiological and ecological effects. However long-term behavioural endpoints are not uniformly studied over all different organism groups. For example behaviour has been scarcely studied in planarians. Unionized ammonia (NH(3)) is one of the most widespread pollutants in developed countries, and is known to alter animal behaviour. In this study a long-term (30 d) bioassay was conducted to assess the effect of this pollutant on survival and behavioural activity (e.g. locomotion activity) of the freshwater planarian Polycelis felina. One control and three environmentally-realistic concentrations of unionized ammonia (treatments of 0.02, 0.05, and 0.09 mg N-NH(3) L(-1)) were used in quintuplicate. The behaviour of planarians was measured after 0, 10, 20 and 30 d of ammonia exposure. Mortality was recorded every 2 d. Unionized ammonia increased mortality in the two highest NH(3) concentrations and the locomotory activity was depressed in all treatments after 20 d of exposure. Behavioural effect was observed at concentrations 20 times lower than the short-term LC50 for this species. Previous studies proposed safe concentrations of unionized ammonia of 0.01-0.10 mg N-NH(3) L(-1) to aquatic ecosystems, but our study has shown that these concentrations will affect planarians. Because planarians play a key role in streams (as predator/scavenger), safe concentrations should be below 0.02 mg N-NH(3) L(-1) to protect this species in the freshwater community. Our results can contribute to improve the knowledge about ammonia toxicity to freshwater ecosystems, we recommend that safe concentrations of unionized ammonia should be based on very sensitive species.

  17. Assessing the impact of long term frozen storage of faecal samples on protein concentration and protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Laura S.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The proteome is the second axis of the microbiome:host interactome and proteases are a significant aspect in this interaction. They interact with a large variety of host proteins and structures and in many situations are implicated in pathogenesis. Furthermore faecal samples are commonly collected and stored frozen so they can be analysed at a later date. So we were interested to know whether long term storage affected the integrity of proteases and total protein and whether historical native faecal samples were still a viable option for answering research questions around the functional proteome. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 3 healthy volunteers (3 biological replicates) and processed in order to be stored at both − 20 °C and − 80 °C and in a variety of storage buffers. Protein extraction, protein content and protease activity were assessed at the time of collection, after 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months 6 months and finally 1 year. Results Beadbeating impacted the quantity of protein extracted, while sodium azide did not impact protease assays. Long term storage of extracted proteins showed that both total protein and protease activity were affected when they were stored as extracted protein. Intact faecal samples were shown to maintain both protein levels and protease activity regardless of time and temperature. Conclusions Beadbeating increases the protein and protease activity when extracting from a faecal sample, however, the extracted protein is not stable and activity is lost, even with a suitable storage buffer. The most robust solution is to store the proteins in an intact frozen native faecal matrix and extract at the time of assay or analysis, this approach was shown to be suitable for samples in which, there are low levels of protease activity and which had been frozen for a year. PMID:26853125

  18. Assessing the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact of Land Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, B.; Engel, B.; Harbor, J.; Jones, D.; Lim, K.J.

    1999-09-22

    simple comparison of impacts. To increase access to L-THIA, we have begun development of a WWW-accessible version of the method. Using databases housed on our computers, the user can select any location in the US and perform L-THIAINPS analyses. In this paper we present applications of the WWW-based L-THIA/NPS and L-THIA/NPS GIS model on the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana. Three historical land use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land use change in the watershed and to assess the impacts of land use change on annual average runoff and NPS pollution from the watershed and its five sub-basins. Comparison of the two methods highlights the effectiveness of the L-THIA approach in assessing the long-term hydrologic impact of urban sprawl. The L-THIA/NPS GIS model is a powerful tool for identifying environmentally sensitive areas in terms of NPS pollution potential and for evaluating alternative land use scenarios to enhance NPS pollution management. Access to the model via the WWW enhances the usability and effectiveness of the technique significantly. Recommendations can be made to community decision makers, based on this analysis, concerning how development can be controlled within the watershed to minimize the long-term impacts of increased stormwater runoff and NPS pollution for better management of water resources.

  19. Long Term Care: Report to the Secretary. Service Delivery Assessment, Office of the Inspector General, December 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Seattle, WA. Region 10.

    The demand for long term care is growing as the population in need of services becomes older and frailer, and as the nature of the family, the economy, and the health care system changes. To investigate the long term care system, its characteristics, trends, financing, policies, availability, and quality of care, 700 health care professionals,…

  20. Communication Training Improves Sense of Performance Expectancy of Public Health Nurses Engaged in Long-Term Elderly Prevention Care Program

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Motoko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Izumi, Sin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a communication skill training based on a coaching theory for public health nurses (PHNs) who are engaged in Japan's long-term care prevention program. The participants in this study included 112 PHNs and 266 service users who met with these PHNs in order to create a customized care plan within one month after the PHNs' training. The participants were divided into three groups: a supervised group in which the PHNs attended the 1-day training seminar and the follow-up supervision; a seminar group attended only the 1-day training seminar; a control group. The PHNs' sense of performance expectancy, and user's satisfaction, user's spontaneous behavior were evaluated at the baseline (T1), at one month (T2), and at three months (T3) after the PHNs' training. At T3, the PHNs performed a recalled evaluation (RE) of their communication skills before the training. The PHNs' sense of performance expectancy increased significantly over time in the supervised group and the control group (F = 11.28, P < 0.001; F = 4.03, P < 0.05, resp.). The difference score between T3-RE was significantly higher in the supervised group than the control group (P < 0.01). No significant differences in the users' outcomes were found. PMID:23213565

  1. Analysis of long-term performance and microbial community structure in bio-cathode microbial desalination cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huichao; Wen, Qinxue; An, Zhongyi; Chen, Zhiqiang; Nan, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) could desalinate salt water without energy consumption and simultaneously generate bioenergy. Compared with an abiotic cathode MDC, an aerobic bio-cathode MDC is more sustainable and is less expensive to operate. In this study, the long-term operation (5500 h) performance of a bio-cathode MDC was investigated in which the power density, Coulombic efficiency, and salt removal rate were decreased by 71, 44, and 27 %, respectively. The primary reason for the system performance decrease was biofouling on the membranes, which increased internal resistance and reduced the ionic transfer and energy conversion efficiency. Changing membranes was an effective method to recover the MDC performance. The microbial community diversity in the MDC anode was low compared with that of the reported microbial fuel cell (MFC), while the abundance of Proteobacteria was 30 % higher. The content of Planctomycetes in the cathode biofilm sample was much higher than that in biofouling on the cation exchange membrane (CEM), indicating that Planctomycetes were relevant to cathode oxygen reduction.

  2. Long-term operation performance and variation of substrate tolerance ability in an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlong; Niu, Qigui; Ma, Haiyuan; He, Shilong; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2016-07-01

    An anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor was operated to study the long-term performance and the variation of substrate tolerance ability. The results indicated that the nitrogen loading potential (NLP) was significantly enhanced from 13.56gN·(L·d)(-)(1) to 20.95gN·(L·d)(-)(1) during the stable operation period. The inhibitory concentration of 10% (IC10) for free ammonia (FA), free nitrous acid (FNA) and SNinf (diluted substrate concentration) increased from 18mg/L, 12μgL(-1) and 370mgNL(-)(1) to 31mg/L, 19μgL(-1) and 670mgNL(-)(1), respectively. However, the substrate shock of 2500mgNL(-)(1) for 24h terribly weakened the treatment performance and substrate tolerance ability of the reactor. The results of batch tests indicated that the existence of lag phase made the AAFEB reactor more vulnerable to substrate variation. The SNinf was accurate to be used to monitor the reactor performance and should be maintained below 320mgNL(-)(1) to ensure the absolute stable operation. PMID:26995619

  3. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  4. A urinary metabonomics analysis of long-term effect of acetochlor exposure on rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Longxue; Wang, Maoqing; Chen, Shuhong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The study was to assess the long-term toxic effects of acetochlor on rats. Two different doses (42.96 and 107.4 mg/kg body weight/day) of acetochlor were administered to Wistar rats through their food for over 24 weeks. Rat urine samples were collected at two time-points for the measurements of the metabonomics profiles with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS). The results of clinical chemistry and histopathology suggested that long-term use of acetochlor in rats caused liver and kidney damage, and dysfunction of antioxidant system. The urinary metabonomics analysis indicated that the high and low-dose exposure of acetochlor could cause alterations of these metabonomics in urine in the rat. Significant changes of the levels of hippuric acid (0.403-fold decrease), citric acid (0.430-fold decrease), pantothenic acid (0.486-fold decrease), uracil (0.419-fold decrease), β-Alanine (0.325-fold decrease), nonanedioic acid (0.445-fold decrease), L-tyrosine (0.410-fold decrease), D-glucuronic acid (8.389-fold increase) and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-methyl-2-chloro-acetanilide in urine were observed. In addition, it may interfere with the fatty acid synthesis, the pyrimidine degradation and pantothenate biosynthesis. The level of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-methyl-2-chloro-acetanilide is detected in all treated groups which is not found in the control groups, indicating which can be used as an early, sensitive marker of acetochlor exposure in rat. This study illustrates the important utility of metabonomics approaches to understand the toxicity of long-term exposure of acetochlor.

  5. A urinary metabonomics analysis of long-term effect of acetochlor exposure on rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Longxue; Wang, Maoqing; Chen, Shuhong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The study was to assess the long-term toxic effects of acetochlor on rats. Two different doses (42.96 and 107.4 mg/kg body weight/day) of acetochlor were administered to Wistar rats through their food for over 24 weeks. Rat urine samples were collected at two time-points for the measurements of the metabonomics profiles with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS). The results of clinical chemistry and histopathology suggested that long-term use of acetochlor in rats caused liver and kidney damage, and dysfunction of antioxidant system. The urinary metabonomics analysis indicated that the high and low-dose exposure of acetochlor could cause alterations of these metabonomics in urine in the rat. Significant changes of the levels of hippuric acid (0.403-fold decrease), citric acid (0.430-fold decrease), pantothenic acid (0.486-fold decrease), uracil (0.419-fold decrease), β-Alanine (0.325-fold decrease), nonanedioic acid (0.445-fold decrease), L-tyrosine (0.410-fold decrease), D-glucuronic acid (8.389-fold increase) and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-methyl-2-chloro-acetanilide in urine were observed. In addition, it may interfere with the fatty acid synthesis, the pyrimidine degradation and pantothenate biosynthesis. The level of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-methyl-2-chloro-acetanilide is detected in all treated groups which is not found in the control groups, indicating which can be used as an early, sensitive marker of acetochlor exposure in rat. This study illustrates the important utility of metabonomics approaches to understand the toxicity of long-term exposure of acetochlor. PMID:26969444

  6. Long-term effects of stimulants on neurocognitive performance of Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral and neurocognitive disorder in school-age children. Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently prescribed CNS stimulant for ADHD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in intelligence quotient and domains of neurocognitive function after long-term MPH treatment of Taiwanese children with ADHD. Methods The Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-III) was administrated twice at an interval of at least one year for all 171 subjects (6–12 years) and 47 age- and gender-matched children without ADHD. The ADHD-Rating scale and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) were also used at the time of enrolment, and at 6 months and one year later. Results Taiwanese children with ADHD had lower Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Full IQ (FIQ) and performed poorly on several subtests of the WISC-III, including Similarities, Vocabulary, and Coding, compared to healthy children without ADHD. After one year of MPH treatment, significant decrements in all scores of the ADHD-Rating scale and CGI-S and increments in several domains of the WISC-III, including FIQ, VIQ, PIQ, Perceptual Organization Index (POI), Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly, and Digit Span were observed. When the ADHD children under MPH treatment were subdivided into two age groups (6–8 years and 9–12 years), significantly better performance in some subtests and subscales of the WISC-III (such as Similarities, Comprehension, and Object assembly) was found in the 6–8 years age group. Conclusions Long-term MPH treatment may improve the neurocognitive profiles of the ADHD children, as seen in their performance in several subtests and in the IQ scores on the WISC-III. And this improvement had no correlation with the decrement of ADHD symptoms. Starting stimulant treatment at as young an age as possible is advised due to the greater benefits in the 6–8 years age group, as seen in this study. More research

  7. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems (“Arbequina,” Arbequina IRTA-i·18, “Arbosana,” “Fs-17,” and “Koroneiki”) and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha−1 for the cultivar “Arbequina.” Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha−1. Only “Fs-17” did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha−1) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for “Arbequina,” both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha−1 for the lowest density (780 trees ha−1) to 29.9 t ha−1 for the highest (2254 trees ha−1). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation. PMID:27602035

  8. Global Assessment of Dryland Degradation Using Long-Term Earth Observation Data Sets of Precipitation and Vegetation Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Rasmussen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous time series of high quality Earth Observation (EO) based estimates of vegetation are key information for the assessment of long-term degradation in ecosystem function and productivity. In arid and semi-arid areas it has been reported that land degradation (LD) affects the well-being of 250 million people worldwide, which places it among today's most pressing environmental issues. However scientifically robust methods for assessing land degradation at global scale are still lacking. Indeed LD processes are complex and driven by multiple factors, either natural (e.g. changes in climate variability) or anthropic (eg. over-/mis- use of land resources), those factors often being region dependent. Traditionally LD assessment methods are based on the postulate that water availability is the major climate determinant for plant growth and production in drylands. Relationships between precipitation and above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) have been extensively studied to better understand the impact of climate variability on dryland vegetation productivity. Besides it has been claimed that the ratio ANPP to precipitation, known as the Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE), is a conservative property of the vegetation cover in drylands if the vegetation cover is not subject to non-precipitation related LD; and therefore change in RUE could inform on human-induced degradation. However several authors have put forward the many limitations of RUE and gave recommendations for a proper use of this concept (e.g. Fensholt et al. 2013, Prince et al. 2007). Fensholt et al. (2013) notably recommend to restrict its use to areas where a linear relationship between rainfall and the selected EO based proxy for ANPP is found and where the regression offset of this relationship is close to zero. In this study the concept of RUE as indicator of human-induced LD in drylands will be evaluated at global scale. Both long-term trends and abrupt changes in RUE time series will be analyzed

  9. Assessment of long-term safety and efficacy of intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain injury in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H.; van Velthoven, Cindy T. J.; Youssef, Sameh A.; de Bruin, Alain; van Bel, Frank; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: For clinical translation, we assessed whether intranasal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment after hypoxia–ischemia (HI) induces neoplasia in the brain or periphery at 14 mo. Furthermore, the long-term effects of MSCs on behavior and lesion size were determined. Method: HI was induced in 9-d-old mice. Pups received an intranasal administration of 0.5 × 106 MSCs or vehicle at 10 d post-HI. Full macroscopical and microscopical pathological analysis of 39 organs per mouse was performed. Sensorimotor behavior was assessed in the cylinder-rearing test at 10 d, 28 d, 6 mo, and 9 mo. Cognition was measured with the novel object recognition test at 3 and 14 mo post-HI. Lesion size was determined by analyzing mouse-anti-microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and mouse-anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) staining at 5 wk and 14 mo. Results: At 14 mo post-HI, we did not observe any neoplasia in the nasal turbinates, brain, or other organs of HI mice treated with MSCs. Furthermore, our results show that MSC-induced improvement of sensorimotor and cognitive function is long lasting. In contrast, HI-vehicle mice showed severe behavioral impairment. Recovery of MAP2- and MBP-positive area lasted up to 14 mo following MSC treatment. Conclusion: Our results provide strong evidence of the long-term safety and positive effects of MSC treatment following neonatal HI in mice. PMID:26270577

  10. Indices to assess patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in clinical trials, long-term observational studies, and clinical care.

    PubMed

    Castrejón, I; Tani, C; Jolly, M; Huang, A; Mosca, M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises most currently used indices to assess and monitor patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in clinical trials, long-term observational studies, and clinical care. Six SLE disease activity indices include the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG), European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM), Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), Lupus Activity Index (LAI), and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ). Three SLE responder indices include Responder Index for Lupus Erythematosus (RIFLE), SLE Responder Index (SRI), and BILAG Based Combined Lupus Assessment (BICLA). Three SLE damage indices include the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index (SLICC/ACE-DI), Lupus Damage Index Questionnaire (LDIQ), and Brief Index of Lupus Damage (BILD). The SLAQ, LDIQ and the BILD are patient self-report questionnaires, which appear to give similar information to physician-completed indices, but are pragmatically more easily completed as patients do almost all the work. Additional self-report indices which have been used to assess and monitor patients with in SLE include a generic general health short form 36 (SF36), a SLE-specific Lupus Patient Reported Outcome (LupusPRO), and a generic rheumatology index, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3). These activity, response, damage and patient self-report indices have been validated at different levels with no consensus about what it is the most appropriate for every setting. Sensitive and feasible assessment of SLE in clinical trials, observational studies, and busy clinical settings remains a challenge to the rheumatology community.

  11. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system

  12. Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Jean-Bernard; Tikhomirov, Alex; Ushakova, Sofya; Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model, including higher plants for food production and biodegradation of human waste, in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states was performed. The model system was conceived for supplying vegetarian food and oxygen to 0.07 human. The following data were obtained in steady-state operating conditions. Average rate of wheat, chufa, radish, lettuce and Salicornia edible biomass accumulation were 8.7, 5.5, 0.6, 0.6 and metricconverterProductID2.5 g2.5 g per day respectively. Thus, to mimic the vegetarian edible biomass consumption by a human it was necessary to withdraw 17.9 g/d from total mass ex-change. Simultaneously, human mineralized exometabolites (artificial mineralized urine, AMU) in the amount of approximately 7% of a daily norm were introduced into the nutrient solu-tion for irrigation of the plants cultivated on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate). The estimated value of 5.8 g/d of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass was introduced in the soil-like substrate (SLS) to fully meet the plants need in nitrogen. The rest of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass, 5.7 g/d, was stored. Thus in all, 23.6g of vegetarian dry matter had been stored. Assuming edible biomass is eaten up by the human, the closure coefficient of the vegetarian biomass inclusion into matter recycling amounted to 88%. The analysis of the long-term model operation showed that the main factors limiting increase of recycling processes were the following: a) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of daily human waste with daily needs of plants culti-` vated in the system. Thus, when fully satisfied with respect to nitrogen, the plants experienced a lack of macro elements such as P, Mg and Ca by more than 50%; b) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of edible biomass of the plants cultivated in the SLS with that of inedible biomass of the plants cultivated by hydroponic method on neutral substrate introduced in the SLS; c) Accumulation of

  13. Evaluating the long-term performance of low-cost adsorbents using small-scale adsorption column experiments.

    PubMed

    Callery, O; Healy, M G; Rognard, F; Barthelemy, L; Brennan, R B

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated a novel method of predicting the long-term phosphorus removal performance of large-scale adsorption filters, using data derived from short-term, small-scale column experiments. The filter media investigated were low-cost adsorbents such as aluminum sulfate drinking water treatment residual, ferric sulfate drinking water treatment residual, and fine and coarse crushed concretes. Small-bore adsorption columns were loaded with synthetic wastewater, and treated column effluent volume was plotted against the mass of phosphorus adsorbed per unit mass of filter media. It was observed that the curve described by the data strongly resembled that of a standard adsorption isotherm created from batch adsorption data. Consequently, it was hypothesized that an equation following the form of the Freundlich isotherm would describe the relationship between filter loading and media saturation. Moreover, the relationship between filter loading and effluent concentration could also be derived from this equation. The proposed model was demonstrated to accurately predict the performance of large-scale adsorption filters over a period of up to three months with a very high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the coefficients necessary to produce said model could be determined from just 24 h of small-scale experimental data. PMID:27295617

  14. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: effects of seal structure on long-term performance in liquid.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2011-03-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of an MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We developed an MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism, and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Three types of MF seals were used. Seal A was a conventional seal without a shield. Seal B had the same structure as that of Seal A, but the seal was installed at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal C was a seal with a shield and the MF was set at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal A failed after 6 and 11 days. Seal B showed better results (20 and 73 days). Seal C showed long-term durability (217 and 275 days). The reason for different results in different seal structures was considered to be different flow conditions near the magnetic fluid. Fluid dynamics near the MF in the pump were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We have developed an MF seal with a shield that works in liquid for >275 days. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  15. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-14

    The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

  16. Seasonal and long-term performance of alkalinity-producing passive systems for the treatment of mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.

    1998-12-31

    Eight passive treatment systems, located in Pennsylvania and Maryland, have been intensively monitored for up to seven years. Influent and effluent water quality data from ten anoxic limestone drains (ALDs) and five reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS) have been analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term performance for each of these specific unit operations. The water quality data were also analyzed to determine the performance of each of the eight complete passive treatment systems. The generation of alkalinity in ALDs has not exhibited significant seasonal variations. ALDs that received mine water containing less than 1 mg/L of both ferric iron and aluminum have continued to produce consistent concentrations of alkalinity since their construction. However, an ALD that received 20 mg/L of aluminum experienced a rapid reduction in permeability and failed within five months. The generation of alkalinity in the RAPS has displayed seasonal variations, with significantly more sulfate reduction occurring in the warmer months. Most of these RAPS have been recently constructed, however, one system has been monitored for over six years. A gradual decline in the generation of alkalinity has been observed in this system which can be attributed to a decrease in sulfate reduction rates.

  17. Long-term measurement of indoor thermal environment and energy performance in a detached wooden house with passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Yoshimi; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Chikashi

    1998-07-01

    The indoor thermal environment, energy performance and energy consumption for a detached wooden house equipped with two passive solar systems, were investigated over a period of three years. The house with a floor area of 188 m{sup 2} was constructed in the autumn of 1993 in Sendai, Japan; and was well insulated and very airtight compared with other houses in Japan. There are six occupants. Heating equipment is comprises of a thermal storage space heater using night-time electricity and a vented firewood furnace on the first floor. Each room is ventilated all day by a central ventilation system. Two passive solar systems were incorporated: a concrete floor in the southern perimeter of the living room as a direct gain system, and an earth tube embedded around the circumference of the house to supply fresh air. The principal results obtained are as follows: (1) The indoor environment during the heating season was more thermally comfortable, compared with that or ordinary houses in Japan. (2) The concrete floor played a role of thermal storage, which absorbed and released heat for decreasing the fluctuation of room temperature. (3) The earth tube supplied air with lower temperature in the summer and higher temperature in the winter to the room, that the outdoor air temperature. This thermal performance did not decrease in spite of the long-term use. (4) The annual amount of energy consumption of this house was less than that of ordinary houses in the northern part of Japan.

  18. Long-term effects of 4-year longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention on the physical fitness of children and youth during 7-year followup assessment.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Gregor; Cooper, Ashley; Leskosek, Bojan; Kovac, Marjeta

    2013-12-01

    Many school-based physical activity (PA) interventions have been developed, but only a few have assessed their long-term effects. A PA intervention taking place in the first four years of some Slovenian primary schools entails an enhanced physical education (PE) curriculum, including two extra lessons of PE per week, a wider selection of PE content, and additional outdoor education delivered by both a specialist PE teacher and a general teacher. The effects of the intervention on children's physical fitness (motor tasks and anthropometry) were evaluated within a quasi-experimental study. In total, 324 children from nine Slovenian primary schools either received the enhanced curriculum (intervention (n=160)) or standard PE (control (n=164)), and were followed for a four-year intervention period and seven years post intervention. Data from the SLOFIT database were used to compare differences in the physical fitness of children each year. Linear Mixed Models were used to test the influence of the PA intervention. Over an 11-year period, the PA intervention group significantly differed in all motor tasks, but not in anthropometric measures or body mass index, after controlling for year of measurement and sex. Differences between the control and intervention groups decreased with time. This study highlights the importance of tracking the long term effects of PA interventions. PA intervention in the first four years of Slovenian primary school offers the possibility of improving physical performance in children; initiatives aiming to increase their performance (physical fitness, physical activity) and health outcomes are warranted.

  19. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Kim F.; Bi, Yuqiang; Carpenter, Julian; Hyng, Sung Pil; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender; Davis, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This overarching aim of this project was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. The work reported herein was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM). Research at ASU, focused on the biogenesis aspects, examined the biogeochemical bases for iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium that is one of the most-studied strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A series of experimental studies were performed to investigate comprehensively important metabolic and environmental factors that affect the rates of sulfate reduction and iron-sulfide precipitation, the mineralogical characteristics of the iron sulfides, and how uranium is reduced or co-reduced by D. vulagaris. FeS production studies revealed that controlling the pH affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe1+xS). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe3S4) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3 mM. On the other hand, using solid Fe(III) (hydr)oxides as the iron source led to less productivity of FeS due to their slow and incomplete dissolution and scavenging of sulfide. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe2+, particularly during Fe(III) (hydr)oxide reductions, led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8(H2O)]. The U(VI) reduction studies revealed that D. vulgaris reduced U(VI) fastest when accumulating sulfide from concomitant sulfate reduction, since direct enzymatic and sulfide-based reductions of U(VI) occurred in parallel. The UO2 produced in presence of ferrous

  20. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam. PMID:19042079

  1. Combining bioaccumulation and coping mechanism to enhance long-term site-specific risk assessment for zinc susceptibility of bivalves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Ching; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ju, Yun-Ru; Tsai, Jeng-Wei; Jou, Li-John; Singh, Sher; Liao, Chung-Min

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a long-term site-specific risk assessment for zinc (Zn) susceptibility of bivalves, green mussel Perna viridis and hard clam Ruditapes philippinarum, based on published experimental data by linking the biologically-based damage assessment model with the subcellular partitioning concept. A comprehensive risk modeling framework was developed to predict susceptibility probability of two bivalve species exposed to waterborne Zn. The results indicated that P. viridis accumulates more Zn toxicity, whereas both toxic potency and the recovery rate of Zn are higher for R. philippinarum. We found that negative linear correlations exist in elimination-recovery and elimination-detoxification relationships, whereas a positive linear correlation was observed in recovery-detoxification relationships for bivalves exposed to waterborne Zn. Simulation results showed that the spatial differences of susceptibility primarily resulted from the variation of waterborne Zn concentration under field conditions. We found that R. philippinarum is more susceptible of Zn than P. viridis under the same exposure condition. Results also suggested that Zn posed no significant susceptibility risk to two bivalve species in Taiwan. We suggested that these two species can be used to biomonitor the water quality on Taiwan coastal areas.

  2. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam.

  3. A test-retest dataset for assessing long-term reliability of brain morphology and resting-state brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijie; Huang, Taicheng; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    We present a test-retest dataset for evaluation of long-term reliability of measures from structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and rfMRI) scans. The repeated scan dataset was collected from 61 healthy adults in two sessions using highly similar imaging parameters at an interval of 103–189 days. However, as the imaging parameters were not completely identical, the reliability estimated from this dataset shall reflect the lower bounds of the true reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures. Furthermore, in conjunction with other test-retest datasets, our dataset may help explore the impact of different imaging parameters on reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures, which is especially critical for assessing datasets collected from multiple centers. In addition, intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured for each participant using Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. The data can thus be used for purposes other than assessing reliability of sMRI/rfMRI alone. For example, data from each single session could be used to associate structural and functional measures of the brain with the IQ metrics to explore brain-IQ association. PMID:26978040

  4. A test-retest dataset for assessing long-term reliability of brain morphology and resting-state brain activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijie; Huang, Taicheng; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-03-15

    We present a test-retest dataset for evaluation of long-term reliability of measures from structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and rfMRI) scans. The repeated scan dataset was collected from 61 healthy adults in two sessions using highly similar imaging parameters at an interval of 103-189 days. However, as the imaging parameters were not completely identical, the reliability estimated from this dataset shall reflect the lower bounds of the true reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures. Furthermore, in conjunction with other test-retest datasets, our dataset may help explore the impact of different imaging parameters on reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures, which is especially critical for assessing datasets collected from multiple centers. In addition, intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured for each participant using Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. The data can thus be used for purposes other than assessing reliability of sMRI/rfMRI alone. For example, data from each single session could be used to associate structural and functional measures of the brain with the IQ metrics to explore brain-IQ association.

  5. Long-term effects of offshore oil and gas development: an assessment and a research strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boesch, D.F.; Rabalais, N.N.

    1985-06-01

    The book includes technical assessments regarding the environmental implications of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas development in thirteen topical areas ranging from Petroleum Industry Operations: Present and Future to A Review of Study Designs for the Detection of Long-term Environmental Effects of Offshore Activities. These technical assessments support an analysis which identifies the following future research needs: Chronic effects from the persistence of medium and high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclics and their degradation products in sediments and cold environments; Residual damage from oil spills to biogenically structured communities such as coastal wetlands, reefs and vegetation beds; Effects of channelization for pipeline routing and navigation on wetlands; Effects of fouling by oil of birds, mammals, and turtles, especially in species in which a large percentage of the population aggregates at certain times; Effects on benthos of drilling discharges accumulated through field development; Effects of produced water discharges generated offshore but discharged into nearshore environments; Effects of noise and other physical disturbances on populations of birds, mammals and turtles; Reduction of fishery stocks due to mortality of eggs and larvae as a result of oil spills; Effects of man-made, usually gravel, islands and causeways in the Arctic on benthos and anadromous fish species.

  6. Modelling the short- and long-term impacts of drenching frequency and targeted selective treatment on the performance of grazing lambs and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, Yan C S M; Bishop, Stephen C; Forbes, Andrew B; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2013-05-01

    Refugia-based treatment strategies aim to prolong anthelmintic efficacy by maintaining a parasite population unexposed to anthelmintics. Targeted selective treatment (TST) achieves this by treating only animals that will benefit most from treatment, using a determinant criterion (DC). We developed a mathematical model to compare various traits proposed as DC, and investigate impacts of TST and drenching frequency on sheep performance and anthelmintic resistance. Short term, decreasing the proportion of animals drenched reduced benefits of anthelmintic treatment, assessed by empty body weight (EBW), but decreased the rate of anthelmintic resistance development; each consecutive drenching had a reduced impact on average EBW and an increased impact on the rate of anthelmintic resistance emergences. The optimal DC was fecal egg count, maintaining the highest average EBW when reducing the proportion of animals drenched. Long-term, reducing the proportion of animals drenched had little impact on total weight gain benefits, across animals and years, whilst reducing drenching frequency increased it. Decreasing the frequency and proportion of animals drenched were both predicted to increase the duration of anthelmintic efficacy but reduce the total number of drenches administered before resistance was observed. TST and frequency of drenching may lead to different benefits in the short versus long term.

  7. Effects of long-term agomelatine treatment on the cognitive performance and hippocampal plasticity of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Demir Özkay, Ümide; Söztutar, Erdem; Can, Özgür Devrim; Üçel, Umut İrfan; Öztürk, Yusuf; Ulupinar, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a distinct pharmacological mechanism of action as an MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. We evaluated the chronic effects of agomelatine administration (40 mg/kg, 20 weeks) on the cognitive performance of rats in the Morris water maze task. We applied unbiased stereological quantification methods to estimate the total numbers of granular and pyramidal neurons located in the dorsal hippocampus. We also analyzed the dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region using the Golgi-Cox impregnation method. The agomelatine-treated group found the hidden platform more quickly than did the control group and spent significantly more time in the target quadrant. Agomelatine administration caused significant volumetric and numerical enhancements in granular and pyramidal neurons in the dentate gyrus and CA1-3 subregions, respectively. Increased densities of the mushroom and stubby types of spines, with no alteration in the thin-shaped spines, were observed in the agomelatine-treated group. These results showed that long-term agomelatine administration induced a nootropic effect supported by structural changes. Enhancement of the more stable types of dendritic spines might indicate improved adaptive capacity in hippocampal neurons. Future studies will provide a better understanding of the effect of this drug on synaptic plasticity. PMID:26110225

  8. Long-term performance and microbial community characterization of an osmotic anammox system for removing reverse-fluxed ammonium.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D; He, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    A novel osmotic anammox (OsAMX) system coupling nitritation-anammox with forward osmosis (FO) has been developed for removal of reverse-fluxed ammonium when using NH4HCO3 as a draw solute. In this study, long-term performance and microbial community structure were investigated. The nitritation-anammox reactor maintained an ammonium concentration of 7.0±5.0mgNL(-1) (DO=0.9±0.2mgO2L(-1)), while the FO achieved a water flux of 2.3±0.4LMH (0.5M NH4HCO3 draw). The low water flux was obtained likely due to concentration polarization, reverse salt flux (RSF) and membrane fouling. Sequencing analyses reveled that Candidatus Jettenia was the dominant anammox genus, while Candidatus Brocadia was most abundant in biofilm. The shift of anammox bacterial population indicated possible higher tolerance of Ca. Brocadia for DO or elevated RSF. These results encourage further investigation of OsAMX system optimization, membrane fouling migration strategies, and application with actual wastewater. PMID:27046789

  9. Assessing the value of post-processed state-of-the-art long-term weather forecast ensembles for agricultural water management mediated by farmers' behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in modelling of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics significantly improved skills of long-term climate forecast from global circulation models (GCMs). These more accurate weather predictions are supposed to be a valuable support to farmers in optimizing farming operations (e.g. crop choice, cropping and watering time) and for more effectively coping with the adverse impacts of climate variability. Yet, assessing how actually valuable this information can be to a farmer is not straightforward and farmers' response must be taken into consideration. Indeed, in the context of agricultural systems potentially useful forecast information should alter stakeholders' expectation, modify their decisions, and ultimately produce an impact on their performance. Nevertheless, long-term forecast are mostly evaluated in terms of accuracy (i.e., forecast quality) by comparing hindcast and observed values and only few studies investigated the operational value of forecast looking at the gain of utility within the decision-making context, e.g. by considering the derivative of forecast information, such as simulated crop yields or simulated soil moisture, which are essential to farmers' decision-making process. In this study, we contribute a step further in the assessment of the operational value of long-term weather forecasts products by embedding these latter into farmers' behavioral models. This allows a more critical assessment of the forecast value mediated by the end-users' perspective, including farmers' risk attitudes and behavioral patterns. Specifically, we evaluate the operational value of thirteen state-of-the-art long-range forecast products against climatology forecast and empirical prediction (i.e. past year climate and historical average) within an integrated agronomic modeling framework embedding an implicit model of the farmers' decision-making process. Raw ensemble datasets are bias-corrected and downscaled using a stochastic weather generator, in

  10. Use of Satellite Observations for Long-Term Exposure Assessment of Global Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Boys, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    are available for public use. Citation: van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Brauer M, Boys BL. 2015. Use of satellite observations for long-term exposure assessment of global concentrations of fine particulate matter. Environ Health Perspect 123:135–143; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408646 PMID:25343779

  11. A PARAFAC-based long-term assessment of DOM in a multi-coagulant drinking water treatment scheme.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Nancy P; Skeriotis, Andrew T; Miller, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    A parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis approach was used to study the character and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a multicoagulant (two aluminum-based coagulants) full scale drinking water treatment plant. A three year, long-term assessment was conducted based on deconstruction of the excitation-emission matrices (EEM) of over 1000 water samples collected before and after parallel coagulation treatment basins. Two humic moieties and a protein-like group were identified in the raw and treated waters. Apportionment of fluorophores was established using a novel approach based on the overall fluorescence intensity (OFI) of PARAFAC components. Uncorrected matrix correlation (UMC) revealed minimal changes of the fluorescence moieties after treatment (UMC > 0.98), and a comparable effect of both coagulants on the structure (UMC > 0.99) and distribution of these groups. Coagulation increased the proportion of the protein-like fluorophore and preferentially removed a humic-like group irrespective of the coagulant. Preference for this moiety was supported by a coagulant-affinity factor derived from the association between PARAFAC components after treatment. The suitability of a PARAFAC-based approach for coagulant evaluation/selection was demonstrated when compared to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-based criterion. This paper contributes to the understanding of the behavior of PARAFAC components in water treatment processes and presents several approaches for the future monitoring and control of coagulation at full scale treatment facilities. PMID:24417368

  12. Using XCO2 retrievals for assessing the long-term consistency of NDACC/FTIR data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, S.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; González, Y.; Blumenstock, T.; Dohe, S.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Strong, K.; Mendonca, J.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Mahieu, E.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Velazco, V. A.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.; Kivi, R.; Heikkinen, P.; Raffalski, U.

    2015-03-01

    Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these NDACC data records. Our XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this suggested NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons, and the bias is 25‰). Our XCO2 model is a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (multi-platform remote sensing of isotopologues for investigating the cycle of atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3‰.

  13. Using XCO2 retrievals for assessing the long-term consistency of NDACC/FTIR data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, S.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; González, Y.; Blumenstock, T.; Dohe, S.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Strong, K.; Mendonca, J.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Mahieu, E.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Velazco, V. A.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.; Kivi, R.; Heikkinen, P.; Raffalski, U.

    2014-10-01

    Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-Transform InfraRed) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these data records. Our NDACC XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons and the bias is 25‰). As XCO2 model we developed and used a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in-situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3‰.

  14. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  15. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  16. A PARAFAC-based long-term assessment of DOM in a multi-coagulant drinking water treatment scheme.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Nancy P; Skeriotis, Andrew T; Miller, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    A parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis approach was used to study the character and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a multicoagulant (two aluminum-based coagulants) full scale drinking water treatment plant. A three year, long-term assessment was conducted based on deconstruction of the excitation-emission matrices (EEM) of over 1000 water samples collected before and after parallel coagulation treatment basins. Two humic moieties and a protein-like group were identified in the raw and treated waters. Apportionment of fluorophores was established using a novel approach based on the overall fluorescence intensity (OFI) of PARAFAC components. Uncorrected matrix correlation (UMC) revealed minimal changes of the fluorescence moieties after treatment (UMC > 0.98), and a comparable effect of both coagulants on the structure (UMC > 0.99) and distribution of these groups. Coagulation increased the proportion of the protein-like fluorophore and preferentially removed a humic-like group irrespective of the coagulant. Preference for this moiety was supported by a coagulant-affinity factor derived from the association between PARAFAC components after treatment. The suitability of a PARAFAC-based approach for coagulant evaluation/selection was demonstrated when compared to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-based criterion. This paper contributes to the understanding of the behavior of PARAFAC components in water treatment processes and presents several approaches for the future monitoring and control of coagulation at full scale treatment facilities.

  17. Assessment of children`s long-term exposure to magnetic fields (The Geomet study). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, M.D.; Koontz, M.D.; Mehegan, L.L.; Dietrich, F.M.; Nagda, N.L.

    1992-11-01

    Past epidemiologic studies have had conflicting results concerning a possible association between childhood cancer and magnetic field exposure, perhaps because indirect measures of exposure were used. This pilot study was conducted to assess day-today and seasonal variations in children`s exposure, the contributions of different environments to total exposure, and the level of measurement/observational detail needed to accurately predict or classify children`s exposures. Twenty-eight children in two age groups (8 to 11 years and under 4 years) were personally monitored for exposure to magnetic fields. All subjects were monitored for two consecutive days during winter or spring, and 12 of the subjects were monitored during both seasons. Surrogates for exposure were developed from observation of wiring configurations, indoor/outdoor spot measurements of field strength, and continuous stationary monitoring at selected indoor locations in parallel with personal monitoring. The results indicate that a single monitoring episode may be insufficient for characterization of long-term exposure, and spot measurements at one point in time may not be adequate to predict exposure. For this study, wire codes and measures based on parallel stationary monitoring in the child`s bedroom were the best surrogates for personal exposure.

  18. Hazard index, a tool for a long term risk assessment of pesticide residues in some commodities, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gad Alla, Sohair A; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Shendy, Amr H; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

    2015-12-01

    Samples of some vegetables were analyzed for pesticides residues using the accredited (QuEChERS) method. The method allowed the determination of 215 compounds of different pesticide chemical groups. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were used for residues quantification. In a total number of 116 samples, no pesticides residues were detected in 34 samples (29.3%), while 82 samples (70.7%) had detectable pesticide residues, with some samples exceeding the MRLs levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The hazard index (HI %), representing the long--term risk assessment was in the range of 0.01%-15.04% of the ADI's. The highest exposure was observed for ethion, followed by chlorpyifos, both of them are organophosphates, at 15.04% and 2.45% of ADI respectively. The acute (short-term) exposure was also estimated. Results showed a potential risk for children posed by 3 pesticides, meanwhile, residues of one pesticides showed potential risk to adults (>100% of ARfD). The present work is an attempt to provide a model for the use of WHO template for calculating the short term intake. This model is especially useful for developing countries where information about consumption rate is rather meager.

  19. Long-term assessment of clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided steroid injections in patients with piriformis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee Seok; Lee, Guen Young; Lee, Eu Gene; Joe, Eu Gene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided steroid injections in patients with piriformis syndrome. Methods: Between January 2010 and October 2012, 63 patients (23 men and 40 women; average age, 63.2 years; range, 24 to 90 years) were diagnosed with piriformis syndrome based on clinical history, electromyography, and flexion-adduction-internal rotation test results. They were divided into two groups. The first group (37 subjects) received a US-guided steroid injection around the piriformis muscle. The second group (26 subjects) received both piriformis muscle and spinal epidural injections. The therapeutic effect was categorized as improvement, partial improvement, or failure depending on the degree of symptom alleviation one month after injection, based on a review of each patient’s medical records. Results: In the first group, 15 patients (40.5%) showed improvement, seven (18.9%) showed partial improvement, and 15 (40.5%) failed to respond to the initial treatment. In the second group, eight patients (30.8%) showed improvement, 11 (42.3%) showed partial improvement, and seven (26.9%) failed to respond to the initial treatment. A second piriformis injection was performed in four cases, after which two patients showed improvement within 3 years, but the other two showed no therapeutic effect. Conclusion: US-guided steroid injection may be an effective treatment option for patients with piriformis syndrome. PMID:25672769

  20. Management strategies to improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to weaning and their long-term consequences.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-05-01

    Performance of pigs from birth to slaughter is a result of a complex interaction of factors, with the early stages of a pig's life likely to affect lifetime performance. During the preweaning stage, piglets are reliant on the sow for nutrition, and sibling competition is likely to affect growth, in particular for low birth weight (LBiW) piglets. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of litter composition (littermate weight) and milk supplementation during lactation on the performance of LBiW pigs to weaning and the long-term consequences of treatment to slaughter. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with littermate weight (normal or LBiW) and provision of supplementary milk from d 1 to 28 (yes or no) as factors. A total of 265 piglets were selected within 24 h of birth and cross-fostered to create 2 litter types (LOW = LBiW pigs [≤ 1.25 kg] only and MX = both LBiW and normal birth weight pigs [1.6 to 2.0 kg]); half of the litters within a type were supplemented with milk and the other half were not. The behavior of litters given milk was recorded to identify milk consumption patterns. Piglets were weaned at d 28 and kept in their litters until d 70 and then subsequently housed in mixed groups until slaughter. No difference was observed at any stage in the ADG of pigs given access to supplementary milk or not (P > 0.05) nor was there any significant interaction between milk provision and litter composition (P > 0.05). However, LOW litters drank significantly more supplementary milk than MX litters (P < 0.001). There was a significant effect of litter type on ADG from d 14 to 28, with LBiW pigs in LOW litters performing better than those in MX litters (0.252 versus 0.217 kg/d; P < 0.05). At weaning, LBiW piglets in LOW litters weighed over 500 g more than those in MX litters (P < 0.05). In MX litters there was a significant interaction between birth weight and supplementary milk on the CV of BW from d 14 to slaughter (P < 0.05). In

  1. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  2. Design and Conduct of the CALERIE Study: Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Connie W.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.; Holloszy, John O.; Racette, Susan B.; Roberts, Susan B.; Das, Sai Krupa; Romashkan, Sergei; Galan, Katherine M.; Hadley, Evan C.; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In a robust and consistent manner, sustained caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to retard the aging process in a variety of animal species. Nonhuman primate studies suggest that CR may have similar effects in longer-lived species. The CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) research program is the first systematic investigation of CR in nonobese human beings. In the phase 2 study, it is hypothesized that 2 years of sustained CR, involving a 25% reduction of ad libitum energy intake, results in beneficial effects similar to those observed in animal studies. This article presents the design and implementation of this study. Methods. The study is a multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. A sample of 225 participants (22.0 ≤ body mass index [BMI] < 28.0 kg/m2) is being enrolled with 2:1 allocation to CR. Results. An intensive dietary and behavioral intervention was developed to achieve 25% CR and sustain it over the 2 years. Adherence is monitored using a doubly labeled water technique. Primary outcomes are resting metabolic rate and core temperature, and are assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals. Secondary outcomes address oxyradical formation, cardiovascular risk markers, insulin sensitivity and secretion, immune function, neuroendocrine function, quality of life and cognitive function. Biologic materials are stored in a central repository. Conclusions. An intricate protocol has been developed to conduct this study. Procedures have been implemented to safeguard the integrity of the data and the conclusions drawn. The results will provide insight into the detrimental changes associated with the human aging process and how CR mitigates these effects. PMID:20923909

  3. The potential use of diisononyl phthalate metabolites hair as biomarkers to assess long-term exposure demonstrated by a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Yi; Ho, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a widely used industrial plasticizer. People come into contact with this chemical by using plastic products made with it. Human health can be adversely affected by long-term DINP exposure. However, because the body rapidly excretes DINP metabolites, the use of single-point urine analysis to assess long-term exposure may produce inconsistent results in epidemiologic studies. Hair analysis has a useful place in biomonitoring, particularly in estimating long-term or historical exposure for some chemicals. Several studies have reported using hair analysis to assess the concentrations of heavy metals, drugs and organic pollutants in humans. As a biomarker, DINP metabolites were measured in rat hair in animal experiments to evaluated long-term exposure to DINP. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of DINP metabolites in hair and in urine. The levels of DINP metabolites in rat hair were significantly higher in the exposure group, relative to the control group (p<0.05). DINP metabolites had a positive correlation with increasing administered dose. Significant positive correlations for MINP, MOINP and MHINP were found between hair and urine (r=0.86, r=0.79 and r=0.74, respectively, p<0.05). Several metabolites in urine showed earlier saturation than in hair. In this report, we detected eight metabolites in hair and demonstrate that hair analysis has potential applications in the assessment of long-term exposure to DINP. PMID:25278043

  4. Assessing Long-Term Trend of Particulate Matter Pollution in the Pearl River Delta Region Using Satellite Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Lin, Changqing; Lau, Alexis K H; Liao, Chenghao; Zhang, Yongbo; Zeng, Wutao; Li, Chengcai; Fung, Jimmy C H; Tse, Tim K T

    2015-10-01

    Serious particulate matter (PM) pollution problems in many polluted regions of China have been frequently reported in recent years. Long-term exposure to ambient PM pollution is significantly associated with adverse health effects. Characterizing the long-term trends and variation in PM pollution is a basic requirement for evaluating long-term exposure and for guiding future policies to reduce the effects of air pollution on health. However, long-term, ground-based PM measurements are only available at a few fixed stations. In this study, an algorithm is developed and validated to estimate PM concentrations based on the satellite atmospheric optical depth with 1 km spatial resolution. The long-term trends of PM10 concentrations in the entire Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and different cities are quantified and discussed. From 2001 to 2013, the PM10 pollution of the entire PRD region was dominated by a decreasing trend of -0.15 ± 0.23 μg/m(3)·yr. This decreasing PM10 trend was apparent over 75% of the PRD area, with the most significant decreases observed in the center of the region. However, the remaining 25%, mostly located in the outskirts of the region, showed an increasing PM10 trend. This overall decreasing trend indicates the effectiveness of the control measures applied in the past decade for the primary pollutants. PMID:26302450

  5. Assessing Long-Term Trend of Particulate Matter Pollution in the Pearl River Delta Region Using Satellite Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Lin, Changqing; Lau, Alexis K H; Liao, Chenghao; Zhang, Yongbo; Zeng, Wutao; Li, Chengcai; Fung, Jimmy C H; Tse, Tim K T

    2015-10-01

    Serious particulate matter (PM) pollution problems in many polluted regions of China have been frequently reported in recent years. Long-term exposure to ambient PM pollution is significantly associated with adverse health effects. Characterizing the long-term trends and variation in PM pollution is a basic requirement for evaluating long-term exposure and for guiding future policies to reduce the effects of air pollution on health. However, long-term, ground-based PM measurements are only available at a few fixed stations. In this study, an algorithm is developed and validated to estimate PM concentrations based on the satellite atmospheric optical depth with 1 km spatial resolution. The long-term trends of PM10 concentrations in the entire Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and different cities are quantified and discussed. From 2001 to 2013, the PM10 pollution of the entire PRD region was dominated by a decreasing trend of -0.15 ± 0.23 μg/m(3)·yr. This decreasing PM10 trend was apparent over 75% of the PRD area, with the most significant decreases observed in the center of the region. However, the remaining 25%, mostly located in the outskirts of the region, showed an increasing PM10 trend. This overall decreasing trend indicates the effectiveness of the control measures applied in the past decade for the primary pollutants.

  6. Long-term interleukin-2 assessment after conversion from a twice-daily to once-daily tacrolimus regimen in stable kidney recipients.

    PubMed

    Umbro, I; Tinti, F; Mecule, A; Bachetoni, A; Poli, L; Pignatelli, A; Alessandri, C; Fiacco, F; D'Alessandro, M; Di Natale, V; Berloco, P B; Valesini, G; Mitterhofer, A P

    2012-09-01

    Conversion to tacrolimus (Tac) to once daily (Tac-O) formulation is commonly followed by a 20% reduction in Tac trough levels in the first month. It is not associated with modifications of renal function but there is the issue of its effects on inflammatory cytokines and on subclinical rejection. The aim of our study was to evaluate long-term interleukins (IL)-2 profiles in stable renal transplant patients after Tac-O conversion. We enrolled 10 stable kidney transplant patients converted to Tac-O. Tac trough levels, serum creatinine concentrations, glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, C-reactive protein, IL-2 levels, and clinical assessments were performed monthly for 6 months before and 12 months after conversion. Despite the significant reduction in Tac trough levels, we did not observe alterations suggestive of clinical or subclinical acute rejection.

  7. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, K.L.; Chatters, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier`s ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} references periods of time up to 1000`s of years, distinguishing it from {open_quotes}short-term{close_quotes} weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system.

  8. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  9. Assessment of segregation kinetics in water-moderated reactors pressure vessel steels under long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Gurovich, B. A.; Lavrukhina, Z. V.; Saltykov, M. A.; Fedotova, S. V.; Khodan, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    In reactor pressure vessel (RPV) bcc-lattice steels temper embrittlement is developed under the influence of both operating temperature of ∼300 °C and neutron irradiation. Segregation processes in the grain boundaries (GB) begin to play a special role in the assessment of the safe operation of the RPV in case of its lifetime extension up to 60 years or more. The most reliable information on the RPV material condition can be obtained by investigating the surveillance specimens (SS) that are exposed to operational factors simultaneously with the RPV itself. In this paper the GB composition in the specimens with different thermal exposure time at the RPV operating temperature as well as irradiated by fast neutrons (E ≥ 0.5 MeV) to different fluences (20-71)·1022 m-2 was studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) including both impurity and main alloying elements content. The data obtained allowed to trace the trend of the operating temperature and radiation-stimulated diffusion influence on the overall segregants level in GB. The revealed differences in the concentration levels of GB segregants in different steels, are due to the different chemical composition of the steels and also due to different grain boundary segregation levels in initial (unexposed) state. The data were used to estimate the RPV steels working capacity for 60 years. The estimation was carried out using both the well-known Langmuir-McLean model and the one specially developed for RPV steels, which takes into account the structure and phase composition of VVER-1000 RPV steels, as well as the long-term influence of operational factors.

  10. Assessment of long-term measurements of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in South-East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzourides, Petros; Kumar, Prashant; Neophytou, Marina K.-A.

    2015-04-01

    This work examines long-term measurements of major criteria pollutants concentrations in an urban station in South-Eastern Mediterranean, in Nicosia - Cyprus, which is susceptible both to transboundary air pollution transport from Sahara-dust events as well as to evaporative transport of sea-sprays. The work investigates in particular the role of such multi-scale contributions in the urban air quality measurements, which are important considerations in the assessment of the effectiveness of any mitigation policies implemented by regulatory authorities. Attention is drawn in the regional-scale component of the particulate matter concentrations (PM10; ≤10 μm in diameter) and its contribution in the local measurements. Hourly averaged data of CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations as well as of meteorological parameters were collected from the Air Quality Monitoring Station (AQMS) of the University of Cyprus over a period of more than 5 years (2008-13) and were analysed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to identify chemical characteristics of PM10 and to attribute it to possible sources. A total of 321 days over the entire period were found to exceed the daily limit value of 50 μg/m3 for PM10 concentrations which corresponds to ∼19% of the actual monitored time. Numerical simulations using the Dust REgional Atmospheric Model from Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC/DREAM) gave a strong indication that PM10 exceedances were associated with the high regional background dust concentrations during westerly winds. It was also found that despite the implementation of tighter regulations for vehicular and industrial emissions in Europe, the monthly average concentration values of criteria pollutants do not exhibit any falling trend.

  11. Histomorphometric assessment of the long-term effects of alendronate on bone quality and remodeling in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Chavassieux, P M; Arlot, M E; Reda, C; Wei, L; Yates, A J; Meunier, P J

    1997-01-01

    Treatment effects on bone quality and remodeling was assessed in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with oral alendronate. One transiliac bone biopsy was obtained from 231 women at either 24 mo (n = 11) or 36 mo (n = 120) from the start of treatment with alendronate at doses of between 5 and 20 mg/d, or placebo. 64 biopsies at 24 mo (31 from the placebo group and 33 alendronate-treated patients) and 95 biopsies at 36 mo (40 from the placebo group and 55 alendronate-treated patients) provided adequate cancellous tissue, and were analyzed by histomorphometry. Mineral apposition rate was unaffected by treatment. At 24 and 36 mo, osteoid thickness, volume, and surface significantly decreased. At each of the doses studied, mineralizing surface and activation frequency significantly decreased at each time point (e.g., -92% and -87%, respectively, for the 10 mg daily dose after 2 yr). These diminutions were of the same magnitude for each dose at 24 mo, and for the two highest doses at 36 mo. A significant increase in wall thickness accompanied by a reduction in erosion depth was detected in biopsies obtained at 24 mo. These findings confirm that mineralization is normal, and trabecular bone turnover markedly decreased in patients receiving long-term dosing with alendronate. The findings also suggest that the observed increases in bone mineral density could result both from a reduction in the remodeling space due to a decreased activation frequency and a possible trend to a positive bone balance. In addition, further studies focused on a possible increase in the degree of mineralization of bone are required. PMID:9294113

  12. Assessment of bacterial community structure in a long-term copper-polluted ex-vineyard soil.

    PubMed

    Dell'Amico, Elena; Mazzocchi, Manuela; Cavalca, Lucia; Allievi, Luigi; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2008-01-01

    The influence of long-term copper contamination on the diversity of bacterial communities was investigated in an ex-vineyard soil. Two sites of the same area but exhibiting different 3-fold exchangeable copper (Ex-Cu) concentrations were analysed. Culturable bacterial community structure was assessed using a variety of approaches: determination of culturable bacteria number, analyses of 132 isolates, and denaturing gradient gel lectrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of bacterial biomass grown on agar plates and of soil DNA. There was no significant difference in the number of total heterotrophs at the two sites, whereas the percentage of fast-growing bacteria growing in 1 day, was lower at the site with the higher Ex-Cu content. A high percentage of Cu-tolerant bacteria was found in both sites (63-70%) and it was relatively independent of the Cu content. Shifts in species composition of the culturable bacterial community were detected by analysing isolates from the two soils, Gram-positive bacteria prevailed in the less-polluted soil while Gram-negative bacteria in the more-polluted soil. Each sample site had a community with a different metal resistance pattern. Our study seems to indicate that in this soil ecosystem, copper influenced the culturable bacterial communities, affecting the structural diversity and altering some of the metal resistance of the microorganisms. The Sorensen similarity index calculated on DGGE profiles of 16S rDNA of total and culturable bacterial communities indicated a different species composition at the two sites, although both sites had the same biodiversity degree and different dominance. PMID:17207985

  13. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose

  14. [New survey indicators for long-term care facilities and professional practice necessary to help take the guesswork out of pain assessment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Heng; Lin, Li-Chan

    2012-12-01

    Taiwan's Department of Health included pain management as part of the long-term care facility accreditation process in 2012. Although this makes such facilities success in managing and reducing the pain perceptions of residents a consideration in facility evaluations and certification approval, pain remains a commonly neglected issue at Taiwan s long-term care facilities. Despite the high prevalence and consequences of pain among this group, healthcare professionals still have difficulty accurately assessing and treating pain. In order to enhance institutional pain assessment and management, this paper first presents a synopsis of the issues primarily responsible for the current under-recognition and under-treatment of pain, then describes the usefulness of current institutional caregivers pain information and factors of influence. We further review general pain assessment principles and measurement tools, assess the implications of these, and then make suggestions for improvement. Appropriate pain assessment and treatment are considered a fundamental human right for all residents of long-term care facilities. Systematic, routine and interdisciplinary pain assessment using standardized, validated measures should be the foundation of effective pain management in elderly residents of long-term care facilities.

  15. A decay model for assessing polybrominated biphenyl exposure among women in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Manatunga, Amita K; Small, Chanley M; Cameron, Lorraine L; Wirth, Julie; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Lyles, Robert H; Marcus, Michele

    2008-07-01

    The Michigan Long-Term PBB Study was established following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in the early 1970s. Serum samples from cohort members were analyzed for PBB during 1976-1993. More than 20 years following this industrial incident, some participants still had measurable serum PBB concentration levels. Thus, there is continuing interest in understanding the elimination of PBB from the body. In the present study, we estimated serum PBB decay and investigated the effects of covariates on serum PBB decay rates among 406 female cohort members. We developed a decay model using a general linear mixed model, which attributes unique intercept and slope estimates for each individual while borrowing information across individuals for predicting these quantities. Age at exposure and body mass index (BMI) at the initial measurement were time-independent covariates. Time since exposure, smoking history, pregnancy status, and breast-feeding status were time-dependent covariates. Higher BMI was associated with a slower decay rate; smokers had a faster decay rate than nonsmokers; and increasing age at exposure was marginally associated with a slower decay rate. Our results suggest a faster serum PBB decay rate for women who breast-fed during the interval between serum PBB measurements. To evaluate the predictive performance of our modeling approach, we compared the results from this model with those from a previously developed ordinary least squares (OLS) two-stage decay model. The mixed-effects decay model predicted the observed serum PBB concentration levels significantly better than the OLS two-stage decay model (mixed-effects model, r=0.93; OLS two-stage model, r=0.86; P<0.0001). PMID:18183045

  16. On-site assessment of extractable soil nutrients after long-term biosolids applications to perennial forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate soil nutrient loading and depth distributions of extractable nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) after long-term, continuous annual surface-applications of anaerobically-digested Class B biosolids at a municipal recycling facility in central Te...

  17. Long-Term Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Panic Disorder: Clinical Predictors and Alternative Strategies for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines long-term outcome of cognitive-behavioral treatment in 63 patients with panic disorder. Many patients (27%) sought further treatment for panic during follow-up because of less-than-adequate response to treatment; nevertheless, additional treatment did not result in further clinical improvement. Pretreatment severity of disorder and the…

  18. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

    2008-09-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

  19. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  20. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  1. Long-term stability assessment of a 4D tumor tracking system integrated into a gimbaled linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Mami; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyabe, Yuki; Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Yokota, Kenji; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-09-08

    We assessed long-term stability of tracking accuracy using the Vero4DRT system. This metric was observed between September 2012 and March 2015. A programmable respiratory motion phantom, designed to move phantoms synchronously with respiratory surrogates, was used. The infrared (IR) markers moved in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction as respiratory surrogates, while a cube phantom with a steel ball at the center, representing the tumor, and with radiopaque markers around it moved in the superior-inferior (SI) direction with one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal patterns. A correlation model between the tumor and IR marker motion (4D model) was created from the training data obtained for 20 s just before beam delivery. The irradiation field was set to 3 × 3 cm2 and 300 monitor units (MUs) of desired MV X-ray beam were delivered. The gantry and ring angles were set to 0° and 45°, respectively. During beam delivery, the system recorded approximately 60 electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images. We analyzed: 1) the predictive accuracy of the 4D model (EP), defined as the difference between the detected and predicted target positions during 4D model creation, and 2) the tracking accuracy (ET), defined as the difference between the center of the steel ball and the MV X-ray field on the EPID image. The median values of mean plus two standard deviations (SDs) for EP were 0.06, 0.35, and 0.06 mm in the left-right (LR), SI, and AP directions, respectively. The mean values of maximum deviation for ET were 0.38, 0.49, and 0.53 mm and the coefficients of variance (CV) were 0.16, 0.10, and 0.05 in lateral, longitudinal, and 2D directions, respectively. Consequently, the IR Tracking accuracy was consistent over a period of two years. Our proposed method assessed the overall tracking accuracy readily using real-time EPID images, and proved to be a useful QA tool for dynamic tumor tracking with the Vero4DRT system.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: AN EVALUATION AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These groundwater treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings to intercept an...

  3. Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Christina; Schuur, Edward A G; Bracho, Rosvel; Elberling, Bo; Knoblauch, Christian; Lee, Hanna; Luo, Yiqi; Shaver, Gaius R; Turetsky, Merritt R

    2014-02-01

    High-latitude ecosystems store approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C), which is twice as much C as is currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of permafrost organic matter could add large amounts of C to the atmosphere, thereby influencing the global C cycle. The rates at which C is being released from the permafrost zone at different soil depths and across different physiographic regions are poorly understood but crucial in understanding future changes in permafrost C storage with climate change. We assessed the inherent decomposability of C from the permafrost zone by assembling a database of long-term (>1 year) aerobic soil incubations from 121 individual samples from 23 high-latitude ecosystems located across the northern circumpolar permafrost zone. Using a three-pool (i.e., fast, slow and passive) decomposition model, we estimated pool sizes for C fractions with different turnover times and their inherent decomposition rates using a reference temperature of 5 °C. Fast cycling C accounted for less than 5% of all C in both organic and mineral soils whereas the pool size of slow cycling C increased with C : N. Turnover time at 5 °C of fast cycling C typically was below 1 year, between 5 and 15 years for slow turning over C, and more than 500 years for passive C. We project that between 20 and 90% of the organic C could potentially be mineralized to CO2 within 50 incubation years at a constant temperature of 5 °C, with vulnerability to loss increasing in soils with higher C : N. These results demonstrate the variation in the vulnerability of C stored in permafrost soils based on inherent differences in organic matter decomposability, and point toward C : N as an index of decomposability that has the potential to be used to scale permafrost C loss across landscapes.

  4. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of U by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rittman, Bruce; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender

    2013-12-31

    This four-year project’s overarching aim was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. As stated in this final report, significant progress was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM).

  5. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P < 0.0001), although the COR accumulation in the two matrices was different in relation to the class of age. Moreover, the puppies age influenced both coat and claws COR concentrations (P < 0.05), with premature puppies showing higher values when compared to term born-dead puppies or puppies dead between 1 and 30 days of age. The present study reported that COR is quantifiable in coat and claws of newborn dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species.

  6. Assessing Potential Implications of Climate Change for Long-Term Water Resources Planning in the Colorado River Basin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munevar, A.; Butler, S.; Anderson, R.; Rippole, J.

    2008-12-01

    exploring climate change projections and methods to assess potential impacts over the project's expected life. Following an initial qualitative risk assessment, quantitative climate scenarios were developed based on multiple coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations under a range of global emission scenarios. Projected temperature and precipitation changes were evaluated from 112 downscaled AOGCM projections. A Four scenarios were selected for detailed hydrologic evaluations using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale model. A quantile mapping procedure was applied to map future climatological period change statistics onto the long-term natural climate variability in the observed record. Simulated changes in runoff, river flow, evaporation, and evapotranspiration are used to generate adjustments to historical hydrology for assessment of potential changes to surface water availability, river water quality, riverine habitat, and Bay health. Projected temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are used to estimate changes in agricultural demand. Sea level rise scenarios that include trends in Gulf Coast shelf subsidence are combined with changes in inflows to evaluate increased coastal erosion, upland migration of the estuary, and changes to the salinity regime. Results of the scenario-based analyses are being considered in the development of adaptive management strategies for future operations of the system and the proposed project.

  7. Do managerial efficiency and social responsibility drive long-term financial performance of not-for-profit hospitals before acquisition?

    PubMed

    Phillips, J F

    1999-01-01

    Due to steep declines in charitable support and reduced demand for traditional hospital services, economic goals are increasingly important to not-for-profit hospitals. Effects of efficient management and effective pursuit of not-for-profit status (for example, levels of Medicare, indigent patients, and unprofitable services) on financial viability are explored. While previous research compared hospitals of different ownership status, not-for-profit hospital operations before acquisition by for-profit hospital chains are investigated--"neutral ground" relative to ownership. Results suggest minor links between efficiency and long-term profitability despite effectiveness in pursuit of non taxable status.

  8. Long-term CF6 engine performance deterioration: Evaluation of engine S/N 451-380

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, W. H.; Smith, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The performance testing and analytical teardown of CF6-6D engine serial number 451-380 which was recently removed from a DC-10 aircraft is summarized. The investigative test program was conducted inbound prior to normal overhaul/refurbishment. The performance testing included an inbound test, a test following cleaning of the low pressure turbine airfoils, and a final test after leading edge rework and cleaning the stage one fan blades. The analytical teardown consisted of detailed disassembly inspection measurements and airfoil surface finish checks of the as-received deteriorated hardware. Aspects discussed include the analysis of the test cell performance data, a complete analytical teardown report with a detailed description of all observed hardware distress, and an analytical assessment of the performance loss (deterioration) relating measured hardware conditions to losses in both specific fuel comsumption and exhaust gas temperature.

  9. Long-term CF6 engine performance deterioration: Evaluation of engine S/N 451-479

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, W. H.; Smith, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The performance testing and analytical teardown of CF6-6D engine is summarized. This engine had completed its initial installation on DC-10 aircraft. The investigative test program was conducted inbound prior to normal overhaul/refurbishment. The performance testing included an inbound test, a test following cleaning of the low pressure turbine airfoils, and a final test after leading edge rework and cleaning the stage one fan blades. The analytical teardown consisted of detailed disassembly inspection measurements and airfoil surface finish checks of the as received deteriorated hardware. Included in this report is a detailed analysis of the test cell performance data, a complete analytical teardown report with a detailed description of all observed hardware distress, and an analytical assessment of the performance loss (deterioration) relating measured hardware conditions to losses in both SFC (specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature).

  10. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, the corn grain-based fuel ethanol industry has grown exponentially. Now, stakeholders within the corn grain producing regions of the midwestern United States are seeking to develop advanced biofuels from abundant post-harvest lignocellulosic corn stover resides. How sustainable are these biofuels? Scientific guidelines regarding the sustainable use of corn grain and stover to maintain soil quality have not been clearly defined, due in part to the complexity of agricultural soil systems and the dearth of robust and consistent data. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term sustainability of corn stover harvest for economically relevant agricultural production scenarios focused on the state of Iowa. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model to simulate soil erosion and biomass returned to the soil under two crop rotation scenarios (continuous corn vs. corn-soybean rotation), three corn stover removal rates (0, 50, 100% removed), and three tillage intensities (no till (NT), intermediate till (IT), conventional till (CT)). Calculations were aggregated to the township-scale using multiple sampling points from the USDA Natural Resources Inventory per township within each county, for a total of 17,848 sampling points throughout the state. This accounted for the topographical and soils variation within the state; use of county weather stations incorporated climate variations. Statistical characterization and GIS visualization were used to illustrate and interpret the results. Wide variations in biomass accumulation/erosion/GHG impacts were observed across agronomic scenarios and landform regions throughout Iowa, and biomass management and tillage intensity impacted on-site soil quality and the off-site environment. Soil biomass was primarily affected by stover removal rate, with soybean rotation also reducing soil biomass. Soil erosion was primarily affected by slope and tillage, with stover removal rate playing a lesser

  11. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  12. Quantification of key long-term risks at CO₂ sequestration sites: Latest results from US DOE's National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Rajesh; Bromhal, Grant; Carroll, Susan; Chu, Shaoping; Dilmore, Robert; Gastelum, Jason; Oldenburg, Curt; Stauffer, Philip; Zhang, Yingqi; Guthrie, George

    2014-12-31

    Risk assessment for geologic CO₂ storage including quantification of risks is an area of active investigation. The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is a US-Department of Energy (US-DOE) effort focused on developing a defensible, science-based methodology and platform for quantifying risk profiles at geologic CO₂ sequestration sites. NRAP has been developing a methodology that centers round development of an integrated assessment model (IAM) using system modeling approach to quantify risks and risk profiles. The IAM has been used to calculate risk profiles with a few key potential impacts due to potential CO₂ and brine leakage. The simulation results are also used to determine long-term storage security relationships and compare the long-term storage effectiveness to IPCC storage permanence goal. Additionally, we also demonstrate application of IAM for uncertainty quantification in order to determine parameters to which the uncertainty in model results is most sensitive.

  13. Quantification of key long-term risks at CO₂ sequestration sites: Latest results from US DOE's National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Project

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawar, Rajesh; Bromhal, Grant; Carroll, Susan; Chu, Shaoping; Dilmore, Robert; Gastelum, Jason; Oldenburg, Curt; Stauffer, Philip; Zhang, Yingqi; Guthrie, George

    2014-12-31

    Risk assessment for geologic CO₂ storage including quantification of risks is an area of active investigation. The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is a US-Department of Energy (US-DOE) effort focused on developing a defensible, science-based methodology and platform for quantifying risk profiles at geologic CO₂ sequestration sites. NRAP has been developing a methodology that centers round development of an integrated assessment model (IAM) using system modeling approach to quantify risks and risk profiles. The IAM has been used to calculate risk profiles with a few key potential impacts due to potential CO₂ and brine leakage. The simulation results are alsomore » used to determine long-term storage security relationships and compare the long-term storage effectiveness to IPCC storage permanence goal. Additionally, we also demonstrate application of IAM for uncertainty quantification in order to determine parameters to which the uncertainty in model results is most sensitive.« less

  14. Long-term performance of exteriorized femoral stem after cortical perforation in revision cemented total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aamir H; Neligan, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    This is the first published report of a long-term, fourteen years close annual follow-up of a patient who underwent revision total hip replacement with per-operative anterior cortical perforation of femur while undertaking cemented femoral stem insertion. This patient has complete satisfaction in terms of clinical and radiological outcome. This patient has been walking full weight bearing on her operated leg after 3 months of her surgery. We advocate for the need of paying meticulous attention to observe this complication on operative table and to proceed with controlled stem insertion where doubt exist. Such patients may require a vigilant regular annual follow-up to observe their clinical and radiological status and an expectant approach may be adopted unless patient becomes symptomatic.

  15. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing’, typical in intermediate’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450°F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  16. Analysis of multiple seismic events on the long-term isolation performance of a Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Apted, M.J.; Kozak, M.W.; Kessler, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    A set of IMARC total system performance assessments (TSPA) have been performed to evaluate the potential safety and performance impacts arising from multiple seismic events for a Yucca Mountain repository. Potential impacts of earlier-than-expected containment failure of waste packages (WPs) are modeled based on separate geomechanical analyses of WP-WP collisions, accumulating static load of rock debris, and/or dynamic loading from large rock blocks falling onto WPs. Compared to the 10{sup 6}-year, reasonably expected, peak mean annual dose of 0.020 mrem/yr calculated by IMARC in the absence of failures induced by seismicity/ rock fall, the calculated peak mean annual doses for two, alternative multiple-seismic-event scenarios are calculated to be 0.035 and 0.090 mrem/yr, far below a 15 mrem/yr compliance level. (authors)

  17. Constrained prose recall and the assessment of long-term forgetting: the case of ageing and the Crimes Test.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Alan; Rawlings, Bruce; Hayes, Amie

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that some patients with apparently normal memory may subsequently show accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), with dramatic loss when retested. We describe a constrained prose recall task that attempts to lay the foundations for a test suitable for detecting ALF sensitively and economically. Instead of the usual narrative structure of prose recall tests, it employs a matrix structure involving four episodes, each describing a minor crime, with each crime involving the binding into a coherent episode of a specified range of features, involving the victim, the crime, the criminal and the location, allowing a total of 80 different probed recall questions to be generated. These are used to create four equivalent 20-item tests, three of which are used in the study. After a single verbal presentation, young and elderly participants were tested on three occasions, immediately, and by telephone after a delay of 6 weeks, and at one of a varied range of intermediate points. The groups were approximately matched on immediate test; both showed systematic forgetting which was particularly marked in the elderly. We suggest that constrained prose recall has considerable potential for the study of long-term forgetting. PMID:24295360

  18. Assessment of Topical Skin Care Practices in Long-Term Institutional Nursing Care from a Health Service Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Yasmin; Lahmann, Nils; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Skin aging is associated with increased skin vulnerability and susceptibility to ulcerations and dermatoses, making intensive skin care required, especially for older adults. As part of a nationwide prevalence study, data of 3,385 residents 60 and older were collected to analyze skin care practices in German long-term care facilities. The objective of the current study was to gain detailed insights into frequencies of leave-on skin care product applications by nursing care professionals for older adults. The 10 most frequently treated body parts accounted for >94% of all skin applications. Variations related to gender, age, and skin areas indicate differences in perceived skin care needs, although the evidence base supporting basic skin care interventions in this setting is weak. Gender, age, and clinical status seem to influence skin care practices. These factors must be taken into account to improve topical skin care and health in long-term care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 18-24.].

  19. Assessment and significance of phytoplankton species composition within Chesapeake Bay and Virginia tributaries through a long-term monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Harold G; Lane, Michael F; Nesius, Kneeland K; Burchardt, Lubomira

    2009-03-01

    Phytoplankton and water quality long term trends are presented from a 20-year monitoring program of Chesapeake Bay and several of its major tributaries. Increasing phytoplankton biomass and abundance are ongoing within this estuarine complex, with diatoms the dominant component, along with chlorophytes and cyanobacteria as sub-dominant contributors in the tidal freshwater and oligohaline regions. Diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads are among the major flora downstream in the tributaries and within the Chesapeake Bay. Water quality conditions within the three tributaries have remained rather stable over this time period; while there are long term trends of reduced nutrients, increasing bottom oxygen, and decreasing water clarity for the lower Chesapeake Bay. Of note is an increasing trend of cyanobacteria biomass at 12 of the 13 stations monitored at tributary and Chesapeake Bay stations, plus the presence of 37 potentially harmful taxa reported for these waters. However, the overall status of the phytoplankton populations is presently favorable, in that it is mainly represented and dominated by taxa suitable as a major food and oxygen source within this ecosystem. Although potentially harmful taxa are present, they have not at this time exerted profound impact to the region, or replaced the diatom populations in overall dominance.

  20. Prolonged exposure to low doses of ozone: short- and long-term changes in behavioral performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Sorace, A; de Acetis, L; Alleva, E; Santucci, D

    2001-02-01

    Two separate experiments were designed to assess the effects of ozone exposure on outbred CD-1 mice. In the first experiment, adult males were exposed continuously to O3 at 0, 0.3, or 0.6 ppm for 30 days and their behavior was assessed in a 5-min open-field test on exposure days 4 and 19 and on day 3 after the end of the exposure phase. In addition, mice performed a Morris water maze task from exposure day 24 to 28. In the second experiment, adult females were exposed from 30 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs until gestational day 17 to the same doses used in the first experiment. Litters were fostered at birth to untreated dams and neurobehavioral development of the offspring was investigated until adulthood. Specifically, somatic and sensorimotor development [postnatal day (PND) 2-20], homing performance (PND 12), motor activity (PND 21), passive avoidance (PND 22-23), water maze performances (PND 70-74), and response to a nociceptive stimulus (PND 100) were assessed. Results from both experiments confirm that exposure to O3 slightly but selectively affected neurobehavioral performance in rodents. Exposure to O3 did not grossly affect neurobehavioral development, whereas it consistently impaired reversal learning in the Morris water maze test in both prenatally and adult exposed mice. Moreover, longer latency to step-through in the first trial of the passive avoidance test and a decrease in wall rearing in the hot-plate test were recorded in O3 prenatally exposed mice. Except for the first open-field test, altered responses were observed only in animals exposed at the intermediate concentration of the gas. Adaptation and/or onset of compensatory mechanisms might be responsible for the lack of linear dose-response relationships.

  1. [Radiometers performance attenuation and data correction in long-term observation of total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation in typical forest ecosystems in China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Gui-Rui; Wen, Xue-Fa; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations with net radiometer (CNR1) and quantum sensor (Li-190SB) in 4 ChinaFLUX forest sites (Changbaishan, Qianyanzhou, Dinghushan, and Xishuangbanna) in 2003-2008, this paper analyzed the uncertainties and the radiometers performance changes in long-term and continuous field observation. The results showed that the 98% accuracy of the total radiation measured with CNR1 (Q(cNR1)) could satisfy the technical criterion for the sites except Xishuangbanna where the Q(CNR1) was averagely about 7% lower than Q(CM11), the radiation measured with high accuracy pyranometer CM11. For most sites, though the temperature had definite effects on the performance of CNR1, the effects were still within the allowable range of the accuracy of the instrument. Besides temperature, the seasonal fog often occurred in tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna also had effects on the performance of CNR1. Based on the long-term variations of PAR, especially its ratio to total radiation in the 4 sites, it was found that quantum sensor (Li-190SB) had obvious performance attenuation, with the mean annual attenuation rate being about 4%. To correct the observation error caused by Li-190SB, an attempt was made to give a post-correction of the PAR observations, which could basically eliminate the quantum sensor's performance attenuation due to long-term field measurement.

  2. Assessing the Ability of Instantaneous Aircraft and Sonde Measurements to Characterize Climatological Means and Long-Term Trends in Tropospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Over four decades of measurements exist that sample the 3-D composition of reactive trace gases in the troposphere from approximately weekly ozone sondes, instrumentation on civil aircraft, and individual comprehensive aircraft field campaigns. An obstacle to using these data to evaluate coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs)the models used to project future changes in atmospheric composition and climateis that exact space-time matching between model fields and observations cannot be done, as CCMs generate their own meteorology. Evaluation typically involves averaging over large spatiotemporal regions, which may not reflect a true average due to limited or biased sampling. This averaging approach generally loses information regarding specific processes. Here we aim to identify where discrete sampling may be indicative of long-term mean conditions, using the GEOS-Chem global chemical-transport model (CTM) driven by the MERRA reanalysis to reflect historical meteorology from 2003 to 2012 at 2o by 2.5o resolution. The model has been sampled at the time and location of every ozone sonde profile available from the Would Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), along the flight tracks of the IAGOSMOZAICCARABIC civil aircraft campaigns, as well as those from over 20 individual field campaigns performed by NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF, NERC (UK), and DLR (Germany) during the simulation period. Focusing on ozone, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen species, we assess where aggregates of the in situ data are representative of the decadal mean vertical, spatial and temporal distributions that would be appropriate for evaluating CCMs. Next, we identically sample a series of parallel sensitivity simulations in which individual emission sources (e.g., lightning, biogenic VOCs, wildfires, US anthropogenic) have been removed one by one, to assess where and when the aggregated observations may offer constraints on these processes within CCMs. Lastly, we show results of an

  3. Assessing the Ability of Instantaneous Aircraft and Sonde Measurements to Characterize Climatological Means and Long-Term Trends in Tropospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, L. T.; Fiore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Over four decades of measurements exist that sample the 3-D composition of reactive trace gases in the troposphere from approximately weekly ozone sondes, instrumentation on civil aircraft, and individual comprehensive aircraft field campaigns. An obstacle to using these data to evaluate coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs)—the models used to project future changes in atmospheric composition and climate—is that exact space-time matching between model fields and observations cannot be done, as CCMs generate their own meteorology. Evaluation typically involves averaging over large spatiotemporal regions, which may not reflect a true average due to limited or biased sampling. This averaging approach generally loses information regarding specific processes. Here we aim to identify where discrete sampling may be indicative of long-term mean conditions, using the GEOS-Chem global chemical-transport model (CTM) driven by the MERRA reanalysis to reflect historical meteorology from 2003 to 2012 at 2o by 2.5o resolution. The model has been sampled at the time and location of every ozone sonde profile available from the Would Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), along the flight tracks of the IAGOS/MOZAIC/CARABIC civil aircraft campaigns, as well as those from over 20 individual field campaigns performed by NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF, NERC (UK), and DLR (Germany) during the simulation period. Focusing on ozone, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen species, we assess where aggregates of the in situ data are representative of the decadal mean vertical, spatial and temporal distributions that would be appropriate for evaluating CCMs. Next, we identically sample a series of parallel sensitivity simulations in which individual emission sources (e.g., lightning, biogenic VOCs, wildfires, US anthropogenic) have been removed one by one, to assess where and when the aggregated observations may offer constraints on these processes within CCMs. Lastly, we show results

  4. Chloroplast incorporation and long-term photosynthetic performance through the life cycle in laboratory cultures of Elysia timida (Sacoglossa, Heterobranchia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Mediterranean sacoglossan Elysia timida is one of the few sea slug species with the ability to sequester chloroplasts from its food algae and to subsequently store them in a functional state in the digestive gland cells for more than a month, during which time the plastids retain high photosynthetic activity (= long-term retention). Adult E. timida have been described to feed on the unicellular alga Acetabularia acetabulum in their natural environment. The suitability of E. timida as a laboratory model culture system including its food source was studied. Results In contrast to the literature reporting that juvenile E. timida feed on Cladophora dalmatica first, and later on switch to the adult diet A. acetabulum, the juveniles in this study fed directly on A. acetabulum (young, non-calcified stalks); they did not feed on the various Cladophora spp. (collected from the sea or laboratory culture) offered. This could possibly hint to cryptic speciation with no clear morphological differences, but incipient ecological differentiation. Transmission electron microscopy of chloroplasts from A. acetabulum after initial intake by juvenile E. timida showed different states of degradation — in conglomerations or singularly — and fragments of phagosome membranes, but differed from kleptoplast images of C. dalmatica in juvenile E. timida from the literature. Based on the finding that the whole life cycle of E. timida can be completed with A. acetabulum as the sole food source, a laboratory culture system was established. An experiment with PAM-fluorometry showed that cultured E. timida are also able to store chloroplasts in long-term retention from Acetabularia peniculus, which stems from the Indo-Pacific and is not abundant in the natural environment of E. timida. Variations between three experiment groups indicated potential influences of temperature on photosynthetic capacities. Conclusions E. timida is a viable laboratory model system to study

  5. CONTENTS OF LONG TERM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES TO SUPPORT THE RETRIEVAL & CLOSURE OF TANKS FOR THE WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2004-01-13

    summary of this document. Section 3.0 describes the requirements of performance analyses. Section 4 provides the contents of the master performance assessment.

  6. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    BP McGrail, WL Ebert, DH Bacon, DM Strachan

    1998-02-18

    Privatized services are being procured to vitrify low-activity tank wastes for eventual disposal in a shallow subsurface facility at the Hanford Site. Over 500,000 metric tons of low-activity waste glass will be generated, which is among the largest volumes of waste within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and is one of the largest inventories of long-lived radionuclides planned for disposal in a low-level waste facility. Before immobilized waste can be disposed, DOE must approve a "performance assessment," which is a document that describes the impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Because the release rate of radionuclides from the glass waste form is a key factor determining these impacts, a sound scientific basis for determining their long-term release rates must be developed if this disposal action is to be accepted by regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and the public. In part, the scientific basis is determined from a sound testing strategy. The foundation of the proposed testing strategy is a well accepted mechanistic model that is being used to calculate the glass corrosion behavior over the geologic time scales required for performance assessment. This model requires that six parameters be determined, and the testing program is defined by an appropriate set of laboratory experiments to determine these parameters, and is combined with a set of field experiments to validate the model as a whole. Three general classes of laboratory tests are proposed in this strategy: 1) characterization, 2) accelerated, and 3) service condition. Characterization tests isolate and provide specific information about processes or parameters in theoretical models. Accelerated tests investigate corrosion behavior that will be important over the regulated service life of a disposal system within a laboratory time frame of a few years or less. Service condition tests verify that the techniques used in accelerated tests do not change

  7. Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in southwestern Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Sultan, M.; Environmental Research

    2002-05-10

    A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0x10{sup 9} m{sup 3}/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5x10{sup 6} acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

  8. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wattanasirmkit, Kingkaew; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term administration of Pueraria mirifica (PM) at non-toxic doses on the ovarian function and fertility of adult female mice based on evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Female mice were divided into 4 groups (36 mice/group). Groups 1-3 were orally treated with a dose of 0 (PM-0), 10 (PM-10) or 100 mg/kg BW/day PM (PM-100), and group 4 was subcutaneously injected with 200 mug/kg BW/day of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). The treatment schedule was separated into treatment and post-treatment periods. The duration of each period was 8 weeks. The PM-10 mice exhibited regular estrous cycles, while the PM-100 and DES treatments induced prolonged estrous cycles. Although no changes were observed in the uterus and ovary weights of the mice after the PM-100 and DES treatments, hyperplasia of the uterine endothelium and a decrease in the number of growing ovarian follicles were detected. The changes in the ovarian histologies of the PM-100 and DES mice were related to reductions in the levels of LH and FSH, which subsequently caused a decrease in mating efficiency. Once the PM mice were able to copulate, they were capable of successfully becoming pregnant and mothering offspring. No abnormalities were observed in the external morphologies and reproductive organ weights of the 50-day-old offspring. In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term exposure to 100 mg/kg BW of PM has adverse effects on the mating efficiency and reproduction of adult female mice and that administration of 10 mg/kg BW of PM does not induce any changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis.

  9. An integrated assessment of long-term changes in the hydrology of three lowland rivers in eastern England.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, K M; Lister, D H; Boar, R R; Green, F M

    2001-03-01

    The flow records of the Rivers Bure, Nar and Wensum in eastern England have been examined with the aim of identifying long-term changes in flow behaviour relating to variations in rainfall amount, land use, land drainage intensity and water resources use. In the study area, and since 1931, there is no evidence of long-term change in rainfall amount or distribution, on either an annual or seasonal basis. Despite changes in water resources use and catchment characteristics since the beginning of the century, such as the ending of water milling and increased land drainage and arable farming, rainfall-runoff modelling over the period 1964-1992 showed that the relationship between rainfall and runoff has remained essentially unchanged in the three study rivers. A catchment resource model used to 'naturalise' the historic flow records for the period 1971-1992 to account for the net effect of water supply abstractions and discharges revealed that mean river flows have been altered by surface water and groundwater abstractions, although the average losses to mean weekly flows due to net abstractions for all water uses was no greater than 3%. Greater losses occurred during drought periods as a result of increased consumptive use of water for spray irrigation and amounted to a maximum loss of 24% in the Nar catchment. In lowland areas such as eastern England that are prone to summer dry weather and periodic drought conditions, an integrated approach to river basin management, as advocated by the EU Framework Directive, is recommended for future management of surface and groundwater resources for public water supplies, river regulation purposes and industrial and agricultural demands.

  10. Assessing the microbial community and functional genes in a vertical soil profile with long-term arsenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Guosheng; Tu, Shuxin; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Gejiao

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in soil and groundwater has become a serious problem to public health. To examine how microbial communities and functional genes respond to long-term arsenic contamination in vertical soil profile, soil samples were collected from the surface to the depth of 4 m (with an interval of 1 m) after 16-year arsenic downward infiltration. Integrating BioLog and functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0) technologies, we showed that microbial metabolic potential and diversity substantially decreased, and community structure was markedly distinct along the depth. Variations in microbial community functional genes, including genes responsible for As resistance, carbon and nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization and cytochrome c oxidases were detected. In particular, changes in community structures and activities were correlated with the biogeochemical features along the vertical soil profile when using the rbcL and nifH genes as biomarkers, evident for a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyles. The C/N showed marginally significant correlations with arsenic resistance (p = 0.069) and carbon cycling genes (p = 0.073), and significant correlation with nitrogen fixation genes (p = 0.024). The combination of C/N, NO(3) (-) and P showed the highest correlation (r = 0.779, p = 0.062) with the microbial community structure. Contradict to our hypotheses, a long-term arsenic downward infiltration was not the primary factor, while the spatial isolation and nutrient availability were the key forces in shaping the community structure. This study provides new insights about the heterogeneity of microbial community metabolic potential and future biodiversity preservation for arsenic bioremediation management.

  11. Assessing the Microbial Community and Functional Genes in a Vertical Soil Profile with Long-Term Arsenic Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Guosheng; Tu, Shuxin; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Gejiao

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in soil and groundwater has become a serious problem to public health. To examine how microbial communities and functional genes respond to long-term arsenic contamination in vertical soil profile, soil samples were collected from the surface to the depth of 4 m (with an interval of 1 m) after 16-year arsenic downward infiltration. Integrating BioLog and functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0) technologies, we showed that microbial metabolic potential and diversity substantially decreased, and community structure was markedly distinct along the depth. Variations in microbial community functional genes, including genes responsible for As resistance, carbon and nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization and cytochrome c oxidases were detected. In particular, changes in community structures and activities were correlated with the biogeochemical features along the vertical soil profile when using the rbcL and nifH genes as biomarkers, evident for a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyles. The C/N showed marginally significant correlations with arsenic resistance (p = 0.069) and carbon cycling genes (p = 0.073), and significant correlation with nitrogen fixation genes (p = 0.024). The combination of C/N, NO3− and P showed the highest correlation (r = 0.779, p = 0.062) with the microbial community structure. Contradict to our hypotheses, a long-term arsenic downward infiltration was not the primary factor, while the spatial isolation and nutrient availability were the key forces in shaping the community structure. This study provides new insights about the heterogeneity of microbial community metabolic potential and future biodiversity preservation for arsenic bioremediation management. PMID:23226297

  12. Performance and long term degradation of 7 W micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrell, M.; Morata, A.; Kayser, P.; Kendall, M.; Kendall, K.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micro-tubular SOFCs have shown an astonishing thermal shock resistance, many orders of magnitude larger than planar SOFCs, opening the possibility of being used in portable applications. However, only few studies have been devoted to study the degradation of large-area micro-tubular SOFCs. This work presents microstructural, electrochemical and long term degradation studies of single micro-tubular cells fabricated by high shear extrusion, operating in the intermediate range of temperatures (T∼700 °C). A maximum power of 7 W per cell has been measured in a wide range of fuel utilizations between 10% and 60% at 700 °C. A degradation rate of 360 mW/1000 h (8%) has been observed for cells operated over more than 1500 h under fuel utilizations of 40%. Higher fuel utilizations lead to strong degradations associated to nickel oxidation/reduction processes. Quick thermal cycling with heating ramp rates of 30 °C /min yielded degradation rates of 440 mW/100 cycles (9%). These reasonable values of degradation under continuous and thermal cycling operation approach the requirements for many portable applications including auxiliary power units or consumer electronics opening this typically forbidden market to the SOFC technology.

  13. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  14. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper industry biosludge-long-term reactor performance and effects of thermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, V; Ylä-Outinen, A; Rintala, J

    2015-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry wastewater treatment processes produce large volumes of biosludge. Limited anaerobic degradation of lignocellulose has hindered the utilization of biosludge, but the processing of biosludge using anaerobic digestion has recently regained interest. In this study, biosludge was used as a sole substrate in long-term (400 d) mesophilic laboratory reactor trials. Nine biosludge batches collected evenly over a period of one year from a pulp and paper industry wastewater treatment plant had different solid and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements) characteristics. Nutrient characteristics may vary by a factor of 2-11, while biomethane potentials (BMPs) ranged from 89 to 102 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS between batches. The BMPs were enhanced by 39-88% with thermal pretreatments at 105-134 °C. Despite varying biosludge properties, stable operation was achieved in reactor trials with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 d. Hydrolysis was the process limiting step, ceasing gas production when the HRT was shortened to 10 days. However, digestion with an HRT of 10 days was feasible after thermal pretreatment of the biosludge (20 min at 121 °C) due to enhanced hydrolysis. The methane yield was 78 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS for untreated biosludge and was increased by 77% (138 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS) after pretreatment.

  15. Improvement in exercise capacity despite cardiac deteriora tion: nonivasive assessment of long-term therapy with amrinone in severe heart failure.

    PubMed

    Siegel, L A; LeJemtel, T H; Strom, J; Maskin, C; Forman, R; Frishman, W; Wexler, J; Ribner, H; Sonnenblick, E H

    1983-11-01

    Seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) were treated with oral amrinone for a mean duration of 39 weeks (range 16 to 72). During the first week of therapy, exercise capacity as assessed on a treadmill using the Naughton protocol, increased substantially from 7.6 +/- 4.2 to 12.1 +/- 4.4 minutes (p less than 0.01). At an early period of follow-up (8 to 12 weeks), a further significant increase in exercise capacity to 14.7 +/- 5.0 minutes (p less than 0.05) was demonstrated, while at a later follow-up exercise capacity had decreased to 11.4 +/- 6.8 minutes (p less than 0.05). This was still significantly greater than prior to amrinone therapy (p less than 0.01). Left ventricular ejection fraction was increased from 14 +/- 4 to 19 +/- 4% (p less than 0.05) during the first week of therapy, but was not significantly different from control at the early and late periods of follow-up. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index increased from control value of 43 +/- 5 to 47 +/- 7 mm/m2 (p less than 0.01) at the late period of follow-up. Thus long-term amrinone therapy resulted in a substantial improvement in exercise capacity despite a slow, but progressive decline in cardiac performance.

  16. Assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions from a hazardous waste incineration plant using long-term sampling equipment.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Austrui, J; Borrajo, M A; Martinez, K; Adrados, M A; Abalos, M; Van Bavel, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a continuous monitoring system for the analysis of the mass concentration of PCDD/Fs from stationary sources. Data was acquired from a modern, state of the art, hazardous waste thermal treatment plant for a period of more than 2 years using a commercial available continuous monitoring system. The study consisted of a total of 16 samples, collected in periods from 1 week to 2 months resulting in an average of 360 m³ sampled flue gas per sample. The study showed the system was able to confirm that for a period of more than 2 years the plant was complying with the limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). In addition, the data showed the typical fingerprint of such installations which is useful for example in impact studies. Long-term samples were compared to five short-term samples (6 h) collected every 6 months during the study period. Principal component analysis was applied to PCDD/Fs obtained data as useful statistical tool to find out trends and similarities between different samples. Improvement in terms of representativeness of data was achieved through continuous assessment since the starts of the project. The obtained data was further used to determine the emission factor for this activity and the total annual PCDD/Fs release to the atmosphere.

  17. Differences in Activities of Daily Living Performance Between Long-Term Pediatric Sarcoma Survivors and a Matched Comparison Group on Standardized Testing

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Rebecca; Rasch, Elizabeth K.; Mansky, Patrick J.; Oakley, Frances

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a cross-sectional study examining late effects of pediatric sarcoma therapy, long-term survivors were evaluated on their activities of daily living (ADL) performance. PROCEDURE: Thirty-two persons with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma, and non-rhabdomysarcoma-soft tissue sarcoma enrolled an average of 17 years after treatment. Participants were evaluated using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) [1], a standardized observational evaluation of ADL task performance. Means and 95% confidence intervals for ADL motor and ADL process ability measures were calculated for four groups: 1) sarcoma survivors, 2) “well” adults matched for age and gender, 3) “well” adults matched for gender that were 10 years older; and 4) “well” adults matched for gender that were 20 years older. RESULTS: ADL motor ability was significantly lower for sarcoma survivors than for the age and gender matched comparison group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between ADL motor ability of sarcoma survivors and the comparison group 10 years older, but sarcoma survivors had significantly better ADL motor ability (p<0.05) than the oldest comparison group (20 years older). Sarcoma survivors had significantly worse ADL process ability than the age matched group (p<0.05). There was no difference in ADL process ability between the sarcoma survivors and comparison groups that were 10 and 20 years older. CONCLUSIONS: This first report of a clinical evaluation of ADL limitation in pediatric sarcoma survivors treated with intensive multimodal cancer therapy suggests that influences on performance of daily life activities are more common than previously reported. PMID:19533662

  18. The long-term effect of minimalist shoes on running performance and injury: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The outcome of the effects of transitioning to minimalist running shoes is a topic of interest for runners and scientists. However, few studies have investigated the longer term effects of running in minimalist shoes. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effects of a 26 week transition to minimalist shoes on running performance and injury risk in trained runners unaccustomed to minimalist footwear. Methods and analysis A randomised parallel intervention design will be used. Seventy-six trained male runners will be recruited. To be eligible, runners must be aged 18–40 years, run with a habitual rearfoot footfall pattern, train with conventional shoes and have no prior experience with minimalist shoes. Runners will complete a standardised transition to either minimalist or control shoes and undergo assessments at baseline, 6 and 26 weeks. 5 km time-trial performance (5TT), running economy, running biomechanics, triceps surae muscle strength and lower limb bone mineral density will be assessed at each time point. Pain and injury will be recorded weekly. Training will be standardised during the first 6 weeks. Primary statistical analysis will compare 5TT between shoe groups at the 6-week time point and injury incidence across the entire 26-week study period. Ethics and dissemination This RCT has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. Participants will be required to provide their written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the form of journal publications and conference presentations after completion of planned data analysis. Trial registration number This RCT has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785). PMID:26297368

  19. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of <10 min. Apolux's degree of temporal resolution varied across manufacturers, mobile networks, and the time of day that data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  20. Long-term impact of farm management and crops on soil microorganisms assessed by combined DGGE and PLFA analyses

    PubMed Central

    Stagnari, Fabio; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Campanelli, Gabriele; Leteo, Fabrizio; Della Vella, Umberto; Schirone, Maria; Suzzi, Giovanna; Pisante, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, long-term organic and conventional managements were compared at the experimental field of Monsampolo del Tronto (Marche region, Italy) with the aim of investigating soil chemical fertility and microbial community structure. A polyphasic approach, combining soil fertility indicators with microbiological analyses (plate counts, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] and phospholipid fatty acid analysis [PLFA]) was applied. Organic matter, N as well as some important macro and micronutrients (K, P, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn) for crop growth, were more available under organic management. Bacterial counts were higher in organic management. A significant influence of management system and management x crop interaction was observed for total mesophilic bacteria, nitrogen fixing bacteria and actinobacteria. Interestingly, cultivable fungi were not detected in all analyzed samples. PLFA biomass was higher in the organic and Gram positive bacteria dominated the microbial community in both systems. Even if fungal biomass was higher in organic management, fungal PCR-DGGE fingerprinting revealed that the two systems were very similar in terms of fungal species suggesting that 10 years were not enough to establish a new dynamic equilibrium among ecosystem components. A better knowledge of soil biota and in particular of fungal community structure will be useful for the development of sustainable management strategies. PMID:25540640

  1. An Assessment of How Nurse Practitioners Create Access to Primary Care in Canadian Residential Long-Term Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Sangster-Gormley, Esther; Ploeg, Jenny; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail; Kaasalainen, Sharon; McAiney, Carrie; Brazil, Kevin; Taniguchi, Alan; Martin, Lori Schindel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role and activities of nurse practitioners (NPs) working in long-term care (LTC) to understand concepts of access to primary care for residents. Utilizing the "FIT" framework developed by Penchanksy and Thomas, we used a directed content analysis method to analyze data from a pan-Canadian study of NPs in LTC. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted at four sites in western, central and eastern regions of Canada with 143 participants, including NPs, RNs, regulated and unregulated nursing staff, allied health professionals, physicians, administrators and directors and residents and family members. Participants emphasized how the availability and accessibility of the NP had an impact on access to primary and urgent care for residents. Understanding more about how NPs affect access in Canadian LTC will be valuable for nursing practice and healthcare planning and policy and may assist other countries in planning for the introduction of NPs in LTC settings to increase access to primary care. PMID:27673401

  2. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses. PMID:10823920

  3. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  4. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long- term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  5. Assessment tools for determining appropriateness of admission to acute care of persons transferred from long-term care facilities: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Residents of long-term care facilities have a high risk of acute care admission. Estimates of the frequency of inappropriate transfers vary substantially throughout the studies and various assessment tools have been used. The purpose of this study is to systematically review and describe the internationally existing assessment tools used for determining appropriateness of hospital admissions among long-term care residents. Method Systematic review of the literature of two databases (PubMed and CINAHL®). The search covered seven languages and the period between January 2000 and December 2012. All quantitative studies were included if any assessment tool for appropriateness of hospital and/or emergency department admission of long-term care residents was used. Two pairs of independent researchers extracted the data. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, covering study periods between 1991 and 2009. The proportion of admissions considered as inappropriate ranged from 2% to 77%. Throughout the studies, 16 different assessment tools were used; all were based on expert opinion to some extent; six also took into account published literature or interpretation of patient data. Variation between tools depended on the concepts studied, format and application, and aspects evaluated. Overall, the assessment tools covered six aspects: specific medical diagnoses (assessed by n = 8 tools), acuteness/severity of symptoms (n = 7), residents’ characteristics prior to admission (n = 6), residents’ or families’ wishes (n = 3), existence of a care plan (n = 1), and availability or requirement of resources (n = 10). Most tools judged appropriateness based on one fulfilled item; five tools judged appropriateness based on a balance of aspects. Five tools covered only one of these aspects and only six considered four or more aspects. Little information was available on the psychometric properties of the tools. Conclusions Most assessment tools

  6. Long-term performance of ceramic matrix composites at elevated temperatures: Modelling of creep and creep rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, W.A.; Fabeny, B.; Ibnabdeljalil, M.; Iyengar, N.; Reifsnider, K.L.

    1996-07-31

    The models developed, contain explicit dependences on constituent material properties and their changes with time, so that composite performance can be predicted. Three critical processes in ceramic composites at elevated temperatures have been modeled: (1) creep deformation of composite vs stress and time-dependent creep of fibers and matrix, and failure of these components; (2) creep deformation of ``interface`` around broken fibers; and (3) lifetime of the composite under conditions of fiber strength loss over time at temperature. In (1), general evolution formulas are derived for relaxation time of matrix stresses and steady-state creep rate of composite; the model is tested against recent data on Ti-MMCs. Calculations on a composite of Hi-Nicalon fibers in a melt-infiltrated SiC matrix are presented. In (2), numerical simulations of composite failure were made to map out time-to-failure vs applied load for several sets of material parameters. In (3), simple approximate relations are obtained between fiber life and composite life that should be useful for fiber developers and testers. Strength degradation data on Hi-Nicalon fibers is used to assess composite lifetime vs fiber lifetime for Hi-Nicalon fiber composites.

  7. Effects of long-term supplementation of laying hens with high concentrations of cholecalciferol on performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Persia, M E; Higgins, M; Wang, T; Trample, D; Bobeck, E A

    2013-11-01

    There is current interest in increasing human vitamin D dietary intake without having to modify human eating habits. One method to increase human dietary vitamin D intake is to generate eggs with increased concentrations of vitamin D through high-concentration vitamin D feeding in the diets of laying hens. Although eggs can be produced with high concentrations of vitamin D, the consequences of these diets on hen performance and egg quality have not been validated. The objective of this research is to quantify the effects of high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D3) on laying hen performance and egg quality. Hy-Line W36 laying hens were placed on 1 of 5 experimental diets for 40 wk: 1) control (contained 2,200 IU of D3/kg of diet), 2) control + 7,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (9,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 3) control + 15,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (17,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 4) control + 22,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (24,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), and 5) control + 100,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total). Egg production and hen mortality were monitored daily. Feed intake was determined weekly. Eggs were collected at predetermined points throughout the 40-wk period (19 to 58 wk of bird age) for assessment of egg weight, egg component weights, Haugh unit, yolk color score, specific gravity, egg mass, and feed efficiency. There were no consistent differences among the dietary treatments over the experimental period. Hens supplemented with up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet resulted in no significant reductions in egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg component weights, yolk color, Haugh units, and specific gravity in comparison with the control-fed hens (P > 0.05). These data suggest the addition of cholecalciferol to the diet of the laying hen at concentrations up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet had no consistent negative effects on laying hen performance or egg quality. PMID:24135597

  8. Long-term monitoring of a PSC box girder bridge: Operational modal analysis, data normalization and structural modification assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cury, Alexandre; Cremona, Christian; Dumoulin, John

    2012-11-01

    For reliable performance of vibration-based damage detection algorithms, it is important to distinguish abnormal changes in modal parameters caused by structural damage from normal changes due to environmental fluctuations. This paper firstly addresses the modeling of temperature effects on modal frequencies of a PSC box girder bridge located on the A1 motorway in France. Based on a six-month monitoring experimental program, modal frequencies of the first seven mode shapes and temperatures have been measured at three hour intervals. Neural networks are then introduced to formulate regression models for quantifying the effect of temperature on modal parameters (frequencies and mode shapes). In 2009, this bridge underwent a strengthening procedure. In order to assess the effect of strengthening on the vibration characteristics of the bridge, modal properties had to be corrected from temperature influence. Thus, the first goal is to assess the changes on the vibration signature of this bridge induced by the strengthening. For this purpose, classical statistical analysis and clustering methods are applied to the data recorded over the period after strengthening. The second goal is to evaluate the influence of temperature effects on the clustering results. It comes that the temperature correction significantly improves the confidence in the novelty detection and in the strengthening efficiency.

  9. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  10. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andrew C.; Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, episodes of coral reef bleaching and mortality, due primarily to climate-induced ocean warming, have occurred almost annually in one or more of the world's tropical or subtropical seas. Bleaching is episodic, with the most severe events typically accompanying coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomena, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which result in sustained regional elevations of ocean temperature. Using this extended dataset (25+ years), we review the short- and long-term ecological impacts of coral bleaching on reef ecosystems, and quantitatively synthesize recovery data worldwide. Bleaching episodes have resulted in catastrophic loss of coral cover in some locations, and have changed coral community structure in many others, with a potentially critical influence on the maintenance of biodiversity in the marine tropics. Bleaching has also set the stage for other declines in reef health, such as increases in coral diseases, the breakdown of reef framework by bioeroders, and the loss of critical habitat for associated reef fishes and other biota. Secondary ecological effects, such as the concentration of predators on remnant surviving coral populations, have also accelerated the pace of decline in some areas. Although bleaching severity and recovery have been variable across all spatial scales, some reefs have experienced relatively rapid recovery from severe bleaching impacts. There has been a significant overall recovery of coral cover in the Indian Ocean, where many reefs were devastated by a single large bleaching event in 1998. In contrast, coral cover on western Atlantic reefs has generally continued to decline in response to multiple smaller bleaching events and a diverse set of chronic secondary stressors. No clear trends are apparent in the eastern Pacific, the central-southern-western Pacific or the Arabian Gulf, where some reefs are recovering and others are not. The majority of survivors and new recruits on

  11. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes in Odisha, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2013-05-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are important concerns in managing and conserving tropical forests and have global significance. In the Indian context, in the last one century, the forests have undergone significant changes due to several policies undertaken by government as well as increased population pressure. The present study has brought out spatiotemporal changes in forest cover and variation in forest type in the state of Odisha (Orissa), India, during the last 75 years period. The mapping for the period of 1924-1935, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2010 indicates that the forest cover accounts for 81,785.6 km(2) (52.5 %), 56,661.1 km(2) (36.4 %), 51,642.3 km(2) (33.2 %), 49,773 km(2) (32 %) and 48,669.4 km(2) (31.3 %) of the study area, respectively. The study found the net forest cover decline as 40.5 % of the total forest and mean annual rate of deforestation as 0.69 % year(-1) during 1935 to 2010. There is a decline in annual rate of deforestation during 1995 to 2010 which was estimated as 0.15 %. Forest type-wise quantitative loss of forest cover reveals large scale deforestation of dry deciduous forests. The landscape analysis shows that the number of forest patches (per 1,000) are 2.463 in 1935, 10.390 in 1975, 11.899 in 1985, 12.193 in 1995 and 15.102 in 2010, which indicates high anthropogenic pressure on the forests. The mean patch size (km(2)) of forest decreased from 33.2 in 1935 to 5.5 in 1975 and reached to 3.2 by 2010. The study demonstrated that monitoring of long term forest changes, quantitative loss of forest types and landscape metrics provides critical inputs for management of forest resources.

  12. Assessing the long term impact of power plant emissions on regional air pollution using extensive monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Yuval; Broday, David M

    2009-02-01

    In spite of the recent increasing interest in energy production from renewable sources, polluting hydrocarbon-fueled power plants will continue to provide most of the electricity to the world's population in the coming decades. This work studies the long term impact on the regional ambient air which can be attributable to three plants with different power outputs, fuel types, and stack heights. The study is carried out in an area with relatively flat topography and typical coastal meteorology. A dense air pollution monitoring network, operating for many years, makes this area a real life laboratory for studying the pollution routes, the impact of the sources at different directions and distances, and the effects of transition to cleaner fuel. The direct impact of each of the two large power plants on the ambient SO2 levels could be clearly detected in most of the monitoring stations at distances up to 40 km away. Interestingly, a relatively large impact can also be attributed to the indirect effect of emissions that are recirculated back to the region with the land breeze. The transition from using fuel oil to natural gas in one of the large power plants resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mean SO2 levels in all of the monitoring stations. The contribution of the industrial emissions to the ambient NO2 levels seems to be very modest relative to that from traffic. An analysis of the NO, NO2 and O3 records suggests that the highest mean NO2 concentrations, and a large proportion of the total NO2 encountered in the study area, are probably due to recirculated NOx emitted by traffic in a densely populated region north of it. PMID:19216124

  13. An assessment of long-term overtopping risk and optimal termination time of dam under climate change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bau-Shian; You, Gene Jiing-Yun

    2013-05-30

    Reservoir management faces a wide range of new challenges resulting from the impact of climate change. One set of challenges arises from the non-stationary nature of hydrological conditions. Another crucial issue is watershed sedimentation, which can significantly influence the sustainability and safety of reservoirs. To address these concerns, this study developed a framework for the management of reservoir risk. An analytical conceptual model coupling physical governing relationships and economic tools was proposed, which was then applied to the Shihmen Reservoir in Taiwan. We adopted a statistical representation of future hydrologic conditions with the assumption of time-variant moments and focused on evaluating the impact of an increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events caused by climate change and used a stochastic approach to quantify the risk factors. Our results confirm that this approach can be used to identify reservoir-related risks and generate appropriate options for strategy and policy. We determined that the major source of risk is the hydrological conditions, especially the extreme events. More severe intra-annual climatic change is much more dominant in the risk compared to inter-year trends. The influence of reservoir characteristics on risk is associated mainly with the availability of flood control capacity, but limited due to the limitation of its volume and potential to regulate the flow. Engineering may provide an option for mitigating the risk, but integrated, watershed-level approaches, such as providing systematic detention or land use management, are better suited to reducing the storm peak from a long-term perspective. With a critical increase in the risk of overtopping, a high probability of dam failure and corresponding losses may precipitate the need to retire or remove the facility. However, because the benefits and costs are both huge, the decision may be biased by a conservative attitude. The outcome of small

  14. Assessing the long term impact of power plant emissions on regional air pollution using extensive monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Yuval; Broday, David M

    2009-02-01

    In spite of the recent increasing interest in energy production from renewable sources, polluting hydrocarbon-fueled power plants will continue to provide most of the electricity to the world's population in the coming decades. This work studies the long term impact on the regional ambient air which can be attributable to three plants with different power outputs, fuel types, and stack heights. The study is carried out in an area with relatively flat topography and typical coastal meteorology. A dense air pollution monitoring network, operating for many years, makes this area a real life laboratory for studying the pollution routes, the impact of the sources at different directions and distances, and the effects of transition to cleaner fuel. The direct impact of each of the two large power plants on the ambient SO2 levels could be clearly detected in most of the monitoring stations at distances up to 40 km away. Interestingly, a relatively large impact can also be attributed to the indirect effect of emissions that are recirculated back to the region with the land breeze. The transition from using fuel oil to natural gas in one of the large power plants resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mean SO2 levels in all of the monitoring stations. The contribution of the industrial emissions to the ambient NO2 levels seems to be very modest relative to that from traffic. An analysis of the NO, NO2 and O3 records suggests that the highest mean NO2 concentrations, and a large proportion of the total NO2 encountered in the study area, are probably due to recirculated NOx emitted by traffic in a densely populated region north of it.

  15. An assessment of long-term overtopping risk and optimal termination time of dam under climate change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bau-Shian; You, Gene Jiing-Yun

    2013-05-30

    Reservoir management faces a wide range of new challenges resulting from the impact of climate change. One set of challenges arises from the non-stationary nature of hydrological conditions. Another crucial issue is watershed sedimentation, which can significantly influence the sustainability and safety of reservoirs. To address these concerns, this study developed a framework for the management of reservoir risk. An analytical conceptual model coupling physical governing relationships and economic tools was proposed, which was then applied to the Shihmen Reservoir in Taiwan. We adopted a statistical representation of future hydrologic conditions with the assumption of time-variant moments and focused on evaluating the impact of an increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events caused by climate change and used a stochastic approach to quantify the risk factors. Our results confirm that this approach can be used to identify reservoir-related risks and generate appropriate options for strategy and policy. We determined that the major source of risk is the hydrological conditions, especially the extreme events. More severe intra-annual climatic change is much more dominant in the risk compared to inter-year trends. The influence of reservoir characteristics on risk is associated mainly with the availability of flood control capacity, but limited due to the limitation of its volume and potential to regulate the flow. Engineering may provide an option for mitigating the risk, but integrated, watershed-level approaches, such as providing systematic detention or land use management, are better suited to reducing the storm peak from a long-term perspective. With a critical increase in the risk of overtopping, a high probability of dam failure and corresponding losses may precipitate the need to retire or remove the facility. However, because the benefits and costs are both huge, the decision may be biased by a conservative attitude. The outcome of small

  16. Perspectives in using shorebird counts for assessing long-term changes in wader numbers in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Cor J.

    1989-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, a tradition has developed in western Europe of carrying out shorebird surveys in estuaries. These counts are mostly conducted by amateur ornithologists, usually well acquainted with the area in which they are active. The results of these surveys are well reproducible for at least the abundant species, and information is available on the size of the errors which occur. In several parts of Europe, shorebird surveys have been carried out long enough to allow trend analysis of population size. Four examples from Great Britain demonstrate that monitoring schemes may also be used for management purposes, especially if combined with specific research projects. Long-term shorebird surveys can be used not only for simple analysis of trends in bird numbers, but also to provide a deeper understanding of the functioning of the ecosystem. They may also act as a tool to document the effects of management activities in the area concerned. Shorebird surveys in the Wadden Sea have not only revealed the extremely large importance of the area, especially for waders, but also show that different areas are exploited in different ways. They have also provided data on changes in bird numbers throughout the year. Apart from the counts carried out in January, the frequency of counts in most areas in the Wadden Sea has been too low to allow the results to be used for monitoring purposes. In an area as large as the Wadden Sea, some sites, often supporting large numbers of birds, may not always be covered during simultaneous surveys. This may seriously affect the completeness of the count. The best way to overcome this problem is to calculate index values, using only those sites which have been surveyed in successive years. Two monitoring schemes are proposed which may be effective in providing relevant information for management purposes.

  17. Assessment of Long-Term Drought Characteristics in 14 Major Texas Cities Based on CMIP5 Multi-Model Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, K.; Medina-Tamayo, A.; Perry, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Texas is a highly water-stressed region due to rapid population growth and frequent droughts. Characterizing long-term drought is thus critical for sustainable water use planning. The Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) is a widely-used drought index as it considers both the supply and demand elements of the water balance and can be used to compare drought characteristics across locations. In this study, bias-corrected and spatially disaggregated (BCSD) temperature and precipitation projections from an ensemble of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) earth system models were used to develop the SPEI for 14 major cities spread across different climate divisions of Texas. The SPEI were computed for 12 and 24 month scales for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario for three time periods, 1950-1999 (historic), 2000-2049 (early), and 2050-2099 (latter). Both the SPEI-12 and SPEI-24 show a sharply-declining trend beginning in middle of the 21st century across all locations. The most severe droughts, characterized by the number of consecutive and overall months with SPEI ≤ 1.5, generally occur in the last two decades of the 21st century, particularly in semi-arid locations like El Paso and Laredo and appear to be controlled by potential evapotranspiration (PET). In addition, decreasing trends are observed in annual precipitation in major urban areas such as Austin, San Antonio and Houston. The results of the study highlight the need for proper management of water resources to match the trends in climate, economic and demographic changes.

  18. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  19. MicroPET/CT assessment of FDG uptake in brain after long-term methylphenidate treatment in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Newport, G D; Callicott, R; Liu, S; Thompson, J; Berridge, M S; Apana, S M; Slikker, W; Wang, C; Paule, M G

    2016-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant commonly used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the long-term effects of this drug on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood, we conducted microPET/CT scans on young adult male rhesus monkeys (n=4/group) to gather information on brain metabolism using the uptake of [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) as a marker. Approximately two-year old, male rhesus monkeys were treated orally with MPH twice per day, five days per week (M-F) over a 6-year period. Subjects received MPH at either 2.5 or 12.5mg/kg/dose or vehicle (Prang). To minimize the acute effects of MPH on FDG uptake, microPET/CT scans were scheduled on Mondays before their first daily dosing of the week (approximately 68h since their last treatment). FDG (370±8.88MBq) was injected intravenously and 30min later microPET/CT images were obtained over