Science.gov

Sample records for long-term performance assessments

  1. Diagnostic Performance of Self-Assessment for Constipation in Patients With Long-Term Opioid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tafelski, Sascha; Bellin, Felicitas; Denke, Claudia; Beutlhauser, Torsten; Fritzsche, Thomas; West, Christina; Schäfer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is a prevalent comorbidity affecting ∼50% of patients with long-term opioid therapy. In clinical routine different diagnostic instruments are in use to identify patients under risk. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of an 11-item Likert scale for constipation used as a self-assessment in opioid-treated patients. This trial was conducted as a retrospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany. Patients with long-term opioid therapy treated in 2 university-affiliated outpatient pain facilities at the Charité hospital were included from January 2013 to August 2013. Constipation was rated in a self-assessment using a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 (Con-NRS) and compared with results from a structured assessment based on ROME-III criteria. Altogether, 171 patients were included. Incidence of constipation was 49% of patients. The receiver-operating characteristic of Con-NRS achieved an area under the curve of 0.814 (AUC 95% confidence interval 0.748-0.880, P < 0.001). Con-NRS ≥ 1 achieved sensitivity and specificity of 79.7% and 77.2%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 70.3% and 81.6%, respectively. Overall diagnostic performance of a concise 11-item Likert scale for constipation was moderate. Although patients with long-term opioid therapy are familiar with numeric rating scales, a significant number of patients with constipation were not identified. The instrument may be additionally useful to facilitate individualized therapeutic decision making and to control therapeutic success when measured repetitively.

  2. Rodent model for assessing the long term safety and performance of peripheral nerve recording electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Patel, Kunal; Welle, Cristin

    2017-02-01

    Objective. In the US alone, there are approximately 185 000 cases of limb amputation annually, which can reduce the quality of life for those individuals. Current prosthesis technology could be improved by access to signals from the nervous system for intuitive prosthesis control. After amputation, residual peripheral nerves continue to convey motor signals and electrical stimulation of these nerves can elicit sensory percepts. However, current technology for extracting information directly from peripheral nerves has limited chronic reliability, and novel approaches must be vetted to ensure safe long-term use. The present study aims to optimize methods to establish a test platform using rodent model to assess the long term safety and performance of electrode interfaces implanted in the peripheral nerves. Approach. Floating Microelectrode Arrays (FMA, Microprobes for Life Sciences) were implanted into the rodent sciatic nerve. Weekly in vivo recordings and impedance measurements were performed in animals to assess performance and physical integrity of electrodes. Motor (walking track analysis) and sensory (Von Frey) function tests were used to assess change in nerve function due to the implant. Following the terminal recording session, the nerve was explanted and the health of axons, myelin and surrounding tissues were assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The explanted electrodes were visualized under high magnification using scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) to observe any physical damage. Main results. Recordings of axonal action potentials demonstrated notable session-to-session variability. Impedance of the electrodes increased upon implantation and displayed relative stability until electrode failure. Initial deficits in motor function recovered by 2 weeks, while sensory deficits persisted through 6 weeks of assessment. The primary cause of failure was identified as lead wire breakage in all of animals. IHC indicated myelinated and unmyelinated axons

  3. Reduced model for wave power plant long-term performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, R.; Bettencourt, J. de; Justino, P.; Pontes, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    Although considerable knowledge was already gained in the numerical modelling of wave power plants, methodologies for their sizing and long-term performance prediction still need improvement. In particular, there is a need both for more experimental data from pilot plants and for simple, yet comprehensive and accurate, design methods. The current paper focuses on the latter aspect. It is shown how to devise performance assessment schemes using (1) samples of results of detailed numerical models to build a reduced model and (2) taking into account the wave climate at a chosen site. A practical example of this scheme of principle is presented for a simplified case of an uncontrolled oscillating water-column plant, and it is demonstrated how important conclusions about sensitivity to design parameters and best modes of operation can be derived that are not apparent from the isolated inspection of detailed numerical simulations.

  4. An Assessment of Long-Term Compliance with Performance Standards in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bosch, Kyle; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-04-01

    Under the US Clean Water Act, wetland restoration is used to compensate for adverse impacts to wetlands. Following construction, compensation wetlands are monitored for approximately 5 years to determine if they comply with project-specific performance standards. Once a compensation site complies with performance standards, it is assumed that the site will continue to meet standards indefinitely. However, there have been few assessments of long-term compliance. We surveyed, in 2012, 30 compensation sites 8-20 years after restoration to determine whether projects continued to meet performance standards. Additionally, we compared floristic quality of compensation sites to the quality of adjacent natural wetlands to determine whether wetland condition in compensation sites could be predicted based on the condition of nearby wetlands. Compensation sites met, on average, 65% of standards during the final year of monitoring and 53% of standards in 2012, a significant decrease in compliance. Although forested wetlands often failed to meet standards for planted tree survival, the temporal decrease in compliance was driven by increasing dominance by invasive plants in emergent wetlands. The presumption of continued compliance with performance standards after a 5-year monitoring period was not supported. Wetlands restored near better quality natural wetlands achieved and maintained greater floristic quality, suggesting that landscape context was an important determinant of long-term restoration outcomes. Based on our findings, we recommend that compensation wetlands should be monitored for longer time periods, and we suggest that nearby or adjacent natural wetlands provide good examples of reasonably achievable restoration outcomes in a particular landscape.

  5. An Assessment of Long-Term Compliance with Performance Standards in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, Kyle; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-04-01

    Under the US Clean Water Act, wetland restoration is used to compensate for adverse impacts to wetlands. Following construction, compensation wetlands are monitored for approximately 5 years to determine if they comply with project-specific performance standards. Once a compensation site complies with performance standards, it is assumed that the site will continue to meet standards indefinitely. However, there have been few assessments of long-term compliance. We surveyed, in 2012, 30 compensation sites 8-20 years after restoration to determine whether projects continued to meet performance standards. Additionally, we compared floristic quality of compensation sites to the quality of adjacent natural wetlands to determine whether wetland condition in compensation sites could be predicted based on the condition of nearby wetlands. Compensation sites met, on average, 65% of standards during the final year of monitoring and 53% of standards in 2012, a significant decrease in compliance. Although forested wetlands often failed to meet standards for planted tree survival, the temporal decrease in compliance was driven by increasing dominance by invasive plants in emergent wetlands. The presumption of continued compliance with performance standards after a 5-year monitoring period was not supported. Wetlands restored near better quality natural wetlands achieved and maintained greater floristic quality, suggesting that landscape context was an important determinant of long-term restoration outcomes. Based on our findings, we recommend that compensation wetlands should be monitored for longer time periods, and we suggest that nearby or adjacent natural wetlands provide good examples of reasonably achievable restoration outcomes in a particular landscape.

  6. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  7. Assessment of the effect of castration upon arrival on long-term growth performance of stocker cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Existing records were used to quantify the impact of castration and dehorning of calves upon arrival at a stocker unit on long-term growth performance and morbidity. Male calves (n = 1,105; BW = 186 ± 24 kg) received over a three-year period were used to assess the effects of castration and dehorni...

  8. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  9. Long-Term In-Service Monitoring and Performance Assessment of the Main Cables of Long-Span Suspension Bridges.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Yang; Chen, Suren

    2017-06-16

    Despite the recent developments in structural health monitoring, there remain great challenges for accurately, conveniently, and economically assessing the in-service performance of the main cables for long-span suspension bridges. A long-term structural health monitoring technique is developed to measure the tension force with a conventional sensing technology and further provide the in-service performance assessment strategy of the main cable. The monitoring system adopts conventional vibrating strings transducers to monitor the tension forces of separate cable strands of the main cable in the anchor span. The performance evaluation of the main cable is conducted based on the collected health monitoring data: (1) the measured strand forces are used to derive the overall tension force of a main cable, which is further translated into load bearing capacity assessment using the concept of safety factor; and (2) the proposed technique can also evaluate the uniformity of tension forces from different cable strands. The assessment of uniformity of strand forces of a main cable offers critical information in terms of potential risks of partial damage and performance deterioration of the main cable. The results suggest the proposed low-cost monitoring system is an option to provide approximate estimation of tension forces of main cables for suspension bridges. With the long-term monitoring data, the proposed monitoring-based evaluation methods can further provide critical information to assess the safety and serviceability performance of main cables.

  10. Ownership, Regulation, Quality Assessment, and Performance in the Long-Term Health Care Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmann, Steven G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides further insight into the relationship between facility ownership and facility performance in nursing homes. Found proprietary nursing homes to have lower costs than not-for-profit and government homes. Measures of quality, however, may be inadequate to assess the psychosocial quality aspects of environments. (Author/ABB)

  11. Long term performance session summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hanauer, S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents brief summaries of reports given on plutonium disposal. Topics include: performance of waste forms; glass leaching; ceramic leaching; safeguards and security issues; safeguards of vitrification; and proliferation risks of geologic disposal.

  12. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1993-09-18

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing head values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  13. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  15. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  16. Development of a Risk-Based Performance Assessment Method for Long-Term Cover Systems--Application to the Monticello Mill Tailings Repository

    SciTech Connect

    HO, CLIFFORD K.; ARNOLD, BILL W.; COCHRAN, JOHN R.; WEBB, STEPHEN W.; TAIRA, RANDAL Y.

    2001-10-01

    A probabilistic, risk-based performance-assessment methodology is being developed to assist designers, regulators, and involved stakeholders in the selection, design, and monitoring of long-term covers for contaminated subsurface sites. This report presents an example of the risk-based performance-assessment method using a repository site in Monticello, Utah. At the Monticello site, a long-term cover system is being used to isolate long-lived uranium mill tailings from the biosphere. Computer models were developed to simulate relevant features, events, and processes that include water flux through the cover, source-term release, vadose-zone transport, saturated-zone transport, gas transport, and exposure pathways. The component models were then integrated into a total-system performance-assessment model, and uncertainty distributions of important input parameters were constructed and sampled in a stochastic Monte Carlo analysis. Multiple realizations were simulated using the integrated model to produce cumulative distribution functions of the performance metrics, which were used to assess cover performance for both present- and long-term future conditions. Performance metrics for this study included the water percolation reaching the uranium mill tailings, radon flux at the surface, groundwater concentrations, and dose. Results of this study can be used to identify engineering and environmental parameters (e.g., liner properties, long-term precipitation, distribution coefficients) that require additional data to reduce uncertainty in the calculations and improve confidence in the model predictions. These results can also be used to evaluate alternative engineering designs and to identify parameters most important to long-term performance.

  17. Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Assessing the long-term performance of terrestrial ecosystem models in northeastern United States: linking model structure and output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Moore, D. J.; Dietze, M.; Arellano, A. F.; Dawson, A.; Fox, A. M.; Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Montane, F.; Moreno, G.; Poulter, B.; Quaife, T. L.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Steinkamp, J.; Williams, J. W.; Team, P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are being used to forecast ecosystem response to future climate change. However, the predictions of these models do not agree, and their ability to accurately represent decadal- and longer-scale ecological processes has rarely been tested. Here we investigate how the structure of the terrestrial biosphere models affects their ability to accurately simulate vegetation dynamics over the past 1000 years. Six models and model variations are involved, including the Ecosystem Demography 2 model (ED2), the Community Land Model (CLM4.0, CLM4.5, CLM4.5-dynamic vegetation), and the Lund-Postdam-Jena models (LPJ-GUESS and LPJ-wsl). Using common paleoclimatic drivers and modeling protocols, we simulated vegetation changes in the northeastern US with these models for the past 1000 years. We compared the model outputs with paleoecological/historical benchmark datasets (paleo-vegetation data reconstructed from fossil pollen records and pre-EuroAmerican vegetation data from the Public Land Survey and Town Proprietor Surveys) to evaluate model performance. We characterized the models based on how they represented photosynthesis, water relations, soil, biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation dynamics. Models with similar structures behaved more similarly over time; we found that model attributes of both fast (e.g. photosynthesis) and slow processes (e.g. vegetation dynamics) affect model long-term predictions. However, the effect of model attributes varies among regions and across time. In addition to model structure, parameter uncertainty among models also appears to contribute to the differences in model output. We are currently working on assimilating paleoecological data into a subset of the terrestrial biosphere models to constrain the key model parameters and state variables, and in turn, to better evaluate the effect of model structure alone on model performance.

  19. Structural composite panel performance under long-term load

    Treesearch

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1988-01-01

    Information on the performance of wood-based structural composite panels under long-term load is currently needed to permit their use in engineered assemblies and systems. A broad assessment of the time-dependent properties of panels is critical for creating databases and models of the creep-rupture phenomenon that lead to reliability-based design procedures. This...

  20. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  1. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  2. Modeling long-term collider performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX )

    1991-07-01

    A model for the SSC arcs is described with multipole lattice field errors agglomerated into 32 lattice points, and with first order lattice errors and modulation provided by discrete transfer elements. Numerical solutions for long term dynamic aperture studies are obtained by multipole kick-drift tracking. The CPU time required to track through one turn is minimal, and comparable to that required to implement a one-turn fifth-order Taylor series map. Comparisons with tracking results using a fine grained representation of the lattice are made, and found to be satisfactory. The effects of tune modulation are studied and can substantially degrade long-term dynamic aperture. The effects of small relativistic momentum corrections, usually neglected for the large momenta at the SSC, are shown to have negligible influence on tracking results. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  4. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  5. Concrete in engineered barriers for radioactive waste disposal facilities - phenomenological study and assessment of long term performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, Diederik; Seetharam, Suresh C.; Soto, Albert; Maes, Norbert; Quoc Tri Phung; Liu, Sanheng; Perko, Janez; Patel, Ravi; Wang, Lian; Guang Ye; Klaas van Breugel; Geert De Schutter

    2013-07-01

    The paper aims to highlight recent developments at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in experimental and numerical study of the coupled physical-chemical behaviour of concrete subject to chemical degradation. The discussion mainly focusses on three inter-linked research projects covering novel experimental methods to study the alteration of hydraulic and transport properties during carbonation and calcium leaching, a pore scale numerical model to capture microstructural changes due to the above degradation processes and a generic multiscale model aimed at determining evolution of the properties of a macrostructure over the long term. The paper also describes supplementary continuum scale numerical studies concerning concrete-clay interactions and geochemical impact on the physical structure of concrete. Preliminary findings from these studies show encouraging results such as the development of novel leaching, water permeability and diffusion apparatus, a robust pore scale model based on Lattice-Boltzmann method and a mesoscale study focused on the importance of interfacial transition zones on the effective diffusivity for linear and nonlinear diffusion problems. (authors)

  6. Assessment of dynamic and long-term performance of an innovative multi-story timber building via structural monitoring and dynamic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Gaul, Andrew; Jager, Simon; Desgeorges, Yohann

    2012-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight non-composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of approximately 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The analysis of monitoring results starts with a discussion of the monitoring of long-term deformations. Next, the assessment of the floor vibration serviceability performance is outlined. Then, the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed. The system identification results from seismic shaking records are also discussed. Finally, updating of a finite element model of the building is conducted.

  7. Is It Just a Bad Class? Assessing the Long-Term Stability of Estimated Teacher Performance. Working Paper 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on work estimating the stability of value-added estimates of teacher effects, an important area of investigation given public interest in workforce policies that implicitly assume effectiveness is a stable attribute within teachers. The results strongly reject the hypothesis that teacher performance is completely stable…

  8. Long-term assessment of best cathode position to maximise microbial fuel cell performance in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Clara; Garfí, Marianna; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-09-01

    The cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) implemented in constructed wetlands (CWs) is generally set in close contact with water surface to provide a rich oxygen environment. However, water level variations caused by plants evapotranspiration in CWs might decrease MFC performance by limiting oxygen transfer to the cathode. Main objective of this work was to quantify the effect of water level variation on MFC performance implemented in HSSF CW. For the purpose of this work two MFCs were implemented within a HSSF CW pilot plant fed with primary treated domestic wastewater. Cell voltage (Ecell) and the relative distance between the cathode and the water level were recorded for one year. Results showed that Ecell was greatly influenced by the relative distance between the cathode and the water level, giving an optimal cathode position of about 1 to 2cm above water level. Both water level variation and Ecell were daily and seasonal dependent, showing a pronounced day/night variation during warm periods and showing almost no daily variation during cold periods. Energy production under pronounced daily water level variation was 40% lower (80±56mWh/m(2)·day) than under low water level variation (131±61mWh/m(2)·day). Main conclusion of the present work is that of the performance of MFC implemented in HSSF CW is highly dependent on plants evapotranspiration. Therefore, MFC that are to be implemented in CWs shall be designed to be able to cope with pronounced water level variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance. Working Paper 174

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Özek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola

    2017-01-01

    We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long-term oriented attitudes perform better…

  10. Long term performance stability of silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, R.; Betancourt, C.; Kühn, S.; Hauser, M.; Messmer, I.; Hasenfratz, A.; Thomas, M.; Lohwasser, K.; Parzefall, U.; Jakobs, K.

    2015-10-01

    The HL-LHC investigations on silicon particle sensor performance are carried out with the intention to reproduce the harsh environments foreseen, but usually in individual short measurements. Recently, several groups have observed a decrease in the charge collection of silicon strip sensors after several days, in particular on sensors showing charge multiplication. This phenomenon has been explained with a surface effect, the increase of charge sharing due to the increment of positive charge in the silicon oxide coming from the source used for charge collection measurements. Observing a similar behaviour in other sensors for which we can exclude this surface effect, we propose and investigate alternative explanations, namely trapping related effects (change of polarization) and annealing related effects. Several n-on-p strip sensors, as-processed and irradiated with protons and neutrons up to 5 ×1015neq /cm2, have been subjected to charge collection efficiency measurements for several days, while parameters like the impedance have been monitored. The probable stressing conditions have been changed in an attempt to recover the collected charge in case of a decrease. The results show that for the investigated sensors the effect of charge sharing induced by a radioactive source is not important, and a main detrimental factor is due to very high voltage, while at lower voltages the performance is stable.

  11. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    Std Z39-18 | Bureau International des Poids et Mesures Metrologia Metrologia 51 (2014) 263–269 doi:10.1088/0026-1394/51/3/263 Evaluation of long term...MAY 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of long term performance of continuously...engineering and evaluation . The workhorses of the timing community, commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers, which do not incorporate any laser technology

  12. Long term stability and performance of solar system instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lior, N.; Brish, R.T.; Koffs, S.; Tedori, L.

    1983-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the quality and reliability of methods used for long-term performance evaluation of solar systems, detailed information is provided about the long-term (typically over 2 years) performance and stability of a relatively large number of instruments used in the performance monitoring of a well-instrumented solar heating project. The calibration methods are also described. The instruments include resistance temperature detectors, several types of flowmeters, wattmeters, pyranometers, wind anemometers, a humidity meter, a barometer, differential temperature solar system controllers, and an automatic data acquisition system used to scan, convert and store the data. Recommendations for good instrumentation of solar systems are also provided. It was found that the critical instruments for performance evaluation, and most of the instruments overall, have performed very well over the long term, allowing thermal performance evaluation with an accuracy better than 3% with only one calibration per year.

  13. Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.

    2001-08-01

    As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

  14. Fracture risk assessment in long-term care: a survey of long-term care physicians.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michelle; Lohfeld, Lynne; Giangregorio, Lora; Ioannidis, George; Kennedy, Courtney C; Moser, Andrea; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Morin, Suzanne N

    2013-10-18

    The majority of frail elderly who live in long-term care (LTC) are not treated for osteoporosis despite their high risk for fragility fractures. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis provide guidance for the management of individuals 50 years and older at risk for fractures, however, they cannot benefit LTC residents if physicians perceive barriers to their application. Our objectives are to explore current practices to fracture risk assessment by LTC physicians and describe barriers to applying the recently published Osteoporosis Canada practice guidelines for fracture assessment and prevention in LTC. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with the Ontario Long-Term Care Physicians Association using an online questionnaire. The survey included questions that addressed members' attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour with respect to fracture risk assessment in LTC. Closed-ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic framework analysis for open-ended responses. We contacted 347 LTC physicians; 25% submitted completed surveys (81% men, mean age 60 (Standard Deviation [SD] 11) years, average 32 [SD 11] years in practice). Of the surveyed physicians, 87% considered prevention of fragility fractures to be important, but a minority (34%) reported using validated fracture risk assessment tools, while 33% did not use any. Clinical risk factors recommended by the OC guidelines for assessing fracture risk considered applicable included; glucocorticoid use (99%), fall history (93%), age (92%), and fracture history (91%). Recommended clinical measurements considered applicable included: weight (84%), thyroid-stimulating hormone (78%) and creatinine (73%) measurements, height (61%), and Get-Up-and-Go test (60%). Perceived barriers to assessing fracture risk included difficulty acquiring necessary information, lack of access to tests (bone mineral density, x-rays) or obtaining medical history; resource constraints

  15. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  16. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  17. Assessing the market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Rice, J A; Taylor, S

    1984-02-01

    Traditionally, long-term care services have been used by a diverse marketplace. The chronically ill, developmentally disabled, mentally ill and aging population has looked to long-term care support services as a means of physical and emotional support. Much of the time these services were housed together for the sake of efficiency. The enormous burden these services are creating on the economy, and the growing aging population, have forced the recognition that long-term care service delivery systems must change. Alternate programming for long-term care services that reach out into the community and into individual homes is becoming an attractive approach to meeting the growing demands of the marketplace. Home health, specialized housing and creative funding mechanisms such as HMOs, are examples of initiatives undertaken by healthcare organizations that view diversification as a vehicle for survival. Market research techniques that have been used in other industries are being adapted to the healthcare industry to ensure the proper mix of services that are demanded by older, more knowledgeable consumers. The programs of the future will be market driven, with the ability of the individual to pay for such services playing a significant role. The healthcare provider of today is in a position to serve the community in new ways. By becoming an integral link in the long-term care system and by developing new programs, the organization can serve as a catalyst for change. It is up to the governing bodies and managers of these facilities to become visionaries and to accept responsibility for assessing the market for long-term care services and to guide their organization into the future.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: Academic Achievement and Performance.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Madhoo, Manisha; Kewley, Geoff

    2015-01-12

    The aim of this study was to synthesize published data regarding long-term effects of ADHD on information learned (measured via achievement tests) and success within the school environment (academic performance). A systematic search identified 176 studies (1980-2012) of long-term (≥2 years) academic outcomes with ADHD. Achievement test outcomes (79%) and academic performance outcomes (75%) were worse in individuals with untreated ADHD compared with non-ADHD controls, also when IQ difference was controlled (72% and 81%, respectively). Improvement in both outcome groups was associated with treatment, more often for achievement test scores (79%) than academic performance (42%), also when IQ was controlled (100% and 57%, respectively). More achievement test and academic performance outcomes improved with multimodal (100% and 67%, respectively) than pharmacological (75% and 33%) or non-pharmacological (75% and 50%) treatment alone. ADHD adversely affects long-term academic outcomes. A greater proportion of achievement test outcomes improved with treatment compared with academic performance. Both improved most consistently with multimodal treatment. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  19. Long-term performance assessment of HPGE detectors used in the neutron activation analysis laboratory of IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Zahn, G S; Genezini, F A; Ticianelli, R B; Saiki, M

    2017-07-01

    In this work, verification data for 11 HPGe detectors from two different manufacturers and three different intrinsic configurations were analyzed in respect to the stability of both the efficiency and resolution for the 122keV peak from (57)Co and the 1332keV peak from (60)Co. The results allow a discussion about the stability of these parameters over time (in some cases, almost 15 years), their sensitivity to imminent detector failures and their performance after a failure has been corrected; moreover, the results show a clear correlation between the manufacturer or configuration and the long-term performance of the detector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the performances of low impact development alternatives by long-term simulation for a semi-arid area in Tianjin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Li, Yu; Niu, Shuai; Zhou, Shu H

    2014-01-01

    For areas that are urbanized rapidly, the practice of low impact development (LID) has gained an important place in stormwater management and urban planning due to its capability and beneficial effects in restoring the original hydrological cycle. The performances of LID alternatives can vary substantially due to different climate conditions. This study investigated the performances of five LID alternatives under a semi-arid climate in northern China on water balance and flood control. A numerical model, Storm Water Management Model version 5 (US Environmental Protection Agency), was employed to run 10 years' rainfall events for these objectives. Two evaluation methods were proposed in this study: the efficiency index for water balance and a performance radar chart. The investigation of the five LID alternatives revealed that these LID alternatives functioned differently in flood control and water balance, and porous pavement performed best in all indices except the lag time. The two evaluation methods, in conjunction with the long-term numerical simulation, can facilitate design and decision making by providing a clear picture of the performance and functions for these LID alternatives.

  1. Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

    Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

  2. Simulated long-term driving performance before and after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, P O; Carenfelt, C; Persson, H E; Sachs, C; Törnros, J

    1991-01-01

    To investigate whether automobile drivers with the clinical features of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) perform worse than controls in a simulated long-term test drive, and to see if their driving improves after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), 15 male drivers with SAS, suffering from sleep spells whilst driving, and 10 matched controls without a history of SAS or hypersomnia at the wheel were tested in an advanced driving simulator. Brake reaction time, lateral position deviation and off-road episodes were measured during a 90-min rural drive at twilight conditions. The clinical evaluation was made by a questionnaire scoring symptoms of snoring, sleep disturbances and diurnal sleepiness before and after surgery. Before UPPP the patient group showed impaired performance in all three effect measures compared to controls. UPPP resulted in improved reaction time performance (average mean improvement: 0.5 s, average 90th percentile improvement 0.8 s). Furthermore, 12 of the 15 patients reported a marked improvement regarding sleepiness whilst driving. For these clinically successful cases the number of off-road episodes decreased substantially. We conclude that most patients improve their long-term driving performance as a result of UPPP.

  3. Evaluation of long term performance of continuously running atomic fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James L.; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2014-06-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the US Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below 2 × 10-13 and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low 10-16 s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing 6 × 10-17 at 107 s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of 7.5 × 10-19/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of 1 × 10-13 and long-term frequency stability consistent with zero drift relative to the world's primary standards at 1 × 10-18/day. The rubidium fountains are reported to the BIPM as continuously running clocks, as opposed to secondary standards, the only cold-atom clocks so reported. Here we further characterize the performance of the individual fountains and the ensemble during the first two years in an operational environment, presenting the first look at long-term continuous behavior of fountain clocks.

  4. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  5. The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.

    SciTech Connect

    David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

    2001-10-18

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will

  6. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianwei; Lian, Jie; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  7. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  8. An assessment of long-term Land Surface Temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations that have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties.A validation protocol for satellite-based LST has been adopted by several recent validation efforts, such as the ESA Long-term ATSR Validation, ESA DUE GlobTemperature, and operational support within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC). This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities, and is rapidly gaining international recognition. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. Here we present the application of the protocol to a first Climate Data Record (CDR) for LST from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers ATSRs spanning the time period August 1995 to March 2012, and to the successor instrument - the Sea and Land Surface Temperature (SLSTR) instrument on-board Sentinel-3. Not only do these applications provide information on the quality of the respective data products, they afford insights into the effectiveness

  9. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  10. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  11. Assessing colloidal stability of long term MWCNT based nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Bruno; Abreu, Bruno; Fonseca, Alexandra; Martins, Nelson; Oliveira, Mónica

    2012-09-01

    This report presents an assessment on colloidal stability of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes based nanofluids. To this end, an innovative technique that allows for measurement of settling velocity during centrifugation is applied. This method also enables measurements without dilution, inferring further accuracy to the experimental study. The results suggest that functionalization techniques enable the production of highly stable nanofluids. It is also found, that the colloidal stabilities of these nanofluids are characterized by hindered settling. The settling velocity decreases when the nanoparticles volume fraction rises from 0.25% to 1.50% due to the increase of interparticle interaction. Furthermore, a high aspect ratio of nanoparticles directly contributed to an increase in colloidal stability. It is expected that these results may significantly contribute to proper tailor of nanofluids engineering, ensuring a long term stable dispersion enhancing industrial application suitability.

  12. Long-term performance of motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that motor-operated valves (MOVs) important to safety be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. Despite these requirements, operating experience and research revealed problems with the performance of MOVs in operating nuclear power plants. In response to the concerns about MOV performance, the NRC issued Generic Letter (GL) 89-10, {open_quotes}Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,{close_quotes} and its supplements. Most licensees have completed the aspects of their GL 89-10 programs associated with the review of MOV design bases, verification of MOV switch settings initially, testing of MOVs under design-basis conditions where practicable, and improvement of evaluations of MOV failures and necessary corrective action. Licensees are establishing processes to ensure that the long-term aspects of their MOV programs, such as periodic verification of MOV capability and the trending of MOV problems, are maintained. The NRC staff is developing a generic letter to address periodic verification of MOV design-basis capability.

  13. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  14. Long-term Assessment of Spring's Onset in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Long-term conventional assessments of the start of the growing season (onset of spring) are limited by the available historically recorded phenological data. In order to conduct such work, many studies have used available phenological data to first develop models, typically driven by air temperatures. Once validated, such models extend the possible spatial coverage and temporal range of phenological assessments of environmental change, given the greater availability of meteorological data. One set of phenological models which have been successfully applied to assess the impact of environmental change on the onset of the spring season across temperate regions around the Northern Hemisphere are the Spring Indices (SI). A limitation of SI models was that since they were designed to simulate the growth of specific plants, they did not produce output in locations where the plants don't grow successfully, most specifically in areas where warm winter weather provide inadequate chilling. In this paper we report development of an extended form of the Spring Indices (abbreviated SI-x) which retain the utility and accuracy of the original SI (now abbreviated SI-o), but can be extended to areas previously not possible. When applied to North America over the past century, SI-x output reveals important temporal and spatial regional patterns for the onset of spring across the continent.

  15. Long-term performance monitoring of hardwood timber bridges in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil; Lola E. Hislop; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; James A. Kainz

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood timber bridges were constructed in Pennsylvania during the early 1990s. This report summarizes the long-term field performance of seven stress-laminated deck bridges over a 4-year period beginning August 1997 and ending July 2001. Data collected include lumber moisture content, static load test deflection measurements, and bridge condition assessments...

  16. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-09-14

    The successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the most serious challenges to the successful completion of the nuclear fuel cycle and the future of nuclear power generation. In the United States, 21 percent of the electricity is generated by 107 commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), each of which generates 20 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel annually. In 1996, the total accumulation of spent nuclear fuel was 33,700 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) stored at 70 sites around the country. The end-of-life projection for current nuclear power plants (NPP) is approximately 86,000 MTHM. In the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain over 95% of the radioactivity originates from spent nuclear fuel. World-wide in 1998, approximately 130,000 MTHM of SNF have accumulated, most of it located at 236 NPP in 36 countries. Annual production of SNF is approximately 10,000 MTHM, containing about 100 tons of ''reactor grade'' plutonium. Any reasonable increase in the proportion of energy production by NPP, i.e., as a substitute for hydrocarbon-based sources of energy, will significantly increase spent nuclear fuel production. Spent nuclear fuel is essentially UO{sub 2} with approximately 4-5 atomic percent actinides and fission product elements. A number of these elements have long half-lives hence, the long-term behavior of the UO{sub 2} is an essential concern in the evaluation of the safety and risk of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. One of the unique and scientifically most difficult aspects of the successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} years) as required by the performance objectives set in regulations, i.e. 10 CFR 60. The direct verification of these extrapolations or interpolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the public that there is a

  17. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort.

    PubMed

    Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G; Spriggens, Lauren K; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M; Shum, David H K; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-03-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance.

  18. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Spriggens, Lauren K.; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M.; Shum, David H. K.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance. PMID:28304362

  19. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    PubMed

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term labour-market performance of whiplash claimants.

    PubMed

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-09-01

    A whiplash is a sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck and head, typically associated with a rear-end car collision that may produce injuries in the soft tissue. Often there are no objective signs or symptoms of injury, and diagnosing lasting whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) is difficult, in particular for individuals with mild or moderate injuries. This leaves a scope for compensation-seeking behaviour. The medical literature disagrees on the importance of this explanation. In this paper we trace the long-term earnings of a group of Danish individuals with mild to moderate injuries claiming compensation for having permanently lost earnings capacity and investigate if they return to their full pre-whiplash earnings when the insurance claim has been assessed. We find that about half of the claimants, those not granted compensation, return to an earnings level comparable with their pre-whiplash earnings suggesting that these individuals do not have chronic WAD in the sense that their earnings capacity is reduced. The other half, those granted compensation, experience persistent reductions in earnings relative to the case where they had not been exposed to a whiplash, even when they have a strong financial incentive to not reduce earnings. This suggests that moderate injuries tend to be chronic, and that compensation-seeking behaviour is not the main explanation for this group. We find that claimants with chronic WADs used more health care in the year prior to the whiplash than claimants with non-chronic cases. This suggests that lower initial health capital increases the risk that a whiplash causes persistent WAD.

  1. Seismic Performance of Dry Casks Storage for Long- Term Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Luis; Sanders, David; Yang, Haori; Pantelides, Chris

    2016-12-30

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long-term seismic performance of freestanding and anchored Dry Storage Casks (DSCs) using experimental tests on a shaking table, as well as comprehensive numerical evaluations that include the cask-pad-soil system. The study focuses on the dynamic performance of vertical DSCs, which can be designed as free-standing structures resting on a reinforced concrete foundation pad, or casks anchored to a foundation pad. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) is initially stored in fuel-storage pools to control the fuel temperature. After several years, the fuel assemblies are transferred to DSCs at sites contiguous to the plant, known as Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs). The regulations for these storage systems (10 CFR 72) ensure adequate passive heat removal and radiation shielding during normal operations, off-normal events, and accident scenarios. The integrity of the DSCs is important, even if the overpack does not breach, because eventually the spent fuel-rods need to be shipped either to a reprocessing plant or a repository. DSCs have been considered as a temporary storage solution, and usually are licensed for 20 years, although they can be relicensed for operating periods of up to 60 years. In recent years, DSCs have been reevaluated as a potential mid-term solution, in which the operating period may be extended for up to 300 years. At the same time, recent seismic events have underlined the significant risks DSCs are exposed. The consideration of DCSs for storing spent fuel for hundreds of years has created new challenges. In the case of seismic hazard, longer-term operating periods not only lead to larger horizontal accelerations, but also increase the relative effect of vertical accelerations that usually are disregarded for smaller seismic events. These larger seismic demands could lead to casks sliding and tipping over, impacting the concrete pad or adjacent casks. The casks

  2. Assessment of Institutional Impact and Long-Term Strategies Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

    If community colleges are to expand their roles in delivering workforce training, they must develop long-term strategies that respond effectively to changes in society and workforce needs. In rendering these change strategies, colleges should define their internal and external environments, as well as their service areas. Internally, instructional…

  3. Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

  4. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-10-02

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  5. Long-term bioventing performance in low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.B.; Stanin, F.T.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short-term and long-term bioventing treatability testing has shown that in situ air injection and extraction is a practical method for sustaining increased oxygen levels and enhancing aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low-permeability soils. At several test sites, initial physical parameter analysis of soils and air permeability tests indicated that impacted soils (fine sandy silts and clays) had low air permeabilities. Measurements of depleted soil-gas oxygen levels and increased soil-gas carbon dioxide levels indicated that the natural process of aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was oxygen-limited. Initial treatability testing consisted of air permeability tests to measure the permeability of the soils to air and in situ respiration tests to measure the rates at which native microorganisms could biodegrade the contaminants when provided with sufficient oxygen. During the long-term treatment period, active air injection or extraction systems were operated for 1 year or longer. Soil gas was periodically monitored within the treatment zone to evaluate the success of the bioventing systems in increasing soil-gas oxygen levels in the low-permeability soils. Follow-up respiration tests and soil and soil-gas sampling were conducted to evaluate changes in respiration rates and contaminant concentrations with time.

  6. Performance assessment of a commonly used "accumulation and wash-off" model from long-term continuous road runoff turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Bonhomme, Céline; Al Ali, Saja; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    The suitability of a commonly used accumulation and wash-off model for continuous modelling of urban runoff contamination was evaluated based on 11-month turbidity and flow-rate records from an urban street. Calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed using a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling method for both suspended solids loads (discharge rates) and concentration modelling. Selected models failed at replicating suspended solids concentration over the complete monitoring period. The studied dataset indeed suggests that the accumulation process is rather unpredictable and cannot be satisfactorily represented with usual accumulation models unless short periods are considered. Regarding suspended solid loads modelling, noticeably better performance was achieved, but similar results could as well be obtained with much simpler constant concentration models. Unless providing very accurate estimates of concentrations in runoff, accounting for their temporal variability during rain events may therefore not always be necessary for pollutant loads modelling, as loads are in fact mostly explained by runoff volumes.

  7. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations.

    PubMed

    Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jirí; Hamplová, Lenka; Urbanová, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale.

  8. Exercise Performance in Patients with D-Loop Transposition of the Great Arteries After Arterial Switch Operation: Long-Term Outcomes and Longitudinal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Joseph D; Chen, Ming-Hui; Alexander, Mark E; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The first patients to undergo a successful arterial switch operation (ASO) for d-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) are now entering their fourth decade of life. Past studies of ASO survivors' exercise function have yielded conflicting results. We therefore undertook this study to describe the current function of ASO survivors, to identify factors related to inferior exercise performance and to determine whether their exercise function tends to deteriorate over time. A retrospective cohort study was designed examining all patients with D-TGA after the ASO who underwent comprehensive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Patients with palliative surgery prior to ASO, ventricular hypoplasia or severe valvar dysfunction were excluded from the study. Data from CPETs in which the peak respiratory exchange ratio was <1.09 were also excluded. We identified 113 patients who met entry criteria and had 186 CPX at our institution between 1/2002 and 1/2013; 41 patients had at least 2 qualifying CPX. Mean age at the time of the initial test was 17 ± 1 year. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) averaged 84 ± 2 % predicted. Peak VO2 was lower among patients with repaired ventricular septal defects (82 ± 4 vs. 86 ± 3 % predicted; p < 0.05) and among patients with ≥ moderate right-sided obstructive lesions (77 ± 5 vs. 87 ± 3 % predicted; p < 0.05). Surgery prior to 1991 was also associated with a lower peak VO2 (81 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 3 % predicted; p < 0.01). The mean % predicted peak heart rate was 92 ± 1 %, with no significant difference between any of the subgroups. Non-diagnostic exercise-induced STT changes developed in 10 patients (12 studies). In the subgroup with at least 2 exercise tests, the annual decline in % predicted peak VO2 was quite slow (-0.3 % points/year; p < 0.01 vs. expected normal age-related decline). The exercise capacity of ASO survivors is well preserved and is only mildly reduced compared to normal subjects. Moreover, there is only a slight

  9. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  10. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  11. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Coal-Liquefaction Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1980-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.M. Deutch (Under Secretary of DOE), E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has studied and reviewed currently funded coal-liquefaction technologies. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term development of coal-liquefaction technologies. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  12. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014a) utilizing observations (e.g., SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE, and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US, while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aer

  13. Towards a common benchmark for long-term process control and monitoring performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C; Jeppsson, U; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2004-01-01

    The COST/IWA benchmark simulation model has been available for seven years. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of biological wastewater treatment processes. The fact that the benchmark has resulted in more than 100 publications, not only in Europe but also worldwide, demonstrates the interest for such a tool in the research community. In this paper, an extension of the benchmark simulation model no. 1 (BSM1) is proposed. It aims at facilitating evaluation of two closely related operational tasks: long-term control strategy performance and process monitoring performance. The motivation for the extension is that these two tasks typically act on longer time scales. The extension proposed here consists of 1) prolonging the evaluation period to one year (including influent files), 2) specifying time varying process parameters and 3) including sensor and actuator failures. The prolonged evaluation period is necessary to obtain a relevant and realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbances. Also, a prolonged evaluation period allows for a number of long-term control actions/handles that cannot be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one week BSM1 evaluation period. In the paper, models for influent file design, parameter changes and sensor failures, initialization procedure and evaluation criteria are discussed. Important remaining topics, for which consensus is required, are identified. The potential of a long-term benchmark is illustrated with an example of process monitoring algorithm benchmarking.

  14. Long-Term Performance of the SERF PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.

    2003-05-01

    This paper provides the changes in performance ratings of two photovoltaic (PV) systems located on the roof of the Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. For the period of May 1994 to April 2002, the performance rating of the two PV systems decreased at the rate of 1% per year. Most of the changes in performance rating are attributed to changes in the performance of the PV arrays. But about a fifth of the observed changes were from the inverter not tracking the peak-power as effectively as the PV arrays aged.

  15. Hippocampal CA1 Kindling but Not Long-Term Potentiation Disrupts Spatial Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, L. Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2006-01-01

    Long-term synaptic enhancement in the hippocampus has been suggested to cause deficits in spatial performance. Synaptic enhancement has been reported after hippocampal kindling that induced repeated electrographic seizures or afterdischarges (ADs) and after long-term potentiation (LTP) defined as synaptic enhancement without ADs. We studied…

  16. Hippocampal CA1 Kindling but Not Long-Term Potentiation Disrupts Spatial Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, L. Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2006-01-01

    Long-term synaptic enhancement in the hippocampus has been suggested to cause deficits in spatial performance. Synaptic enhancement has been reported after hippocampal kindling that induced repeated electrographic seizures or afterdischarges (ADs) and after long-term potentiation (LTP) defined as synaptic enhancement without ADs. We studied…

  17. Long-Term Nutrient Performance in a Bioinfiltration Rain Garden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this study is to gain a better understanding of the nutrients and metals removal mechanisms involved in a bioinfiltration stormwater abatement system, predict the useful life of a bioinfiltration BMP for the removal of certain contaminants and assess toxicity of stor...

  18. Long-term and within-day variability of working memory performance and EEG in individuals.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; McEvoy, Linda K; Smith, Michael E; Chan, Cynthia S; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Ilan, Aaron B

    2012-07-01

    Assess individual-subject long-term and within-day variability of a combined behavioral and EEG test of working memory. EEGs were recorded from 16 adults performing n-back working memory tasks, with 10 tested in morning and afternoon sessions over several years. Participants were also tested after ingesting non-prescription medications or recreational substances. Performance and EEG measures were analyzed to derive an Overall score and three constituent sub-scores characterizing changes in performance, cortical activation, and alertness from each individual's baseline. Long-term and within-day variability were determined for each score; medication effects were assessed by reference to each individual's normal day-to-day variability. Over the several year period, the mean Overall score and sub-scores were approximately zero with standard deviations less than one. Overall scores were lower and their variability higher in afternoon relative to morning sessions. At the group level, alcohol, diphenhydramine and marijuana produced significant effects, but there were large individual differences. Objective working memory measures incorporating performance and EEG are stable over time and sensitive at the level of individual subjects to interventions that affect neurocognitive function. With further research these measures may be suitable for use in individualized medical care by providing a sensitive assessment of incipient illness and response to treatment. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Long-term Radiographic Assessment of Cemented Polyethylene Acetabular Cups

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Graham; Porter, Neil; Fisher, John; Older, John

    2008-01-01

    In vitro studies demonstrating excessive wear in polyethylene cups sterilized using gamma irradiation and stored in air led to the abandonment of this sterilization technique. We evaluated the clinical wear performance of a metal femoral component on a polyethylene cup in a hip prosthesis from a selected subset of implants in a group of patients followed for at least 20 years and assessed the time dependency of variation in penetration rates. We measured penetration in 33 polyethylene cups in 25 patients who had a Charnley low-friction arthroplasty between 1982 and 1984. All patients had Charnley Ogee® cups implanted for more than 20 years and sterilized using the gamma irradiation in air technique. If degradation occurred over time in vivo, it was not reflected by an increased penetration rate with increasing time in vivo; even after 20 years of implantation, the degree of wear remained low. This suggests gamma irradiation affects wear on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene by reducing wear secondary to the crosslinking, by increasing wear as shown through in vitro studies of heavily oxidized samples, or by oxidation resulting from prolonged shelf life. The effect of progressive oxidation in vivo does not appear to affect wear in vivo. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196419

  20. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS: LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of research efforts at EPA on the application, monitoring, and performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for groundwater restoration. Over the past 10 years, research projects conducted by research staff at EPA's National Risk M...

  1. Long term experience and performance of COMPASS RICH-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, F.; Abbon, P.; Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Delagnes, E.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Gerassimov, S.; Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M.; Herrmann, F.; Ketzer, B.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Kunne, F.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Makke, N.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Neyret, D.; Novakova, K.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pereira, F. A.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Santos, C. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schopferer, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C4F10 radiator, a 21 m2 large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m2. It is in operation since 2002 and its performance increased thanks to progressive optimization and to a major upgrade of its photon detection system, implemented in 2006; a new upgrade is foreseen for 2016, with the use of MPGD-based photon detectors. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and the most critical aspects related to the C4F10 radiator gas system, to the mirrors and their alignment, as well as the performance of the photon detectors are presented and discussed. The response of the MWPCs and the observed evolution of the effective quantum efficiency of the CsI photocathodes is analyzed. The properties and performance of the MAPMTs with individual fused lens telescopes are presented together with the readout characteristics. The PID performance of COMPASS RICH-1 is discussed and the future upgrade program is mentioned.

  2. Long-term heating to improve receiver performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The buildup of hydrogen in the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates through components of parabolic trough power plants decreases receiver thermal efficiency, and ultimately, it decreases plant performance and electricity output. The generation and occurrence of hydrogen in the HTF provides the driving force for hydrogen to permeate from the HTF through the absorber tube wall and into the receiver annulus. Getters adsorb hydrogen from the annulus volume until they saturate and are no longer able to maintain low hydrogen pressure. The increase in hydrogen pressure within the annulus significantly degrades thermal performance of the receiver and decreases overall power-plant efficiency. NREL and Acciona Energy North America (Acciona) are developing a method to control the levels of dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF. The basic approach is to remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks of the HTF subsystem at a rate that maintains hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a target level. Full-plant steady-state models developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) predict that if hydrogen is removed from the HTF within the expansion tanks, the HTF that circulates through the collector field remains essentially free of hydrogen until the HTF returns to the power block in the hot headers. One of the key findings of our modeling is the prediction that hydrogen will reverse-permeate out of the receiver annulus if dissolved hydrogen in the HTF is kept sufficiently low. To test this prediction, we performed extended heating of an in-service receiver that initially had high levels of hydrogen in its annulus. The heating was performed using NREL's receiver test stand. Results of our testing showed that receiver heat loss steadily decreased with daily heating, resulting in a corresponding improvement in receiver thermal efficiency.

  3. Long-Term Performance Analysis of GIOVE Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Francisco Gonzalez, Stefano Binda European Space Agency, ESA- ESTEC , Noordwijk , The Netherlands pierre.waller@esa.int Daniel Rodriguez, Guillermo...ADDRESS(ES) European Space Agency, ESA- ESTEC , Noordwijk , The Netherlands 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME...European Frequency and Time Forum (EFTF), 13-16 April 2010, Noordwijk , The Netherlands. [6] J. Camparo, 2004, “Frequency Equilibration and the Light

  4. Long term performance of wearable transducer for motion energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarry, Scott A.; Behrens, Sam

    2010-04-01

    Personal electronic devices such as cell phones, GPS and MP3 players have traditionally depended on battery energy storage technologies for operation. By harvesting energy from a person's motion, these devices may achieve greater run times without increasing the mass or volume of the electronic device. Through the use of a flexible piezoelectric transducer such as poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and integrating it into a person's clothing, it becomes a 'wearable transducer'. As the PVDF transducer is strained during the person's routine activities, it produces an electrical charge which can then be harvested to power personal electronic devices. Existing wearable transducers have shown great promise for personal motion energy harvesting applications. However, they are presently physically bulky and not ergonomic for the wearer. In addition, there is limited information on the energy harvesting performance for wearable transducers, especially under realistic conditions and for extended cyclic force operations - as would be experienced when worn. In this paper, we present experimental results for a wearable PVDF transducer using a person's measured walking force profile, which is then cycled for a prolonged period of time using an experimental apparatus. Experimental results indicate that after an initial drop in performance, the transducer energy harvesting performance does not substantially deteriorate over time, as less than 10% degradation was observed. Longevity testing is still continuing at CSIRO.

  5. The impact of impurities on long-term PEMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Lopes, Thiago; Rockward, Tommy; Mukundan, Rangachary; Sansinena, Jose - Maria; Kienitz, Brian

    2009-06-23

    Electrochemical experimentation and modeling indicates that impurities degrade fuel cell performance by a variety of mechanisms. Electrokinetics may be inhibited by catalytic site poisoning from sulfur compounds and CO and by decreased local proton activity and mobility caused by the presence of foreign salt cations or ammonia. Cation impurity profiles vary with current density, valence and may change local conductivity and water concentrations in the ionomer. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia species may be electrochemically active under fuel cell operating conditions. The primary impurity removal mechanisms are electrooxidation and water fluxes through the fuel cell.

  6. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: Assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. Results The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Conclusions Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the

  7. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  8. Long-term performance of hemofilters in continuous hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, J; Olbricht, C J; Koch, K M

    1996-01-01

    We measured the filter performance of six polyamide hemofilters with a running time exceeding 72 h applied for continuous hemofiltration in intensive care patients. The sieving coefficients for urea and creatinine were close to unity and remained constant. The sieving coefficient of polyfructosan (mean molecular weight 3 kD) was around 0.75 and did not change with running time. The hydraulic permeability remained also unchanged. The relationships between blood pressure and blood flow and between blood flow and filtration rate remained linear, and the gradient did not change with time. We conclude that a daily routine change of polyamide hemofilters applied in continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and presumably in continuous venovenous hemofiltration is not necessary within the first 72 h of treatment, unless a major decrease in the filtration rate occurs.

  9. Long Term Trend Analysis and Assessment of Water Quality in the Penchala River, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, M. F.; Haris, H. B.; Mohd Sidek, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion produces negative impacts on the natural environment, especially river water quality. Studies assessing long term changes of water quality have been recognized as a key tool for understanding ongoing processes in watersheds and for providing an essential background for evaluation of rapid changes within industrialized and populated urban areas. Unfortunately, only limited studies are available for developing countries such as Malaysia. Thus, a long term study was conducted to evaluate water quality trends at Pencala river basin that has undergone extensive land use changes related to industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Fifteen physical and chemical variables were analysed in river water samples collected every month over a period of 13 years, between 1997 and 2009. The trend study was performed using the Mann-Kendall Seasonal test and the Sen's Slope estimator. Results revealed that most water quality parameters showed a downward trend for yearly average concentration. The water quality index (WQI) for Pencala River was improved from Class V to Class IV, according to National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia. BOD, COD, NH3-N and SS show trends toward decreasing concentrations over time. The improvements seen in water quality appear to be the result of improved wastewater treatment and other water quality improvement efforts achieved through government initiative. Continued long-term and high frequency monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for effective water resources management.

  10. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  11. Subsurface Remediation: Improving Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Systems Performance Conference Proceedings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the presentations and workshops of a conference on improving long-term monitoring (LTM) and remedial systems performance that was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 8th to 11th, 1999.

  12. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The application of existing and new technology to the problem of determining the long-term performance capability of liquid rocket propulsion feed systems is discussed. The long term performance of metal to metal valve seats in a liquid propellant fuel system is stressed. The approaches taken in conducting the analysis are: (1) advancing the technology of characterizing components through the development of new or more sensitive techniques and (2) improving the understanding of the physical of degradation.

  13. Long-term clinical and endoscopic assessment after total gastrectomy for cancer.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, A C; dos Santos, N M; Aldeia, F J

    1993-01-01

    Progressive malnutrition has been reported as a long-term consequence of total gastrectomy (TG), possibly related to the mode of reconstructing the intestine. In reviewing our personal experience (1975-Sept. 91), we attempted to correlate the reconstructive technique used with the subsequent course of the patient. A consecutive series of 62 TGs (59 adenocarcinomas, 3 lymphomas) in 38 males and 24 females 59 +/- 11 (m Mean +/- SD) years old was reviewed. Preoperative and "follow-up" evaluations, including upper gastrointestinal series and/or endoscopic examination, complete blood count, serum and liver biochemistry profiles, serum iron and plasma transferrin, oral GTT, USG or CT scan, actual and ideal body weight (IBW Life Extension Institute of New York), and "performance status" assessments, were prospectively documented. The follow-up symptoms were classified as per Cuschieri's scoring system. The endoscopic esophageal mucosa assessments were documented as well. Among 56 patients surviving operation, 34 were available, without tumor recurrence, for long-term (12-132 months) evaluation. A Roux-en-Y loop reconstruction had been performed in 23, 5 with a Hunt-Lawrence pouch; an isoperistaltic, esophagoduodenal, jejunal interposition (IR) was performed in 9, 4 with a Kock pouch; and an omega loop reconstruction was performed in 2. A 60-70-cm-long jejunal limb was always utilized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Long-term Evaluation of Cosmetic Appearance of Repaired Lacerations: Validation of Telephone Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Judd E; Valentine, Sharon M; McCuskey, Charles F; Turque, Theo; Singer, Adam J

    1998-01-01

    See editorial Objective: Patients with lacerations are most concerned about the ultimate cosmetic appearance of their wound. We evaluated methods to assess the long-term cosmetic appearance by telephone survey.

  15. Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    One of the main functions of the upcoming International Space Station (ISS) will be to provide a venue for testing proposed countermeasures for their ability to protect humans from the debilitating effects of longterm space flight. However, several limiting factors preclude an evaluation process similar to that used in clinical trials which traditionally are implemented with large sample sizes of subjects, including control groups, and with blind or double-blind application of treatments according to factorial or other balanced experimental designs. In particular, only very limited numbers of human subjects will be available for actual field testing in the ISS With no more than 125 subjects planned to fly on all ISS missions over 10 years, it is not possible to test extensive combinations of some 15-20 proposed countermeasures. Furthermore because of safety concerns and operational considerations, it is unlikely that anything other than the current best guess at the most effective countermeasure package will ever be used on ISS. In particular, control or placebos will not be allowed. In view of these limitations, historical data and groundbased or animal studies will have to be used to compensate for small sample sizes and lack of controls in the field. As a result, statistical analysis methodology will have to be developed which allows for the integration of these disparate data types into a meaningful evaluation process. The process must be sequential, providing objective rules for deciding through time whether to reject or modify an ineffective countermeasure, or whether to certify one as effective. Additional output should include performance characteristics for all relevant physiological systems, including uncertainty analyses and estimates of accept/reject decision error rates.

  16. Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    One of the main functions of the upcoming International Space Station (ISS) will be to provide a venue for testing proposed countermeasures for their ability to protect humans from the debilitating effects of longterm space flight. However, several limiting factors preclude an evaluation process similar to that used in clinical trials which traditionally are implemented with large sample sizes of subjects, including control groups, and with blind or double-blind application of treatments according to factorial or other balanced experimental designs. In particular, only very limited numbers of human subjects will be available for actual field testing in the ISS With no more than 125 subjects planned to fly on all ISS missions over 10 years, it is not possible to test extensive combinations of some 15-20 proposed countermeasures. Furthermore because of safety concerns and operational considerations, it is unlikely that anything other than the current best guess at the most effective countermeasure package will ever be used on ISS. In particular, control or placebos will not be allowed. In view of these limitations, historical data and groundbased or animal studies will have to be used to compensate for small sample sizes and lack of controls in the field. As a result, statistical analysis methodology will have to be developed which allows for the integration of these disparate data types into a meaningful evaluation process. The process must be sequential, providing objective rules for deciding through time whether to reject or modify an ineffective countermeasure, or whether to certify one as effective. Additional output should include performance characteristics for all relevant physiological systems, including uncertainty analyses and estimates of accept/reject decision error rates.

  17. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Hevinga, M A; Opdam, N J M; Bronkhorst, E M; Truin, G J; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants before 1st of January 2000 were included in the study. Date of placement of a sealant in posterior non-discoloured permanent teeth and replacement by a restoration was recorded. In a clinical examination occlusal surfaces were scored for (partial) sealant loss and fissure discolouration. The restoration profile of the patient was assessed as low or high, based on the number of restorations placed per year since the first sealant. Sealants had been applied by four dentists and a dental hygienist. 1204 sealants were placed in 148 patients. After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, 41.3% of placed sealants were still fully retained and 11.4% were replaced by a restoration. Failure rates were significantly higher in high than in low restoration profile patients and in molars compared to premolars. In those fissures with lost or partially lost sealants, discolouration frequently occurred (40% of all surfaces) irrespective of restoration profile of the patient. In this retrospective practice based study, long-term performance of sealants depended on restoration profile of the individual patient and the tooth type (molar versus premolar).

  18. Long-term Results of an Analytical Assessment of Student Compounded Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Roark, Angie M.; Anksorus, Heidi N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the long-term (ie, 6-year) impact of a required remake vs an optional remake on student performance in a compounding laboratory course in which students’ compounded preparations were analyzed. Methods. The analysis data for several preparations made by students were compared for differences in the analyzed content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the number of students who successfully compounded the preparation on the first attempt. Results. There was a consistent statistical difference in the API amount or concentration in 4 of the preparations (diphenhydramine, ketoprofen, metoprolol, and progesterone) in each optional remake year compared to the required remake year. As the analysis requirement was continued, the outcome for each preparation approached and/or attained the expected API result. Two preparations required more than 1 year to demonstrate a statistical difference. Conclusion. The analytical assessment resulted in a consistent, long-term improvement in student performance during the 5-year period after the optional remake policy was instituted. Our assumption is that investment in such an assessment would result in a similar benefits at other colleges and schools of pharmacy. PMID:26056402

  19. A wearable sensor for unobtrusive, long-term assessment of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ming-Zher; Swenson, Nicholas C; Picard, Rosalind W

    2010-05-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a sensitive index of sympathetic nervous system activity. Due to the lack of sensors that can be worn comfortably during normal daily activity and over extensive periods of time, research in this area is limited to laboratory settings or artificial clinical environments. We developed a novel, unobtrusive, nonstigmatizing, wrist-worn integrated sensor, and present, for the very first time, a demonstration of long-term, continuous assessment of EDA outside of a laboratory setting. We evaluated the performance of our device against a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved system for the measurement of EDA during physical, cognitive, as well as emotional stressors at both palmar and distal forearm sites, and found high correlations across all the tests. We also evaluated the choice of electrode material by comparing conductive fabric with Ag/AgCl electrodes and discuss the limitations found. An important result presented in this paper is evidence that the distal forearm is a viable alternative to the traditional palmar sites for EDA measurements. Our device offers the unprecedented ability to perform comfortable, long-term, and in situ assessment of EDA. This paper opens up opportunities for future investigations that were previously not feasible, and could have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and understanding of psychological or neurological conditions.

  20. Long-term Results of an Analytical Assessment of Student Compounded Preparations.

    PubMed

    Roark, Angie M; Anksorus, Heidi N; Shrewsbury, Robert P

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the long-term (ie, 6-year) impact of a required remake vs an optional remake on student performance in a compounding laboratory course in which students' compounded preparations were analyzed. The analysis data for several preparations made by students were compared for differences in the analyzed content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the number of students who successfully compounded the preparation on the first attempt. There was a consistent statistical difference in the API amount or concentration in 4 of the preparations (diphenhydramine, ketoprofen, metoprolol, and progesterone) in each optional remake year compared to the required remake year. As the analysis requirement was continued, the outcome for each preparation approached and/or attained the expected API result. Two preparations required more than 1 year to demonstrate a statistical difference. The analytical assessment resulted in a consistent, long-term improvement in student performance during the 5-year period after the optional remake policy was instituted. Our assumption is that investment in such an assessment would result in a similar benefits at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.

  1. Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Modo, M; Stroemer, R P; Tang, E; Veizovic, T; Sowniski, P; Hodges, H

    2000-12-15

    Animal models of stroke, notably transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), are used to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and transplant treatments. Long-term studies (>1 month) of the functional effects of treatments in animal models are required to predict treatments likely to improve dysfunctions associated with stroke damage. These pre-clinical studies require (1) optimum post-operative care to ensure long-term survival, (2) methods for assignment of rats to groups with equivalent impairments to reduce variability and enhance detection of treatment effects, and (3) behavioural tests that detect long-term stable deficits. For long-term functional assessment, a battery of behavioural tests sensitive to a range of deficits observed after MCAo was developed. The bilateral asymmetry test evaluated the time course of sensory neglect. Deficits of motor integration were examined in the footfault test, and motor bias was assessed by pharmacological stimulation of rotation. The water maze was used to detect long-term deficits in spatial information processing. Long-term differences between control and MCAo animals in this battery of tests indicate that the protocol provides an efficient assessment suitable for evaluating treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies of stroke, and that the post-operative care procedure and method of assignment to groups were effective.

  2. Long term performance of membranes in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qirong; Parker, Wayne; Dagnew, Martha

    2016-02-01

    The long term impact of SRT (100-40 days) and recovery cleaning on membrane performance of an AnMBR treating authentic municipal wastewater in a large pilot plant was assessed. Successful operation of the pilot plant at a flux of 17 LMH was maintained for a period of 536 days during which the longest period of operation without recovery cleaning or membrane replacement was 178 days. Lower SRT (40 days) reduced the fouling propensity of the mixed liquor in terms of TSS concentration and the dewaterability indicators including colloidal COD (cCOD) concentration and capillary suction time (CST). Critical fluxes ranged from 21 to 23 LMH to 25-27 LMH for SRTs of 70 and 40 days respectively and this was consistent with the reduced concentrations of TSS and improved dewaterability under the latter conditions. Recovery cleaning was found to result in substantial reduction of resistance as indicated by both pilot plant operation and clean water flux tests. The long-term fouling rate was observed to be higher with cleaned membranes as compared to virgin membranes. The lower membrane fouling with virgin membranes suggested that accumulation of foulants, which were resistant to cleaning, caused the higher fouling rates for the cleaned membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment Of Errors In Long-Term Mass Balance Records From Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, R. S.; van Beusekom, A. E.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS maintains a long-term glacier mass balance monitoring program at Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers in Alaska. The records produced by this program are a major component of the world’s mountain glacier balance inventory due to the scarcity of such long-term measurements. Recent data that show rapid glacier volume loss in Alaska further emphasize the importance of these records. An integral part of the long-term mass balance program is repeated assessment of the validity of the methods because bias errors in mass balance data are cumulative. Long-term glacier mass balance records in Alaska have previously been shown to be in good agreement with geodetically determined volume changes despite a minimal network of mass balance stakes. Because the rates of negative mass balance and change in glacier geometry have recently increased, this work reassess whether or not the existing stake networks and method of determining glacier-average balance are still working adequately.

  4. Predicting long-term performance of engineered geologic carbon dioxide storage systems to inform decisions amidst uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessment and risk management of engineered geologic CO2 storage systems is an area of active investigation. The potential geologic CO2 storage systems currently under consideration are inherently heterogeneous and have limited to no characterization data. Effective risk management decisions to ensure safe, long-term CO2 storage requires assessing and quantifying risks while taking into account the uncertainties in a storage site's characteristics. The key decisions are typically related to definition of area of review, effective monitoring strategy and monitoring duration, potential of leakage and associated impacts, etc. A quantitative methodology for predicting a sequestration site's long-term performance is critical for making key decisions necessary for successful deployment of commercial scale geologic storage projects where projects will require quantitative assessments of potential long-term liabilities. An integrated assessment modeling (IAM) paradigm which treats a geologic CO2 storage site as a system made up of various linked subsystems can be used to predict long-term performance. The subsystems include storage reservoir, seals, potential leakage pathways (such as wellbores, natural fractures/faults) and receptors (such as shallow groundwater aquifers). CO2 movement within each of the subsystems and resulting interactions are captured through reduced order models (ROMs). The ROMs capture the complex physical/chemical interactions resulting due to CO2 movement and interactions but are computationally extremely efficient. The computational efficiency allows for performing Monte Carlo simulations necessary for quantitative probabilistic risk assessment. We have used the IAM to predict long-term performance of geologic CO2 sequestration systems and to answer questions related to probability of leakage of CO2 through wellbores, impact of CO2/brine leakage into shallow aquifer, etc. Answers to such questions are critical in making key risk management

  5. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis: Demonstration of Improved Long-Term Performance

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; R. C. O'Brien; G. Tao

    2011-11-01

    Long-term performance is an ongoing issue for hydrogen production based on high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). For commercial deployment, solid-oxide electrolysis stacks must achieve high performance with long-term degradation rates of {approx}0.5%/1000 hours or lower. Significant progress has been achieved toward this goal over the past few years. This paper will provide details of progress achieved under the Idaho National Laboratory high temperature electrolysis research program. Recent long-term stack tests have achieved high initial performance with degradation rates less than 5%/khr. These tests utilize internally manifolded stacks with electrode-supported cells. The cell material sets are optimized for the electrolysis mode of operation. Details of the cells and stacks will be provided along with details of the test apparatus, procedures, and results.

  6. Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart; Newton, Robert U

    2009-01-01

    Measuring and tracking performance variables such as peak power output is essential for assessing the effects of training and for informing adjustments to optimize program design. The purpose of this study was to track the long-term changes in muscular power, velocity, and jump height of elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players during a 3-year period. Twelve members of an ARF team were tracked during the study. The physical characteristics of the subjects were age, 25.3 6 2.8 years; body mass, 93.0 6 6.8 kg; and height, 192 6 6 cm. The subjects performed unweighted and weighted (40 kg) countermovement jumps (CMJ) and static jumps (SJ). Peak power, jump height, and bar velocity were determined using a force plate and position transducer.Measures of peak power output during both the CMJ and SJ indicated significant (p# 0.001) increases of 13% (effect size [ES] = 0.70) and 17% (ES = 1.77), respectively, during the course of the tracking period. There was also a significant 9% (ES = 0.71) increase in CMJ40 peak power. The subjects' CMJ peak velocity improved by 10.7% (ES = 0.34), and SJ peak velocity improved by 12.6% (ES = 0.37). The data from this study show that elite-level ARF players can continue to increase muscular power and velocity. This information is of interest to strength and conditioning coaches who are interested in improving power performance of their athletes for a long-term period.

  7. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  8. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from ground water monitoring ...

  9. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from ground water monitoring ...

  10. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground-water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from studies conducted over ...

  11. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE MONITORING: LONG-TERM TRENDS IN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of research on the long-term performance of subsurface reactive barriers is to identify standard ground-water monitoring parameters that may be useful indicators of declining performance or impending system failure. Results are presented from studies conducted over ...

  12. Intervention Program for Long-Term English Learners: A Study of Long-Term English Learners' Literacy Performance in a Reading Intervention Program at Falcon School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory embedded mixed methods study was to: (a) investigate and describe the academic performance of eighth grade students in the Falcon School District (FSD) who were designated as Long Term English Learners (LTELs) and participants in FSD's reading intervention program during their fourth through eighth grade…

  13. Intervention Program for Long-Term English Learners: A Study of Long-Term English Learners' Literacy Performance in a Reading Intervention Program at Falcon School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory embedded mixed methods study was to: (a) investigate and describe the academic performance of eighth grade students in the Falcon School District (FSD) who were designated as Long Term English Learners (LTELs) and participants in FSD's reading intervention program during their fourth through eighth grade…

  14. Long-term performance of landfill covers - results of lysimeter test fields in Bavaria (Germany).

    PubMed

    Henken-Mellies, Wolf-Ulrich; Schweizer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season. The three-layer systems of the two other test fields performed much better. Most of the water which percolated through the top soil profile drained sideways in the drainage layer. Only 1-3% of precipitation percolated through the sealing layer. The long-term effectiveness of the mineral sealing layer depended on the ability of the top soil layer to protect it from critical loss of soil water/critical increase of suction. In dry summers there was even a loss in soil water content at the base of the 2.0 m thick soil cover. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the long-term aspect when assessing the effectiveness of landfill covers: The hydraulic conductivity at the time of construction gives only an initial (minimum) value. The hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay layer or of the geosynthetic clay liner may increase substantially, if there is no long-lasting protection against desiccation (by a thick soil cover or by a geomembrane). This has to be taken into account in landfill cover design.

  15. Structural condition assessment of long-span suspension bridges using long-term monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng; Youliang, Ding; Aiqun, Li

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on developing an online structural condition assessment technique using long-term monitoring data measured by a structural health monitoring system. The seasonal correlations of frequency-temperature and beam-end displacement-temperature for the Runyang Suspension Bridge are performed, first. Then, a statistical modeling technique using a six-order polynomial is further applied to formulate the correlations of frequency-temperature and displacement-temperature, from which abnormal changes of measured frequencies and displacements are detected using the mean value control chart. Analysis results show that modal frequencies of higher vibration modes and displacements have remarkable seasonal correlations with the environmental temperature and the proposed method exhibits a good capability for detecting the micro damage-induced changes of modal frequencies and displacements. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively eliminate temperature complications from frequency and displacement time series and is well suited for online condition monitoring of long-span suspension bridges.

  16. Assessment of the long-term risks of inadvertent human intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wuschke, D.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel wastes. The program has focused on the concept of disposal of spent fuel in durable containers in an engineered facility, or vault, 500 to 1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock in the Canadian Shield. An essential goal of this program has been to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the facility against safety criteria established by Canada's regulatory agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). These criteria are expressed in terms of risk, where risk is defined as the sum over all significant scenarios of the product of the probability of the scenario, the magnitude of the resultant dose, and the probability of a health effect per unit dose. This paper describes the methodology developed to assess the long-term risk from inadvertent human intrusion into such a facility and the results of its application to a conceptual design of such a facility.

  17. Geriatric pain competencies and knowledge assessment for nurses in long term care settings

    PubMed Central

    Swafford, Kristen L.; Miller, Lois L.; Herr, Keela; Forcucci, Chris; Kelly, Anne Marie L.; Bakerjian, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Pain in older adults is a prevalent problem that affects quality of life and challenges nurses, particularly those caring for older adults living in long term care settings. Despite the national priority of pain management, insufficient knowledge of nurses about geriatric pain is a documented barrier to effective geriatric pain management in all long term care settings. To address this knowledge gap, a website (GeriatricPain.org) was developed by the National Geriatric Pain Collaborative with a grant from the MayDay Fund to provide a single site for evidenced-based, easy-to-use, downloadable resources on pain management. This paper describes the development of the most recent addition to the website, a set of evidence-based core geriatric pain management competencies and a geriatric pain knowledge assessment, and discusses their potential uses in improving pain care for older adults. Geriatric Pain Competencies and Knowledge Assessment for Nurses in Long Term Care Settings. PMID:25037079

  18. Long-Term Functional, Cosmetic and Sexual Outcomes of Hypospadias Correction Performed in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Thiry, S; Saussez, T; Dormeus, S; Tombal, B; Wese, F X; Feyaerts, A

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias surgery, especially when performed early in life, may have a significant impact on the urinary and sexual functions in an adult. Because the literature is still limited, this paper assesses long-term functional, cosmetic and sexual results of hypospadias repair performed in childhood. The study includes 275 patients older than 12 years treated for a hypospadias by an Onlay, Mathieu, Duplay, or Duckett's technique between January 1990 and December 2000. Flowmetry results were retrospectively obtained from patients' charts. The Paediatric Penile Perception Score (PPPS), the Hypospadias Objective Scoring Evaluation (HOSE) and the IIEF-5 score (when older than 16 years old) questionnaires were used to assess cosmetic and sexual results. The PPPS is designed to assess both penile self-perception with regard to meatus, glans, skin and general appearance. The HOSE is a five-point scoring system designed to allow an objective appraisal of the outcome of hypospadias repair, based on evaluating meatal location, meatal shape, urinary stream, straightness of erection, and the presence and complexity of any complicating urethral fistula. Qmax were within age-adjusted references, independent of the surgical technique, with median (range) Qmax of 18.8 ml/s (range 3-45, n = 136). Patients expressed a high satisfaction for every single item of the penile perception scale (PPPS), with mean values between 2 (satisfied) and 3 (very satisfied). Eighty-two percent were satisfied or very satisfied of the overall evaluation of penile appearance. Eighty-one percent of patients had a normal erectile function (IIEF-5 >22; n = 35/43). Taking into account the limitation of a small number of patients resulting from a low 21% questionnaire's response rate, the results of this study align with previous reports from the literature and confirms that hypospadias repair using standard techniques results in acceptable functional, cosmetic and sexual outcomes. This study highlights the need

  19. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research brief presents findings over the past four years at two sites where detailed investigations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have focused on the long-term performance of PRBs under a Tri-Agency Permeable Reactive Barrier Initiative (TRI). This ...

  20. Influence of Misaligned Parents' Aspirations on Long-Term Student Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Hester; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of misaligned parents' aspirations, its relationship with student background characteristics, and its effects on long-term student performance. It is defined as the difference between parents' educational ambitions for their child and the child's actual capacities. Multilevel regression analyses on a sample of…

  1. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research brief presents findings over the past four years at two sites where detailed investigations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have focused on the long-term performance of PRBs under a Tri-Agency Permeable Reactive Barrier Initiative (TRI). This ...

  2. Influence of Misaligned Parents' Aspirations on Long-Term Student Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Hester; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of misaligned parents' aspirations, its relationship with student background characteristics, and its effects on long-term student performance. It is defined as the difference between parents' educational ambitions for their child and the child's actual capacities. Multilevel regression analyses on a sample of…

  3. The Impact of Business Communication Education on Students' Short- and Long-Term Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify the short- and long-term impact of business communication education on students' skill developments and performance outcomes. Nearly 400 students at an AACSC International-accredited business college participated in the study during their sophomore and senior years. The findings indicate that…

  4. GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

  5. Biocompatibility assessment of a long-term wearable artificial pump-lung in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang; Niu, Shuqiong; Bianchi, Giacomo; Wei, Xufeng; Garimella, Narayana; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of a newly developed long-term wearable artificial pump-lung (APL) in a clinically relevant ovine animal model. The wearable APL device was implanted in five sheep through left thoracotomy. The device was connected between the right atrium and pulmonary artery and evaluated for 30 days. Three sheep were used as the sham control. Platelet activation was assessed by measuring platelet surface P-selectin (CD62P) expression with flow cytometry and plasma soluble P-selectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thrombotic deposition on the device components and hollow fiber membranes were analyzed with digital imaging and scanning electron microscopy. Surface P-selectin of the APL and sham groups changed significantly over the study period, but without significant differences between the two groups. Soluble P-selectin for the two groups peaked in the first 24 h after the surgery. Soluble P-selectin of the APL group remained slightly elevated over the study period compared to the presurgical baseline value and was slightly higher compared to that of the sham group. Plasma free hemoglobin remained in the normal ranges in all the animals. In spite of the surgery-related alteration in laboratory tests and elevation of platelet activation status, the APL devices in all the animals functioned normally (oxygen transfer and blood pumping) during the 30-day study period. The device flow path and membrane surface were free of gross thrombus. Electron microscopy images showed only scattered thrombi on the fibers (membrane surface and weft). In summary, the APL exhibited excellent biocompatibility. Two forms of platelet activation, surgery-related and device-induced, in the animals implanted with the wearable APL were observed. The limited device-induced platelet activation did not cause gross thrombosis and impair the long-term device performance.

  6. Biocompatibility Assessment of a Long-Term Wearable Artificial Pump-Lung in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kang; Niu, Shuqiong; Bianchi, Giacomo; Wei, Xufeng; Garimella, Narayana; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of a newly developed long-term wearable artificial pump-lung (APL) in a clinically relevant ovine animal mode. The wearable APL device was implanted in five sheep through a left thoracotomy. The device was connected between the right atrium (RA) and pulmonary artery (PA) and evaluated for 30 days. Three sheep were used as the sham control. Platelet activation was assessed by measuring platelet surface P-selectin (CD62P) expression with flow cytometry and plasma soluble P-selectin with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thrombotic deposition on the device components and hollow fiber membranes (HFM) were analyzed with digital imaging and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface P-selectin of the APL and sham groups changed significantly over the study period, but without significant differences between the two groups. Soluble P-selectin for the two groups peaked in the first 24 hours after the surgery. Soluble P-selectin of the APL group remained slightly elevated over the study period compared to the pre-surgical baseline value and was slightly higher compared to that of the sham group. Plasma free hemoglobin (PFH) remained in the normal ranges in all the animals. In spite of the surgery related alteration in laboratory tests and elevation of platelet activation status, the APL devices in all the animals functioned normally (oxygen transfer and blood pumping) during the 30 day study period. The device flow path and membrane surface were free of gross thrombus. Electron microscopy images showed only scattered thrombi on the fibers (membrane surface and weft). In summary, the APL exhibited excellent biocompatibility. Two forms of platelet activation, surgery related and device induced, in the animals implanted with the wearable APL were observed. The limited device-induced platelet activation did not cause gross thrombosis and impair the long-term device performance. PMID:23452221

  7. Assessment of the appropriateness of naloxone administration to patients receiving long-term opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Facey, Caroline; Brooks, David; Boland, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    The most dangerous adverse effect of opioids is respiratory depression. Naloxone is used to reverse this, although in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy it can cause acute opioid withdrawal and opioid-refractory pain. To determine if naloxone is appropriately administered to patients receiving long-term opioid therapy. This retrospective case series based on chart reviews systematically identified patients over one year in a district general hospital. All patients aged 18 years or older receiving long-term opioid therapy admitted to medicine, surgery or the high dependency unit who were administered naloxone during their admission were included. A total of 1206 patient drug administration records were reviewed. Sixteen patients receiving long-term opioid therapy were administered naloxone. Twelve of these did not have opioid-induced respiratory depression and four did not have respiratory rate and oxygen saturations documented in the medical notes. All naloxone doses administered were higher than those recommended by national guidelines for this patient group. No patient receiving long-term opioid therapy who was administered naloxone had evidence of respiratory depression. More thorough assessment and documentation are needed. Verbal and physical stimulation as well as oxygenation should be considered prior to naloxone administration; this should be followed by close observation, hydration, renal function tests and opioid dose review.

  8. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    SciTech Connect

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G.; Chau, T.

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  9. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  10. Development of a Self-Assessment Tool to Facilitate Decision-Making in Choosing a Long Term Care Administration Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer L.; Olson, Douglas M.; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2016-01-01

    Long term care administrators need a broad base of knowledge, skills, and interests to provide leadership and be successful in managing a fiscally responsible, quality long term care organization. Researchers developed a tool to help students assess whether a long term care administration major is a compatible fit. With input from professionals in…

  11. Editorial: Assessment Issues and Long-Term Effects of Childhood Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1997-01-01

    This editorial reviews and comments on three recent studies: two on assessment issues or areas of diagnostic difficulty for pediatricians concerned with child abuse and neglect, and one on the long-term effects of childhood abuse and experiences of early attachment. (DB)

  12. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  13. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of countermeasures (CM) for the effects of space travel on humans for long term space missions. An example of bone mineral density (BMD) is examined to show specific quantitative measures for failure and success.

  15. Long-term assessment of financial maturity, diameter-limit selection in the central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Schuler; David W. McGill

    2007-01-01

    Financial maturity, diameter-limit (FMDL) selection was proposed more than three decades ago as a replacement for diameter-limit cutting. FMDL incorporates financial maturity guidelines for individual trees, high-priority removal of poorquality trees, and guidelines for residual basal area. We provide the first long-term assessment of this practice after more than...

  16. Training for sustained performance: moving toward long-term musician development.

    PubMed

    Clark, Terry; Lisboa, Tánia

    2013-09-01

    Success in the performing arts, like sports, is dependent upon the acquisition and consistent use of a diverse range of skills. In sports, an understanding of safe and effective use of the body is required to facilitate long-term involvement in that activity. In order to assist athletes to attain their performance goals, and ensure healthy and sustained involvement, long-term athlete development (LTAD) models have been devised and adapted by professional sporting bodies throughout the world. LTAD models emphasize the intellectual, emotional, and social development of the athlete, encourage long-term participation in physical activities, and enable participants to improve their overall health and well-being and increase their life-long participation in physical activity. At present there is no such long-term development model for musicians. Yet musicians must cope with a multitude of career-related physical and mental demands, and performance-related injuries and career burnout are rife within the profession. Despite this, musicians' training rarely addresses such issues and musicians are left largely to learn about them through either chance or accrued experience. This paper discusses key concepts and recommendations in LTAD models, together with music-specific research highlighting the need for the development of a comprehensive long-term approach to musicians' training. The results of a survey of existing music training programs are compared to recommendations and the different development stages in LTAD models. Finally, implementation science is introduced as a methodological option for identifying how best to communicate the body of evidence-based knowledge concerning healthy and effective music-making to young student musicians.

  17. Relationship between cognitive impairment and nutritional assessment on functional status in Calabrian long-term-care

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. Methods One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. Results A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (P<0.001), as did MMSE correlated with Activity Daily Living (P<0.001) and BI (P<0.05). MNA correlated with BI (P<0.001) and albumin (P<0.001). The follow-up showed a strong correlation between cognitive deterioration and worsening of nutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). Conclusion The present study clearly shows that

  18. Long-term performance and characterization of microbial desalination cells in treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiping; Xu, Pei; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-09-01

    Microbial desalination cell represents a new technology for simultaneous wastewater treatment, water desalination, and energy production. This study characterized the long-term performance of MDC during wastewater treatment and identified the key factors that caused performance decline. The 8-month operation shows that MDC performance decreased over time, as indicated by a 47% decline in current density, a 46% drop in Columbic efficiency, and a 27% decrease in desalination efficiency. Advanced electrochemical, microscopy, and spectroscopy analyses all confirmed biofouling on the anion exchange membrane, which increased system resistance and reduced ionic transfer and energy conversion efficiency. Minor chemical scaling was found on the cation exchange membrane surface. Microbial communities became less diverse at the end of operation, and Proteobacteria spp. was dominant on both anode and AEM fouling layer surface. These results provide insights into the viability of long-term MDC operation on reactor performance and direct system development through membrane optimization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long-term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted of techniques having the capability of determining the performance and reliability of components for spacecraft liquid propulsion applications for long term missions. The study utilized two major approaches; improvement in the existing technology, and the evolution of new technology. The criteria established and methods evolved are applicable to valve components. Primary emphasis was placed on the propellants oxygen difluoride and diborane combination. The investigation included analysis, fabrication, and tests of experimental equipment to provide data and performance criteria.

  20. Designing long-term fish community assessments in connecting channels: Lessons from the Saint Marys River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeff; Rogers, Mark W.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette K.; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Long-term surveys are useful in understanding trends in connecting channel fish communities; a gill net assessment in the Saint Marys River performed periodically since 1975 is the most comprehensive connecting channels sampling program within the Laurentian Great Lakes. We assessed efficiency of that survey, with intent to inform development of assessments at other connecting channels. We evaluated trends in community composition, effort versus estimates of species richness, ability to detect abundance changes for four species, and effects of subsampling yellow perch catches on size and age-structure metrics. Efficiency analysis revealed low power to detect changes in species abundance, whereas reduced effort could be considered to index species richness. Subsampling simulations indicated that subsampling would have allowed reliable estimates of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population structure, while greatly reducing the number of fish that were assigned ages. Analyses of statistical power and efficiency of current sampling protocols are useful for managers collecting and using these types of data as well as for the development of new monitoring programs. Our approach provides insight into whether survey goals and objectives were being attained and can help evaluate ability of surveys to answer novel questions that arise as management strategies are refined.

  1. Evaluating the Long-Term Performance of Geosynethic Clay Liners Exposed to Freeze-Thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K. Podgorney; Jesse E. Bennett

    2006-02-01

    Geosynethic clay liners have become an increasingly common component in landfill liner and cover systems since their introduction in the early 1980’s. An important consideration for landfills and covers constructed in the frost zone of cold climates is the possible deterioration in performance due to freeze-thaw cycling over the design life of the liner or cover system, which can be up to 1,000 years. The literature contains several examples showing that geosynethic clay liners can withstand a limited number of freeze-thaw events, but data on long-term performance are lacking The objective of this study was to examine the long-term performance of geosynethic clay liners exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles, encompassing their application as a final cover as well as a bottom liner. Laboratory analysis of hydraulic conductivity was performed after as many as 150 freeze-thaw cycles, with no appreciable changes observed. Based upon an analytical heat transfer analysis, this equates to [at least] 150 years of field service for placement depths greater then approximately 30 cm below the surface of the liner. The long-term insusceptibility of GCLs to increased hydraulic conductivity as a response to repeated freeze-thaw cycling is largely due to the self-healing characteristics of the sodium bentonite used in their construction. GCLs perform well and maintain efficiency as a barrier to flow after 150 freeze-thaw cycles. Other factors, such as permeant chemistry, physical disturbance, desiccation, etc., may be much more important factors to consider when planning for the long-term performance of GCLs.

  2. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  3. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer

  4. Design Principles and Concepts for Enhancing Long-Term Cap Performance and Confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Robert P. Breckenridge; Gregory J. White; Jacob J. Jacobson; Hilary I. Inyang

    2005-10-01

    The siting of new landfills is becoming increasing difficult as the public and stakeholders want more confidence of performance for longer times and landfill owners want to store more waste in the least area while knowing and limiting their long-term liabilities. These changes motivate re-examination of long-term performance mechanisms and their implications for cap and barrier designs. Accordingly, in this paper we first consider design principles from the standpoint of long-term performance and management, including the ability to monitor and repair barriers. We then consider some design concepts that may implement these principles, especially evapo-transpiration (ET) caps. We suggest five design principles based on experience in the cap and barrier field as well as other engineering disciplines. These principles are as follows: · Establish a clear and defendable design basis. · Design for ease of monitoring and repair. · Analyze the barrier as a dynamic system, not static. · Work with nature, not against. · Recognize that increased complexity can reduce, not enhance, net performance. ET caps are an excellent embodiment of these design principles. We apply the design principles to ET caps, as well as variants such as erosion armor, capillary breaks, bio-intrusion layers, and low permeability material layers.

  5. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  6. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Missaire, Mégane; Fraize, Nicolas; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Parmentier, Régis; Marighetto, Aline; Salin, Paul Antoine; Malleret, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM). The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI) (HIWM task), or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task). Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be transferred and stored

  7. Transition of municipal sludge anaerobic digestion from mesophilic to thermophilic and long-term performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Ulas; Tandukar, Madan; Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for the transition of municipal sludge anaerobic digestion from mesophilic to thermophilic were assessed and the long-term stability and performance of thermophilic digesters operated at a solids retention time of 30days were evaluated. Transition from 36°C to 53.3°C at a rate of 3°C/day resulted in fluctuation of the daily gas and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. Steady-state was reached within 35days from the onset of temperature increase. Transitions from either 36 or 53.3°C to 60°C resulted in relatively stable daily gas production, but VFAs remained at very high levels (in excess of 5000mg COD/L) and methane production was lower than that of the mesophilic reactor. It was concluded that in order to achieve high VS and COD destruction and methane production, the temperature of continuous-flow, suspended growth digesters fed with mixed municipal sludge should be kept below 60°C.

  8. Jump performance and augmented feedback: immediate benefits and long-term training effects.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gehring, Dominic; Leukel, Christian; Taube, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Drop jumps and their adaptations to training have been extensively investigated. However, the influence of augmented feedback (aF) on stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) was not scrutinized so far despite the well-known positive effects of aF on motor performance and motor learning. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of aF by evaluating immediate within-session effects and long-term adaptations. 34 participants were assigned to three groups that trained drop jumps with different relative frequencies of aF about their jump height: 100%, 50%, or 0%. A significant within-session effect of aF on jump height was observed before and also after the training period (pre: +4.6%; post: +2.6%). In the long-term (comparing pre- to post-measurement), the 100% group showed the greatest increase in jump height (+14%), followed by the 50% (+10%) and the 0% group (+6%). The importance of aF on drop jumps is therefore twofold: (i) to immediately increase jump performance and (ii) to improve long-term training efficacy. In contrast to the proposition of the guidance hypothesis, high frequency of aF seems to be beneficial when maximizing SSC-performance. As jump height cannot be quantified without objective technical measures it is recommended to include them into daily training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling the Long-Term Isolation Performance of Natural and Engineered Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-07-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. This evolution of cap-rock permeability can be assessed through reactive transport modeling, an advanced computational method based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by the influx event. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfrac apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish saline aquifer and EOR/sequestration settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible impact on mineral reaction rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters, because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation. Specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. As a result, while the extent of

  10. Assessment of long-term research needs for coal-liquefaction technologies: FERWG-2

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1980-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.M. Deutch (Under Secretary of DOE), E. Frieman (Director, Officeof Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has studied and reviewed currently funded coal-liquefaction technologies. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term development of coal-liquefaction technologies. The research needs identified by FERWG are generally consistent with research needs recognized by DOE contractors. Process research needs often refer to urgent practical difficulties that are best resolved by studies performed at contractor organizations in conjunction with current development programs. Our listing does not indicate priorities and we have not attempted to assign appropriate budgetary requirements. While needs and deficiencies identified by FERWG in ongoing programs have greatly influenced our selection of research recommendations summarized in Chapter 2, the basic studies which we recommend have a larger focus than the resolution of ongoing programmatic difficulties. Research on coal science, just as basic research in other fields, should be of such a scope that its effective prosecution will yield results that will be useful in applications that are not now defined while serving, at the same time, as a repository of knowledge that may serve to resolve or ameliorate ongoing programmatic difficulties.

  11. Assessing qualitative long-term volcanic hazards at Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Martí, Joan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina

    2017-07-01

    Conducting long-term hazard assessment in active volcanic areas is of primary importance for land-use planning and defining emergency plans able to be applied in case of a crisis. A definition of scenario hazard maps helps to mitigate the consequences of future eruptions by anticipating the events that may occur. Lanzarote is an active volcanic island that has hosted the largest (> 1.5 km3 DRE) and longest (6 years) eruption, the Timanfaya eruption (1730-1736), on the Canary Islands in historical times (last 600 years). This eruption brought severe economic losses and forced local people to migrate. In spite of all these facts, no comprehensive hazard assessment or hazard maps have been developed for the island. In this work, we present an integrated long-term volcanic hazard evaluation using a systematic methodology that includes spatial analysis and simulations of the most probable eruptive scenarios.

  12. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  13. Land-Base Changes in the United States: Long-Term Assessments of Forest Land Condition

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig

    2006-01-01

    Forest land conditions affect the potential of U.S. forests to sustain a wide array of forest goods and environmental services (e.g., biodiversity) that society demands. Forest survey data collected by U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units are being used in long-term assessments of U.S. forest land conditions at large...

  14. Assessment of the long-term stability of retort pouch foods to support extended duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Catauro, Patricia M; Perchonok, Michele H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the suitability of retort processed foods to support long-duration spaceflight, a series of 36-mo accelerated shelf life studies were performed on 13 representative retort pouch products. Combined sensory evaluations, physical properties assessments, and nutritional analyses were employed to determine shelf life endpoints for these foods, which were either observed during the analysis or extrapolated via mathematical projection. Data obtained through analysis of these 13 products were later used to estimate the shelf life values of all retort-processed spaceflight foods. In general, the major determinants of shelf life appear to be the development of off-flavor and off-color in products over time. These changes were assumed to be the result of Maillard and oxidation reactions, which can be initiated or accelerated as a result of the retort process and product formulation. Meat products and other vegetable entrées are projected to maintain their quality the longest, between 2 and 8 y, without refrigeration. Fruit and dessert products (1.5 to 5 y), dairy products (2.5 to 3.25 y), and starches, vegetable, and soup products (1 to 4 y) follow. Aside from considerable losses in B and C vitamin content, nutritional value of most products was maintained throughout shelf life. Fortification of storage-labile vitamins was proposed as a countermeasure to ensure long-term nutritive value of these products. The use of nonthermal sterilization technologies was also recommended, as a means to improve initial quality of these products and extend their shelf life for use in long-duration missions. Data obtained also emphasize the importance of low temperature storage in maintaining product quality. Retort sterilized pouch products are garnering increased commercial acceptance, largely due to their improved convenience and quality over metal-canned products. Assessment of the long-term stability of these products with ambient storage can identify potential areas for

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S. J.; Jacobson, J. J.; Martian, P.; Martineau, R.; Soto, R.

    2003-02-25

    INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Soto, Rafael; Martian, Pete; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2003-02-01

    , the INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

  17. Predicting the recruitment of established regeneration into the sapling size class following partial cutting in the Acadian Forest Region: Using long-term observations to assess the performance of FVS-NE

    Treesearch

    David Ray; Chad Keyser; Robert Seymour; John Brissette

    2008-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly called upon to provide long-term predictions of forest development. The dynamics of regeneration establishment, survival and subsequent recruitment of established seedlings to larger size classes is a critical component of these forecasts, yet remains a weak link in available models. To test the reliability of FVS-NE for simulating...

  18. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance–contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition. PMID:26869978

  19. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  20. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Missaire, Mégane; Fraize, Nicolas; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Parmentier, Régis; Marighetto, Aline; Salin, Paul Antoine; Malleret, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM). The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI) (HIWM task), or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task). Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a “within-session/short-term” PI effect. However, we also observed a different “between-session/long-term” PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be transferred and

  1. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  2. A framework for assessing adherence and persistence to long-term medication.

    PubMed

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Warren, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Poor adherence and persistence to long-term medication is a growing concern worldwide. Despite their importance, tools that facilitate the identification of patients who show poor adherence and persistence rates are limited. Herein we present a framework we have developed to assist in assessing adherence and persistence rates. We demonstrate the framework's features using production electronic medical record data from a general medical practice in the context of analysis of antihypertensive and antidepressant prescribing. The framework is flexible and extensible and has the potential to be used as a tool to improve the management of patients on long-term medication either to benchmark quality over a specified evaluation period or for the direct identification of specific patients that would benefit from immediate follow-up.

  3. Methods for assessing long-term mean pathogen count in drinking water and risk management implications.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Loewenstine, Chad; Gadzinski, Erik R; Ayenu-Prah, Albert Y

    2012-06-01

    Recently pathogen counts in drinking and source waters were shown theoretically to have the discrete Weibull (DW) or closely related discrete growth distribution (DGD). The result was demonstrated versus nine short-term and three simulated long-term water quality datasets. These distributions are highly skewed such that available datasets seldom represent the rare but important high-count events, making estimation of the long-term mean difficult. In the current work the methods, and data record length, required to assess long-term mean microbial count were evaluated by simulation of representative DW and DGD waterborne pathogen count distributions. Also, microbial count data were analyzed spectrally for correlation and cycles. In general, longer data records were required for more highly skewed distributions, conceptually associated with more highly treated water. In particular, 500-1,000 random samples were required for reliable assessment of the population mean ±10%, though 50-100 samples produced an estimate within one log (45%) below. A simple correlated first order model was shown to produce count series with 1/f signal, and such periodicity over many scales was shown in empirical microbial count data, for consideration in sampling. A tiered management strategy is recommended, including a plan for rapid response to unusual levels of routinely-monitored water quality indicators.

  4. Using the balanced scorecard to align strategy and performance in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, M

    1998-01-01

    The Sisters of Charity of Ottawa Health Service (SCOHS) is a Canadian health care corporation that has adapted Kaplan and Norton's balanced scorecard to enhance strategic management and measurement in a multisite health care facility comprising long term care, continuing complex care, rehabilitative services, palliative care and ambulatory care. This article discusses how the SCOHS has incorporated the following principles into the balanced scorecard: demonstration of cause and effect; inclusion of outcomes and performance drivers; linkage to fiscal and utilization indicators; and integration of the mission and values of the organization. Examples of corporate level outcomes and performance measures are provided in the form of lead and lag indicators.

  5. Improvement of capabilities of the Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for investigating SOFC long term performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Galdamez, Rinaldo A.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.

    2012-04-30

    This report provides an overview of the work performed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) modeling during the 2012 Winter/Spring Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A brief introduction on the concept, operation basics and applications of fuel cells is given for the general audience. Further details are given regarding the modifications and improvements of the Distributed Electrochemistry (DEC) Modeling tool developed by PNNL engineers to model SOFC long term performance. Within this analysis, a literature review on anode degradation mechanisms is explained and future plans of implementing these into the DEC modeling tool are also proposed.

  6. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Study Design Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. Results There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. Conclusion The results of the present study did not

  7. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  8. An Account of Performance in Accessing Information Stored in Long-Term Memory. A Fixed-Links Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…

  9. An Account of Performance in Accessing Information Stored in Long-Term Memory. A Fixed-Links Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…

  10. Evaluation of the long-term sound reduction performance of resilient materials in floating floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Jeongho

    2016-03-01

    Building multi-dwelling units is one of the practical engineering solutions to housing shortage in urban areas with high population density. However, noise from upstairs is a major issue. The use of resilient materials in floating floor structures is recognized as an effective method to reduce such noise. In general, soft materials are considered as better resilient materials due to their superior performance in impact sound reduction. However, it is often overlooked that the sound reduction performance of soft resilient materials is susceptible to being degraded over time when subjected to a long-term load. In this study, the long-term performance of eight resilient materials is evaluated by monitoring their dynamic stiffness for 270 days under the two sustained load conditions: 250 N and 500 N. According to the experimental study, the dynamic stiffness increases consistently with loading time for all resilient materials. This leads to a decrease in the sound reduction performance. More rapid reduction in the dynamic stiffness and hence in the sound reduction performance is observed when a larger sustained load is applied. A greater decrease in the sound reduction performance is found in soft resilient materials.

  11. Long-term performance of epimyocardial pacing leads in adults: comparison with endocardial leads.

    PubMed

    Helguera, M E; Maloney, J D; Woscoboinik, J R; Trohman, R G; McCarthy, P M; Morant, V A; Wilkoff, B L; Castle, L W; Pinski, S L

    1993-03-01

    The long-term performance of epimyocardial pacing leads in children is well established, but few studies have analyzed the performance in adults. This issue has clinical relevance in view of the increased use of epimyocardial leads with implantable cardioverter defibrillator and antitachycardia pacing systems. We analyzed 93 epimyocardial pacing "systems" (121 leads: 65 unipolar, 28 bipolar) in adult patients (age 57 +/- 16 years), implanted since January 1980. Two different models were studied: Medtronic 4951 "Stab-on" (n = 35) and Medtronic 6917/6917A "Screw-in" (n = 58). A control group was created by randomly matching each epimyocardial system with two endocardial leads, according to age and year of implant. Epimyocardial and endocardial leads were followed-up for 44 +/- 35 and 43 +/- 35 months, respectively (P = NS). Freedom from failure for epimyocardial leads was 0.91 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] = 0.82 to 0.96) at 5 years, and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.98) at 10 years. No difference was found between the two analyzed models. Freedom from failure for endocardial leads was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99) and 0.90 (95% CI = 0.61 to 0.97) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Epimyocardial leads had a significantly poorer short-term survival than endocardial leads, secondarily to earlier "technique related" failures (P = 0.03; relative risk 3.0; Wilcoxon test). However, overall long-term performance was similar to endocardial leads. Epimyocardial pacing leads, meticulously implanted and tested, have a long-term performance similar to endocardial pacing leads.

  12. Long-term consequences of traumatic experiences: an assessment of former political detainees in romania

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Research has suggested that organized violence and torture have long-term psychological effects that persist throughout the lifespan. The present survey aimed at examining the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other disorders and symptoms, all present in old age, as long-term consequences of politically motivated violence in a comparison design. Methods A group of former political detainees (N = 59, mean age 73.5 years) who had been arrested by the Romanian communist regime were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group (N = 39). PTSD was assessed using a structured clinical interview (CIDI). The investigation of the clinical profile was further accomplished by self-rating measures for anxiety, depression, and health-related functioning, as well as by clinician-administrated interviews for substance abuse, dissociation, and somatization symptoms. Results Lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 54%. In the case of participants left untreated, PTSD persisted, often over four decades, such that current PTSD was diagnosed still in a third of the survivors. Other clinical conditions such as somatization, substance abuse, dissociative disorders, and major depression were also common among the former political detainees and often associated with current PTSD. Conclusion Our findings suggest that political detention may have long-term psychological consequences that outlast the changes in the political system. PMID:16185364

  13. Assessing the short- and long-term outcomes after resection of benign insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yi-Po; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Shek, Tony Wai-Hung

    2016-09-01

    Insulinoma is a rare functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) believed to have an excellent long-term outcome, but few studies have solely focused on this issue after apparently curative resection. This study aimed to assess post-operative and long-term outcomes after resection of benign insulinomas. From 1998 to 2013, 36 consecutive patients with insulinomas underwent surgery. Three patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN-1). Demographics, operative findings, tumour grade (2010 World Health Organization (WHO) NET classification), post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) grade (International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF)), complications and recurrence were analysed. Eighteen (50%) had enucleation while the rest underwent pancreatic resection. The majority (86.1%) of insulinomas belonged to WHO NET grade G1. POPF occurred in 58.3% of patients while clinical fistula (ISGPF grades B and C) occurred in 19.4%. One (2.8%) patient required reoperation. The occurrence of POPF was not related to type of resection or surgical approach. There was no perioperative mortality. After a mean follow-up of 83.6 months, two patients (5.7%) developed disease recurrence at 34.4 and 131.9 months after initial surgery. No patients developed distant metastasis. The 10- and 15-year disease-free rates were 95.6 and 85.4%, respectively. POPF occurred frequently and posed a significant morbidity after resection of insulinoma. However, it occurred independently of type of resection or surgical approach. Although the immediate cure rate after resection was high (100%), long-term disease recurrence in sporadic (non-MEN-1) cases was not insignificant. Regular long-term follow-up is recommended. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Assessing long-term QALYs gain from averting and reversing overweight and obesity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Techakehakij, Win

    2016-10-01

    Interventions to tackle childhood obesity have been devised in response to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. However, efficiency of these interventions remains a concern. Cost-utility analysis, representing health benefits in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is a type of economic evaluation that has widely been recommended in assessing efficiency of health interventions. However, certain limitations in using QALYs remain specifically difficult in QALYs estimation. This study estimates the long-term QALYs gain from reversing childhood obesity in Thailand. An economic model was developed to estimate long-term QALYs of the youth aged 3-18 for the BMI status in childhood, which were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Long-term QALYs were estimated between ages 35 and 100, according to children's age, sex, and BMI status. Differences in QALYs between BMI status groups were calculated to represent the QALYs gain for youth from reversing obesity and overweight. The future outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum in the base-case analysis; the discount rates of 0, 1.5, 3.5, and 5 % were also applied in the sensitivity analyses. QALYs gained from reversing childhood obesity increase with age, starting from 0.040 and 0.083 QALYs at age 3 to 0.590 and 0.553 QALYs at age 18 in boys and girls, respectively. Reversing overweight and obesity in girls produces more QALYs than in boys between ages 3 and 17. Efficiency is an important issue in allocating public healthcare resources to maximize social benefits. The results of this study facilitate long-term QALYs estimation with respect to BMI status in childhood, which could encourage more routine economic evaluation of child obesity interventions and maximize their health benefits.

  15. Assessment of uncertainty in long-term mass balances for acidification assessments: a MAGIC model exercise.

    PubMed

    Köhler, S J; Zetterberg, T; Futter, M N; Fölster, J; Löfgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Long-term (1860-2010) catchment mass balance calculations rely on models and assumptions which are sources of uncertainty in acidification assessments. In this article, we report on an application of MAGIC to model acidification at the four Swedish IM forested catchments that have been subject to differing degrees of acidification stress. Uncertainties in the modeled mass balances were mainly associated with the deposition scenario and assumptions about sulfate adsorption and soil mass. Estimated base cation (BC) release rates (weathering) varied in a relatively narrow range of 47-62 or 42-47 meq m(-2) year(-1), depending on assumptions made about soil cation exchange capacity and base saturation. By varying aluminum solubility or introducing a dynamic weathering feedback that allowed BC release to increase at more acidic pHs, a systematic effect on predicted changes in acid neutralizing capacity (ΔANC ca. 10-41 μeq l(-1)) and pH (ca. ΔpH = 0.1-0.6) at all sites was observed. More robust projections of future changes in pH and ANC are dependent on reducing uncertainties in BC release rates, the timing, and extent of natural acidification through BC uptake by plants, temporal changes in soil element pools, and fluxes of Al between compartments.

  16. Adverse performance effects of acute lorazepam administration in elderly long-term users: pharmacokinetic and clinical predictors

    PubMed Central

    Pomara, Nunzio; Lee, Sang Han; Bruno, Davide; Silber, Timothy; Greenblatt, David J.; Petkova, Eva; Sidtis, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The benzodiazepine lorazepam is widely utilized in the treatment of elderly individuals with anxiety disorders and related conditions. Negative effects of acute lorazepam administration on cognitive performance, especially memory, have been reported in both previously untreated elderly and in individuals who have received short term (up to three weeks) treatment with therapeutic doses. However, it remains unclear if these adverse cognitive effects also persist after long-term use, which is frequently found in clinical practice. Methods Cognitively intact elderly individuals (n=37) on long-term (at least three months) daily treatment with lorazepam were studied using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study design. Subjects were administered their highest daily unit dose of lorazepam (0.25 – 3.00 mg) orplacebo on different days, approximately 1 week apart in a random order, and were assessed on memory, psychomotor speed, and subjective mood states Results Subjects had significantly poorer recall and slowed psychomotor performance following acute lorazepam administration. There were no significant effects on self-ratings of mood, sedation, or anxiety in the whole group, but secondary analyses suggested a differential response in subjects with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusions The reduced recall and psychomotor slowing that we observed, along with an absence of significant therapeutic benefits, following acute lorazepam administration in elderly long-term users reinforces the importance of cognitive toxicity as a clinical factor in benzodiazepine use, especially in this population. PMID:25195839

  17. Beneficial long-term effects of multiprofessional assessment vs. rehabilitation program in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in outcomes of long-term multiprofessional intervention in patients suffering from musculoskeletal pain. Eighty-eight patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain who either experienced multiprofessional rehabilitation (44) or underwent a mutiprofessional assessment of their ability to work (44) were followed up after either 5 or 10 years. Data on pain intensity, health perception and physical function collected in either 1998 or 2003, were compared with data taken from patients in 2008. Patients were also interviewed regarding pain diagnoses and additional multiprofessional interventions that occurred after 1998 or 2003. Results indicate that patients who participated in multiprofessional rehabilitation were younger in both 5- and 10-year follow-up groups and remained at work longer when compared to assessment group. When comparing the rehabilitation vs. assessment groups, no differences in pain intensity, health perception, and physical function were found at the 5- and 10-year follow-up. Reduced pain intensity was reported by both rehabilitation and assessment groups at the 5-year follow-up. Functional status was improved in the assessment group after 10 years. These results indicate that multiprofessional assessment may also have beneficial effects in patients with musculoskeletal pain when measuring long-term outcomes. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  18. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solaron (air) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron Corporation air-type solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Solaron Model 2001, air-type solar collector has a gross area of 19 square feet and the weight is 160 pounds. The absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of 1/8-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 5/8-inch fiberglass batting.

  19. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  20. Effects of long term storage on aerospace nickel cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the long term effects on aerospace nickel cadmium cells is described. A number of 6Ah and 12Ah capacity cells which were stored in shorted condition for 9 to 11 years at the Goddard Space Flight Center were selected for the study. Of the three tests which were initiated (initial and final destruction analyses of the test cells, electrical characterization tests, and life cycling tests) only the electrical characterization tests are completed; the other tests are scheduled to be completed by February 1987. The preliminary electrial performance data from the life cycling test and chemical composition data from the destructive testing indicate no anomalous behavior.

  1. Investigation of long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study on evaluation of the long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cells currently being performed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. A number of cells of 6 Ah and 12 Ah capacities which were stored in shorted condition for 8 to 9 years at the GSFC were selected for this study. These cells will undergo electrical acceptance testing the the GSFC, and life cycling at the NASA Battery Test Facility at the Naval Weapons Facility at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana; in addition, some cells from the study will undergo destructive analyses.

  2. The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, C.; Thwaite, C.; Curzon, D.; Rao, G.

    2006-01-01

    Tests approx.8 yrs ago showed Sony HC do not imbalance. AEA developed a theory (ESPC 2002): a) Self-discharge (SD) decreases with state-of-charge (SOC); b) Cells diverge to a state of dynamic equilibrium; c) Equilibrium spread depends on cell SD uniformity. Balancing model verified against test data. Short-term measures of SD difficult in Sony cells and very small values, depends on technique. Long-term evidence supports lower SD at low SD. Battery testing best proof of performance, typically mission specific tests.

  3. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    PubMed Central

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallic heater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could be attained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb) heater elements.

  4. Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

    2014-12-15

    On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner.

  5. Prevalence and facility level correlates of need for wheelchair seating assessment among long term care residents

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Ben Mortenson, W.; Miller, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wheelchairs are frequently prescribed for residents with mobility impairments in long term care. Many residents receive poorly fitting wheelchairs, compromising functional independence and mobility, and contributing to subsequent health issues such as pressure ulcers. The extent of this problem and the factors that predict poor fit are poorly understood; such evidence would contribute greatly to effective and efficient clinical practice in long term care. Objective To identify the prevalence of need for wheelchair seating intervention among residents in long term care facilities in Vancouver and explore the relationship between need for seating intervention and facility level factors. Methods Logistic regression analysis using secondary data from a cross-sectional study exploring predictors of resident mobility. 263 residents (183 females and 80 males) randomly selected from 11 long term care facilities in the Vancouver health region (mean age 84.2 ± 8.6 years). The Seating Identification Tool was used to establish subject need for wheelchair seating intervention. Individual item frequency was calculated. Six contextual variables were measured at each facility including occupational therapy staffing, funding source, policies regarding wheelchair-related equipment, and decision-making philosophy. Results Overall prevalence rate of inappropriate seating was 58.6% (95% CI 52.6 – 64.5%), ranging from 30.4% – 81.8% among the individual facilities. Discomfort, poor positioning and mobility, and skin integrity were the most common issues. Two facility level variables were significant predictors of need for seating assessment: ratio of occupational therapists per 100 residents (OR 0.11 [CI 0.04, 0.31]) and expectation that residents purchase wheelchair equipment beyond the basic level (OR 2.78 [1.11, 6.97]). A negative association between facility prevalence rate and ratio of occupational therapists (rp= −0.684, CI −0.143 – −0.910) was found

  6. Long-term occlusal changes assessed by the American Board of Orthodontics' model grading system.

    PubMed

    Aszkler, Robert M; Preston, Charles B; Saltaji, Humam; Tabbaa, Sawsan

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term posttreatment changes in all criteria of the American Board of Orthodontics' (ABO) model grading system. We used plaster models from patients' final and posttreatment records. Thirty patients treated by 1 orthodontist using 1 bracket prescription were selected. An initial discrepancy index for each subject was performed to determine the complexity of each case. The final models were then graded using the ABO's model grading system immediately at posttreatment and postretention. Statistical analysis was performed on the 8 criteria of the model grading system, including paired t tests and Pearson correlations. An alpha of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average length of time between the posttreatment and postretention records was 12.7 ± 4.4 years. It was shown that alignment and rotations worsened by postretention (P = 0.014), and a weak statistically significant correlation at posttreatment and postretention was found (0.44; P = 0.016). Both marginal ridges and occlusal contacts scored less well at posttreatment. These criteria showed a significant decrease in scores between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), but the correlations were not statistically significant. The average total score showed a significant decrease between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), partly because of the large decrease in the previous 2 criteria. Higher scores for occlusal contacts and marginal ridges were found at the end of treatment; however, those scores and the overall scores for the 30 subjects improved in the postretention phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Performance and long term stability of mesoporous silica membranes for desalination.

    PubMed

    Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Diniz da Costa, João C; Wang, David K

    2013-07-12

    This work shows the preparation of silica membranes by a two-step sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanolic solution by employing nitric acid and ammonia as co-catalysts. The sols prepared in pH 6 resulted in the lowest concentration of silanol (Si-OH) species to improve hydrostability and the optimized conditions for film coating. The membrane was tested to desalinate 0.3-15 wt % synthetic sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at a feed temperature of 22 °C followed by long term membrane performance of up to 250 h in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Results show that the water flux (and salt rejection) decrease with increasing salt concentration delivering an average value of 9.5 kg m-2 h-1 (99.6%) and 1.55 kg m-2 h-1 (89.2%) from the 0.3 and 15 wt % saline feed solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the permeate salt concentration was measured to be less than 600 ppm for testing conditions up to 5 wt % saline feed solutions, achieving below the recommended standard for potable water. Long term stability shows that the membrane performance in water flux was stable for up to 150 h, and slightly reduced from thereon, possibly due to the blockage of large hydrated ions in the micropore constrictions of the silica matrix. However, the integrity of the silica matrix was not affected by the long term testing as excellent salt rejection of >99% was maintained for over 250 h.

  8. Performance and Long Term Stability of Mesoporous Silica Membranes for Desalination

    PubMed Central

    Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Wang, David K.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the preparation of silica membranes by a two-step sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanolic solution by employing nitric acid and ammonia as co-catalysts. The sols prepared in pH 6 resulted in the lowest concentration of silanol (Si–OH) species to improve hydrostability and the optimized conditions for film coating. The membrane was tested to desalinate 0.3–15 wt % synthetic sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at a feed temperature of 22 °C followed by long term membrane performance of up to 250 h in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Results show that the water flux (and salt rejection) decrease with increasing salt concentration delivering an average value of 9.5 kg m–2 h–1 (99.6%) and 1.55 kg m–2 h–1 (89.2%) from the 0.3 and 15 wt % saline feed solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the permeate salt concentration was measured to be less than 600 ppm for testing conditions up to 5 wt % saline feed solutions, achieving below the recommended standard for potable water. Long term stability shows that the membrane performance in water flux was stable for up to 150 h, and slightly reduced from thereon, possibly due to the blockage of large hydrated ions in the micropore constrictions of the silica matrix. However, the integrity of the silica matrix was not affected by the long term testing as excellent salt rejection of >99% was maintained for over 250 h. PMID:24956942

  9. SHORT AND LONG-TERM FIRE IMPACTS ON HANFORD BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Mandis, M. L.; Buelow, Laura C.

    2009-03-05

    A critical unknown in long-term engineered barrier use is the post-fire hydrologic function where institutional controls are in-tact but there are no resources to implement maintenance activities such as re-planting. This objective of this study was to simulate wild fire on an engineered barrier at the Hanford Site and document the post-fire changes in barrier performance. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic conditions; plant floristics and density; and animal use were characterized pre- and post-burn. Fuel load on the surface ranged from 4.7 to 5.71 tons/acre. Fire was initiated by drip torch and measurements of flame height and temperature were made at nine locations on the barrier surface. Flame heights exceeded 30 ft and temperatures ranged from 250 C at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 C at 1 m above the surface. Soil organic matter, soil wettability, and hydraulic conductivity all decreased significantly relative to pre-fire conditions. Post-fire samples showed an increase in major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity measured in 1:1 extracts whereas organic matter decreased. Decreases in wettabilty and organic matter are indicative of conditions more conducive to runoff and soil loss. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of post-fire recovery in a post-institutional control environment. This should lead to enhanced stakeholder acceptance regarding the long-term efficacy of ET barriers. This study will also support improvements in the design of ET barriers and performance monitoring systems. Such improvements are needed to best meet the long-term commitment to the safe in-place isolation of waste for hundreds if not thousands of years.

  10. Long-term behavioral assessment of function in an experimental model for ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Encarnacion, Angelo; Horie, Nobutaka; Keren-Gill, Hadar; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2011-03-30

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats is a well-studied experimental model for ischemic stroke leading to brain infarction and functional deficits. Many preclinical studies have focused on a small time window after the ischemic episode to evaluate functional outcome for screening therapeutic candidates. Short evaluation periods following injury have led to significant setbacks due to lack of information on the delayed effects of treatments, as well as short-lived and reversible neuroprotection, so called false-positive results. In this report, we evaluated long-term functional deficit for 90 days after MCAO in two rat strains with two durations of ischemic insult, in order to identify the best experimental paradigm to assess injury and subsequent recovery. Behavioral outcomes were measured pre-MCAO followed by weekly assessment post-stroke. Behavioral tests included the 18-point composite neurological score, 28-point neuroscore, rearing test, vibrissae-evoked forelimb placing test, foot fault test and the CatWalk. Brain lesions were assessed to correlate injury to behavior outcomes at the end of study. Our results indicate that infarction volume in Sprague-Dawley rats was dependent on occlusion duration. In contrast, the infarction volume in Wistar rats did not correlate with the duration of ischemic episode. Functional outcomes were not dependent on occlusion time in either strain; however, measurable deficits were detectable long-term in limb asymmetry, 18- and 28-point neuroscores, forelimb placing, paw swing speed, and gait coordination. In conclusion, these behavioral assays, in combination with an extended long-term assessment period, can be used for evaluating therapeutic candidates in preclinical models of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O.; Hunter, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  12. Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-02-01

    Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  13. Long-term monitoring of Sacramento Shade program trees: tree survival, growth and energy-saving performance

    Treesearch

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival and growth of urban forests are critical to achieve the targeted benefits of urban tree planting programs, such as building energy savings from tree shade. However, little is known about how trees perform in the long-term, especially in residential areas. Given this gap in the literature, we monitored 22-years of post-planting survival, growth, and...

  14. The long-term corrosion performance of Alloy 22 in heated brine solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Enos, D. G.; Bryan, C. R.

    2015-02-13

    Long-term corrosion experiments have been performed on Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), in a series of heated brines formulated to represent evaporatively concentrated ground water, to evaluate the long-term corrosion performance of the material. These solutions included 0.5 M NaCl, in addition to two simulated concentrated ground water solutions. Under conditions where Alloy 22 was anticipated to be passive, the corrosion rate was found to be vanishingly small (i.e., below the resolution of the weight-loss technique used to quantify corrosion in this study). However, under low pH conditions where Alloy 22 was anticipated to be active, or more specifically, where themore » chromium oxide passive film was not thermodynamically stable, the corrosion rate was appreciable. Furthermore, under such conditions the corrosion rate was observed to be a strong function of temperature, with an activation energy of 72.9±1.8 kJ/mol. Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy analysis of the oxide layer revealed that, while sulfur was present within the oxide for all test conditions, no accumulation was observed at or near the metal/oxide interface. Furthermore, these observations confirm that inhibition of passive film formation via sulfur accumulation does not occur during the corrosion of Alloy 22.« less

  15. The long-term corrosion performance of Alloy 22 in heated brine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, D. G.; Bryan, C. R.

    2015-02-13

    Long-term corrosion experiments have been performed on Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), in a series of heated brines formulated to represent evaporatively concentrated ground water, to evaluate the long-term corrosion performance of the material. These solutions included 0.5 M NaCl, in addition to two simulated concentrated ground water solutions. Under conditions where Alloy 22 was anticipated to be passive, the corrosion rate was found to be vanishingly small (i.e., below the resolution of the weight-loss technique used to quantify corrosion in this study). However, under low pH conditions where Alloy 22 was anticipated to be active, or more specifically, where the chromium oxide passive film was not thermodynamically stable, the corrosion rate was appreciable. Furthermore, under such conditions the corrosion rate was observed to be a strong function of temperature, with an activation energy of 72.9±1.8 kJ/mol. Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy analysis of the oxide layer revealed that, while sulfur was present within the oxide for all test conditions, no accumulation was observed at or near the metal/oxide interface. Furthermore, these observations confirm that inhibition of passive film formation via sulfur accumulation does not occur during the corrosion of Alloy 22.

  16. [Long-term survival related to cognitive performance in older adults treated at a tertiary hospital level].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Villalpando-Berumen, Juan Manuel; García-Cruz, Juan Carlos; Reyes-Guerrero, Jorge Antonio; Villa, Antonio Rafael

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between cognitive performance and long-term survival in an elderly Mexican population sample. In this retrospective, retrolective and observational study elderly subjects were assessed in the Geriatrics Clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" between January 1994 and August 1999 using a comprehensive geriatric assessment. All 2544 subjects for whom vitality status was known up to September 2002 were included in the analysis. Socio-demographic and health-related information was gathered during the clinical interview, and their emotional and functional status was determined using the Katz, Lawton and GDS scales. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), grouping the subjects according to their performance into four groups: normal-high performance, normal-low performance, mild-to-moderate impairment and moderate-to-severe impairment. Vitality status was determined by searching the hospital's clinical records or by telephonic contact with the patient or primary caregiver when needed. Long-term mortality rates increased in a linear fashion as MMSE scores decreased (p < 0.001), even for MMSE scores over 24. This association persisted even after adjustment for comorbidity, depression, functional status and socio-demographic factors. Patients showed a progressive decline in long-term survival according to their cognitive performances. MMSE scores between 24 and 27 were also associated with an increased mortality and should not be considered as normal, even if they are not sensitive enough to detect impairment.

  17. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program was established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the composition, structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots were chosen according to specific selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. Transition characteristics from one mature forest community type to another is strongly modified by different environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation. During climate change, the transition depends on the rate and extent of the forcing factors, the speed of migration and the stability of the communities as they become increasingly maladapted to local climates. It is unknown whether all systems will stabilize in a new equilibrium, and, some forest species may be unable to keep pace with shifts in climatic zones. To assess these risks, FORSUM, a forest succession model for Central Europe, is applied to explain the forest succession on the Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Continuous model improvement based on an increasing number of site specific data-series for model parameterization will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forests, currently at risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  18. A comparison of methods to assess long-term changes in Sonoran Desert vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, S.M.; Webb, R.H.; Hubbard, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the condition of vegetation cover and composition is critical for assessing the structure and function of ecosystems. To effectively quantify the impacts of a rapidly changing environment, methods to track long-term trends of vegetation must be precise, repeatable, and time- and cost-efficient. Measuring vegetation cover and composition in arid and semiarid regions is especially challenging because vegetation is typically sparse, discontinuous, and individual plants are widely spaced. To meet the goal of long-term vegetation monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and other arid and semiarid regions, we determined how estimates of plant species, total vegetation, and soil cover obtained using a widely-implemented monitoring protocol compared to a more time- and resource-intensive plant census. We also assessed how well this protocol tracked changes in cover through 82 years compared to the plant census. Results from the monitoring protocol were comparable to those from the plant census, despite low and variable plant species cover. Importantly, this monitoring protocol could be used as a rapid, "off-the shelf" tool for assessing land degradation (or desertification) in arid and semiarid ecosystems.

  19. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  20. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-02-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for territorial planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure qualitative and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted in the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where) and the temporal probability (when) of an eruption on the island. By studying the past eruptive behavior of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result is the first total qualitative volcanic hazard map of the island.

  1. Factors Influencing New RNs' Supervisory Performance in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Dawn; Boscart, Veronique; McGilton, Katherine S; Escrig, Astrid

    2017-10-11

    In long-term care facilities (LTCF), registered nurses (RNs) perform both clinical and supervisory roles as part of a team aiming to provide high-quality care to residents. The residents have several co-morbidities and complex care needs. Unfortunately, new RNs receive minimal preparation in gerontology and supervisory experience during their program, leading to low retention rates and affecting resident outcomes. This qualitative study explored factors that influence supervisory performance of new RNs in LTCF from the perspective of 24 participants from Ontario, Canada. Data were collected through individual interviews, followed by a directed content analysis. Three levels of influences were identified: personal influences, organizational influences, and external influences. Each level presented with sub-elements, further describing the factors that impact the supervisory performance of the new RN. To retain new RNs in LTC, organizations must provide additional gerontological education and mentoring for new RNs to flourish in their supervisory roles.

  2. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-12-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms.

  3. Long term performance studies of large oil-free bakelite resistive plate chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganai, R.; Roy, A.; Shiroya, M. K.; Agarwal, K.; Ahammed, Z.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-09-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) experiment in the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), India and the near detector in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab are two such examples. A single gap bakelite RPC of dimension 240 cm × 120 cm, with gas gap of 0.2 cm, has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for > 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It has shown an efficiency > 95% with an average time resolution of ~ 0.83 ns at the point of measurement at ~ 8700 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have been discussed.

  4. The effects of Creatine Long-Term Supplementation on Muscle Morphology and Swimming Performance in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ercan; Gulturk, Sefa; Erdal, Sena

    2009-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON), no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats) (INCO), Cr supplementation 1 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CREAT-I) and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CREAT-II). Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 μm were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05). In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats. Key pointsThere is no study about the effects of creatine long-term supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance in rats.Long-term creatine supplementation increase muscle hypertrophy (but not body weight) and enhance endurance swimming performance in rats.The quantitative analysis indicated that the number of muscle fibers per defined area

  5. Effect of modafinil on learning performance and neocortical long-term potentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Flores, Osvaldo; Puentes, Gustavo; Morgan, Carlos; Gatica, Arnaldo; Cofré, Christian; Hernández, Alejandro; Laurido, Claudio; Constandil, Luis

    2010-10-30

    Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent whose effects on cognitive performance have begun to be addressed at both preclinical and clinical level. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the effects of chronic modafinil administration on cognitive performance by evaluating: (i) working and reference memories in an Olton 4×4 maze, and (ii) learning of a complex operant conditioning task in a Skinner box. In addition, the effect of modafinil on the ability of the rat frontal cortex to develop long-term potentiation (LTP) was also studied. Chronic modafinil did not significantly modify working memory errors but decreased long-term memory errors on the Olton 4×4 maze, meaning that the drug may have a favourable profile on performance of visuo-spatial tasks (typically, a hippocampus-dependent task) when chronically administered. On the other hand, chronic modafinil resulted in a marked decrease of successful responses in a complex operant conditioning learning, which means that repeated administration of the drug influences negatively problem-solving abilities when confronting the rat to a sequencing task (typically, a prefrontal cortex-dependent task). In addition, in vivo electrophysiology showed that modafinil resulted in impaired capacity of the rat prefrontal cortex to develop LTP following tetanization. It is concluded that modafinil can improve the performance of spatial tasks that depend almost exclusively on hippocampal functioning, but not the performance in tasks including a temporal factor where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The fact that modafinil together with preventing operant conditioning learning was also able to block LTP induction in the prefrontal cortex, suggests that the drug could interfere some critical component required for LTP can be developed, thereby altering neuroplastic capabilities of the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate, climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program has been established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots have been chosen according to different selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. To assess these risks, FORSUM a forest succession model for Central Europe is applied to analyze the forest succession on the LTFER plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Forest succession models can be used to evaluate climate change impacts on forest ecosystems, even though some parameters are highly uncertain or are even unknown. Detailed analysis of the 15 case studies will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forest, currently at a risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  7. Long-term assessment of fatigue in patients with culture-confirmed Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wormser, Gary P; Weitzner, Erica; McKenna, Donna; Nadelman, Robert B; Scavarda, Carol; Nowakowski, John

    2015-02-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom with numerous causes. Severe fatigue is thought to be an important manifestation of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. The frequency with which severe fatigue occurs as a long-term sequela in prospectively followed patients with Lyme disease is unknown. Patients with culture-confirmed Lyme disease who originally presented with erythema migrans have been evaluated annually in a prospective study to determine their long-term outcome. In 2011-2013, subjects were evaluated for fatigue using an 11-item Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-11) that has been used in studies of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. An FSS-11 score of ≥4.0 is indicative of severe fatigue. A total of 100 subjects were assessed, 52% of whom were male; the mean age was 64.9 years (range, 42-86 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 15.4 years (range, 11-20 years). Nine subjects had severe fatigue but in none as a consequence of Lyme disease. Only 3 subjects were thought to possibly have persistent fatigue from Lyme disease. The FSS-11 value for these 3 individuals was less than 4, averaging 2.27, and none had functional impairment. Severe fatigue was found in 9 patients (9%) with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease at 11 to 20 years after presentation, but was due to causes other than Lyme disease. Fatigue of lesser severity was possibly due to Lyme disease, but was found in only 3% of 100 patients, and therefore is rarely a long-term complication of this infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil heavy metal dynamics and risk assessment under long-term land use and cultivation conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelei; Xu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Long-term agricultural development and cultivation conversions affect soil heavy metal balance and the regional environmental safety. In this study, heavy metal parameters were used to identify changes in soil properties in response to land use and cultivation conversions. The integrated soil quality index, which involves seven heavy metal indices, was proposed to assess the environmental risk of long-term human activities in Northeast China. We used the remote sensing and geographical data for the four-term land use distribution from 1979 to 2009 to identify the spatial patterns of regional land use conversions. Then, 41 samples from the top 20 cm of the soil at sites corresponding to these seven types of conversions were collected (permanent dry land, dry land converted from wetland, dry land converted from forest, permanent wetland, permanent forest, paddy land converted from dry land, and paddy land converted from wetland). Based on the local soil properties and tillage practices, the following seven heavy metal parameters were employed: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn). The conversion of farmland from wetland resulted in an increase in the concentration of Pb and Cr in the soil. In contrast, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd decreased when wetland was converted into farmland because the tillage practices washed these heavy metals away. During the conversion of dry land and paddy land to wetland, the levels of Pb increased by approximately 28.6% and 24.7%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the concentration of As increased by 32.5% and 14.1%, respectively. The integrated index also demonstrated that the farmlands were not contaminated by the heavy metals during long-term agricultural development.

  9. The Rush to Remediate: Long Term Performance Favors Passive Systems at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.; Cauthen, K.; Beul. R. R.

    2003-02-24

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the long-term performance of groundwater remediation systems at SRS and compare active versus passive systems. The presentation will focus on the limited effectiveness of active pump and treat systems and share the experience with more passive and natural systems such as soil vapor extraction, barometric pumping, bioremediation, and phytoremediation. Three remediation projects are presented. In each case the waste source is capped with clay or synthetic barriers; however, extensive groundwater contamination remains. The first project features the cleanup of the largest plume in the United States. The second project entails solvent and vinyl chloride remediation of groundwater beneath a hazardous waste landfill. The third project discusses tritium containment from a 160-acre radioactive waste disposal area. Special emphasis is placed on performance data from alternate technology cleanup. The goals are to share remediation data, successes and lessons learned, while making a case for passive systems use in groundwater remediation.

  10. Evaluating long-term performance of in situ vitrified waste forms: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P.; Olson, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an emerging technology for the remediation of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The concept relies on the principle of Joule heating to raise the temperature of a soil between an array of electrodes above the melting temperature. After cooling, the melt solidifies into a massive glass and crystalline block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. Determining the long-term performance of ISV products in a changing regulatory environment requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms controlling the dissolution behavior of the material. A series of experiments was performed to determine the dissolution behavior of samples produced from the ISV processing of typical soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area. Dissolution rate constant measurements were completed at 90{degrees}C over the pH range 2 to 11 for one sample obtained from a field test of the ISV process.

  11. Evaluating long-term performance of in situ vitrified waste forms: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P.; Olson, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an emerging technology for the remediation of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The concept relies on the principle of Joule heating to raise the temperature of a soil between an array of electrodes above the melting temperature. After cooling, the melt solidifies into a massive glass and crystalline block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. Determining the long-term performance of ISV products in a changing regulatory environment requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms controlling the dissolution behavior of the material. A series of experiments was performed to determine the dissolution behavior of samples produced from the ISV processing of typical soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area. Dissolution rate constant measurements were completed at 90[degrees]C over the pH range 2 to 11 for one sample obtained from a field test of the ISV process.

  12. HST/WFC3: new capabilities, improved IR detector calibrations, and long-term performance stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John W.; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Brammer, Gabriel; Hilbert, Bryan; Long, Knox S.; McCullough, Peter; Riess, Adam G.

    2014-08-01

    the causes of its temporal and spatial variation has led to the appreciation of the impact of He I 1.083 micron emission from the earth's atmosphere. This adds a significant and variable background to the two filters and two grisms which include this spectral feature when the HST spacecraft is outside of the earth's shadow. After nearly five years in orbit, long term trending of the scientific and engineering behavior of WFC3 demonstrates excellent stability other than the expected decline in CCD charge transfer efficiency. Addition of post-flash signal to images is shown to markedly improve the transfer efficiency for low level signals. Combined with a pixel based correction algorithm developed at STScl, CCD performance is stabilized at levels only slightly degraded from its initial values.

  13. Long-term creatine supplementation improves muscular performance during resistance training in older women.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Januário, Renata Selvatici Borges; Junior, Raymundo Pires; Gerage, Aline Mendes; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term creatine supplementation combined with resistance training (RT) on the one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, motor functional performance (e.g., 30-s chair stand, arm curl, and getting up from lying on the floor tests) and body composition (e.g., fat-free mass, muscle mass, and % body fat using DEXA scans) in older women. Eighteen healthy women (64.9 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (CR, N = 9) or placebo (PL, N = 9) group. Both groups underwent a 12-week RT program (3 days week(-1)), consuming an equivalent amount of either creatine (5.0 g day(-1)) or placebo (maltodextrin). After 12 week, the CR group experienced a greater (P < 0.05) increase (Δ%) in training volume (+164.2), and 1RM bench press (+5.1), knee extension (+3.9) and biceps curl (+8.8) performance than the PL group. Furthermore, CR group gained significantly more fat-free mass (+3.2) and muscle mass (+2.8) and were more efficient in performing submaximal-strength functional tests than the PL group. No changes (P > 0.05) in body mass or % body fat were observed from pre- to post-test in either group. These results indicate that long-term creatine supplementation combined with RT improves the ability to perform submaximal-strength functional tasks and promotes a greater increase in maximal strength, fat-free mass and muscle mass in older women.

  14. Long-Term Climate Sensitivity of Grazer Performance: A Cross-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    Craine, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect grasslands in a number of ways, but the consequences of a warmer, drier world for grazers is uncertain. Predicting future grazer performance is complex since climate change affects both the quantity and quality of forage through a combination of processes that occur over a range of time scales. To better predict the consequences of climate change for grazer performance, a dataset was compiled of over a quarter million bison weights distributed across 22 US herds that span a large range of climates. Patterns of bison body mass among sites, age classes, and sexes were analyzed with respect to differences in geographic patterns of climate and interannual variation in climate. While short-term effects of climate variability are likely to depend on the magnitude and timing of precipitation during the year, grazers will be negatively affected by sustained hotter, drier conditions most likely associated with reductions in forage quality. Short-term, little effect of high temperatures on bison performance is observed, which suggests that the long-term effects of higher temperatures are likely to accrue over time as nitrogen availability in grasslands is reduced and forage quality declines. If relationships observed for bison are general for cattle, the economic consequences of higher temperatures due to decreased weight gain in US cattle could be on the order of US$1B per 1°C increase in temperature. Long-term monitoring of forage quality as well as native and domesticated grazer performance is recommended to better understand climate change effects on grazers. PMID:23840584

  15. Effects of social instability stress in adolescence on long-term, not short-term, spatial memory performance.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew R; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2013-11-01

    There is evidence that exposure to stressors in adolescence leads to lasting deficits on hippocampal-dependent tasks, but whether medial prefrontal cortical function is also impaired is unknown. We previously found that rats exposed to social instability stress in adolescence (SS; daily 1h isolation and subsequent change of cage partner between postnatal days 30 and 45) had impaired memory performance on a Spatial Object Location test and in memory for fear conditioning context, tasks that depend on the integrity of the hippocampus. Here we investigated whether impaired performance would be evident after adolescent SS in male rats on a different test of hippocampal function, spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and on a working memory task for which performance depends on the integrity of the medial prefrontal cortex, the Delayed Alternation task (DAT). During MWM testing, SS rats showed greater improvements in performance across trials within days compared to control (CTL) rats, but showed less retention of learning between days (48 h) compared to CTL rats. Similarly, SS rats had impaired long-term memory in the Spatial Object Location test after a long delay (240 min), but not after shorter delays (15 or 60 min) compared to CTL rats. No group differences were observed on the DAT, which assessed working memory across brief delays (5-90 s). Thus, deficits in memory performance after chronic social stress in adolescence may be limited to long-term memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified periodontal risk assessment score: long-term predictive value of treatment outcomes. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Matthieu; Tenenbaum, Henri; Davideau, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical predictive value of the periodontal risk assessment diagram surface (PRAS) score and the influence of patient compliance on the treatment outcomes. Thirty subjects suffering from periodontitis were re-examined 6-12 years after the initial diagnosis and periodontal treatments. The baseline PRAS score was calculated from the initial clinical and radiograph records. Patients were then classified into a low-to-moderate (0-20) or a high-risk group (>20). Patients who did not attend any supportive periodontal therapy were classified into a non-compliant group. PRAS and compliance were correlated to the mean tooth loss (TL)/year and the mean variation in the number of periodontal pockets with a probing depth (PPD) >4 mm. TL was 0.11 for the low-to-moderate-risk group and 0.26 for the high-risk group (p<0.05); PPD number reduction was 2.57 and 2.17, respectively, and bleeding on probing reduction was 6.7% and 23.3%, respectively. Comparing the compliance groups, the PPD number reduction was 3.39 in the compliant group and 1.40 in the non-compliant group (p<0.05). This study showed the reliability of PRAS in evaluating long-term TL and patient susceptibility to periodontal disease. Our data confirmed the positive influence of patient compliance on periodontal treatment outcomes.

  17. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

  18. Defining molecular sensors to assess long-term effects of pesticides on carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    L'Héritier, Fanny; Marques, Maud; Fauteux, Myriam; Gaudreau, Luc

    2014-09-25

    The abundance of dioxins and dioxin-like pollutants has massively increased in the environment due to human activity. These chemicals are particularly persistent and accumulate in the food chain, which raises major concerns regarding long-term exposure to human health. Most dioxin-like pollutants activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor, which regulates xenobiotic metabolism enzymes that belong to the cytochrome P450 1A family (that includes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1). Importantly, a crosstalk exists between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR. More specifically, ERα represses the expression of the CYP1A1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 2-hydroxyestradiol. However, (ERα) does not repress the CYP1B1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 4-hydroxyestradiol, one of the most genotoxic estrogen metabolites. In this review, we discuss how chronic exposure to xenobiotic chemicals, such as pesticides, might affect the expression of genes regulated by the AhR-ERα crosstalk. Here, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms that mediate this crosstalk repression, and particularly on how ERα represses the AhR target gene CYP1A1, and could subsequently promote breast cancer. Finally, we propose that genes implicated in this crosstalk could constitute important biomarkers to assess long-term effects of pesticides on human health.

  19. Defining Molecular Sensors to Assess Long-Term Effects of Pesticides on Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    L’Héritier, Fanny; Marques, Maud; Fauteux, Myriam; Gaudreau, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of dioxins and dioxin-like pollutants has massively increased in the environment due to human activity. These chemicals are particularly persistent and accumulate in the food chain, which raises major concerns regarding long-term exposure to human health. Most dioxin-like pollutants activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor, which regulates xenobiotic metabolism enzymes that belong to the cytochrome P450 1A family (that includes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1). Importantly, a crosstalk exists between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR. More specifically, ERα represses the expression of the CYP1A1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 2-hydroxyestradiol. However, (ERα) does not repress the CYP1B1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 4-hydroxyestradiol, one of the most genotoxic estrogen metabolites. In this review, we discuss how chronic exposure to xenobiotic chemicals, such as pesticides, might affect the expression of genes regulated by the AhR–ERα crosstalk. Here, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms that mediate this crosstalk repression, and particularly on how ERα represses the AhR target gene CYP1A1, and could subsequently promote breast cancer. Finally, we propose that genes implicated in this crosstalk could constitute important biomarkers to assess long-term effects of pesticides on human health. PMID:25257533

  20. Utility of the Aggressive Behavior Risk Assessment Tool in long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brigette; Young, Lori; Kim, Son Chae

    2017-03-11

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of the Aggressive Behavior Risk Assessment Tool (ABRAT) and the Aggressive Behavior Scale (ABS) for predicting aggressive incidents among newly-admitted and existing residents of two long-term care homes in Canada. Of 316 residents, 27 had at least one aggressive incident (8.5%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve for the ABRAT was 0.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.81-0.92) and that for the ABS was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64-0.85). Sensitivity and specificity at the optimal cutoff score of 2 for the ABRAT were 96.3% and 65.4%, respectively, and those for the ABS at the optimal cutoff score of 3 were 59.3% and 80.6%, respectively. The ABRAT appears to be promising for use in long-term care homes for identifying potentially aggressive residents. However, further studies are needed to test the utility of the ABRAT among newly-admitted residents.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Cancer: Development of a new instrument for long-term survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bernaards, Coen A.; Petersen, Laura; Abraham, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a new instrument that measures aspects of long-term survivorship not measured by existing tools. Methods In qualitative interviews, 47 long-term cancer survivors (LTS) detailed ways that cancer has impacted their lives. Content analysis resulted in the creation of 325 candidate items for inclusion in a new Impact of Cancer (IOC) instrument. Following expert review, item reduction and pilot testing, 81 items were administered with other established health status and quality of life (QOL) instruments to 193 LTS of breast, prostate, colorectal cancers and lymphoma. Internal consistency reliability and validity of newly-derived scales was assessed. Results Factor analysis of items using a priori QOL domains resulted in the derivation of ten new and specific subscales: health awareness, body changes, health worries, positive and negative self-evaluation, positive and negative life outlook, social life interferences, relationships, and meaning of cancer. Internal consistency measurements for these subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.89. Expected associations within and among the IOC subscales and standardized measures of health status and QOL were observed, as were some unexpected findings. Conclusions Psychometric analysis indicated that this initial version of the Impact of Cancer instrument measures distinct and relevant constructs for LTS. Future work is necessary to confirm the factor structure, responsiveness and further validation of the instrument. PMID:16097041

  2. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  3. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Sunworks single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The sunworks collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder, and is coated with Enthon selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 similar to .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 similar to .20. It has a single glass cover of 3/16 inches tempered glass and weighs about 115 pounds. The overall dimensions of the collector are 36 x 84 x 4 inches.

  4. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, D.; Evdokimov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Shchukin, A.; Vasilyev, I.

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  5. Long-term effects of the transient COD concentration on the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Mateo, S; Gonzalez Del Campo, A; Lobato, J; Rodrigo, M; Cañizares, P; Fernandez-Morales, F J

    2016-07-08

    In this work, the long-term effects of transient chemical oxygen demands (COD) concentrations over the performance of a microbial fuel cell were studied. From the obtained results, it was observed that the repetitive change in the COD loading rate during 12 h conditioned the behavior of the system during periods of up to 7 days. The main modifications were the enhancement of the COD consumption rate and the exerted current. These enhancements yielded increasing Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) when working with COD concentrations of 300 mg/L, but constant CEs when working with COD concentrations from 900 to 1800 mg/L. This effect could be explained by the higher affinity for the substrate of Geobacter than that of the nonelectrogenic organisms such as Clostridia. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:883-890, 2016.

  6. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  7. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  8. Fire Severity Model Accuracy Using Short-term, Rapid Assessment versus Long-term, Anniversary Date Assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fires are common in rangelands and after a century of fire suppression, the potential exists for fires to burn with high intensity and severity. In addition, the ability of fires to affect long-term changes in rangelands is considerable and for this reason, assessing fire severity after a fire is cr...

  9. Short- and long-term transfer of urethral catheterization skills from simulation training to performance on patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inexperienced interns are responsible for most iatrogenic complications after urethral catheterization (UC). Although training on simulators is common, little is known about the transfer of learned skills to real clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of UC simulated skills training on performance on real patients and to examine whether watching a video of the procedure immediately before assessment enhanced clinical performance. Methods This was an experimental study of the effect of a UC simulation-based skills course on medical students’ short-term (after one week) and long-term (after six weeks) performance. The additional effect of video instruction before performance testing on real patients was studied in a randomized trial. Sixty-four students participated in the study, which was preceded by a pilot study investigating the validity aspects of a UC assessment form. Results The pilot study demonstrated sufficient inter-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.86, and a significant ability to discriminate between trainee performances when using the assessment form, p= 0.001. In the main study, more than 90% of students demonstrated an acceptable performance or better when tested on real patients. There was no significant difference in the total score between the one-week and the six-week groups when tested on real patients and no significant difference between the video and the control groups. Conclusions Medical students demonstrated good transfer of UC skills learned in the skills lab to real clinical situations up to six weeks after training. Simulated UC training should be the standard for all medical school curricula to reduce avoidable complications. However, this study did not demonstrate that an instructional video, as a supplement to simulated skills training, improved clinical UC performance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN:ISRCTN90745002 PMID:23433258

  10. Long-term assessment of prostaglandin analogs and timolol fixed combinations vs prostaglandin analogs monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-Wei; Gan, Lin-Yang; Yao, Xiang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To draw a Meta-analysis over the comparison of the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety between the commonly used fixed-combinations of prostaglandin analogs and 0.5% timolol with prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) monotherapy. METHODS After searching the published reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the fixed combination of PGAs/timolol therapy (FCs) and PGAs monotherapy with treatment duration at least 6mo were included. The efficacy outcomes were mean diurnal IOP, percentage of participants whose IOP were lower than 18 mm Hg, incidence of visual field change, while the safety outcomes included corneal side effects, hyperemia and eye irritation. The analysis was carried out in RevMan version 5.3 software. RESULTS After six-month medical intervention, the mean diurnal IOP of FCs was lower than PGAs (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.82 to -0.46, P=0.001); the percentage of target IOP achieving between FCs and PGAs showed no significant difference (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.43, P=0.10). No statistically significant differences of the incidence of hyperemia (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.01, P=0.06) and eye irritation (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51, P=0.12) between the FCs and PGAs monotherapy were detected. Only one research involved in corneal events, result of this trial revealed no difference between two intervention groups regarding corneal effects (central endothelial cell density, MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.72 to 0.32, P=0.45; central corneal thickness, MD -0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.00, P=0.23). The evaluation of visual field change was not performed due to the limited duration of the trials included in this Meta-analysis. CONCLUSION The long-term efficacy of the FCs overweighed the PGAs monotherapy in lowering IOP, but in the incidence of hyperemia and eye irritation syndromes, the differences are not statically significant. More RCTs with detailed and authentic data over the assessments of

  11. Speech-recognition performance after long-term hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Janet E; Wilson, Richard H; Stelmachowicz, Patricia; Bratt, Gene W; Williams, David W

    2007-04-01

    Larson et al (2000) reported the findings of a multicenter, NIDCDNA clinical trial that compared hearing aid performance for three output limiting circuits in 360 adults with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The current study was undertaken to examine long-term hearing aid benefit in this same group of participants following five to six years of hearing aid use. The speech-recognition portion of the follow-up study enrolled 108 participants from the original study, 85% of whom were current hearing aid users and 15% of whom had not worn hearing aids during the past month (nonusers). Recognition performance in sound field on the NU-6 (quiet at 62 dB SPL) and the CST (quiet at 74 dB SPL and with -3 and 3 dB signal-to-babble ratios [S/B] at 62 and 74 dB SPL) was measured unaided and aided whenever possible. Speech-recognition abilities decreased significantly since the original study. Speech-recognition decrements were observed regardless of the speech materials (NU-6 and CST), test condition (quiet and noise), S/B (-3 and 3 dB), or stimulus level (62 and 74 dB SPL). Despite decreases in speech recognition, hearing aid benefit remained largely unchanged since the original study; aided performance exceeded unaided performance regardless of presentation level or noise condition. As in the original study, the relations among stimulus level, S/B, and speech-recognition performance were complex.

  12. Long-term hydraulic and pollution retention performance of infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Le Coustumer, S; Barraud, S

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration techniques are now widely used to manage stormwater in urban areas. These techniques are used and recognized around the world for their many advantages, such as decreasing stormwater flow in sewer systems and recharging groundwater. But numerous cases of infiltration devices that failed after a few years of operation are still being reported. This study, which is based on site-monitoring of operational infiltration systems, is part of the Field Observatory for Urban Water Management (OTHU). The main goals of this study are to improve knowledge of long-term hydraulic behaviour, especially as concerns the clogging speed and the quality of the runoff. This article will present the site, the monitoring process and the model that will be used to assess the hydraulic behaviour. First results of the calibration of the model show that the model is able to assess the hydraulic behaviour of the basin when it is clogged (average value of hydraulic resistance 17.1 h) and when it has been scraped (hydraulic resistance less than 3.8 h). However, further data are needed in order to validate the model. We also show that the experimental setup is well designed to assess the water volume and the sediment brought to the basin with low uncertainties.

  13. Long-term strength training effects on change-of-direction sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Keiner, Michael; Sander, Andre; Wirth, Klaus; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    data show significant (p < 0.05) moderate to high correlations (r = -0.388 to -0.697) between the SREL and COD. Our data show that a long-term strength training improves the performance of the COD. Therefore, a long-term resistance training is recommended as early as in childhood and adolescence.

  14. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

    2010-03-01

    Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  15. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees to develop relationships between burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated the global annual area burned for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 12 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  16. A probabilistic quantitative risk assessment model for the long-term work zone crashes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-11-01

    Work zones especially long-term work zones increase traffic conflicts and cause safety problems. Proper casualty risk assessment for a work zone is of importance for both traffic safety engineers and travelers. This paper develops a novel probabilistic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model to evaluate the casualty risk combining frequency and consequence of all accident scenarios triggered by long-term work zone crashes. The casualty risk is measured by the individual risk and societal risk. The individual risk can be interpreted as the frequency of a driver/passenger being killed or injured, and the societal risk describes the relation between frequency and the number of casualties. The proposed probabilistic QRA model consists of the estimation of work zone crash frequency, an event tree and consequence estimation models. There are seven intermediate events--age (A), crash unit (CU), vehicle type (VT), alcohol (AL), light condition (LC), crash type (CT) and severity (S)--in the event tree. Since the estimated value of probability for some intermediate event may have large uncertainty, the uncertainty can thus be characterized by a random variable. The consequence estimation model takes into account the combination effects of speed and emergency medical service response time (ERT) on the consequence of work zone crash. Finally, a numerical example based on the Southeast Michigan work zone crash data is carried out. The numerical results show that there will be a 62% decrease of individual fatality risk and 44% reduction of individual injury risk if the mean travel speed is slowed down by 20%. In addition, there will be a 5% reduction of individual fatality risk and 0.05% reduction of individual injury risk if ERT is reduced by 20%. In other words, slowing down speed is more effective than reducing ERT in the casualty risk mitigation.

  17. Assessment of long-term impact of formal certified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program among nurses

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, P. P.; Raj, L. Suja; Dash, P. K.; Sarma, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines are periodically renewed and published by the American Heart Association. Formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Despite widespread training CPR is often poorly performed. Hospital educators spend a significant amount of time and money in training health professionals and maintaining basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) skills among them. However, very little data are available in the literature highlighting the long-term impact of these training. Aims: To evaluate the impact of formal certified CPR training program on the knowledge and skill of CPR among nurses, to identify self-reported outcomes of attempted CPR and training needs of nurses. Setting and Design: Tertiary care hospital, Prospective, repeated-measures design. Subjects and Methods: A series of certified BLS and ACLS training programs were conducted during 2010 and 2011. Written and practical performance tests were done. Final testing was undertaken 3–4 years after training. The sample included all available, willing CPR certified nurses and experience matched CPR noncertified nurses. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS for Windows version 21.0. Results: The majority of the 206 nurses (93 CPR certified and 113 noncertified) were females. There was a statistically significant increase in mean knowledge level and overall performance before and after the formal certified CPR training program (P = 0.000). However, the mean knowledge scores were equivalent among the CPR certified and noncertified nurses, although the certified nurses scored a higher mean score (P = 0.140). Conclusions: Formal certified CPR training program increases CPR knowledge and skill. However, significant long-term effects could not be found. There is a need for regular and periodic recertification. PMID:27303137

  18. Long-term performance and bacterial community dynamics in biocovers for mitigating methane and malodorous gases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Moon, Kyung-Eun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-20

    The long-term performance of lab-scale biocovers for the simulation of engineered landfill cover soils was evaluated. Methane (CH4), trimethylamine (TMA), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were introduced into the biocovers as landfill gases for 134 days and the removal performance was evaluated. The biocover systems were capable of simultaneously removing methane, TMA, and DMS. Methane was mostly eliminated in the top layer of the systems, while TMA and DMS were removed in the bottom layer. Overall, the methane removal capacity and efficiency were 224.8±55.6g-CH4m(-2)d(-1) and 66.6±12.8%, respectively, whereas 100% removal efficiencies of both TMA and DMS were achieved. Using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing assay, the bacterial and methanotrophic communities in the top and bottom layers were analyzed along with the removal performance of landfill gases in the biocovers. The top and bottom soil layers possessed distinct communities from the original inoculum, but their structure dynamics were different from each other. While the structures of the bacterial and methanotrophic communities showed little change in the top layer, both communities in the bottom layer were considerably shifted by adding TMA and DMA. These findings provide information that can extend the understanding of full-scale biocover performance in landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term performance evaluation of wood fibre fills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilian, A.P.; Ferry, C.D.

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to determine the long-term performance of wood fiber embankments, that were constructed by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) beginning in 1972. At the time of their construction, concern existed that wood fiber fills would only provide a 15 to 20 year service life. Performance of existing wood fiber fills was evaluated based on the quality of the wood fiber material, quality of the effluent, and condition of the pavement. A visual classification system rating the wood fiber from fresh to completely decomposed was developed and used in order to establish a criteria from which all wood fiber material could be rated. Visual examination in conjunction with laboratory tests were used as determining aspects for the effluent quality. The WSDOT Pavement Management System was used to evaluate relative pavement performance. Site descriptions are presented giving specific characteristics and properties of the fills inventoried. An analysis of this information was done to determine the effectiveness of the fills. Over half the wood fiber samples were found to be nearly fresh or fresh and none were found to be completely decomposed. In all but one case, the pavement quality over the wood fiber fills surpassed the comparative highway segment rating indicating the wood fill's performance exceeded that of the surrounding area.

  20. Response feedback triggers long-term consolidation of perceptual learning independently of performance gains.

    PubMed

    Dobres, Jonathan; Watanabe, Takeo

    2012-08-17

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as a long-term performance enhancement on a visual task, and is typically thought of as a manifestation of plasticity in visual processing. It is thought that neural representations relevant to a recently learned task are consolidated over the course of hours or days and made robust against the effects of deterioration and interference. However, recent work has shown that when these representations are reactivated by further task exposure, they become plastic again and are vulnerable to deterioration effects. Here we used a perceptual learning paradigm in combination with performance feedback (knowledge of task accuracy provided to the observer in real-time) to investigate behavioral factors that influence consolidation. Subjects were trained to detect two coherent motion directions embedded in noise over several days. It was found that without feedback, performance improvements accrued during training rapidly deteriorated upon exposure to novel, neighboring motion directions. However, when one of the two directions was consistently paired with feedback during training, the paired direction was resilient against the effects of deterioration. This benefit coincides with a gradual inhibition of learning for the unpaired stimuli. Furthermore, this stabilizing effect operates independently of the magnitude of performance gains during training and suggests a useful behavioral marker for the study of consolidation processes.

  1. Biological waste gas treatment with a modified rotating biological contactor. Iota. Control of biofilm growth and long-term performance.

    PubMed

    Vinage, I; von Rohr, P Rudolf

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we introduce a modified rotating biological contactor (RBC) system and demonstrate its feasibility by applying the newly devised process to the biological treatment of artificial waste gas. In the proposed system, the waste gas is introduced to the bioreactor in the spacings between the rotating discs through a hollow shaft, thus allowing for intimate gas-liquid contact. A 91-l modified RBC containing 20 biofilm support discs 40 cm in diameter was used in the experiments. Toluene was used as the model pollutant, and the system was operated under standard operating conditions for more than one year in order to investigate its long-term performance and assess its ability to control the growth of the biofilm. It was demonstrated that the proposed system allows to efficiently control the growth of the biofilm, thus overcoming the clogging problem inherent in most conventional methods for the biological treatment of waste gas. Moreover, the system was shown to exhibit stationary long-term performance for a period of more than one year, hence indicating its feasibility for industrial application.

  2. Library-Use Instruction: Assessment of the Long-Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examines the long-term retention of library-use skills through the utilization of various research techniques and discusses the appropriateness of quantitative and qualitative research methodology. Conclusions indicate that long-term possession of skills is more highly related to library-use instruction than inherent ability or academic diligence.…

  3. Long-term air pollution indicator assessment: example of black smoke in Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Filleul, Laurent; Baldi, Isabelle; Quenel, Philippe; Brochard, Patrick; Tessier, Jean François

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the second phase of the Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) study, started in 1974, was to compare the long-term mortality between populations living in areas with different air pollution levels. In Bordeaux (France), four different areas were concerned by the study. The black smoke measures were realized between 1974 and 1981. After 1981, the stations set specifically for the study were not used any more. The purpose of this study was to estimate the evolution of air pollution in those areas between 1982 and 1997 using the measures of 12 Association de Prévention de la Pollution Atmosphérique (APPA) stations located in Bordeaux city but not in the PAARC areas. The method used was divided in three phases: a correlation study between the stations of the different networks, a selection of the pertinent stations and the setting up of indicators using the arithmetic means method. Monthly means concentrations were estimated from January 1982 to December 1997. Models showed a decrease in black smoke levels whatever the area. The difference in level from one area to another, existing between the areas in 1974, was still with predicted values in 1997, but less important. Black smoke mean concentration for 1982-1997 was, respectively, 16.4 and 16.2 microg/m3, in areas 1 and 2. It was a little bit higher in area 3 with 18.9 microg/m3. Area 4 still has the highest level with 26.3 microg/m3. To conclude, this method enabled to assess different air pollution levels at different times in the four areas of the PAARC study in Bordeaux. Those levels could be used to study the impact of the air pollution on long-term mortality on populations living in the areas considered.

  4. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future.

  5. Long-term performance of the steel-cement interface in CO2 sequestration wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term performance of CO2 storage reservoirs will require that wells (injection, monitoring, and pre-existing) continue to provide isolation of the buoyant CO2 plume. Short-term leakage concerns are driven by the quality of the well completions, particularly placement of Portland cement. However, operational and CO2-injection induced stresses in the reservoir may introduce small defects in the well isolation system, allowing migration of small quantities of CO2 and brine. Evidence for such leaks has been observed in a CO2-enhanced oil recovery well (Carey et al. 2007) and in a natural CO2 reservoir (Crow et al. 2010). The key question in long-term performance is whether these leaks will grow as wellbore materials degrade or whether carbonate precipitation reactions will self-heal the defects. In this study, we focus on the interface between steel casing and Portland cement. In a properly completed well, Portland cement provides a protective, alkaline environment for carbon steel that precludes the possibility of external corrosion. The protective cement can be damaged either by the formation of small gaps at the interface, known as microannuli, or by the carbonation of cement which eliminates cement alkalinity. To investigate these issues, we conducted experiments on cement-steel composites at conditions ranging from atmospheric to high-pressure to determine the susceptibility of steel to corrosion in the presence of well-bonded cement, carbonated cement, and cement separated from the steel by varying gap distances. The presence of cement greatly reduces corrosion rates of steel because an iron carbonate scale forms rapidly and provides a mass-transfer barrier. Similarly, a small gap at the cement-steel interface provides a mass-transfer barrier. Our results show that scale formation provides a more significant barrier to corrosion and that even small gaps (<100 um) do not enhance protection in the cement-steel system. For steel embedded in cement, corrosion

  6. Long-term outcome of gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in dogs.

    PubMed

    Howe, L M; Slater, M R; Boothe, H W; Hobson, H P; Holcom, J L; Spann, A C

    2001-01-15

    To determine long-term results and complications of gonadectomy performed at an early age (prepubertal) or at the traditional age in dogs. Cohort study. 269 dogs from animal shelters. Dogs that underwent gonadectomy were allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated age at surgery (traditional age, > or =24 weeks old; prepubertal, < 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information was obtained from shelter records, and telephone interviews were conducted with owners to determine physical or behavioral problems observed in the dogs since adoption. Follow-up information was obtained from attending veterinarians for dogs with complex problems or when owners were uncertain regarding the exact nature of their dog's problem. Prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in an increased incidence of behavioral problems or problems associated with any body system, compared with traditional-age gonadectomy, during a median follow-up period of 48 months after gonadectomy. Rate of retention in the original adoptive household was the same for dogs that underwent prepubertal gonadectomy as those that underwent traditional-age gonadectomy. Infectious diseases, however, were more common in dogs that underwent prepubertal gonadectomy. With the exception of infectious diseases, prepubertal gonadectomy may be safely performed in dogs without concern for increased incidence of physical or behavioral problems during at least a 4-year period after gonadectomy.

  7. Isokinetic thigh muscle performance after long-term recovery from patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, H; Latvala, K; Lehto, M U

    2000-01-01

    Eighty-two patients (50 women, 32 men) underwent isokinetic muscle testing on average 13 years after a conservatively treated unilateral primary patellar dislocation. Three study groups were formed according to the natural history of recovery: group A (n = 32), patients with only primary conservative treatment; group B (n = 34) patients with conservative (group B1; n = 24) or surgical (group B2; n = 10) treatment of redislocations; group C (n = 16) patients with other residual complaints (anterior knee, pain subluxations) requiring surgery. The Cybex 6000 dynamometer system was used as the testing machine for quadriceps and hamstrings muscles, with proportional deficits of peak torque as the test parameter. Isokinetic testing revealed both quadriceps and hamstring muscle atrophy even after long-term recovery from injury. There were statistically significant differences between the three study groups at both tested speeds of quadriceps muscles (60 rad/s, P < 0.002; 180 rad/s, P < 0.009). Groups B1 and B2 presented similar results. The muscle performance findings are probably due to more than one factor: primary immobilization, poor outcome, patellofemoral degeneration, redislocations, and residual knee complaints followed by surgery and deficiency in motor control of thigh muscle had--together or separately--an effect on muscle performance.

  8. A Performance Analysis of Long-term Acute-Care Hospitals Owned by Large, Multistate Investor-Owned Companies.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Preethy; Liu, Xinliang; McCue, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive assessment of the operating performance of for-profit long-term acute-care hospitals owned by multistate, investor-owned companies (large FP LTCHs) compared with FP LTCHs owned by smaller FP companies (small FP LTCHs) and nonprofit LTCHs (NP LTCHs). The study used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services cost report data for 290 LTCHs from 2010 through 2012 to compare the financial performance of large and small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs. The study found that the median operating profit margin for large FP LTCHs was 8.06%, which was twice as high as that of the small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs (4.78% and 2.80%, respectively). Larger size, serving a greater proportion of private pay and more complex patients and incurring lower operating expenses, including salary expenses, may account for the higher operating margin of the large FP LTCHs.

  9. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  10. Optimisation of vasculitis disease assessments in clinical trials, clinical care and long-term databases.

    PubMed

    Ponte, C; Sznajd, J; O'Neill, L; Luqmani, R A

    2014-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are a group of rare, chronic, relapsing, but often progressive inflammatory conditions. They are associated with a significant burden of morbidity both due to scarring from the disease itself and as a consequence of treatment with glucocorticoids and other potent immunosuppressive agents. Careful assessment of disease activity is critical to guide appropriate use of these potentially toxic therapies. It is also important to differentiate features of active disease from those attributable to damage, which will not respond to immunosuppression. As these are chronic complex conditions, the impact on a patient's functional ability and quality of life are also important considerations. Given the lack of a reliable biomarker for assessment of disease activity or damage in systemic vasculitis, clinical tools developed and validated for use initially in clinically trials are key outcome measures in the evaluation of these patients. While the conduct of randomised clinical trials in vasculitis has been significantly enhanced by the development and use of validated outcome measures, regular use of validated disease activity and damage measurements as part of routine care offers a structured approach, which can serve as the basis of justifying treatment decisions. The authors review the concepts of clinical assessment tools used in the evaluation of patients with systemic vasculitis in the setting of clinical practice, clinical trials and long term databases with particular emphasis on disease activity, damage, prognosis and function.

  11. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  12. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  13. Influence of different mesh filter module configurations on effluent quality and long-term filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Loderer, Christian; Wörle, Anna; Fuchs, Werner

    2012-04-03

    Recently, a new type of wastewater treatment system became the focus of scientific research: the mesh filter activated sludge system. It is a modification of the membrane bioreactor (MBR), in which a membrane filtration process serves for sludge separation. The main difference is that a mesh filter is used instead of the membrane. The effluent is not of the same excellent quality as with membrane bioreactors due to the much lager pore sizes of the mesh. Nevertheless, it still resembles the quality of currently used standard treatment system, the activated sludge process. The new process shows high future potential as an alternative where a small footprint of these plants is required (3 times lower footprint than conventional activated sludge systems because of neglecting the secondary clarifier and reducing the biological stage). However, so far only limited information on this innovative process is available. In this study, the effect of different pore sizes and different mesh module configurations on the effluent quality was investigated varying the parameters cross-flow velocity (CFV) and flux rate. Furthermore the long-term filtration performance was studied in a pilot reactor system and results were compared to the full-scale conventional activated sludge process established at the same site. The results demonstrate that the configuration of the filter module has little impact on effluent quality and is only of importance with regard to engineering aspects. Most important for a successful operation are the hydrodynamic conditions within the filter module. The statement "the higher the pore size the higher the effluent turbidity" was verified. Excellent effluent quality with suspended solids between 5 and 15 mg L(-1) and high biological elimination rates (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 90-95%, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) 94-98%, total nitrogen (TN) 70-80%, and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) 95-99%) were achieved and also compared to those of conventional

  14. Construction and performance of a long-term earthen liner experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Keros; Krapac, Ivan G.; Bonaparte, Rudolph

    1990-01-01

    In land burial schemes, compacted soil barriers with low hydraulic conductivity are commonly used in cover and liner systems to control the movement of liquids and prevent groundwater contamination. An experimental liner measuring 8 x 15 x 0.9 m was constructed with design criteria and equipment to simulate construction of soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded with a 29.5 cm deep pond on April 12, 1988. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years using 4 large-ring (1.5 m OD) and 32 small-ring (0.28 m OD) infiltrometers, and a water-balance that accounts for total infiltration and evaporation. Average long-term infiltration fluxes based on two years of monitoring are 5.8 x 10-9 cm/s, 6.0 x 10-8 cm/s and 5.6 x 10-8 for the large-ring, small-ring, and water-balance data, respectively. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the liner based on small-ring data, estimated using Darcy's Law and the Green-Ampt Approximation, is 3 x 10-8 and 4 x 10-8 cm/s, respectively. All sets of data indicate that the liner's performance exceed that which is required by the U.S. EPA.

  15. Chemical durability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Influence of impurities on long-term performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Haga, Kengo; Yoshizumi, Tomoo; Minematsu, Daisuke; Yuki, Eiji; Liu, RunRu; Uryu, Chie; Oshima, Toshihiro; Ogura, Teppei; Shiratori, Yusuke; Ito, Kohei; Koyama, Michihisa; Yokomoto, Katsumi

    Because of the fuel flexibility of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), various types of fuels may be applied directly or via a simple reforming process, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, coal gas, biogas, besides hydrogen. However, various types of minor constituents in practical fuels and/or from the system components can cause chemical degradation of SOFCs, such as anode and cathode poisoning phenomena. In this study, we compare the influence of various external impurities, including sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus, boron, and siloxane for anodes, and H 2O and SO 2 for cathodes, on SOFC performance to have a general overview on long-term chemical durability of SOFCs. Chemical compatibility of Ni with foreign species has also been thermochemically considered. Using common model cells, the stability of cell voltage, electrode overpotential, and ohmic loss up to 3000 h has been experimentally examined for H 2-based fuels, for hydrocarbon-based fuels, and for partially pre-reformed CH 4-based fuels. Increase in degradation rate by impurities was verified for various operational parameters. Impurity poisoning mechanisms are discussed for each specific impurity.

  16. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method. PMID:27483270

  17. Long-term dinoflagellate culture performance in a commercial photobioreactor: Amphidinium carterae case.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Bayliss, C; Fonlut, F; Chapuli, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the culture performance of a dinoflagellate in a commercial photobioreactor. The results obtained during this long-term experiment allow to confirm that Amphidinium carterae is a promising dinoflagellate that can be exploited successfully in closed systems, in semi-continuous mode in indoor and outdoor environments. The average results in an indoor 5cm light-path 320L photobioreactor were, in terms of specific growth rate (0.29d(-1)), duplication time (3.1d(-1)) and dry biomass productivity (78mgL(-1)d(-1)). Specific compounds production was found including ω3 and ω6 fatty acids and, pigments (Peridinin, β-carotene). These promising results, besides unique characteristics found during the exploitation period such as resistance to mechanical stress, self-control of contaminant organisms, and quick cells aggregation when the culture is not in turbulence conditions, makes A. carterae one of the new target species suitable for commercially exploitation on an industrial scale.

  18. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-07-28

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method.

  19. Continuous assessment of work activities and posture in long-term care nurses.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Joanne N; Holmes, Michael W R; Keir, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    The high prevalence of low back injuries in nursing has prompted the use of mechanical lift assists while overall assessment of activities and postures remains limited. The purpose of this study was to chronicle trunk posture and work tasks of long-term healthcare professionals. An inclinometer monitored trunk posture for 27 workers, 20 of whom were also observed continuously throughout their shift. Patient lifts and transfers accounted for less than 4% of the shift while patient care, unloaded standing and walking and miscellaneous tasks accounted for 85%. Manual lifts and transfers occurred twice as often as mechanically assisted lifts but took only half the time. The workers had a median trunk flexion angle of 9.2 degrees , spent 25% of their time flexed beyond 30 degrees and had peak flexion angles greater than 75 degrees in many tasks. Analysis of posture throughout the entire working shift indicates that, in addition to lifts and transfers, emphasis needs to be placed on patient care and miscellaneous activities when assessing injury risk for nurses. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Patient handling has been the focus in the effort to reduce back pain and injury in nursing. In addition to the use of mechanical lifts, there is a need to examine other aspects of nursing, including patient care and other ancillary tasks, which comprise the majority of the work shift and, while often unloaded, exhibit extreme postures that may also lead to injury.

  20. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for the assessment of long-term prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Inaki, Anri; Taki, Junichi; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Zen, Yoh; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic value of (201)Tl scintigraphy in the midcourse of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma. The 28 patients with biopsy-proven osteosarcoma were enrolled retrospectively in this study. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 min after injection of 111 MBq (201)Tl before preoperative chemotherapy and after third course (midcourse) of chemotherapy in all patients. The (201)Tl uptake ratio was calculated by dividing the count density of the lesion by that of the contralateral normal area. The percentage reduction of the (201)Tl uptake ratio calculated by 100 × [(pre-chemotherapy ratio - mid-chemotherapy ratio)/pre-chemotherapy ratio] was compared with the histopathological response and long-term survival rate. Good histopathological response was observed in 16 patients. Mean follow-up period was 58.0 ± 41 months. Both overall and event-free survival rates of histopathologically good responders were significantly higher than that of poor responders (P = 0.018 and P = 0.0076). There was also significant correlation between pre-chemotherapeutic effect evaluated with (201)Tl scintigraphy and overall and event-free survival rate in all patients (P = 0.045 and P = 0.017, respectively), and in patients without metastasis at initial diagnosis (P = 0.043 and P = 0.031, respectively). (201)Tl scintigraphy performed in the middle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can predict overall survival and event-free survival in patients with osteosarcoma.

  1. The performance of the Barrel CRID at the SLD: Long-term operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Ashford, V.; Aston, D.

    1997-11-01

    The Barrel CRID detector has been operating successfully at SLD for the past 7 years. It is an important tool for SLD physics analyses. The authors report results based on long term operational experience of a number of important quantities such as the Cherenkov quality factor, N{sub o}, of the device, fluid transparency, electron lifetime, single electron detection efficiency, anode wire aging, TMAE purity, long term stability of the gas refraction index, liquid radiator transparency, Cherenkov angle resolution and the number of photoelectrons observed per ring.

  2. Assessment of the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term watershed monitoring in an urban slough system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at eight sites within the Buffalo Slough, near Portland, Oregon, to (1) measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and organochlorine (OC) compounds in the slough, (2) assess the usefulness of SPMDs as a tool for investigating and monitoring hydrophobic compounds throughout the Columbia Slough system, and (3) evaluate the utility of SPMDs as a tool for measuring the long-term effects of watershed improvement activities. Data from the SPMDs revealed clear spatial and seasonal differences in water quality within the slough and indicate that for hydrophobic compounds, this time-integrated passive-sampling technique is a useful tool for long-term watershed monitoring. In addition, the data suggest that a spiking rate of 2-5 ??g/SPMD of permeability/performance reference compounds, including at least one compound that is not susceptible to photodegradation, may be optimum for the conditions encountered here. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  3. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  4. Assessment of auditory evoked potential in long-term mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Sevi, E Chandra; Kumar, P Sai; Mariam, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones emit strong electromagnetic wave which causes structural and functional changes in the cell membrane within the central nervous system especially auditory system. The effect of duration of mobile phone use on auditory function was examined One hundred and seventy three long-term mobile phone users aged around 17-39 yrs (both male and female) were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their age Group I (17-19 yrs), Group II (20-29 yrs), Group III (30-39 yrs). After getting informed consent the subjects were instructed to fill the questionnaire for the history related to our study, conduction deafness auditory brainstem response in both the ears were assessed. Significant difference was observed among three groups in their duration of mobile phone use. Latency of Waves in three groups showed significant difference. The average latency (both right and left ear) of waves I-V was found to be prolonged in Group II when compared to Group I and Group III. Interpeak latencies I-V and I-III showed differences among three groups. The findings of present study showed abnormalities in the conduction of electrical signals in different levels of auditory pathway.

  5. Assessing long-term environmental risks of trace elements in phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C; Wu, Laosheng

    2007-05-01

    The potential risks originating from arsenic and cadmium accumulations in cropland soils through the fertilizer applications have been public concern. A generalized trace element mass balance model was developed to evaluate the long-term fate and transport of arsenic and cadmium in cropland soils. Model simulation results showed that normal cropping practices do not have a significant effect on the total As content of the receiving soils, but the application of Cd-containing P fertilizers could, over time, cause Cd to accumulate in soil and therefore increases the risk of its transfer through the food chain. Regulations have been enacted in several states to set the maximum contaminant levels for arsenic and cadmium in fertilizers. The simulation outcomes indicated that some of the existing fertilizer regulations are not strict enough to prevent significant accumulation of Cd in cropland soils. Sensitivity analyses show the solid-solution partitioning coefficient, and the plant uptake factors are primary factors that affect the fate and transport of As and Cd in cropland soils. The uncertainty associated with assessing the fate of trace elements in cropland soils is due to the high variability of model parameters.

  6. Assessment of Effects of the Long-Term Exposure of Agricultural Crops to Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lahiani, Mohamed H; Nima, Zeid A; Villagarcia, Hector; Biris, Alexandru S; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V

    2017-09-06

    Carbon-based nanoparticles (CBNs) are nanomaterials that have been shown to be plant growth regulators. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the growth of three important crops (barley, soybean, and corn). The tested species were cultivated in hydroponics supplemented with 50 μg/mL MWCNTs. After 20 weeks of continuous exposure to the nanomaterials, no significant toxic effects on plant development were observed. Several positive phenotypical changes were recorded, in addition to the enhancement of photosynthesis in MWCNT-exposed crops. Raman spectroscopy with point-by-point mapping proved that the MWCNTs in the hydroponic solution moved into all tested species and were distributed in analyzed organs (leaves, stems, roots, and seeds). Our results confirmed the significant potential of CBN in plant agriculture. However, the documented presence of MWCNTs in different organs of all exposed crops highlighted the importance of detailed risk assessment of nanocontaminated plants moving into the food chain.

  7. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  8. Comparative test of ecological assessment methods of lowland streams based on long-term monitoring data of macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Gebler, Daniel; van de Weyer, Klaus; Birk, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    Ecological assessment of water courses is required by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Assessment by means of macrophytes is impeded by insufficient knowledge on the relations between assessment scores and the dynamics of environmental parameters. Data from a long-term observation of macrophyte dynamics over 21 years in two lowland rivers were used for testing the performance of six widely used assessment methods. Six sample sites situated in two lowland streams were selected. Four sites were classified as of moderate habitat quality and two sites as of poor habitat quality in the context of WFD. Assessment methods generally showed a poor performance in recognizing the ecological status of the annual observations. Status was more often over- than underestimated. Performance of methods differed among individual rivers and among river zones. Assessment scores mostly showed a steady decline, even though all sites obviously remained in the same habitat quality class throughout the observation period. Variation of most environmental factors was largely unrelated to assessment scores. Fluctuations of assessment scores were partly related to single natural disturbance events such as high discharge. Increased shading by marginal trees was reflected negatively by most assessment scores. Assessment scores were highly correlated with species richness and total abundance. The best overall performance was shown by the North-Rhine Westphalian (NRW) method. In contrast to single metric methods it can be adapted to individual properties of a reach in a flexible way. Macrophyte assessment based on the pressure-impact framework did not lead to a satisfying result in our case study. Improvement of species assessment scores and inclusion of functional properties such as growth form may help to overcome the present difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of long-term pH developments in leachate from waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H; Hansen, Jette B; Hjelmar, Ole

    2006-10-01

    Environmental assessment of residue disposal needs to account for long-term changes in leaching conditions. Leaching of heavy metals from incineration residues are highly affected by the leachate pH; the overall environmental consequences of disposing of these residues are therefore greatly influenced by changes in pH over time. The paper presents an approach for assessing pH changes in leachate from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control (APC) residues. Residue samples were subjected to a stepwise batch extraction method in order to obtain residue samples at a range of pH values (similar to common pH-dependence tests), and then on these samples to determine leaching of alkalinity as well as remaining solid phase alkalinity. On a range of APC residues covering various pretreatment and disposal options, this procedure was used to determine leachable and residual alkalinity as a function of pH. Mass balance calculations for typical disposal scenarios were used to provide data on pH as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in the leaching system. Regardless of residue type and pretreatment, pH was found to stay above 7 for L/S ratios up to about 2000 L kg(-1) corresponding to about 100,000 years in typical landfill scenarios. It was found that pH changes were mainly governed by alkalinity decreases from leaching processes rather than neutralization reactions. The results suggest that leaching testing for assessment purposes should be carried out in the alkaline range, for example, at pH 9. The paper offers a thorough basis for further modelling of incineration residue leaching and for modelling the environmental consequences of landfilling and utilization of these residues.

  10. PROJECTED IMPACT OF SULFATE ATTACK ON THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF A CONCRETE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.

    2009-12-11

    Saltstone is a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the DOE Savannah River Site with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime. The wet mix is poured into a concrete repository for on-site disposal. Solidified Saltstone is a dense, alkaline, reducing, micro-porous, monolithic, cementitious matrix, containing a solution of salts within its pore structure. Sodium sulfate concentrations in the pore fluid are around 0.15 mol/L, and external sulfate attack on concrete barriers is expected to occur over time. To predict the long-term performance of concrete repositories, the STADIUM{reg_sign} code was used to simulate the reactive transport processes leading to formation of ettringite, an expansive mineral phase often associated with spalling or cracking. STADIUM{reg_sign} is a multi-ionic transport model based on a split operator approach that separates ionic movement and chemical reactions. Ionic transport is described by the extended Nernst-Planck equation for unsaturated media, and accounts for electrical coupling between ionic species, chemical activity, transport due to water content gradient, and temperature effects. STADIUM{reg_sign} does not predict whether physical damage will occur, or the impact on transport properties should fracturing occur. Thus the presence of ettringite was assumed to coincide with physical damage for the purpose of estimating effective transport properties. Effective properties for concrete barriers were estimated assuming complete hydraulic failure behind the ettringite front and unaltered properties ahead of the front. The ettringite front advances at a rate dependent on the diffusion coefficient assumed for the failed zone. A sensitivity study indicates a service life ranging from thousands to tens of thousands of years, depending on the barrier thickness and sulfate exposure conditions among other factors.

  11. Reducing uncertainties affecting the assessment of the long-term corrosion behavior of spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Fanghänel, Thomas; Rondinella, Vincenzo V; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Wiss, Thierry; Wegen, Detlef H; Gouder, Thomas; Carbol, Paul; Serrano-Purroy, Daniel; Papaioannou, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    Reducing the uncertainties associated with extrapolation to very long term of corrosion data obtainable from laboratory tests on a relatively young spent nuclear fuel is a formidable challenge. In a geologic repository, spent nuclear fuel may come in contact with water tens or hundreds of thousands of years after repository closure. The corrosion behavior will depend on the fuel properties and on the conditions characterizing the near field surrounding the spent fuel at the time of water contact. This paper summarizes the main conclusions drawn from multiyear experimental campaigns performed at JRC-ITU to study corrosion behavior and radionuclide release from spent light water reactor fuel. The radionuclide release from the central region of a fuel pellet is higher than that from the radial periphery, in spite of the higher burnup and the corresponding structural modifications occurring at the pellet rim during irradiation. Studies on the extent and time boundaries of the radiolytic enhancement of the spent fuel corrosion rate indicate that after tens or hundreds of thousands of years have elapsed, very small or no contribution to the enhanced corrosion rate has to be expected from α radiolysis. A beneficial effect inhibiting spent fuel corrosion due to the hydrogen overpressure generated in the near field by iron corrosion is confirmed. The results obtained so far point toward a benign picture describing spent fuel corrosion in a deep geologic repository. More work is ongoing to further reduce uncertainties and to obtain a full description of the expected corrosion behavior of spent fuel.

  12. The Power of Successive Relearning: Improving Performance on Course Exams and Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John; Sciartelli, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Practice tests and spaced study are both highly potent for enhancing learning and memory. Combining these two methods under the conditions in which they are most effective (i.e., practice tests that invoke successful retrieval from long-term memory and spacing study across days) yields a promising learning technique referred to as "successive…

  13. Nursing Assistants for Long-Term Care. Performance-Based Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This guide is intended to assist students enrolled in programs to train nursing assistants for employment in an Indiana long-term health care facility. The first part discusses human development (growth, aging, and dying); communication with residents; sexuality; legal, ethical, and professional responsibilities of nursing assistants in long-term…

  14. The Power of Successive Relearning: Improving Performance on Course Exams and Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John; Sciartelli, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Practice tests and spaced study are both highly potent for enhancing learning and memory. Combining these two methods under the conditions in which they are most effective (i.e., practice tests that invoke successful retrieval from long-term memory and spacing study across days) yields a promising learning technique referred to as "successive…

  15. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  16. Nursing Assistants for Long-Term Care. Performance-Based Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This guide is intended to assist students enrolled in programs to train nursing assistants for employment in an Indiana long-term health care facility. The first part discusses human development (growth, aging, and dying); communication with residents; sexuality; legal, ethical, and professional responsibilities of nursing assistants in long-term…

  17. Long-term performance of visual and electronic identification devices in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2009-04-01

    Dairy goat kids born during a 3-yr period (n = 97) and their mothers (n = 29) were used for a long-term evaluation of the performance of 9 types of identification (ID) devices. Kids wore multiple ID devices: visual ear tags (V1, tip-tag, n = 47; V2, official, n = 50), electronic ear tags (E1, button-button, n = 46; E2, flag-button, n = 46), electronic rumen boluses (B1, mini-bolus 14 g, n = 92; B2, mini-bolus 20 g, n = 28; B3, standard bolus 75 g, n = 34) and glass-encapsulated transponders injected in the forefeet (T1, 15 mm, n = 75; T2, 12 mm, n = 100). Visual ear tags were applied at birth and removed in yearlings, whereas electronic ear tags were applied after bolusing with B1 (6.7 kg BW and 30 d, on average); B2 were administered in the event of a B1 loss, and B3 in case of a B2 loss and in goat does. At d 60 of age, kids were allocated into 2 groups to evaluate the effects of rearing system on ID. Treatments were: weaned (n = 46), and not weaned (n = 46) where kids suckled a milk substitute until d 150. Readability of ID devices (read/readable x 100) was monitored from 1 to 3 yr of age, depending on device and year of birth. Long-term readability was analyzed using a nonparametric survival analysis. A total of 3.3% infections and 6.5% tissue reactions were reported for electronic ear tags, but ears were fully healed in yearlings. Weaning numerically reduced B1 losses at d 150 (weaned, 84.8% vs. not weaned, 73.3%). Readability of visual ear tags in yearlings (V1, 82.9%; V2, 94.0%) was lower than for electronic ear tags (E1 and E2, 100%). Mini-bolus readability in yearlings did not differ by type (B1, 71.4%; B2, 84.6%) or with visual ear tags. No effect of inject type was reported (T1, 92.0%; T2, 96.0%). Survival analysis after yr 3 gave the greatest readability value for E1 (100%), which did not differ from B3 (96.8%). The lowest readability was estimated for B1 (66.3%), followed by E2 (79.8%), B2 (81.4%), and T1 (90.4%). In conclusion, button

  18. Ileal urinary reservoir in pediatric population: objective assessment of long-term sequelae with time-to-event analysis.

    PubMed

    Elshal, Ahmed M; Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Hafez, Ashraf T; Abol-Enein, Hassan

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes of an ileal urinary reservoir in children. This was a longitudinal study of pediatric patients who had undergone total ileal substitution of the bladder. Continence status was assessed, and all patients were evaluated for kidney function and biochemical profile. Standardized growth charts were used to assess linear growth. To assess bone mineral density, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed. Clavien's scale was used to report and grade the long-term complications and their timing. We used a simple quality of life questionnaire to assess the effect of the procedure on the quality of life of the growing child. A total of 17 patients were included; 3 with orthotopic and 14 with continent cutaneous reservoirs. After a mean follow-up of 87.3 months, all patients were voiding with clean intermittent catheterization, with a 94% final continence rate. Two patients (11.7%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤ 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the last follow-up examination. However, no clinically manifest metabolic acidosis was detected. No anemia or neurologic deficit was detected, with a low-normal serum level of vitamin B(12) in 2 patients (11.7%) and a low level in 1 patient (5.7%). One patient (5.7%) had chronic diarrhea. Low bone mineral density was found in 4 patients (22.8%), with 3 patients (17.1%) not exceeding the fifth percentile of height for age. High-grade complications (grade 3a-5) represented 64.5% of the complications, and the need for reintervention occurred late in the follow-up period. A high level of quality of life satisfaction was reported (88.5%). Ileal neobladder construction allows child to pass into adolescence dry with more confidence and self-esteem, with no external urine collection set. However, long-term follow-up is mandatory to maintain the positive outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  20. Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

  1. Influence of Long-Term Benzodiazepine use on Neurocognitive Skills Related to Driving Performance in Patient Populations: A Review.

    PubMed

    van der Sluiszen, Nick N J J M; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Jongen, Stefan; Vinckenbosch, Frederick; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2017-09-01

    Acute benzodiazepine intoxication produces severe impairment of neurocognitive skills related to driving. It is less clear whether such impairments also occur in patients who use benzodiazepines chronically. The current review evaluated neurocognitive skills of long-term benzodiazepine users and addressed 2 major questions: do long-term users develop tolerance for the impairing effects of benzodiazepines on neurocognitive performance, and if so, does tolerance warrant a change in driver fitness classification systems that currently deem users of benzodiazepines unfit to drive? Neurocognitive impairments were reported in patients who on average used benzodiazepines for 5-15 years. In addition, sensitivity to acute benzodiazepine impairment decreased in long-term users, suggesting (partial) tolerance. Definitions of clinical relevance of neurocognitive impairments in long-term users and how these were affected by duration of benzodiazepine use were generally lacking. Also, sensitivity of neurocognitive tasks to drug effects and their validity to predict fitness to drive were generally unknown. Because of these limitations, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding a re-classification of long-term benzodiazepine effects on driver fitness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. NAEP 1999 Long-Term Trend Technical Analysis Report: Three Decades of Student Performance. NCES 2005-484

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy L.; McClellan, Catherine A.; Stoeckel, Joan J.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an update to the technical analysis procedures documenting the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as presented in "The NAEP 1996 Technical Report" (Allen, Carlson, and Zelenak, 1999). It describes how the 1999 long-term trend data were incorporated into the trend analyses. Since no national main…

  3. An Old Challenge with New Promises: A Systematic Review on Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Lozupone, Madia; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; D'Urso, Francesca; Stallone, Roberta; Dibello, Vittorio; Noia, Alessia; Di Dio, Cristina; Daniele, Antonio; Bellomo, Antonello; Seripa, Davide; Greco, Antonio; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2017-07-28

    Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional and multidisciplinary diagnostic process focused on determining the clinical profile, pathological risk, residual skills, short- and long-term prognosis, and personalized therapeutic and care plan of the functionally compromised and frail older subjects. Previous evidence suggested that the effectiveness of CGA programs may be influenced by settings where the CGA is performed [i.e., hospital, posthospital discharge/long-term care facilities (LTCFs), or community/home] as well as the specific clinical conditions of older frail individuals. In this scenario, CGA and quality of care in LTCFs have been a challenge for decades. In the present article, we systematically reviewed evidence from the last three decades of clinical research devoted to systematic implementation of CGA programs in LTCFs, that is, nursing homes, care homes, residential homes, and rehabilitation facilities. In the United States, all LTC residents must undergo a CGA on a regular basis on admission to a facility, prompting the development of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) Minimum Data Set, a specific CGA-based assessment tool in this population. In the LTCF setting, the present reviewed evidence suggested that most complex older subjects may benefit from a CGA in terms of improved quality of care and reduced hospitalization events and that CGA must be standardized across healthcare settings to promote greater health system integration and coordination. In the LTCF setting, particularly in nursing homes, other new and promising CGA programs have also been proposed to develop rapid screening CGA-based tools to enhance in the future the ability of primary care physicians to recognize and treat geriatric syndromes in this setting. However, at present, the interRAI suite of instruments represented an integrated health information system that has the potential to provide person-centered information transcending healthcare settings.

  4. Long-Term Slip History Discriminates Among Occurrence Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Ferry, M. A.; Jalobeanu, A.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) community relies on one or a combination of stochastic models to compute occurrence probabilities for large earthquakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to extracting the maximum information from long catalogues of large earthquakes (CLE) based on instrumental, historical, archeological and paleoseismological data (Biasi et al, 2009, Parsons, 2008, Rhoades and Dissen 2003). However, the models remain only and insufficiently constrained by these rare single-slip event data. Therefore, the selection of the models and their respective weights is necessarily left with the appreciation of a panel of experts (WGCEP, 2003). Since cumulative slip data with high temporal and spatial resolution are now available, we propose here a new approach to incorporate these pieces of evidence of mid- to long-term fault behavior into the next generation of PSHA: the Cumulative Offset-Based Bayesian Recurrence Analysis (COBBRA). Applied to the Jordan Valley segment of the Dead Sea Fault, the method yields the best combination of occurrence models for full-segment ruptures knowing the available single-event and cumulative data. Not only does our method provide data-driven, objective weights to the competing models, but it also allows to rule out time-independence, and to compute the cumulative probability of occurrence for the next full-segment event reflecting all available data. References: Biasi, G. P. & Weldon, R. J., II. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 99, 471-498, doi:10.1785/0120080287 (2009). Parsons, T. J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2007JB004,998.216 (2008) Rhoades, D. A., and R. J. V. Dissen, New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 46, 479-488 (2003). Working Group On California Earthquake Probabilities. Earthquake Probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2002-2031. (2003).

  5. Assessment of copper corrosion from frameless copper IUDs after long-term in utero residence.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Dowsett, Mark G; Flexer, Victoria; Thompson, Paul; Walker, David; Thomas, Pam A; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-10-01

    To assess the site-specific corrosive behavior of the frameless intrauterine device (IUD) following long-term exposure to the uterine environment. A qualitative and morphological study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three GyneFix® IUDs that were in site up to 150 months were examined. In utero corroded copper sleeves were divided into 10 different groups based on their shape (U or O), orientation (inside or outside) and in utero residence time. XRD indicated the presence of solely cuprite (Cu2O) as corrosion product on both the inside and the outside of the copper sleeves, regardless of their shape. These results were confirmed by backscattered electron micrographs recorded on the inside, the outside and the cross-section of the IUD sleeve. SEM results suggest that shape and orientation slightly affect the corrosion rate. The apparent copper loss from both sides of GyneFix copper tubes proves that both sides are a potential copper source and therefore justifies the design of GyneFix IUD. This could be beneficial for women as the IUD could be reduced in size and therefore better tolerated. The impact on bleeding could also be minimized. Release of copper ions from both sides of the copper tubes of the frameless GyneFix® IUD allows the IUD to be reduced in size, contributing to better toleration. The impact on menstrual bleeding is also minimized by a smaller size of the foreign body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring and long-term assessment of the Mediterranean Sea physical state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Fratianni, Claudia; Clementi, Emanuela; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Jenny; Grandi, Alessandro; Del Rosso, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    The near real time monitoring and long-term assessment of the physical state of the ocean are crucial for the wide CMEMS user community providing a continuous and up to date overview of key indicators computed from operational analysis and reanalysis datasets. This constitutes an operational warning system on particular events, stimulating the research towards a deeper understanding of them and consequently increasing CMEMS products uptake. Ocean Monitoring Indicators (OMIs) of some Essential Ocean Variables have been identified and developed by the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (MED-MFC) under the umbrella of the CMEMS MYP WG (Multi Year Products Working Group). These OMIs have been operationally implemented starting from the physical reanalysis products and then they have been applied to the operational analyses product. Sea surface temperature, salinity, height as well as heat, water and momentum fluxes at the air-sea interface have been operationally implemented since the reanalysis system development as a real time monitoring of the data production. Their consistency analysis against available observational products or budget values recognized in literature guarantees the high quality of the numerical dataset. The results of the reanalysis validation procedures are yearly published in the QUality Information Document since 2014 available through the CMEMS catalogue (http://marine.copernicus.eu), together with the yearly dataset extension. New OMIs of the winter mixed layer depth, the eddy kinetic energy and the heat content will be presented, in particular we will analyze their time evolution and trends starting from 1987, then we will focus on the recent time period 2013-2016 when reanalysis and analyses datasets overlap to show their consistency beside their different system implementation (i.e. atmospheric forcing, wave coupling, nesting). At the end the focus will be on 2016 sea state and circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its

  7. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  8. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  9. Assessment of the quality of the Harran Plain soils under long-term cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Ali Volkan; Küçük, Çiğdem; Van Es, Harold M

    2017-08-19

    Soil quality refers to the ability of soils to perform their functions well. The soils of the Harran Plain, Turkey, have been put into intensive crop production with the introduction of an irrigation scheme and become increasingly degraded due to unsustainable management and cropping systems that resulted in the loss of production potential. The goal of this study was to quantify the quality of common soil series in the Plain using soil quality indexes (SQI) and to compare SQIs of two long-term crop rotations, cotton and wheat-corn cultivation, and different soil types. Over 400 samples were collected at a 0- to 30-cm depth and analyzed for 31 soil variables. The best representative soil quality variables forming a minimum data set (MDS) were selected using principal component analysis (PCA), and soil quality scores were obtained using both linear and non-linear scoring functions. The MDS included three physical (hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and plant available water content), two biological (soil organic matter and catalase enzyme activity), and nine chemical soil quality indicators (CEC, pH, plant available Cu and Fe, exchangeable Na and K, soluble Ca, Mg, and Na). Because of the low level of SOM, soil qualities were overall low with indexes obtained using two scoring functions ranging from 38.0/100 to 48.7/100. Correlations between SQI obtained using two approaches (linear vs. non-linear; r > 0.61) and using two data sets (all data vs. MDS; r > 0.79) were high. Non-linear scoring functions were more sensitive to management impacts. ANOVA models testing the individual impacts of soil types and crop management on soil quality were statistically different (p < 0.01), but the models including interactions were not. Overall, the fields under cotton cultivation were generally associated with higher clay contents and had the lowest SQIs as a result of intensive cultivation.

  10. LONG-TERM ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR A SHOPPING MALL.

    PubMed

    Engiz, Begum Korunur; Kurnaz, Cetin

    2017-07-01

    As a result of the dense deployment of wireless devices and base stations, measuring and evaluating the electromagnetic (EM) exposure levels they emit have become important to human health especially if they exceed the limits defined in the standards. Base stations, Wi-Fi equipment and other electronic devices are used heavily, especially in densely crowded places like shopping centers. In this study, electric field strength (E) measurements were conducted at one of the largest shopping malls in Turkey. Broadband E measurements were performed using PMM 8053 EM field strength meter for 24 h a day for the duration of one week while frequency selective measurements were carried out with SRM-3006 EM field strength meter. It is concluded from the measurements that the mean measured total E in the band between 100 kHz and 3 GHz is 0.59 V/m while the maximum E is 7.88 V/m, which are both below the limit determined by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Evolutions show that E can increase by up to 55% during the daytime. Analyses demonstrate that 71.3% of total E is caused by UMTS2100, 16.3% is produced by GSM900, 6.2% by LTE, 3.5% by Wi-Fi, and 2.7% is generated by devices that use the remaining frequency bands. Based on the detailed statistical analysis of long-term E measurement results, it can be concluded that the measured E levels are not in normal distribution and that they are statistically different with respect to days. Furthermore, distribution of E can be best modeled with the non-parametric approach. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prediction of the long-term performance of crystalline nuclear waste form phases from studies of mineral analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Smith, K.L.; Blackford, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    This investigation outlines the use of natural analogues as a means of assessing the long-term performance of actinide host phases in crystalline nuclear waste forms. We employed several analytical techniques to study the mineral zirconolite, an important actinide host phase in Synroc and tailored ceramics. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Natural zirconolite experiences a crystalline to aperiodic transformation at doses of approximately 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 16} {alpha}/ma (0.08-1.0 dpa), consistent with the results of accelerated damage testing on synthetic zirconolite. (2) Damage microstructures are consistent with the accumulation and overlap of alpha-recoil collision cascades, resulting in aperiodic domains which increase in volume as a function of dose. (3) There is evidence for long-term annealing of alpha-recoil damage in zirconolite at a rate 2-5 times slower than in the structurally related mineral pyrochlore. (4) Analysis of data from the only documented natural zirconolites to show hydrothermal alteration [resulting from F- and P-rich aqueous fluids at T = 500-600{degrees}C and P = 2 kb, Giere and Williams (14)], suggests that Th and U were released to the fluid phase. (5) The effects of low temperature alteration of radiation damaged zirconolite by a Si-rich ground water or fluid phase were identified in the oldest (2.5 x 10{sup 9} yr) sample in our research collection. Alteration involved incorporation of Si along microfractures at the expense of Ca, Ti, and Fe, but Tb and U remained immobile. In this same sample, there is evidence for migration of at least 50% of the radiogenic Pb from both unaltered and altered areas of zirconolite. Most of the Pb may have been retained within the sample as fine precipitates of galena (PbS).

  12. The Effect of Frequent Quizzes on Short- and Long-Term Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, James R.; Soehren, Stephen E.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined effects of frequent quizzes on dental student performance in a course on introductory radiology. Results indicated the group (N=36) with frequent quizzes performed significantly better than the control group (n=35) on midterm and final examinations (but not post-tests), and assessed course content and instructor more…

  13. The Effect of Frequent Quizzes on Short- and Long-Term Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, James R.; Soehren, Stephen E.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined effects of frequent quizzes on dental student performance in a course on introductory radiology. Results indicated the group (N=36) with frequent quizzes performed significantly better than the control group (n=35) on midterm and final examinations (but not post-tests), and assessed course content and instructor more…

  14. Hearing Loss and Cognitive-Communication Test Performance of Long-Term Care Residents With Dementia: Effects of Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tammy; Slaughter, Susan E.; Hodgetts, Bill; Ostevik, Amberley; Ickert, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were (a) to explore the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive-communication performance of individuals with dementia, and (b) to determine if hearing loss is accurately identified by long-term care (LTC) staff. The research questions were (a) What is the effect of amplification on cognitive-communication test…

  15. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  16. Hearing Loss and Cognitive-Communication Test Performance of Long-Term Care Residents With Dementia: Effects of Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tammy; Slaughter, Susan E.; Hodgetts, Bill; Ostevik, Amberley; Ickert, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were (a) to explore the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive-communication performance of individuals with dementia, and (b) to determine if hearing loss is accurately identified by long-term care (LTC) staff. The research questions were (a) What is the effect of amplification on cognitive-communication test…

  17. Long-Term Impact of On-Demand Professional Development on Student Performance: A Longitudinal Multi-State Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly F.; Ellsworth, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of Professional Development (PD) on educators' ability to affect student performance remain virtually unstudied. This quasi-experimental, longitudinal study compared student achievement scores from 25 states and 78 school districts over multiple years for schools whose teachers used an online, on-demand professional…

  18. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These ground water treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings (Peerless Meta...

  19. AILEM Programme: A Long-Term Intervention to Promote Literacy Learning in Low-Performing Primary Schools in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo, Malva Villalon; Silva, Margarita; Razmilic, Tonia; Swartz, Stanley L.

    2005-01-01

    After one year of implementation, this paper describes a programme designed to support literacy learning in low performing schools from poor sectors in Santiago, Chile. School-based intensive training on theory and practice of a literacy learning framework for classroom instruction and long-term support were used to impact the achievement of…

  20. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These ground water treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings (Peerless Meta...

  1. Assessing the Long-Term Impact of a Metacognitive Approach to Creative Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the long-term impact that selected instructional interventions, based on research in metacognition and learning theory, have on students' creativity. The study builds off research that has been conducted documenting the impact of creative thinking based instructional interventions. The study tracked…

  2. An Educational Needs Assessment of Long Term Care Administrative Personnel in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppick, Annabelle L.; Costanzo, Nancy L.

    The Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, directed its efforts towards providing continuing education courses to enable long term care administrators to qualify for relicensure in accordance with Pennsylvania's requirements. Because of the diversity of administrators' educational background, more data were needed to establish…

  3. Long-term data from silvicultural studies: interpreting and assessing old records for economic insights

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Sendak; Robert M. Frank; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Long-term silvicultural studies on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine and Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire offer opportunities for the patient financial analyst. The economist working with carefully collected growth and yield data can increase the value of these studies to other researchers and ultimately to forest managers. Issues related to data...

  4. Assessing the impact of long-term cultivation on runoff, pollutant load, and crop yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past century, agriculture had detrimental impacts on soil and water quality revealed by increased surface runoff and non-point source pollution. In this study, we estimated the impact of long-term agriculture on surface runoff, sediment yield, atrazine load, and crop yields. Soil samples we...

  5. Assessing the Long-Term Impact of a Metacognitive Approach to Creative Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the long-term impact that selected instructional interventions, based on research in metacognition and learning theory, have on students' creativity. The study builds off research that has been conducted documenting the impact of creative thinking based instructional interventions. The study tracked…

  6. Repeated simulation-based training for performing general anesthesia for emergency cesarean delivery: long-term retention and recurring mistakes.

    PubMed

    Ortner, C M; Richebé, P; Bollag, L A; Ross, B K; Landau, R

    2014-11-01

    The percentage of women undergoing cesarean delivery under general anesthesia has significantly decreased, which limits training opportunities for its safe administration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how effective simulation-based training was in the learning and long-term retention of skills to perform general anesthesia for an emergent cesarean delivery. During an eight-week obstetric anesthesia rotation, 24 residents attended lectures and simulation-based training to perform general anesthesia for emergent cesarean delivery. Performance assessments using a validated weighted scaling system were made during the first (pre-test) and fifth weeks (post-test) of training, and eight months later (post-retention test). Resident's competency level (weighted score) and errors were assessed at each testing session. Six obstetric anesthesia attending physicians, unfamiliar with the simulation scenario, generated a mean attendings' performance score. The results were compared. At one week of training, residents' performance was significantly below mean attendings' performance score (pre-test: 135±22 vs. 159±11, P=0.013). At five weeks, residents' performance was similar to mean attendings' performance score (post-test: 159±21) and remained at that level at eight months (post-retention test: 164±16). Of the important obstetric-specific tasks, left uterine displacement was missed by 46% of residents at eight months. Following lectures and simulation-enhanced training, anesthesia residents reached and retained for up to eight months a competency level in a simulator comparable to that of obstetric anesthesia attending physicians. Errors in performance and missed tasks may be used to improve residency training and continuing medical education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of cognitive impairment in long-term oxygen therapy-dependent COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Karamanli, Harun; Ilik, Faik; Kayhan, Fatih; Pazarli, Ahmet Cemal

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that COPD, particularly in its later and more severe stages, is associated with various cognitive deficits. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to elucidate the extent of cognitive impairment in patients with long-term oxygen therapy-dependent (LTOTD) COPD. In addition, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of two cognitive screening tests, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), for COPD patients and the ability of oxygen therapy to mitigate COPD-related deficits in cognitive function. The present study enrolled 45 subjects: 24 nonuser and 21 regular-user LTOTD-COPD patients. All subjects had a similar grade of education, and there were no significant differences regarding age or sex. The MoCA (cutoff: <26 points) and MMSE (cutoff: ≤24 points) scores were compared between these two groups. The nonuser LTOTD-COPD group had a significantly lower MoCA score than that of the regular-user LTOTD-COPD group (19.38±2.99 vs 21.68±2.14, respectively) as well as a significantly lower MMSE score. Moreover, the absence of supplemental oxygen therapy increased the risk of cognitive impairment (MoCA, P=0.007 and MMSE, P=0.014), and the MoCA and MMSE scores significantly correlated with the number of emergency admissions and the number of hospitalizations in the last year. In the present study, the nonuser LTOTD-COPD group exhibited a significant decrease in cognitive status compared with the regular-user LTOTD-COPD group. This suggests that the assessment of cognitive function in nonuser LTOTD-COPD patients and the use of protective strategies, such as continuous supplemental oxygen treatment, should be considered during the management of COPD in this population. In addition, the MoCA score was superior to the MMSE score for the determination of cognitive impairment in the nonuser LTOTD-COPD patients.

  8. Long-term multi-hazard assessment for El Misti volcano (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Constantinescu, Robert; Biass, Sébastien; Tonini, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    We propose a long-term probabilistic multi-hazard assessment for El Misti Volcano, a composite cone located <20 km from Arequipa. The second largest Peruvian city is a rapidly expanding economic centre and is classified by UNESCO as World Heritage. We apply the Bayesian Event Tree code for Volcanic Hazard (BET_VH) to produce probabilistic hazard maps for the predominant volcanic phenomena that may affect c.900,000 people living around the volcano. The methodology accounts for the natural variability displayed by volcanoes in their eruptive behaviour, such as different types/sizes of eruptions and possible vent locations. For this purpose, we treat probabilistically several model runs for some of the main hazardous phenomena (lahars, pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), tephra fall and ballistic ejecta) and data from past eruptions at El Misti (tephra fall, PDCs and lahars) and at other volcanoes (PDCs). The hazard maps, although neglecting possible interactions among phenomena or cascade effects, have been produced with a homogeneous method and refer to a common time window of 1 year. The probability maps reveal that only the north and east suburbs of Arequipa are exposed to all volcanic threats except for ballistic ejecta, which are limited to the uninhabited but touristic summit cone. The probability for pyroclastic density currents reaching recently expanding urban areas and the city along ravines is around 0.05 %/year, similar to the probability obtained for roof-critical tephra loading during the rainy season. Lahars represent by far the most probable threat (around 10 %/year) because at least four radial drainage channels can convey them approximately 20 km away from the volcano across the entire city area in heavy rain episodes, even without eruption. The Río Chili Valley represents the major concern to city safety owing to the probable cascading effect of combined threats: PDCs and rockslides, dammed lake break-outs and subsequent lahars or floods

  9. Preliminarily Assessment of Long-term Cloud Top Heights in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. J.; Po-Hsiung, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Xitou region, as the epitome of mid-elevation forest ecosystem and known as a famous forest recreation area in Taiwan. Although two disasters, "921 earthquake" in 1999 and typhoon Toraji in 2001, heavily hit this area and cause a significant reduction in visitors from 1 to about 0.4 million per year, the tourists have returned after the reconstruction in 2003 and approached 1.5 million high since 2010. The high quantity of tourists obviously drives the development of tourism industry which, unfortunately, increases the local sources of heating. A preliminarily analysis showed the warming rate was 0.29 oC/decade for June 2005 to May 2013 while from the 1940s to the 1980s, it was only 0.1 oC/decade. The warming pattern in Xitou region is similar to the global warming situation that a more dramatic trend happened during the past 10 years. The change of land use, which derived from the pressure of tourism industry, might accelerate regional climate warming. For the purpose of understanding cloud response to anthropogenic forcing, the long-term 1-km spatial resolution cloud top heights (cth) data sets (collection 6) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were assessed. The results showed the annual cloud event amounts of the Terra and Aqua changed insignificantly since 2003 disregard of the cth. However, the cloud fraction of the cth less than 2000m was 18% in 2003 and dropped dramatically to 7% since 2011. Correspondingly, the cth between 2000m to 4000m was increased from 35% in 2003 to 45% in 2014. Further analysis the nighttime events indicated similar pattern but only 6% different between 2003 and 2014. The Aqua daytime events showed a more dramatic fraction anomaly which was decreased 18% at the cth less than 2000m and increased 18% at the cth between 2000m to 4000m. This preliminary assessment represents the cloud is pushing higher which might be caused by the anthropogenic forcing during the last decade. However, this study also found

  10. 75 FR 46946 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty International Center's Research and Training Programs Summary: In... opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the John E. Fogarty International Center...: Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty International Center's Research and Training Programs...

  11. 75 FR 29763 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty International Center's Research and Training Programs ACTION... Act of 1995, for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the John E.... Proposed Collection Title: Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of the John E. Fogarty International Center's...

  12. Development of testing and analysis methodology to assess the long term durability of polymeric composites at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to help assess the state-of-the-art in evaluating the long term durability of polymeric matrix composites (PMCs) and to recommend future activities. Design and evaluation of PMCs at elevated temperatures were discussed. The workshop presentations, the findings of the workshop sessions are briefly summarized.

  13. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  14. Potential Long Term Benefits of Acute Hypothermia after Spinal Cord Injury: Assessments with Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Maybhate, Anil; Hu, Charles; Bazley, Faith A.; Yu, Qilu; Thakor, Nitish V.; Kerr, Candace L.; All, Angelo H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Neuroprotection by hypothermia has been an important research topic over last two decades. In animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI), the primary focus has been assessing effects of hypothermia on behavioral and histological outcomes. While a few studies have investigated electrophysiological changes in descending motor pathways with motor evoked potentials recorded during cooling, we report here, hypothermia induced increased electrical conduction in the ascending spinal cord pathways with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in injured rats. In our experiments these effects lasted long after the acute hypothermia and were accompanied with potential long term improvements in motor movement. Design Laboratory Investigation. Setting University Medical School. Subjects 21 Female Lewis Rats. Interventions Hypothermia. Measurements and Main Results All animals underwent spinal cord contusion, with the NYU-Impactor, by a 12.5mm weight drop at thoracic vertebra T8. A group (n=10) was randomly assigned for a systemic 2hr. hypothermia episode (32±0.5°C) initiated ~2.0hrs post-injury. 11 rats were controls with post-injury temperature maintained at 37±0.5°C for 2hrs. The two groups underwent pre-injury, weekly post-injury (up to 4wks) SSEP recordings and standard motor behavioral tests (BBB). Three randomly selected rats from each group were euthanized for histological analysis at post-injury Day 3 and Day 28. Compared to controls, the hypothermia group showed significantly higher SSEP amplitudes post-injury; with longer latencies. The BBB scores were also higher immediately after injury and 4 weeks later in the hypothermia group. Importantly, specific changes in the BBB scores in hypothermia group (not seen in controls) indicated regained functions critical for motor control. Histological evaluations showed more tissue preservation in hypothermia group. Conclusions Post-SCI, early systemic hypothermia provided significant neuroprotection weeks after

  15. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    contribution by synthesizing information from research in power market economics, power system reliability, and environmental impact assessment, to develop a comprehensive methodology for analyzing wind power in the context of long-term energy planning.

  16. Semantic congruency but not temporal synchrony enhances long-term memory performance for audio-visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.

  17. Factors associated with eating performance for long-term care residents with moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Galik, Elizabeth; Boltz, Marie; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Lerner, Nancy; Resnick, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of specific personal and environmental factors with eating performance among long-term care residents with moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment. Eating is the one of the most basic and easiest activities of daily living to perform. While multilevel factors can be associated with eating performance, the evidence among those with dementia was insufficient. A secondary analysis of baseline data collected between March and September in 2012 from 199 residents in eight long-term care facilities. Eating performance was conceptualized using the single self-care 'feeding' item in the Barthel Index and was scored based on four levels of dependence and assistance required. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the adjusted association of specific factors with eating performance. Almost one-third of the residents needed help with eating. After adjusting the type of facility, number of comorbidities, chair-sitting balance, agitation and depression, compromised eating performance was associated with severe cognitive impairment and low physical capability. This study supported the association of eating performance with cognitive impairment and physical capability among long-term care residents with moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment. Targeted interventions should be implemented to reduce the impact of cognitive decline on eating performance and promote physical capability to optimize eating performance. Future work need to use validated multiple-item measures for eating performance and test the association of personal and environmental factors with eating performance among a larger heterogeneous group of long-term care residents to enhance understanding of the factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Accelerated long-term assessment of thermal and chemical stability of bio-based phase change materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems incorporated with phase change materials (PCMs) have potential applications to control energy use by building envelopes. However, it is essential to evaluate long term performance of the PCMs and cost effectiveness prior to full scale implementation. For this rea...

  19. Assessment of long-term work attendance within human service organisations.

    PubMed

    Dellve, Lotta; Eriksson, Jesper; Vilhelmsson, Rebecka

    2007-01-01

    Terms and theories of work attendance vary according to their use and focus. This paper analyzes long-term work attendance in relation to social, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Register-based and questionnaire-based data covering 3,804 human service organisation workers over a three-year period were analyzed at individual and work-unit level. The results showed positive relationships between work attendance and male gender, high income, work commitment, job satisfaction, and having positive feelings towards work. High work attendance combined with work commitment, stress, or pain did not show any negative long-term effects upon short-term or long-term sick leave. Instead, work attendance seemed to be more associated with stable patterns of behaviour. Register-based measures of work attendance (at most 4-7 days of sick leave per worker per year) may be a useful tool in managing psychosocial work environment and related behaviour, but their inability to encompass information regarding individual health and disease must be borne in mind.

  20. Cerebral performance category at hospital discharge predicts long-term survival of cardiac arrest survivors receiving targeted temperature management*.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cindy H; Li, Jiaqi; Cinousis, Marisa J; Sheak, Kelsey R; Gaieski, David F; Abella, Benjamin S; Leary, Marion

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent advancements in post-cardiac arrest resuscitation, the optimal measurement of postarrest outcome remains unclear. We hypothesized that Cerebral Performance Category score can predict the long-term outcome of postarrest survivors who received targeted temperature management during their postarrest hospital care. Retrospective chart review. Two academic medical centers from May 2005 to December 2012. The medical records of 2,417 out-of-hospital and in-hospital patients post cardiac arrest were reviewed to identify 140 of 582 survivors who received targeted temperature management. None. The Cerebral Performance Category scores at hospital discharge were determined by three independent abstractors. The 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month survival of these patients was determined by reviewing hospital records and querying the Social Security Death Index and by follow-up telephone calls. The association of unadjusted long-term survival and adjusted survival with Cerebral Performance Category was calculated. Of the 2,417 patients who were identified to have undergone cardiac arrest, 24.1% (582/2,417) were successfully resuscitated, of whom 24.1% (140/582) received postarrest targeted temperature management. Overall, 42.9% of patients (60/140) were discharged with Cerebral Performance Category 1, 27.1% (38/140) with Cerebral Performance Category 2, 18.6% (26/140) with Cerebral Performance Category 3, and 11.4% (16/140) with Cerebral Performance Category 4. Cerebral Performance Category 1 survivors had the highest long-term survival followed by Cerebral Performance Categories 2 and 3, with Cerebral Performance Category 4 having the lowest long-term survival (p < 0.001, log-rank test). We found that Cerebral Performance Category 3 (hazard ratio = 3.62, p < 0.05) and Cerebral Performance Category 4 (hazard ratio = 12.73, p < 0.001) remained associated with worse survival after adjusting for age, gender, race, shockable rhythm, time to targeted temperature management

  1. Long-term performances of the ⁹⁵ZR/⁹⁵Nb chronometer for nuclear events dating.

    PubMed

    Douysset, G; Petit, G Le; Gross, P; Jutier, C

    2014-05-01

    The present work reports on a long-term analysis of the performances of the (95)Zr/(95)Nb chronometer for dating a nuclear event. Taking benefit of a recent Profiency Test Exercise, a sample containing a standardized mixture of fission products has been measured repeatedly with a low background HPGe spectrometer during a period extending up to one year with the aim of assessing the accuracy of the various zero-time determinations. Evaluation of the uncertainties associated to these evaluations was performed using a Monte Carlo approach. Input parameters sensitivity has been investigated, especially the influence of the (95m)Nb decay branch. The (95)Zr/(95)Nb chronometer was found to be accurate for zero-time determination within one day and one week for a decay of 3 months and 10 months respectively. Sub-day uncertainties are achievable for a two months old sample whereas sub-week uncertainties are reached after a decay of six months. Limitations of the technique for dating a real event are investigated. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems.

    PubMed

    Brattebo, Benjamin O; Booth, Derek B

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the long-term effectiveness of permeable pavement as an alternative to traditional impervious asphalt pavement in a parking area. Four commercially available permeable pavement systems were evaluated after 6 years of daily parking usage for structural durability, ability to infiltrate precipitation, and impacts on infiltrate water quality. All four permeable pavement systems showed no major signs of wear. Virtually all rainwater infiltrated through the permeable pavements, with almost no surface runoff. The infiltrated water had significantly lower levels of copper and zinc than the direct surface runoff from the asphalt area. Motor oil was detected in 89% of samples from the asphalt runoff but not in any water sample infiltrated through the permeable pavement. Neither lead nor diesel fuel were detected in any sample. Infiltrate measured 5 years earlier displayed significantly higher concentrations of zinc and significantly lower concentrations of copper and lead.

  3. Measures to assess commonly experienced symptoms for people with dementia in long-term care settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Smith, Clare; Evans, Catherine J; Bone, Anna E; Henson, Lesley A; Dzingina, Mendwas; Kane, Pauline M; Higginson, Irene J; Daveson, Barbara A

    2016-02-26

    High symptom burden is common in long-term care residents with dementia and results in distress and behavioral challenges if undetected. Physicians may have limited time to regularly examine all residents, particularly those unable to self-report, and may rely on reports from caregivers who are frequently in a good position to detect symptoms quickly. We aimed to identify proxy-completed assessment measures of symptoms experienced by people with dementia, and critically appraise the psychometric properties and applicability for use in long-term care settings by caregivers. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA from inception to 23 June 2015, supplemented by citation and reference searches. The search strategy used a combination of terms: dementia OR long-term care AND assessment AND symptoms (e.g. pain). Studies were included if they evaluated psychometric properties of proxy-completed symptom assessment measures for people with dementia in any setting or those of mixed cognitive abilities residing in long-term care settings. Measures were included if they did not require clinical training, and used proxy-observed behaviors to support assessment in verbally compromised people with dementia. Data were extracted on study setting and sample, measurement properties and psychometric properties. Measures were independently evaluated by two investigators using quality criteria for measurement properties, and evaluated for clinical applicability in long-term settings. Of the 19,942 studies identified, 40 studies evaluating 32 measures assessing pain (n = 12), oral health (n = 2), multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 2), depression (n = 8), anxiety (n = 2), psychological wellbeing (n = 4), and discomfort (n = 2) were included. The majority of studies (31/40) were conducted in long-term care settings although none of the neuropsychiatric or anxiety measures were validated in this setting. The pain assessments, PAINAD and

  4. Implant-based rehabilitation in oncology patients can be performed with high long-term success.

    PubMed

    Hessling, Sarah A; Wehrhan, Falk; Schmitt, Christian M; Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Scheer, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy and compromised vital bone and/or surrounding soft tissue can be a challenge to the successful osseointegration of dental implants. We evaluated the long-term results of dental implants in patients with oral cancer. To address the research purpose, we designed and implemented a retrospective cohort study that included patients with oral cancer who had received dental implants from 2003 to 2011. The data were collected from a clinical oncology database. The predictor variables included a set of heterogeneous variables grouped into logical sets of demographics, surgical treatment, dental rehabilitation, radiotherapy type, and tumor entity. The primary outcome variable was implant survival; the secondary outcome variable was peri-implantitis. The descriptive statistics, survival time analysis, Kaplan-Meier implant survival curves, and Cox hazard proportional modeling were computed. The study sample included 59 patients with oral cancer (20 women [33.9%], 39 men [66.1%]; mean age at tumor diagnosis, 55 years), who had had 272 implants placed during the study period. The mean follow-up period was 30.9 months (range 3 to 82). Of the 272 implants, 269 (98.9%) and 264 (97.1%) had survived for 2 and 5 years, respectively. During the observation period, 10 implants were lost (3.7%). Of the implant failures, 82% occurred in transplanted bone (4 fibula flaps, 4 iliac crests, and 2 native mandibles). We observed peri-implantitis caused by insufficiently attached gingiva and bone loss in 182 of the implants (67%). The factors associated with implant failure were peri-implantitis, insufficient soft and hard tissue, muscle dysfunction, and xerostomia. Implant-based rehabilitation in oncology patients can achieve a high long-term success rate, although risk factors such as impaired muscle function and a high frequency of peri-implantitis can affect healing. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Virus removal by ultrafiltration: Understanding long-term performance change by application of Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Branch, Amos; Sisson, Scott A; Roser, David J; van den Akker, Ben; Monis, Paul; Reeve, Petra; Keegan, Alexandra; Regel, Rudi; Khan, Stuart J

    2017-10-01

    Ultrafiltration is an effective barrier to waterborne pathogens including viruses. Challenge testing is commonly used to test the inherent reliability of such systems. Performance validation seeks to demonstrate the adequate reliability of the treatment system. Appropriate and rigorous data analysis is an essential aspect of validation testing. In this study we used Bayesian analysis to assess the performance of a full-scale ultrafiltration system which was validated and revalidated after five years of operation. A hierarchical Bayesian model was used to analyse a number of similar ultrafiltration membrane skids working in parallel during the two validation periods. This approach enhanced our ability to obtain accurate estimations of performance variability, especially when the sample size of some system skids was limited. This methodology enabled the quantitative estimation of uncertainty in the performance parameters and generation of predictive distributions incorporating those uncertainties. The results indicated that there was a decrease in the mean skid performance after five years of operation of approximately 1 log reduction value (LRV). Interestingly, variability in the LRV also reduced, with standard deviations from the revalidation data being decreased by a mean 0.37 LRV compared with the original validation data. The model was also useful in comparing the operating performance of the various parallel skids within the same year. Evidence of differences was obtained in 2015 for one of the membrane skids. A hierarchical Bayesian analysis of validation data provides robust estimations of performance and the incorporation of probabilistic analysis which is increasingly important for comprehensive quantitative risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L.; Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C.; Whitney, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including

  7. Thread-lift for facial rejuvenation: assessment of long-term results.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rima F; DeFatta, Robert J; Williams, Edwin F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term success of the thread-lift procedure for facial rejuvenation. Thirty-three patients underwent a thread-lift procedure alone or in combination with other facial rejuvenation procedures to the brow, midface, jowl, and neck. Ten patients underwent thread-lifts only, and 23 had thread-lifts with other procedures. Ten additional patients having had non-thread-lift rejuvenation procedures, including lipotransfer, chemical peels, and rhytidectomies, were randomly designated as controls. The mean follow-up period was 21 months (range, 12-31 months). Photodocumentation was obtained at each visit. Long-term aesthetic results were evaluated by 4 independent, blinded, and board-certified facial plastic surgeons. Each result was graded on a scale of 0 to 3, with 0 indicating no change; 1, minimal improvement; 2, moderate improvement; and 3, considerable improvement. The population was divided into 3 groups for comparison. Two-tailed t test (P = .05) was used for statistical analysis of aesthetic outcomes. Although aesthetic improvement was noted in all groups at 1 month, measurable results persisted to the end of the study for all but the group that underwent the thread-lift procedure only. Aesthetic improvement scores of the non-thread-lift control group were better than the group that underwent thread-lift only. Similarly, when the thread-lift was combined with other procedures, scores were better than when thread-lift was used alone. Statistical significance was demonstrated in both of these comparisons (P < .01). The thread-lift provides only limited short-term improvement that may be largely attributed to postprocedural edema and inflammation. Our results objectively demonstrate the poor long-term sustainability of the thread-lift procedure. Given these findings, as well as the measurable risk of adverse events and patient discomfort, we cannot justify further use of this procedure for facial rejuvenation.

  8. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Meucci, A; Cremonesi, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r(2)>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  9. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Consiglio, A.; Meucci, A.; Cremonesi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’ tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r2>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage. PMID:26623308

  10. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  11. Long Term Performance Metrics of the GD SDR on the SCaN Testbed: The First Year on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer; Wilson, Molly C.

    2014-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SCaN Testbed was installed on the ISS in August of 2012. After installation, the initial checkout and commissioning phases were completed and experimental operations commenced. One goal of the SCaN Testbed is to collect long term performance metrics for SDRs operating in space in order to demonstrate long term reliability. These metrics include the time the SDR powered on, the time the power amplifier (PA) is powered on, temperature trends, error detection and correction (EDAC) behavior, and waveform operational usage time. This paper describes the performance of the GD SDR over the first year of operations on the ISS.

  12. Long-term performance and microbial ecology of a two-stage PN-ANAMMOX process treating mature landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Li, Huosheng; Zhou, Shaoqi; Ma, Weihao; Huang, Pengfei; Huang, Guotao; Qin, Yujie; Xu, Bin; Ouyang, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Long-term performance of a two-stage partial nitritation (PN)-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process treating mature landfill leachate was investigated. Stable partial nitritation performance was achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using endpoint pH control, providing an effluent with a ratio of NO2(-)-N/NH4(+)-N at 1.23 ± 0.23. High rate nitrogen removal over 4 kg N/m(3)/d was observed in the ANAMMOX reactor in the first three months. However, during long-term operation, the ANAMMOX reactor can only stably operate under nitrogen load of 1 kg N/m(3)/d, with 85 ± 1% of nitrogen removal. The ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the PN-SBR were mainly affiliated to Nitrosomonas sp. IWT514, Nitrosomonas eutropha and Nitrosomonas eutropha, the anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the ANAMMOX reactor were mainly affiliated to Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  13. Long-term assessment of motor and cognitive behaviours in the intraluminal perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-03-17

    The endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a commonly used model in rats as it is performed without a craniotomy and accurately mimics the physiological effects of SAH in humans. The long-term behavioural profile of the model, however, has not been characterized. Given that humans often have cognitive deficits following SAH, we set out to characterize the behavioural profile as well as the spontaneous temperature changes of rats following intraluminal perforation. Rats were pre-trained on three motor tasks (tapered beam, limb-use asymmetry and the horizontal ladder tasks) prior to receiving a SAH. The animals were then assessed on post-surgical days 3, 7, 14 and 21 on these tasks. At the completion of motor testing, the rats were assessed on a moving platform version of the Morris water task. Despite significant mortality (33%), SAH did not result in lasting motor deficits on any of the tasks examined. However, the SAH group did show a minor cognitive impairment in the Morris water task. In addition, SAH produced a slight, but significant elevation in body temperature (vs. sham operated rats) despite an acute decrease in general home cage activity. The majority of the animals did not have any observable infarcts and the SAH did not significantly affect cortical thickness. In summary, the endovascular perforation model of SAH results in no lasting motor deficits and only minor cognitive impairment in survivors, which alone would be difficult to evaluate in neuroprotection or rehabilitation studies.

  14. A meta-analysis of apremilast on psoriatic arthritis long-term assessment of clinical efficacy (PALACE).

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Sixi; Tao, Lina; Song, Yanqing

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the efficacy and safety of apremilast in treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with meta-analysis method. We included four randomized clinical trials identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, "ISRCTN Register" and "ClinicalTrials.gov" which compared apremilast with placebo. The meta-analysis was performed by the software of Review Manager, version 5.2. Apremilast was associated with significantly higher proportion of patients who achieved ACR20 at week 16 (in apremilast 20 mg subgroup, odds ratio [OR]= 2.04, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.58-2.63, P<0.00001; in apremilast 30 mg subgroup, OR=2.53, 95%Cl 1.96-3.25, P<0.00001) and significantly higher scores of Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (in apremilast 20 mg subgroup, WMD=-0.11, 95%Cl -0.16~-0.06, P<0.0001; in apremilast 30 mg subgroup, WMD=-0.16, 95%Cl -0.21~-0.11, P<0.00001). Apremilast was as safe as placebo in terms of serious adverse events (AEs). The AEs occurred in participants with apremilast were mild and well tolerated during treatment. Apremilast can be used in treatment of PsA with lower costs, oral availability and well tolerated. But the long-term benefit and safety of apremilast should be further investigated.

  15. Using the Nursing Culture Assessment Tool (NCAT) in Long-Term Care: An Update on Psychometrics and Scoring Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Kennerly, Susan; Heggestad, Eric D.; Myers, Haley; Yap, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    An effective workforce performing within the context of a positive cultural environment is central to a healthcare organization’s ability to achieve quality outcomes. The Nursing Culture Assessment Tool (NCAT) provides nurses with a valid and reliable tool that captures the general aspects of nursing culture. This study extends earlier work confirming the tool’s construct validity and dimensionality by standardizing the scoring approach and establishing norm-referenced scoring. Scoring standardization provides a reliable point of comparison for NCAT users. NCAT assessments support nursing’s ability to evaluate nursing culture, use results to shape the culture into one that supports change, and advance nursing’s best practices and care outcomes. Registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified nursing assistants from 54 long-term care facilities in Kentucky, Nevada, North Carolina, and Oregon were surveyed. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded six first order factors forming the NCAT’s subscales (Expectations, Behaviors, Teamwork, Communication, Satisfaction, Commitment) (Comparative Fit Index 0.93) and a second order factor—The Total Culture Score. Aggregated facility level comparisons of observed group variance with expected random variance using rwg(J) statistics is presented. Normative scores and cumulative rank percentages and how the NCAT can be used in implementing planned change are provided. PMID:27417786

  16. Droplet dispensing in digital microfluidic devices: Assessment of long-term reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Elvira, Katherine S.; Leatherbarrow, Robin; Edel, Joshua; deMello, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We report an in-depth study of the long-term reproducibility and reliability of droplet dispensing in digital microfluidic devices (DMF). This involved dispensing droplets from a reservoir, measuring the volume of both the droplet and the reservoir droplet and then returning the daughter droplet to the original reservoir. The repetition of this process over the course of several hundred iterations offers, for the first time, a long-term view of droplet dispensing in DMF devices. Results indicate that the ratio between the spacer thickness and the electrode size influences the reliability of droplet dispensing. In addition, when the separation between the plates is large, the volume of the reservoir greatly affects the reproducibility in the volume of the dispensed droplets, creating “reliability regimes.” We conclude that droplet dispensing exhibits superior reliability as inter-plate device spacing is decreased, and the daughter droplet volume is most consistent when the reservoir volume matches that of the reservoir electrode. PMID:22655007

  17. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  18. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  19. Generalized discriminant analysis for congestive heart failure risk assessment based on long-term heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Asl, Babak Mohammadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are summarized in the following items: first, to investigate the class discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability (HRV) features for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF); second, to introduce the most discriminative features of HRV to discriminate low risk patients (LRPs) and high risk patients (HRPs), and third, to examine the influence of feature dimension reduction in order to achieve desired accuracy of the classification. We analyzed two public Holter databases: 12 data of patients suffering from mild CHF (NYHA class I and II), labeled as LRPs and 32 data of patients suffering from severe CHF (NYHA class III and IV), labeled as HRPs. A K-nearest neighbor classifier was used to evaluate the performance of feature set in the classification. Moreover, to reduce the number of features as well as the overlap of the samples of two classes in feature space, we used generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) as a feature extraction method. By applying GDA to the discriminative nonlinear features, we achieved sensitivity and specificity of 100% having the least number of features. Finally, the results were compared with other similar conducted studies regarding the performance of feature selection procedure and classifier besides the number of features used in training.

  20. Protective Effect of Long-Term CPAP Therapy on Cognitive Performance in Elderly Patients with Severe OSA: The PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Dauphinot, Virginie; Saint Martin, Magali; Tardy, Magali; Gonthier, Régis; Barthelemy, Jean Claude; Roche, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) leads to a deterioration in cognitive functions, with regard to memory and executive functions. However, few studies have investigated the impact of treatment on these cognitive functions in elderly subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in a large cohort of subjects aged 65 years or older (the PROOF cohort). Subjects were not diagnosed or treated for OSA. Subjects underwent a polygraphic recording. Cognitive performance was assessed in all OSA subjects at baseline and 10 years later, whether or not they were receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Results: A group of 126 patients were analyzed. Only 26% of them were treated, with therapy initiated at the discretion of the primary care physician. Among treated subjects, self-reported compliance with therapy was good (> 6 h/night on average), and 66% of them reported an improvement in their quality of life. Patients receiving CPAP treatment had a higher apneahypopnea index (p = 0.006), a higher oxygen desaturation index (p < 0.001), and experienced more pronounced daytime repercussions (p = 0.004). These patients showed a statistically significant improvement in mental agility (similarities test; p < 0.0001) and memory performance (Grober and Buschke delayed free recall; p = 0.02). Conclusion: CPAP treatment is associated with the maintenance of memory performance over time. Citation: Crawford-Achour E, Dauphinot V, Saint Martin M, Tardy M, Gonthier R, Barthelemy JC, Roche F. Protective effect of long-term CPAP therapy on cognitive performance in elderly patients with severe OSA: the PROOF study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):519–524. PMID:25700873

  1. Use of a mobile device by nursing home residents for long-term care comprehensive geriatric self-assessment: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fanpin; Chang, Polun; Hou, I-Ching; Tu, Ming-Hsiang; Lan, Chung-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Long-term-care comprehensive geriatric assessments, such as the Minimum Data Set 3.0, are used to evaluate the clinical, psychological, and personal status of residents in long-term-care nursing facilities. Nursing staff conducts assessment interviews, thereby increasing the workload of nurses and the cost of patient care. This study explored the ability of nursing home residents to use two different mobile devices for a geriatric self-assessment. Study participants were residents of long-term-care nursing homes. A modified Minimum Data Set 3.0 was converted to a format for use with a 6-inch mobile pad and a 3.7-inch mobile smartphone. The survey completion rate and the response time were measured. A Technology Assessment Model questionnaire analyzed the participants' experience. All participants were able to use a 6-inch pad, with an average completion rate of 92.9% and an average time for completion of 21 minutes. Only 20% of the participants could complete the assessment with the 3.7-inch smartphone. The participants found the 6-inch pad easier to use than the 3.7-inch smartphone. This exploratory study suggests that nursing home residents are able to use a mobile device to perform a geriatric self-assessment and delineates the importance of the ergonomics of the device.

  2. Including long-term biological index performance in a multi-criteria Decision Support System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, T.; Bowen, Z.; Bovee, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) was developed for the reservoirs operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation that incorporates biological resources in a palette of decision variables. A scoring technique was developed for the DSS to help to evaluate the long-term effects of proposed reservoir system operations on those variables. The biological component of the DSS was developed to help Bureau of Reclamation reservoir operators evaluate the effects of different scenarios of reservoir operations on a variety of water-related biological resources. In this DSS, Reclamation's Reservoir Operations Modeling System (ROMS) is linked to modules evaluating power production, flood control benefits, irrigation water deliveries, municipal and industrial water supplies, habitat for endemic fish communities, tailwater fisheries, nesting habitat for shorebirds, reservoir recreation, reservoir fisheries, and regeneration of riparian cottonwood forests. Operation scenarios generated in ROMS are scored for each decision variable by comparison to a target range of a decision variable for a reference location and time period. The score for a variable is calculated based on the ratio between the percent of time that target conditions are met under alternative operating conditions and under the reference condition, respectively. A scoring technique was developed that recognizes that under either natural or highly managed conditions the reference target is not met at all times. Higher scores are achieved for environmental decision variables by operations scenarios that approach natural seasonal and annual variability in habitat availability.

  3. Long term magnetic performance of the steel concrete dipoles in LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Billan, J.; Gourber, J.P.; Henrichsen, K.N.

    1994-07-01

    The steel-concrete cores of the LEP bending magnets were built of regularly spaced steel laminations, the spaces being filled with cement mortar. The effects of compressive stresses were studied on models and the long term behavior has been monitored during operation of the LEP machine over a period of four years. The requirements for stability and reproducibility of the magnetic field have increased in step with the development of the accelerator and its particle detectors. After the initial aging in the LEP tunnel, the most important parameter was the temperature coefficient. The temperatures of a number of magnet cores are therefore continuously monitored and corrections are applied to the indicated value of particle momentum as measured by NMR and a flip coil in a reference dipole connected in series with the bending magnets. This reference magnet is in turn calibrated periodically by a direct measurement of flux variations in a loop mounted in the lower poles of all bending magnets installed in the tunnel

  4. Use of non evaporable getter pumps to ensure long term performances of high quantum efficiency photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sertore, Daniele Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura; Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio

    2014-05-15

    High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20 l s{sup −1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8⋅10{sup −8} Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6 day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2⋅10{sup −9} Pa was achieved after a 2 day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.

  5. Assessing climate change and socio-economic uncertainties in long term management of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Dawson, Richard; Walsh, Claire; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Glenis, Vassilis

    2015-04-01

    Long term management of water resources is challenging for decision makers given the range of uncertainties that exist. Such uncertainties are a function of long term drivers of change, such as climate, environmental loadings, demography, land use and other socio economic drivers. Impacts of climate change on frequency of extreme events such as drought make it a serious threat to water resources and water security. The release of probabilistic climate information, such as the UKCP09 scenarios, provides improved understanding of some uncertainties in climate models. This has motivated a more rigorous approach to dealing with other uncertainties in order to understand the sensitivity of investment decisions to future uncertainty and identify adaptation options that are as far as possible robust. We have developed and coupled a system of models that includes a weather generator, simulations of catchment hydrology, demand for water and the water resource system. This integrated model has been applied in the Thames catchment which supplies the city of London, UK. This region is one of the driest in the UK and hence sensitive to water availability. In addition, it is one of the fastest growing parts of the UK and plays an important economic role. Key uncertainties in long term water resources in the Thames catchment, many of which result from earth system processes, are identified and quantified. The implications of these uncertainties are explored using a combination of uncertainty analysis and sensitivity testing. The analysis shows considerable uncertainty in future rainfall, river flow and consequently water resource. For example, results indicate that by the 2050s, low flow (Q95) in the Thames catchment will range from -44 to +9% compared with the control scenario (1970s). Consequently, by the 2050s the average number of drought days are expected to increase 4-6 times relative to the 1970s. Uncertainties associated with urban growth increase these risks further

  6. Long-term persistence of throughfall yield assessed by small footprint LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Sebastian; Levia, Delphis F.; Nieschulze, Jens; Schulz, Florian; Michalzik, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Throughfall (TF) represents an important relocation mechanism for the spatial distribution of intercepted precipitation and hence associated nutrients in wooded ecosystems. To date, a broad range of studies showed that the spatial patterns of TF distribution exhibit a pronounced temporal stability. These studies, however, have examined TF temporal stability at the tree scale or they were computed from event-based data. Here, we seek to evaluate the utility of temporally aggregated TF data at one, three, and six year intervals to determine whether such long-term TF monitoring data could serve as the basis for TF temporal persistence measurements for both beech and spruce forests. In addition, we examine the temporal persistence of TF in relation to small footprint LiDAR data. In context of the German Science Foundation (DFG) founded "Biodiversity Exploratories" (www.biodiversity-exploratories.de) we studied water-bound nutrient fluxes on a set of three differently managed forest plots (spruce plantation, age class forest beech, unmanaged beech) in central Germany throughout the vegetation periods of 2010 - 2015. For long-term monitoring purposes, TF samples were collected in biweekly routine sampling intervals using X-shaped transects of 20 bulk samplers (axis length 32 m) per experimental plot. In this study, we aim to identify canopy structural parameters explaining the temporal patterns observed. We therefore used small footprint LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data to calculate several canopy structural parameters on base of a gridded canopy model (grid cell resolution = 0.75 m). As LiDAR allows a three-dimensional description of the complex forest canopy structure it might help to extend our understanding of complex canopy processes influencing the spatial dispersal of precipitation water, and hence associated nutrient fluxes, in wooded ecosystems. Preliminary data analysis reveals that normalized TF values identify a number of TF collectors on each of the

  7. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)–or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)–to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability), desirability (value), and distinguishability (value range) of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water supply

  8. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Lisa; Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)-to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability), desirability (value), and distinguishability (value range) of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water supply planning

  9. A Long Term Assessment of the Clinical Efficacy of the Fiberotomy as it Relates to Rotational Relapse.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    341 IL (Chairperson of Supervisory Committee) 07 CProgram Authorized to Offer Degree Orthodontics LUJ -- Date October 13, 1983 83 12 14 008 DISTR i!iy...undertaken to assess the clinical efficacy of the fiberotomy as it relates to long term rotational stability of dentition. Forty-eight orthodontic patients...who had received conventional edgewise orthodontic treatment provided control and experimental samples consisting of 91 non-fiberotomized

  10. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program: Assessing Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms Exposed to Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Bioconcentration of Hydrophobic Chemicals by Fish ," Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 16, pp 242-257. Connolly, J. P., and Pedersen, C. J...Ocean Disposal of Wastes," Chapter 12 in Fate and Effects of Sediment-Bound Chemicals in Aauatic Systems , K. C. Dickson, A. W. Maki, and W. A. Brungs...AD-A239 551 LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF DREDGING{Tf I IIIID . OPERATIONS PROGRAM MISCELLANEOUS PAPER D-91-2 ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS

  11. Perceived barriers to effective job performance among nursing assistants in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Parmelee, Patricia A; Laszlo, Mary C; Taylor, Jo A

    2009-10-01

    This research explored perceived barriers to job performance among a national sample of nursing assistants (NAs). Specific objectives were (1) to clarify which of the problems identified by previous research are most troublesome for NAs, (2) to develop a reliable quantitative measure of perceived barriers to job performance, and (3) to test construct validity of the measure vis-à-vis work-related psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Nursing assistants attending the 2006 national conference of the National Association of Health Care Assistants completed a paper-and-pencil survey including 33 barriers to job performance and standardized measures of empowerment and job satisfaction. The barriers were also rated by a small sample of NAs at a single Georgia nursing home. Factor analysis of barriers items yielded a 30-item Nursing Assistants Barriers Scale (NABS) comprising 6 subscales: Teamwork, Exclusion, Respect, Workload, Work Stress, and New NAs. Lack of teamwork and exclusion from communication processes were rated as most problematic by both samples. The 6 NABS subscales were significantly and independently associated with empowerment and satisfaction; different barriers predicted the 2 constructs. This study is a first step toward quantitative assessment of NAs' perceptions of barriers to doing their jobs. Primary limitations are the select sample and use of a job satisfaction measure that may have artificially inflated correlations with the NABS. Nonetheless, results confirm the validity of the new scale as an operationalization of the barriers construct. The concept of barriers to job performance is a unique construct from work empowerment and satisfaction with one's job. Nursing assistants clearly differentiate various barriers, converging on workload and lack of teamwork as most problematic. Further work is needed to substantiate validity and reliability of the NABS, particularly with respect to NAs' actual job performance, intent to stay on the

  12. Perceived Barriers to Effective Job Performance Among Nursing Assistants in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Parmelee, Patricia A.; Laszlo, Mary C.; Taylor, Jo A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This research explored perceived barriers to job performance among a national sample of nursing assistants (NAs). Specific objectives were (a) to clarify which of the problems identified by previous research are most troublesome for NAs, (b) to develop a reliable quantitative measure of perceived barriers to job performance, and (c) to test construct validity of the measure vis-à-vis work-related psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Methods: Nursing assistants attending the 2006 national conference of the National Association of Health Care Assistants completed a paper-and-pencil survey including 33 barriers to job performance and standardized measures of empowerment and job satisfaction. The barries were also rated by a small sample of NAs at a single Georgia nursing home. Results: Factor analysis of barriers items yielded a 30-item Nursing Assistants Barriers Scale (NABS) comprising 6 subscales: Teamwork, Exclusion, Respect, Workload, Work Stress, and New NAs. Lack of teamwork and exclusion from communication processes were rated as most problematic by both samples. The 6 NABS subscales were significantly and independently associated with empowerment and satisfaction; different barriers predicted the two constructs. Discussion: This study is a first step toward quantitative assessment of NAs' perceptions of barriers to doing their jobs. Primary limitations are the select sample and use of a job satisfaction measure that may have artificially inflated correlations with the NABS. Nonetheless, results confirm the validity of the new scale as an operationalization of the barriers construct. Conclusion: The concept of barriers to job performance is a unique construct from work empowerment and satisfaction with one's job. Nursing assistants clearly differentiate various barriers, converging on workload and lack of teamwork as most problematic. Further work is needed to substantiate validity and reliability of the NABS, particularly with respect

  13. Long-term datasets in biodiversity research and monitoring: assessing change in ecological communities through time.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Baillie, Stephen R; Buckland, Stephen T; Dick, Jan McP; Elston, David A; Scott, E Marian; Smith, Rognvald I; Somerfield, Paul J; Watt, Allan D

    2010-10-01

    The growing need for baseline data against which efforts to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss can be judged highlights the importance of long-term datasets, some of which are as old as ecology itself. We review methods of evaluating change in biodiversity at the community level using these datasets, and contrast whole-community approaches with those that combine information from different species and habitats. As all communities experience temporal turnover, one of the biggest challenges is distinguishing change that can be attributed to external factors, such as anthropogenic activities, from underlying natural change. We also discuss methodological issues, such as false alerts and modifications in design, of which users of these data sets need to be aware. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term stability and risk assessment of lead in mill waste treated by soluble phosphate.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi; Yang, John

    2012-11-01

    In an effort to address public concerns of the long-term stability and ecological risk reduction of phosphate (P)-stabilized lead (Pb) in mine wastes, mill tailings located at the Jasper County Superfund Site of southwest Missouri, containing ~4000 mg Pb kg(-1), were treated in situ by phosphoric acid at three rates: 0; 7.5; and 10.0 g P kg(-1) soil. Field experiment consisted of 2- by 4-m plots arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates of each P level. Soil and plant samples were collected at a 3-month interval during five to six (5-6) years post treatments and analyzed for Pb bioaccessibility and leachability, microbial toxicity, Pb chemical fraction, and elemental composition of Pb solids, and Pb concentration in plant tissue. Results indicated that the P treatments significantly reduced bioaccessible and leachable Pb in the mill waste, and the reductions were maintained during the sampling period. Lead concentration in plant tissue was positively related to the Pb bioaccessibility. There was no significant toxicological effect of the treatments on soil microbial community. The treatment using 10 g P kg(-1) appeared to be most effective for overall risk reduction. The Pb stabilization and risk reduction by the P treatments were accomplished by the induced transformation of labile Pb species to relatively insoluble forms, probably pyromorphite-like minerals. This study illustrated that in situ Pb stabilization by soluble phosphate would be long-term and ecologically-safe, which could safeguard human health and ecosystem from Pb contamination in mining areas.

  15. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes; Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos; Azevedo, Clério Francisco; Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard; Taets, Gunnar de Cunto; do Nascimento, Emília Matos; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). Conclusion The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for

  16. The role of long-term memory in digit-symbol test performance in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R; Kaufman, A

    2009-03-01

    The psychological functions assessed by substitution tests, and the age-related performance decline, are not well understood. Here several aspects of long-term memory were manipulated across younger and older adults. A 45-page Digit-Symbol test was employed. Each page contained a 9-item digit symbol code-table and 9 response items. There were 9 study conditions with each condition deployed across 5 pages, or trials, of the test. The conditions were formed by crossing two within-subjects factors, each with 3 levels. The first factor, Digit Order, pertained to having the code table digits in numerical order vs. a pseudo-random order fixed across trials vs. a pseudo-random order that varied across trials. The second factor, Symbol Pairing, pertained to having a fixed digit-symbol pairing across trials vs. having a varying digit-symbol pairing across trials vs. having a novel set of 9 symbols introduced on each of the 5 trials. Including the additional factor, Age, resulted in a 2 x 3 x 3 mixed randomised block design. The older group was slowed, F(1, 22) = 17.267, p < .001, and overall-performance was poorer when the digits were arranged non-numerically, F(1,44) = 55.403, p < .001. An Age by Symbol-Order interaction indicated that use of novel symbols disadvantaged only the older participants, F(1, 44) = 6.577, p = .014. While there was no evidence that incidental paired-associate learning or spatial memory affect digit-symbol performance, symbol familiarity may be important to digit symbol test completion in older adults. The benefit of ordinally arranged digits in the coding table highlights a fundamental process difference between Digit-Symbol and Symbol-Digit test formats.

  17. [Assessment of immunoglobulins in a long-term non-interventional study (SIGNS Study). Rationale, design, and methods].

    PubMed

    Kirch, Wilhelm; Gold, Ralf; Hensel, Manfred; Fasshauer, Maria; Pittrow, David; Huscher, Dörte; Reiser, Marcel; Stangel, Martin; Baumann, Ulrich; Borte, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Non-modified human immunoglobulins (IgG) are standard of care for replacement therapy with primary (inherited) immunodeficiencies, and secondary immunodeficiencies due to multiple myeloma (MM) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Further, they have effectively been used as immunomodulation in neurological autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). A variety of IgG preparations for intravenous and subcutaneous use are available. In view of the broad range of indications, data on the utilization of the IgG preparations in everyday clinical care are of high clinical interest. Furthermore, data on the outcomes of IgG therapy outside the setting of controlled clinical trials are needed. Therefore, the SIGNS study (Assessment of Immunoglobulins in a Long-Term Non-Interventional Study) was set up as a non-interventional prospective open-label cohort study and was approved by the ethics committee. Led by an interdisciplinary steering board, hospital- and office-based investigators in 30-40 centers throughout Germany (neurologists, pediatricians, oncologists, other) will document approximately 300 patients, and will follow them for at least 2 years. Patients of both genders and any age are eligible if they have received, or are scheduled for, IgG therapy for primary or severe secondary immunodeficiency or neurological autoimmune diseases, and have provided written informed consent. No exclusion criteria have been defined in order to minimize selection bias. Long-term outcome data will be collected on patient characteristics in the various indications, drug utilization (e.g., treatment and dosing patterns), effectiveness (i.e., number of infections), tolerability, health-related quality of life, and economic variables (number of hospitalizations, sick-leave days, etc.) with the possibility to estimate direct costs. For the neurological autoimmune diseases

  18. Long-term nasogastric tube feeding in elderly stroke patients--an assessment of nutritional adequacy and attitudes to gastrostomy feeding in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zaherah Mohamed Shah, F; Suraiya, H-S; Poi, P J-H; Tan, K S; Lai, P S M; Ramakrishnan, K; Mahadeva, S

    2012-08-01

    Gastrostomy feeding is superior to long-term nasogastric (NG) feeding in patients with dysphagic stroke, but this practice remains uncommon in Asia. We sought to examine the nutritional adequacy of patients on long term NG feeding and identify barriers to gastrostomy feeding in these patients. A prospective comparison of subjective global assessment (SGA), and anthropometry (mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC; triceps skinfold thickness, TST) between elderly stroke patients on long-term NG feeding and matched controls was performed. Selected clinicians and carers of patients were interviewed to assess their knowledge and attitudes to gastrostomy feeding. 140 patients (70 NG, 70 oral) were recruited between September 2010 and February 2011. Nutritional status was poorer in the NG compared to the oral group (SGA grade C 38.6% NG vs 0% oral, p<0.001; TST males 10.7 + 3.7 mm NG vs 15.4 + 4.6 mm oral, p<0.001; MAMCmales 187.9 + 40.4 mm NG vs 228.7 + 31.8 mm oral, p<0.001). 45 (64.3%) patients on long-term NG feeding reported complications, mainly consisting of dislodgement (50.5%), aspiration of feed content (8.6%) and trauma from insertion (4.3%). Among 20 clinicians from relevant speciliaties who were interviewed, only 11 (55%) clinicians would routinely recommend a PEG. All neurologists (100%) would recommend a PEG, whilst the response was mixed among non-neurologists. Among carers, lack of information (47.1%) was the commonest reason stated for not choosing a PEG. Elderly patients with stroke on long term NG feeding have a poor nutritional status. Lack of recommendation by clinicians appears to be a major barrier to PEG feeding in these patients.

  19. Assessing Forest Carbon Response to Climate Change and Disturbances Using Long-term Hydro-climatic Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trettin, C.; Dai, Z.; Amatya, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term climatic and hydrologic observations on the Santee Experimental Forest in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina were used to estimate long-term changes in hydrology and forest carbon dynamics for a pair of first-order watersheds. Over 70 years of climate data indicated that warming in this forest area in the last decades was faster than the global mean; 35+ years of hydrologic records showed that forest ecosystem succession three years following Hurricane Hugo caused a substantial change in the ratio of runoff to precipitation. The change in this relationship between the paired watersheds was attributed to altered evapotranspiration processes caused by greater abundance of pine in the treatment watershed and regeneration of the mixed hardwood-pine forest on the reference watershed. The long-term records and anomalous observations are highly valuable for reliable calibration and validation of hydrological and biogeochemical models capturing the effects of climate variability. We applied the hydrological model MIKESHE that showed that runoff and water table level are sensitive to global warming, and that the sustained warming trends can be expected to decrease stream discharge and lower the mean water table depth. The spatially-explicit biogeochemical model Forest-DNDC, validated using biomass measurements from the watersheds, was used to assess carbon dynamics in response to high resolution hydrologic observation data and simulation results. The simulations showed that the long-term spatiotemporal carbon dynamics, including biomass and fluxes of soil carbon dioxide and methane were highly regulated by disturbance regimes, climatic conditions and water table depth. The utility of linked-modeling framework demonstrated here to assess biogeochemical responses at the watershed scale suggests applications for assessing the consequences of climate change within an urbanizing forested landscape. The approach may also be applicable for validating large

  20. Assessing Watershed-Scale, Long-Term Hydrologic Impacts of Land-Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra; Harbor, Jon; Engel, Bernie; Grove, Matt

    2000-12-01

    Land-use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, has a significant impact on water resources. This includes impacts on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, which is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the United States. Traditional hydrologic models focus on estimating peak discharges and NPS pollution from high-magnitude, episodic storms and successfully address short-term, local-scale surface water management issues. However, runoff from small, low-frequency storms dominates long-term hydrologic impacts, and existing hydrologic models are usually of limited use in assessing the long-term impacts of land-use change. A long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model has been developed using the curve number (CN) method. Long-term climatic records are used in combination with soils and land-use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. The model is linked to a geographic information system (GIS) for convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and advanced visualization of model results. The L-THIA/NPS GIS model was applied to the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Historical land-use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land-use change in the watershed and to assess impacts on annual average runoff and NPS pollution from the watershed and its five subbasins. For the entire watershed between 1973 and 1991, an 18% increase in urban or impervious areas resulted in an estimated 80% increase in annual average runoff volume and estimated increases of more than 50% in annual average loads for lead, copper, and zinc. Estimated nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) loads decreased by 15% mainly because of loss of agricultural areas. The L-THIA/NPS GIS model is a powerful tool for identifying environmentally sensitive areas in terms of NPS pollution potential and for evaluating alternative land use scenarios for NPS

  1. Long-term performance of passive materials for removal of ozone from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Cros, C J; Morrison, G C; Siegel, J A; Corsi, R L

    2012-02-01

    The health effects associated with exposure to ozone range from respiratory irritation to increased mortality. In this paper, we explore the use of three green building materials and an activated carbon (AC) mat that remove ozone from indoor air. We studied the effects of long-term exposure of these materials to real environments on ozone removal capability and pre- and post-ozonation emissions. A field study was completed over a 6-month period, and laboratory testing was intermittently conducted on material samples retrieved from the field. The results show sustained ozone removal for all materials except recycled carpet, with greatest ozone deposition velocity for AC mat (2.5-3.8 m/h) and perlite-based ceiling tile (2.2-3.2 m/h). Carbonyl emission rates were low for AC across all field sites. Painted gypsum wallboard and perlite-based ceiling tile had similar overall emission rates over the 6-month period, while carpet had large initial emission rates of undesirable by-products that decayed rapidly but remained high compared with other materials. This study confirms that AC mats and perlite-based ceiling tile are viable surfaces for inclusion in buildings to remove ozone without generating undesirable by-products. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS The use of passive removal materials for ozone control could decrease the need for, or even render unnecessary, active but energy consuming control solutions. In buildings where ozone should be controlled (high outdoor ozone concentrations, sensitive populations), materials specifically designed or selected for removing ozone could be implemented, as long as ozone removal is not associated with large emissions of harmful by-products. We find that activated carbon mats and perlite-based ceiling tiles can provide substantial, long-lasting, ozone control.

  2. Performance of multilayer optical coatings under long-term 532nm laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulios, D.; Konoplev, O.; Chiragh, F.; Vasilyev, A.; Stephen, M.; Strickler, K.

    2013-11-01

    The effects of long-term exposure to high intensity 532 nm radiation on various dielectric-coated optics are studied. To investigate potential photodarkening effects on optical surfaces, an accelerated life test platform was constructed where optics were exposed to 532 nm radiation from a short-pulse, high repetition rate fiber amplifier at total doses up to 1 trillion shots. The first run of trillion-shot tests were conducted on e-beam deposited and ion beam sputtering (IBS) coated high reflecting mirrors with onsurface intensities ranging from 1.0-1.4 GW/cm2. It was found that the e-beam coated mirrors failed catastrophically at less than 150 billion shots, while the IBS coated mirror was able to complete the trillionshot test with no measurable loss of reflectivity. Profiling the IBS mirror surface with a high-resolution white light interferometer post-irradiation revealed a ~10 nm high photocontamination deposit at the irradiation site that closely matched the intensity profile of the laser spot. Trillion-shot surface exposure tests were also conducted at multiple surface sites of an LBO frequency doubling crystal at ~1.5 GW/cm2 at multiple surface sites. The transmitted power and on-surface beam size were monitored throughout the tests, and periodic measurements of the beam quality and waist location of the transmitted light were also made using an M2 meter. No changes in transmitted power or M2 were observed in any of the tests, but 3D surface profiling revealed laser-induced contamination deposits at each site tested.

  3. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-08-05

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures.

  4. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    PubMed Central

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures. PMID:26251898

  5. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue - a quality assessment of water content and thallium binding.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Adil; Faustino, Patrick J; Khan, Mansoor A; Yang, Yongsheng

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue (PB) drug product (DP) and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) under laboratory storage conditions by monitoring the loss in water content and the corresponding change of the in vitro thallium binding capacity that represents product performance. The bound water content and the in vitro thallium binding capacity of PB DPs and APIs were measured in 2003 and 2013, respectively. Water content, a critical quality attribute that directly correlates to the thallium (Tl) binding capacity was measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thallium binding study was conducted by testing PB in buffered solutions over the human gastrointestinal pH range with thallium concentrations ranging from 600 to 1,500 ppm. Samples were incubated at physiological temperature of 37°C in a shaking water bath to mimic gastric flux and intestinal transport. The binding equilibrium was reached at 24h. Following incubation, each sample was filtered and the free thallium was analyzed using a validated inductively coupled plasma spectroscopic method (ICP). The Langmuir isotherm was plotted to calculate maximum binding capacity (MBC). Compared with 2003, the water content of DP-1 decreased by about 14.1% (from 15.6 to 13.4 mol), and the MBC of DP-1 decreased by about 12.5% (from 714 to 625 mg/g) at pH 7.5. When low concentration of thallium (600 ppm) was used at pH 7.5, the Tl binding remained comparable for both API-1 (286 vs 276 mg/g) and DP-1 (286 vs 268 mg/g). Similarly, the Tl binding remained unchanged for both API-1 (237 vs 255 mg/g) and DP-1 (234 vs 236 mg/g) at pH 5.0. However, at pH 1.0 the binding was reduced 32.3% and 25.9% for API-1 and DP-1, respectively. Since the majority of binding takes place in the upper GI tract where pH around 5 can be expected, and therefore, the Tl binding capacity of PB should be comparable for new and aged samples. The findings that Tl binding changes with the water

  6. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  7. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-07-16

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  8. Accelerated ageing of an EAF black slag by carbonation and percolation for long-term behaviour assessment.

    PubMed

    Gurtubay, L; Gallastegui, G; Elias, A; Rojo, N; Barona, A

    2014-07-01

    The efficient reuse of industrial by-products, such as the electric arc furnace (EAF) black slag, is still hindered by concern over their long-term behaviour in outdoor environments. The aim of this study was to develop an accelerated ageing method to simulate the long-term natural carbonation of EAF slag exposed to the elements. The degree of carbonation achieved in a freshly produced slag after accelerated ageing and in a slag used on a fifteen-year-old unpaved road was very similar. The influence of particle size on accelerated carbonation was assessed, with it being concluded that the slag sample with a particle size bigger than 5-6 mm underwent slight carbonation over time when it was exposed to CO2. The accelerated ageing procedure based on percolating a previously carbonated water solution through the slag column allowed gradual leaching with simulated acid rain, as well as providing information about the gradual and total chemical release from the slag. Three classification groups were established according to the release rate of the determined elements. The joint use of the accelerated carbonation method and the percolation test is proposed as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment concerning the long-term air exposure of EAF black slag. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of long-term erosion in a mountain vineyard, Aosta Valley (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Zecca, Odoardo; Barmaz, Andrea; Godone, Franco; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    Tillage and chemical weeding are common soil management techniques adopted in mountain vineyards, with high slope gradient, to maintain bare soil. Both techniques exposes the soil to degradation, favoring runoff and soil losses, that may cause relevant on-site and off-site damage. Steep mountain slopes makes optimum conditions for grape-growing. In the mountain region of Aosta Valley, NW Italy, the vineyards were, in the past, traditionally grown on terraces supported by dry stone walls. Since the 1960s the plantation of vines in the direction of the slope became more and more widespread, also on very steep slopes. Generally, no particular measure to channel and control surface water is adopted in this area due to the low rainfall (560 mm/year). Nevertheless in steep mountain slope rainfall events can cause important runoff erosion. In order to evaluate the long-term effect of vineyard management techniques on soil erosion, a study was carried out on a mountain slope vineyard located near Aosta, at about 900 m above the sea level. The vineyard was planted at the end of 1960s and is managed by the Institut Agricole Régional. The rows are accommodated oriented along the slope, which is about 45%. The inter-rows' soil management of the vineyard included chemical weeding and, in first year after plantation, the adoption of irrigation (by fixed overhead sprinklers) and hilling-up/taking-out the soil around the vine plants, to protect them from cold weather. The long-term soil erosion rate was determined adopting the technique of botanical benchmark (Casalí et al.,2009). The grafting callus was used as a marker to identify the paleo-surface at the time of planting. A detailed topographic survey was carried out to determine the present surface of the vineyard while the current position of the grafting callus was recorded for a number of plants. The original position of the callus was estimated by data obtained by farmers and by a survey on reference vineyards. Two

  10. Long-term compliance with salt restriction assessed using the spot urine method in Japanese cardiology outpatients.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Shinichi; Sadanaga, Tsuneaki; Mitamura, Hideo; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term compliance with salt restriction in Japanese cardiology outpatients assessed by spot urine measurements. A total of 466 patients (72 ± 10 years old, 216 females) who visited a cardiology outpatient clinic and were followed for at least 1 year were included in this study. Daily dietary salt intake was estimated based on the sodium and creatinine concentrations determined by spot urine at the time of enrollment, during an 8-26 week follow-up and at a long-term follow-up (>1 year). The average follow-up duration was 2.2 ± 0.6 (1.0-3.4) years after enrollment, and spot urines were collected 5.2 ± 2.8 times after 1 year. The baseline estimated salt excretion was 9.6 ± 2.7 g per day, which was reduced to 8.7 ± 2.3 g per day (P<0.01) at 8-26 weeks and remained unchanged at the long-term follow-up (8.9 ± 2.0 g per day, P = 0.36 vs. 8-26 weeks, P < 0.01 vs. baseline). The percent of patients who achieved an average salt excretion<6.0 g per day was unchanged from baseline (6.9% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.61). Among several variables (gender, age, body weight, salt excretion at enrollment) that might affect the incidence of salt excretion <6.0 g per day, salt excretion at baseline was the only determinant of successful salt restriction (P<0.01). In conclusion, compliance with salt restriction, assessed using a spot urine method, was maintained over the long term; however, achieving salt reduction to the level recommended by the guidelines remains a challenge.

  11. Optimizing Eating Performance for Older Adults With Dementia Living in Long-term Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Galik, Elizabeth; Boltz, Marie; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Review of research to date has been focusing on maintaining weight and nutrition with little attention on optimizing eating performance. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on eating performance for older adults with dementia in long-term care (LTC). A systematic review was performed. Five databases including Pubmed, Medline (OVID), EBM Reviews (OVID), PsychINFO (OVID), and CINAHL (EBSCOHost) were searched between January 1980 and June 2014. Keywords included dementia, Alzheimer, feed(ing), eat(ing), mealtime(s), oral intake, autonomy, and intervention. Intervention studies that optimize eating performance and evaluate change of self-feeding or eating performance among older adults (≥65 years) with dementia in LTC were eligible. Studies were screened by title and abstract, and full texts were reviewed for eligibility. Eligible studies were classified by intervention type. Study quality was accessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, and level of evidence using the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence. Eleven intervention studies (five randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) were identified, and classified into four types: training program, mealtime assistance, environmental modification, and multicomponent intervention. The quality of the 11 studies was generally moderate (four studies were rated as strong, four moderate, and three weak in quality), with the main threats as weak designs, lack of blinding and control for confounders, and inadequate psychometric evidence for measures. Training programs targeting older adults (Montessori methods and spaced retrieval) demonstrated good evidence in decreasing feeding difficulty. Mealtime assistance offered by nursing staff (e.g., verbal prompts and cues, positive reinforcement, appropriate praise and encouragement) also showed effectiveness in improving eating performance. This review provided preliminary support for using training and mealtime

  12. The significance of agricultural vs. natural ecosystem pathways in temperate climates in assessments of long-term radiological impact.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Richard; Albrecht, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in performance assessment biosphere models have begun to emphasise the importance of natural accumulation pathways. In contrast to the agricultural pathways, the database for natural ecosystem pathways is less well developed, leading to a mismatch in quality of representations of the two types of system. At issue is the lack of reliable soil-plant and animal ingestion transfer factors for key radionuclides in natural ecosystems. The relative importance of the agricultural vs. natural ecosystem pathways is investigated here, in the context of a temperate site in present day, Eastern France. The BIOMASS Candidate Critical Group (CCG) methodology has been applied to map a set of eight candidate critical groups derived from the present-day societal context onto physical locations within a simple model of a river catchment system. The overall assessment model has been implemented using the Aquabios code. Annual individual dose to each of the CCGs has been calculated for each of the key radionuclides (79Se, 94Nb, 99Tc, 129I, 135Cs and 237Np) released to the valley aquifer and river. In addition to the traditional agricultural pathways, lifestyle groups exploiting natural habitats are explicitly addressed. Results show the susceptibility of different candidate critical groups to different radionuclides. A reference database typical of those employed in long-term performance assessment models is employed. Doses from external exposure (94Nb) and dust inhalation (237Np) are shown to dominate agricultural food consumption by factors of more than six, but, with the reference data set, foodstuffs obtained from natural ecosystems do not contribute significantly to critical group dose and, at most, show similar exposures to the agricultural pathways. This may lead to the conclusion that natural food can be ruled out of consideration in performance assessment models. However, systematic parametric sensitivity studies carried out on soil-plant and animal

  13. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  14. Observations from Long-Term Performance Monitoring of the TOPEX Radar Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1998-01-01

    From its August 1992 launch to the present, we have performed performance analysis and engineering assessment for the TOPEX radar altimeter. We continually update databases containing: (1) on-board engineering parameters such as temperatures, voltages, and currents; (2) internal calibration mode indications of bias changes in range and power estimates; and (3) global over-ocean averages of geophysical quantities such as significant waveheight (SWH) and ocean surface radar backscattering cross-section (sigmaO). For some time now we have seen an apparent increase in the TOPEX cycle-average SWH, amounting now to an increase of about 10% from our earlier mission value of about 2.8 m. Recently several investigators have reported that the TOPEX SWH is increasing relative to ERS-2 and to ocean buoy measurements. We examined the past six years of waveform data from an internal calibration mode (Cal 1) which samples the altimeter's point target response (ptr), and found that the ptr sidelobes are apparently greater now than at start of mission. Modeling studies indicate that the sidelobe enhancement can account for most of the increase in the TOPEX SWH estimate; that is, the SWH increase is not real but result of some drift within the altimeter. Our modeling indicates that the TOPEX range estimates will change less than a centimeter for ptr changes seen to date. An approximate recipe for correcting the TOPEX SWH values will be made available on our web site (http://topex.wffnasa.gov/). We emphasize that a radar altimeter is a complex system requiring continuing calibration and monitoring throughout its entire lifetime.

  15. The Long-term Performance of NOAA's Operational Open Ocean Tsunameter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, J.; Bouchard, R. H.; Petraitis, D. C.; Rutledge, T. M.; Boudreaux, T. J.; Robbie, M. D.; Yarborough, S.; Fornea, G.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has operated and maintained the full 39-station array of open ocean tsunameters since 2008 using the second generation Deep-ocean Reporting and Assessment of Tsunamis technology. The array provides real-time, ocean bottom measurements to Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) located in Hawai'i and Alaska. These measurements aid them in detecting the presence or absence of tsunamis in the open ocean and in determining the essential characteristics of a tsunami to support the TWC. Thirty-two of the stations span the Pacific Ocean, while seven are located in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. The sensors are located on the ocean floor to depths of 6000 m and the system must deliver measurements from that depth to the TWCs in 3 minutes or less. These vast horizontal and vertical distances and the often extreme conditions of the open ocean raise considerable challenges in maintaining necessary and sufficient measurements to support the TWCs. To support this effort, NDBC aims to maintain and generally achieves a goal of 80% real-time data availability. Data availability is the percentage of measurements received versus the number of expected measurements. Using seven years of data we examine operational performance parameters such as real-time and retrospective data availability and tsunami detection for trends, patterns, and the factors affecting performance and reliability of the array. We will also discuss the initial results of the Field Evaluation of the 4th Generation technology.

  16. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Lennox/Honeywell (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Lennox/Honeywell double covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Lennox/Honeywell collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is steel with copper tubes bonded on the upper surface, and is coated with black chrome. Visual inspection of the collector indicated slight discoloration of the absorber plate. Results indicate that performance degradation had occurred. Absorptivity and/or transmissivity decreased as a result of the weathering.

  17. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Libbey-Owens-Ford (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Thermal performance tests were conducted on the Libbey-Owens-Ford liquid collector, following long term exposure to natural weathering conditions. Visual inspection of the collector, prior to the retest, indicated noticeable clouding of the inner cover glass, probably resulting from outgassing of the insulation. The absorber plate also showed some discoloration. The test results indicated that performance degradation had occurred at inlet temperatures significantly above ambient. The change in the slope of the efficiency curve, from the original data, is a direct indicator of an increase in the collector heat loss coefficient.

  18. Implementing structured functional assessments in general practice for persons with long-term sick leave: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Nina; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Hofoss, Dag; Brage, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing attention on functional assessments in medical and vocational rehabilitation requires a focus change for the general practitioners (GP) into paying attention to patient resources, possibilities and coping instead of symptoms, problems and limitations. The GPs report difficulties in performing the requested explicit functional assessments. The purpose of this study was to implement a structured method in general practice for assessing functional ability in persons with long-term sick leave. The study aim was to evaluate intervention effects on important GP parameters; knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy towards functional assessments and knowledge about patient work factors. Methods Fifty-seven GPs were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group GPs attended an introductory one-day work-shop and implemented structured functional assessments during an eight months intervention period. GP knowledge, GP attitudes, and GP self-efficacy towards functional assessments, as well as GP knowledge of patient work factors, were collected before, after and six months after the intervention period started. Evaluation score-sheets were filled in by both the intervention GPs and their patients immediately after the consultation to evaluate the GPs' knowledge of patient work factors. Results The intervention GPs reported increased knowledge (B: 0.56, 95% CI (0.19, 0.91)) and self-efficacy (B: 0.90, 95% CI (0.53, 1.26)) towards functional assessments, and increased knowledge about their patients' workplace (B: 0.75, 95% CI (0.35, 1.15)) and perceived stressors (B: 0.55, 95% CI (0.23, 0.88)) with lasting effects at the second follow-up. No intervention effect was seen in relation to GP attitudes. Both before and after the intervention, the GPs were most informed about physical stressors, and less about mental and work organisational stressors (Guttman's reproducibility coefficient: 0.95 and 1.00). After the consultation

  19. Resolution of the long-term performance issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.; Rucker, D.F.; Chaturvedi, L.

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geological repository for disposal of U.S. defense transuranic radioactive waste. Built and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), it is located in the Permian age salt beds in southeastern New Mexico at a depth of 655 m. Performance assessment for the repository's compliance with the 10,000-year containment standards was completed in 1996 and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified in 1998 that the repository meets compliance with the EPA standards 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) review of the DOE's application for certification identified a number of issues. These related to the scenarios, conceptual models, and values of the input parameters used in the calculations. It is expected that these issues will be addressed and resolved during the first 5-year recertification process that began with the first receipt of waste at WIPP on March 26, 1999, and scheduled to be completed in March 2004.

  20. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  1. Etiology-specific assessment of predictors of long-term survival in chronic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franke, Jennifer; Zugck, Christian; Hochadel, Matthias; Hack, Anna; Frankenstein, Lutz; Zhao, Jingting Désirée; Ehlermann, Philipp; Nelles, Manfred; Zeymer, Uwe; Winkler, Ralph; Zahn, Ralf; Katus, Hugo A; Senges, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term mortality, specific for the underlying etiology of chronic systolic heart failure (CHF). Between 1995 and 2009 baseline characteristics, treatment and follow-up data from 2318 CHF-patients due to ischemic (ICM; 1100 patients) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM; 1218 patients) were prospectively compared. To calculate hazard ratios with 95%-confidence intervals cox regression was used. We respectively established etiology-specific multivariable models of independent prognostic factors. During the follow-up period of up to 14.8 years (mean = 53.1 ± 43.5 months; 10,264 patient-years) 991 deaths (42.8%) occurred. In the ICM-cohort, 5-year-survival was 53.4% (95% CI: 49.9-56.7%), whereas in DCM-patients it was higher (68.1% (95% CI: 65.1-71.0%)). Age, ejection fraction, or hyponatremia were independent predictors for mortality in both cohorts, whereas diabetes, COPD, atrial fibrillation and a heart rate of ≥ 80/min carried independent predictive power only in ICM-patients. This study demonstrates the disparity of prognostic value of clinically derived risk factors between the two main causes of CHF. The effects of covariables in DCM-patients were lower, suggesting a less modifiable disease through risk factors considering mortality risk. An etiology-specific prognostic model may improve accuracy of survival estimations in CHF.

  2. Long-Term Stability Assessment of Sonoran Desert for Vicarious Calibration of GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Liang, S.; Cao, C.

    2012-12-01

    Vicarious calibration refers to calibration techniques that do not depend on onboard calibration devices. Although sensors and onboard calibration devices undergo rigorous validation processes before launch, performance of sensors often degrades after the launch due to exposure to the harsh space environment and the aging of devices. Such in-flight changes of devices can be identified and adjusted through vicarious calibration activities where the sensor degradation is measured in reference to exterior calibration sources such as the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth surface. Sonoran desert is one of the best calibration sites located in the North America that are available for vicarious calibration of GOES-R satellite. To accurately calibrate sensors onboard GOES-R satellite (e.g. advanced baseline imager (ABI)), the temporal stability of Sonoran desert needs to be assessed precisely. However, short-/mid-term variations in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance caused by meteorological variables such as water vapor amount and aerosol loading are often difficult to retrieve, making the use of TOA reflectance time series for the stability assessment of the site. In this paper, we address this issue of normalization of TOA reflectance time series using a time series analysis algorithm - seasonal trend decomposition procedure based on LOESS (STL) (Cleveland et al, 1990). The algorithm is basically a collection of smoothing filters which leads to decomposition of a time series into three additive components; seasonal, trend, and remainder. Since this non-linear technique is capable of extracting seasonal patterns in the presence of trend changes, the seasonal variation can be effectively identified in the time series of remote sensing data subject to various environmental changes. The experiment results performed with Landsat 5 TM data show that the decomposition results acquired for the Sonoran Desert area produce normalized series that have much less uncertainty than those

  3. Assessing the associative deficit of older adults in long-term and short-term/working memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Older adults exhibit a deficit in associative long-term memory relative to younger adults. However, the literature is inconclusive regarding whether this deficit is attenuated in short-term/working memory. To elucidate the issue, three experiments assessed younger and older adults' item and interitem associative memory and the effects of several variables that might potentially contribute to the inconsistent pattern of results in previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants were tested on item and associative recognition memory with both long-term and short-term retention intervals in a single, continuous recognition paradigm. There was an associative deficit for older adults in the short-term and long-term intervals. Using only short-term intervals, Experiment 2 utilized mixed and blocked test designs to examine the effect of test event salience. Blocking the test did not attenuate the age-related associative deficit seen in the mixed test blocks. Finally, an age-related associative deficit was found in Experiment 3, under both sequential and simultaneous presentation conditions. Even while accounting for some methodological issues, the associative deficit of older adults is evident in short-term/working memory.

  4. Long term prostaglandin based-protocols improve the reproductive performance after timed artificial insemination in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance of ewes synchronized with two doses of prostaglandin F2α (PG) at different intervals and inseminated at a fixed time. During the breeding season (April to June), 370 multiparous Corriedale ewes were assigned to five groups according to body condition score and body weight, and synchronized with two doses of PG administered 7, 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart (groups PG7, PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16; n = 73, 76, 74, 72, 75; respectively). Cervical timed artificial insemination (Day 0) was performed at 48 ± 1.0 h (group PG7) or 56 ± 1.0 h (groups PG10, PG12, PG14 and PG16) after the second PG injection, with diluted fresh semen pooled from six adult rams. The percentage of ovulating ewes after the second PG injection and the ovulation rate (number of corpus luteum/ovulating ewes) were assessed on Day 10 by trans-rectal ultrasonography. The rate of non return to service (ewes not returning to service/inseminated ewes × 100; NRR-21) was evaluated using painted vasectomized rams. Pregnancy rate (pregnant ewes/inseminated ewes × 100) and prolificacy (foetuses/pregnant ewes) were determined on Day 60 by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Higher NRR-21 and pregnancy rates was observed in groups PG12 (46.0%, 46.0%), PG14 (59.7%, 56.9%) and PG16 (58.7%, 56.0%) compared to PG7 (30.1%, 28.8%) and PG10 (30.3%, 30.3%; respectively P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the percentage of ovulating ewes, ovulation rate and prolificacy among groups (P > 0.05). Under the condition of this trial, 12, 14 or 16 days interval between PG injections enhances the pregnancy rate of ewes at cervical timed artificial insemination with fresh semen.

  5. The Seniors’ Outdoor Survey: An Observational Tool for Assessing Outdoor Environments at Long-Term Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Rodiek, Susan; Nejati, Adeleh; Bardenhagen, Eric; Lee, Chanam; Senes, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To describe the development and psychometric testing of the Seniors’ Outdoor Survey (SOS), an instrument for evaluating how well the outdoor space in a long-term care setting supports the preferences and outdoor usage of residents. Design and Methods: Content validity of the main SOS items initially was based on relevant literature and preliminary studies in diverse long-term care settings. After conducting a multiregional pilot study with 152 outdoor spaces at 68 assisted living facilities, the instrument was substantially revised and tested for interrater and test–retest reliability with 22 outdoor spaces at 12 long-term care settings, using 2 raters. Validity was examined using content analysis of resident survey responses (N = 1,128) from the multiregional study and specific item validation by subject matter experts (N = 53). Results: The final instrument contains 60 ratable items organized in 5 domains: access to nature (14 items), outdoor comfort and safety (15 items), walking and outdoor activities (14 items), indoor–outdoor connection (11 items), and connection to the world (6 items). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates of interrater reliability were .91 for the overall instrument, ranging from .83 to .98 for the 5 domains. Interrater reliability (ICC) was above .70 for more than 79% of individual items. Test–retest reliability (ICC) was .92, ranging from .81 to .98 for domains. Implications: The SOS tool fills a gap in the available environmental assessment instruments, providing a reliable way for researchers, providers, and designers to evaluate and compare the supportive potential of outdoor spaces for long-term care residents. PMID:24939999

  6. Long-term nutritional assessment of patients with severe short bowel syndrome managed with home enteral nutrition and oral intake.

    PubMed

    Chaer Borges, V; Teixeira da Silva, M de L; Gonçalves Dias, M C; González, M C; Linetzky Waitzberg, D

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is used to control the nutritional state after severe intestinal resections. Whenever possible, enteral nutrition (EN) is used to promote intestinal rehabilitation and reduce PN dependency. Our aim is to verify whether EN + oral intake (OI) in severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) surgical adult patients can maintain adequate nutritional status in the long term. This longitudinal retrospective study included 10 patients followed for 7 post-operative years. Body mass index (BMI), percentage of involuntary loss of usual body weight (UWL), free fat mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) composition assessed by bioelectric impedance, and laboratory tests were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 months after surgery. Energy and protein offered in HPN and at long term by HEN+ oral intake (OI), was evaluated at the same periods. The statistical model of generalized estimating equations with p < 0,05 was used. With long term EN + OI there was a progressive increase in the UWL, a decrease in BMI, FFM, and FM (p < 0,05). PN weaning was possible in eight patients. Infection due to central venous catheter (CVC) contamination was the most common complication (1.2 episodes CVC/patient/year). There was an increase in energy and protein intake supply provided by HEN+OI (p < 0.05). All patients survived for at least 2 years, seven for 5 years and six for 7 years of follow-up. In the long term SBS surgical adult patients fed with HEN+OI couldn't maintain adequate nutritional status with loss of FM and FFM.

  7. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater.

  8. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  9. Geochemical modelling for predicting the long-term performance of zeolite-PRB to treat lead contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Nyarko, Franklin; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta; Malina, Grzegorz; Kasela, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb(2+)) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV=ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb(2+), considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca(2+) for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV=250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers.

  10. Geochemical modelling for predicting the long-term performance of zeolite-PRB to treat lead contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiri-Nyarko, Franklin; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta; Malina, Grzegorz; Kasela, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb2 +) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV = ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb2+, considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, and K+) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca2 + for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV = 250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers.

  11. Short-term versus long-term rainfall time series in the assessment of potable water savings by using rainwater in houses.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Enedir; Cardoso, Karla Albino; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini

    2012-06-15

    The main objective of this article is to assess the possibility of using short-term instead of long-term rainfall time series to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in houses. The analysis was performed considering rainfall data from 1960 to 1995 for the city of Santa Bárbara do Oeste, located in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The influence of the rainfall time series, roof area, potable water demand and percentage rainwater demand on the potential for potable water savings was evaluated. The potential for potable water savings was estimated using computer simulations considering a set of long-term rainfall time series and different sets of short-term rainfall time series. The ideal rainwater tank capacity was also assessed for some cases. It was observed that the higher the percentage rainwater demand and the shorter the rainfall time series, the larger the difference between the potential for potable water savings and the greater the variation in the ideal rainwater tank size. The sets of short-term rainfall time series considered adequate for different scenarios ranged from 1 to 13 years depending on the roof area, percentage rainwater demand and potable water demand. The main finding of the research is that sets of short-term rainfall time series can be used to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater, as the results obtained are similar to those obtained from the long-term rainfall time series.

  12. Surgical management of acromegaly: Long term functional outcome analysis and assessment of recurrent/residual disease

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Deepu; Das, Nitu K.; Sharma, Siddhiraj; Jindal, Yogesh; Jain, Vijendra K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Functional growth hormone producing adenomas have long-term deleterious effects on the visual apparatus, the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, and often predispose to malignancies. Since persistence of acromegaly affects outcome and quality of life, therapeutic interventions become mandatory. Aim: This study represents an analysis of long-term clinical and endocrinal outcome of 115 patients of acromegaly after surgical management. Setting and Design: Tertiary care retrospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients (male:female ratio: 1:1.09) with acromegalic features were studied. Apart from acromegalic features, their main clinical presentation also included headache, diminution of vision, field defects, ptosis, irregular menstruation, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Six of them presented with apoplexy. Their preoperative endocrinal evaluation included basal and suppressed growth hormone (GH), prolactin and thyroid levels. On the basis of axial and coronal CT scan or multiplanar MR imaging or both, the tumors were classified according to their suprasellar and parasellar extension (Hardy's grade). Transnasal trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) (n = 37) and sublabial, rhinoseptal TSS (n = 72) were the preferred approaches. Six patients with significant parasellar extensions underwent trans-cranial explorations. The patients were followed up at 6 and 12 weeks and then at 6 monthly intervals. Hormonal and CT/MR evaluation were also done. Attainment of random GH value less than 2.5 µg/L, and the nadir GH value after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) less than 1 µg/L were used as the criteria of cure. Findings: The patients were preoperatively in Hardy's tumor grade 0 (29), A (21), A+E (3), B (21), B+E (5), C (9), C+E (10), D (1) D+E (11), E (5), respectively. One hundred and one patients were available for follow-up (FU; median FU duration: 84 months; range: 6 to 132 months). Surgical cure was achieved

  13. Environmental assessment of energy production based on long term commercial willow plantations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Murphy, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The present paper analyzed the environmental assessment of short rotation willow plantations in Sweden based on the standard framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from the International Standards Organisation. The analysis is focused on two alternative management regimes for willow plantations dedicated to biomass production for energy purposes. The data used included the averages of a large sample of commercial plantations. One of the scenarios is carried out under nitrogen based fertilized conditions and the other under non-fertilized management with total biomass yields (dry weight) of 140t/ha and 86t/ha over a 21 and 22-year life time respectively. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of the potentials for abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition, an energy analysis was performed using the cumulative energy demand method (CED). The application of nitrogen based fertilizers allows an increase in the biomass yield per ha of up to 40% although the contributions to almost all impact categories, particularly the eutrophication potential and toxicity potential impact categories are also considerably higher. Conversely, due to the higher biomass yields achieved with fertilization of these willow plantations, that regime presents a better overall environmental profile in terms of energy yield and global warming potential.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Different Measurement Time Intervals on Observed Long-Term Wind Speed Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; McVicar, T.; Jerez, S.; Revuelto, J.; López Moreno, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    During the last two decades climate studies have reported a tendency toward a decline in measured near-surface wind speed in some regions of Europe, North America, Asia and Australia. This weakening in observed wind speed has been recently termed "global stilling", showing a worldwide average trend of -0.140 m s-1 dec-1 during last 50-years. The precise cause of the "global stilling" remains largely uncertain and has been hypothetically attributed to several factors, mainly related to: (i) an increasing surface roughness (i.e. forest growth, land use changes, and urbanization); (ii) a slowdown in large-scale atmospheric circulation; (iii) instrumental drifts and technological improvements, maintenance, and shifts in measurements sites and calibration issues; (iv) sunlight dimming due to air pollution; and (v) astronomical changes. This study proposed a novel investigation aimed at analyzing how different measurement time intervals used to calculate a wind speed series can affect the sign and magnitude of long-term wind speed trends. For instance, National Weather Services across the globe estimate daily average wind speed using different time intervals and formulae that may affect the trend results. Firstly, we carried out a comprehensive review of wind studies reporting the sign and magnitude of wind speed trend and the sampling intervals used. Secondly, we analyzed near-surface wind speed trends recorded at 59 land-based stations across Spain comparing monthly mean wind speed series obtained from: (a) daily mean wind speed data averaged from standard 10-min mean observations at 0000, 0700, 1300 and 1800 UTC; and (b) average wind speed of 24 hourly measurements (i.e., wind run measurements) from 0000 to 2400 UTC. Thirdly and finally, we quantified the impact of anemometer drift (i.e. bearing malfunction) by presenting preliminary results (1-year of paired measurements) from a comparison of one new anemometer sensor against one malfunctioned anenometer sensor due

  15. Assessing the Long-Term Impact of Drug Court Participation on Recidivism with Generalized Estimating Equations

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Koetse, Willem; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2007-01-01

    Drug courts are one of the most common strategies for dealing with the large proportion of criminal offenders who are drug-involved, yet methodological limitations limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many existing evaluations of their effectiveness. The current study examined the long-term impact of drug court participation compared to regular probation on the recidivism of 475 drug-involved offenders under supervision in Hillsborough County, Florida. Using a combination of self-reported data (collected through in-person interviews at baseline, i.e., the beginning of supervision) and administrative records, the study employed a repeated measures framework (examining five six-month time periods from baseline to 30 months post-baseline) and generalized estimating equations to compare the likelihood of being arrested between drug court participants and a matched sample of comparison offenders. The results indicate that participation in drug court was associated with a significant decrease in the likelihood of being arrested in the 12 to 18 months post-baseline time period. Although the drug court effect was somewhat delayed (it was not significant prior to 12 months) and short-lived (it was not significant after 18 months), the fact that significant program effects were observed during a time period that coincides with the conclusion of drug court participation for graduates and a time period well beyond initial program exposure, suggests that drug court participants are more likely than comparable offenders not exposed to drug court to remain arrest free when no longer under community supervision. PMID:17604918

  16. Long-term macrobioerosion in the Mediterranean Sea assessed by micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, Claudia; Titschack, Jürgen; Schönberg, Christine Hanna Lydia; Ehrig, Karsten; Boos, Karin; Baum, Daniel; Illerhaus, Bernhard; Asgaard, Ulla; Granville Bromley, Richard; Freiwald, André; Wisshak, Max

    2016-06-01

    Biological erosion is a key process for the recycling of carbonate and the formation of calcareous sediments in the oceans. Experimental studies showed that bioerosion is subject to distinct temporal variability, but previous long-term studies were restricted to tropical waters. Here, we present results from a 14-year bioerosion experiment that was carried out along the rocky limestone coast of the island of Rhodes, Greece, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, in order to monitor the pace at which bioerosion affects carbonate substrate and the sequence of colonisation by bioeroding organisms. Internal macrobioerosion was visualised and quantified by micro-computed tomography and computer-algorithm-based segmentation procedures. Analysis of internal macrobioerosion traces revealed a dominance of bioeroding sponges producing eight types of characteristic Entobia cavity networks, which were matched to five different clionaid sponges by spicule identification in extracted tissue. The morphology of the entobians strongly varied depending on the species of the producing sponge, its ontogenetic stage, available space, and competition by other bioeroders. An early community developed during the first 5 years of exposure with initially very low macrobioerosion rates and was followed by an intermediate stage when sponges formed large and more diverse entobians and bioerosion rates increased. After 14 years, 30 % of the block volumes were occupied by boring sponges, yielding maximum bioerosion rates of 900 g m-2 yr-1. A high spatial variability in macrobioerosion prohibited clear conclusions about the onset of macrobioerosion equilibrium conditions. This highlights the necessity of even longer experimental exposures and higher replication at various factor levels in order to better understand and quantify temporal patterns of macrobioerosion in marine carbonate environments.

  17. Assessing Multivariate Constraints to Evolution across Ten Long-Term Avian Studies

    PubMed Central

    Teplitsky, Celine; Tarka, Maja; Møller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Balbontín, Javier; Burke, Terry A.; Doutrelant, Claire; Gregoire, Arnaud; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis; Gustafsson, Lars; de Lope, Florentino; Marzal, Alfonso; Mills, James A.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Yarrall, John W.; Charmantier, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background In a rapidly changing world, it is of fundamental importance to understand processes constraining or facilitating adaptation through microevolution. As different traits of an organism covary, genetic correlations are expected to affect evolutionary trajectories. However, only limited empirical data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate the extent to which multivariate constraints affect the rate of adaptation, focusing on four morphological traits often shown to harbour large amounts of genetic variance and considered to be subject to limited evolutionary constraints. Our data set includes unique long-term data for seven bird species and a total of 10 populations. We estimate population-specific matrices of genetic correlations and multivariate selection coefficients to predict evolutionary responses to selection. Using Bayesian methods that facilitate the propagation of errors in estimates, we compare (1) the rate of adaptation based on predicted response to selection when including genetic correlations with predictions from models where these genetic correlations were set to zero and (2) the multivariate evolvability in the direction of current selection to the average evolvability in random directions of the phenotypic space. We show that genetic correlations on average decrease the predicted rate of adaptation by 28%. Multivariate evolvability in the direction of current selection was systematically lower than average evolvability in random directions of space. These significant reductions in the rate of adaptation and reduced evolvability were due to a general nonalignment of selection and genetic variance, notably orthogonality of directional selection with the size axis along which most (60%) of the genetic variance is found. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic correlations can impose significant constraints on the evolution of avian morphology in wild populations. This could have important impacts on evolutionary

  18. Assessing the long-term species composition predicted by PrognAus.

    PubMed

    Huber, Markus O

    2010-01-25

    Tree growth models are supposed to contain stand growth laws as so called "emergent properties" which derive from interactions of individual-tree growth and mortality functions. This study investigates whether the evolving tree species composition in a long term simulation by the distance-independent tree growth model PrognAus matches the species composition of the potential natural vegetation type which is expected to occur if one refrains from further management interventions and major disturbances, climate change, and changes in site conditions can be excluded. For this purpose the development of 6933 sample plots of the Austrian National Forest Inventory was predicted for 2500 years. The resulting species proportions, derived from volume per hectare of 15 tree species or species groups, were used to classify every sample plot according to potential natural forest types, following a classification scheme based on expert knowledge. These simulated potential natural vegetation types were compared with expert reconstructions of the sample plots of the Austrian National Forest Inventory. A total of 5789 plots were actually classified with the scheme; in 33% of the cases the classification on the basis of the PrognAus-simulations was identical with the classification by the Austrian National Forest Inventory. A predominantly correct classification was achieved for the subalpine Picea abies-type and the Fagus sylvatica-type although PrognAus showed a tendency to overestimate the proportion of F. sylvatica and P. abies. Weaknesses in the ability to simulate forest types dominated by Quercus spp., Acer spp., and Pinus sylvestris were identified. This shortcoming might be caused by the mortality model which allows a larger diameter at breast height for F. sylvatica or by the ingrowth model whose terms for the consideration of inter-specific competition may lead to a disadvantage of Quercus spp., P. sylvestris, and Abies alba. Moreover, the ingrowth model might be

  19. Assessing the long-term species composition predicted by PrognAus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Markus O.

    2010-01-01

    Tree growth models are supposed to contain stand growth laws as so called “emergent properties” which derive from interactions of individual-tree growth and mortality functions. This study investigates whether the evolving tree species composition in a long term simulation by the distance-independent tree growth model PrognAus matches the species composition of the potential natural vegetation type which is expected to occur if one refrains from further management interventions and major disturbances, climate change, and changes in site conditions can be excluded. For this purpose the development of 6933 sample plots of the Austrian National Forest Inventory was predicted for 2500 years. The resulting species proportions, derived from volume per hectare of 15 tree species or species groups, were used to classify every sample plot according to potential natural forest types, following a classification scheme based on expert knowledge. These simulated potential natural vegetation types were compared with expert reconstructions of the sample plots of the Austrian National Forest Inventory. A total of 5789 plots were actually classified with the scheme; in 33% of the cases the classification on the basis of the PrognAus-simulations was identical with the classification by the Austrian National Forest Inventory. A predominantly correct classification was achieved for the subalpine Picea abies-type and the Fagus sylvatica-type although PrognAus showed a tendency to overestimate the proportion of F. sylvatica and P. abies. Weaknesses in the ability to simulate forest types dominated by Quercus spp., Acer spp., and Pinus sylvestris were identified. This shortcoming might be caused by the mortality model which allows a larger diameter at breast height for F. sylvatica or by the ingrowth model whose terms for the consideration of inter-specific competition may lead to a disadvantage of Quercus spp., P. sylvestris, and Abies alba. Moreover, the ingrowth model might be

  20. Long-Term Effects of Teacher Performance Pay: Experimental Evidence from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    While the idea of teacher performance-pay is increasingly making its way into policy, the evidence on the effectiveness of such programs is both limited and mixed. The central questions in the literature on teacher performance pay to date have been whether teacher performance pay based on test scores can improve student achievement, and whether…

  1. Multi-modal assessment of long-term erythropoietin treatment after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury in rat brain.

    PubMed

    van de Looij, Yohan; Chatagner, Alexandra; Quairiaux, Charles; Gruetter, Rolf; Hüppi, Petra S; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. In animal models of neonatal brain injury, exogenous EPO has been shown to reduce lesion size, improve structure and function. Experimental studies have focused on short course treatment after injury. Timing, dose and length of treatment in preterm brain damage remain to be defined. We have evaluated the effects of high dose and long-term EPO treatment in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in 3 days old (P3) rat pups using histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) as well as functional assessment with somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP). After HI, rat pups were assessed by MRI for initial damage and were randomized to receive EPO or vehicle. At the end of treatment period (P25) the size of resulting cortical damage and white matter (WM) microstructure integrity were assessed by MRI and cortical metabolism by MRS. Whisker elicited SEP were recorded to evaluate somatosensory function. Brains were collected for neuropathological assessment. The EPO treated animals did not show significant decrease of the HI induced cortical loss at P25. WM microstructure measured by diffusion tensor imaging was improved and SEP response in the injured cortex was recovered in the EPO treated animals compared to vehicle treated animals. In addition, the metabolic profile was less altered in the EPO group. Long-term treatment with high dose EPO after HI injury in the very immature rat brain induced recovery of WM microstructure and connectivity as well as somatosensory cortical function despite no effects on volume of cortical damage. This indicates that long-term high-dose EPO induces recovery of structural and functional connectivity despite persisting gross anatomical cortical alteration resulting from HI.

  2. Multi-Modal Assessment of Long-Term Erythropoietin Treatment after Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Quairiaux, Charles; Gruetter, Rolf; Hüppi, Petra S.; Sizonenko, Stéphane V.

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. In animal models of neonatal brain injury, exogenous EPO has been shown to reduce lesion size, improve structure and function. Experimental studies have focused on short course treatment after injury. Timing, dose and length of treatment in preterm brain damage remain to be defined. We have evaluated the effects of high dose and long-term EPO treatment in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in 3 days old (P3) rat pups using histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) as well as functional assessment with somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP). After HI, rat pups were assessed by MRI for initial damage and were randomized to receive EPO or vehicle. At the end of treatment period (P25) the size of resulting cortical damage and white matter (WM) microstructure integrity were assessed by MRI and cortical metabolism by MRS. Whisker elicited SEP were recorded to evaluate somatosensory function. Brains were collected for neuropathological assessment. The EPO treated animals did not show significant decrease of the HI induced cortical loss at P25. WM microstructure measured by diffusion tensor imaging was improved and SEP response in the injured cortex was recovered in the EPO treated animals compared to vehicle treated animals. In addition, the metabolic profile was less altered in the EPO group. Long-term treatment with high dose EPO after HI injury in the very immature rat brain induced recovery of WM microstructure and connectivity as well as somatosensory cortical function despite no effects on volume of cortical damage. This indicates that long-term high-dose EPO induces recovery of structural and functional connectivity despite persisting gross anatomical cortical alteration resulting from HI. PMID:24755676

  3. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Wout EL; Wind, Haije; van Dijk, Frank JH; Willems, Han HBM

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews are susceptible to bias. In the Netherlands three protocols have been developed to conduct these interviews. These protocols are expert- and practice-based. We studied to what extent these protocols are adhered to by practitioners. Methods We compared the protocols with one another and with the ICF and the biopsychosocial approach. The protocols describe semi-structured interviews with comparable but not identical topics. All protocols prescribe that the client's opinion on his capacity for work, and his arguments, need to be determined and assessed. We developed a questionnaire to elicit the adherence SIPs have to the protocols, their underlying principles and topics. We conducted a survey among one hundred fifty-five experienced SIPs in the Netherlands. Results Ninety-eight SIPs responded (64%). All respondents used some form of protocol, either one of the published protocols or their own mix. We found no significant relation between training and the use of a particular protocol. Ninety percent use a semi-structured interview. Ninety-five percent recognise having to verify what the claimant says and eighty-three percent feel the need to establish a good relation (p = 0.019). Twelve topics are basically always addressed by over eighty percent of the respondents. The claimant's opinion of being fit for his own work or other work, and his claim of incapacity and his health arguments for that claim, reach a hundred percent. Description of claimants' previous work reaches ninety-nine percent. Conclusion Our study shows professional consensus among experienced Dutch SIPs about the principle of assessment on arguments, the principle of conducting a semi-structured interview and the most crucial interview topics. This consensus can be used to further develop a protocol for

  4. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Wout E L; Wind, Haije; van Dijk, Frank J H; Willems, Han H B M

    2009-06-02

    Assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews are susceptible to bias. In the Netherlands three protocols have been developed to conduct these interviews. These protocols are expert- and practice-based. We studied to what extent these protocols are adhered to by practitioners. We compared the protocols with one another and with the ICF and the biopsychosocial approach. The protocols describe semi-structured interviews with comparable but not identical topics. All protocols prescribe that the client's opinion on his capacity for work, and his arguments, need to be determined and assessed. We developed a questionnaire to elicit the adherence SIPs have to the protocols, their underlying principles and topics. We conducted a survey among one hundred fifty-five experienced SIPs in the Netherlands. Ninety-eight SIPs responded (64%). All respondents used some form of protocol, either one of the published protocols or their own mix. We found no significant relation between training and the use of a particular protocol. Ninety percent use a semi-structured interview. Ninety-five percent recognise having to verify what the claimant says and eighty-three percent feel the need to establish a good relation (p = 0.019). Twelve topics are basically always addressed by over eighty percent of the respondents. The claimant's opinion of being fit for his own work or other work, and his claim of incapacity and his health arguments for that claim, reach a hundred percent. Description of claimants' previous work reaches ninety-nine percent. Our study shows professional consensus among experienced Dutch SIPs about the principle of assessment on arguments, the principle of conducting a semi-structured interview and the most crucial interview topics. This consensus can be used to further develop a protocol for interviewing in the assessment of

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AT A LONG-TERM FOOD PROCESSING LAND TREATMENT SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine the performance of a full scale, operating overland flow land (GEL) treatment system treating nonhazardous waste. Performance was evaluated in terms of treatment of the applied waste and the environmental impact of the system, partic...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AT A LONG-TERM FOOD PROCESSING LAND TREATMENT SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine the performance of a full scale, operating overland flow land (GEL) treatment system treating nonhazardous waste. Performance was evaluated in terms of treatment of the applied waste and the environmental impact of the system, partic...

  7. Assessing Long-Term Seagrass Changes by Integrating a High-Spatial Resolution Image, Historical Aerial Photography and Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Perez, M.; Hernandez, W. J.; Armstrong, R.

    2016-02-01

    Reported cases of seagrass loss have increased over the last 40 years, increasing the awareness of the need for assessing seagrass health. In situ monitoring has been the main method to assess spatial and temporal changes in seagrass ecosystem. Although remote sensing techniques with multispectral imagery have been recently used for these purposes, long-term analysis is limited to the sensor's mission life. The objective of this project is to determine long-term changes in seagrass habitat cover at Caja de Muertos Island Nature Reserve, by combining in situ data with a satellite image and historical aerial photography. A current satellite imagery of the WorldView-2 sensor was used to generate a 2014 benthic habitat map for the study area. The multispectral image was pre-processed using: conversion of digital numbers to radiance, and atmospheric and water column corrections. Object-based image analysis was used to segment the image into polygons representing different benthic habitats and to classify those habitats according to the classification scheme developed for this project. The scheme include the following benthic habitat categories: seagrass (sparse, dense and very dense), colonized hard bottom (sparse, dense and very dense), sand and mix algae on unconsolidated sediments. Field work was used to calibrate the satellite-derived benthic maps and to asses accuracy of the final products. In addition, a time series of satellite imagery and historic aerial photography from 1950 to 2014 provided data to assess long-term changes in seagrass habitat cover within the Reserve. Preliminary results show an increase in seagrass habitat cover, contrasting with the worldwide declining trend. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the conservation and management of seagrass habitat in the Caja de Muertos Island Nature Reserve.

  8. Biomechanics assessment of long term consequences of talocrural joint sprain in conservatively treated males.

    PubMed

    Czamara, Andrzej; Emilianowicz, Marek; Markowska, Iga; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Trzaska, Tadeusz; Lewandowski, Jacek; Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander; Maciąg-Tymecka, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was an assessment of isometric torque (IT) values under static conditions and relative torque (RT) for the plantar flexion muscles (PFM) and dorsal flexion muscles (DFM) and their mutual relations in males 5 years after talocrural joint sprain. IT measurements in PFM and DFM were performed using Biodex System 3. Group I consisted of 20 males on average 5 years after the sprain of the talocrural joint. Group II comprised 23 males with no history of talocrural joint injuries. The angles of measurement were: -15° of dorsiflexion (DF) and 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° for plantar flexion (PF) of the foot. In group I, the IT and RT obtained from PFM of involved leg were statistically significantly lower for most of the measured values of foot angle as compared to the contralateral joint and the results of the control group. The increase in the PF angle resulted in the decrease in IT values obtained from PFM, in favour of DFM. The IT values for PFM and DFM depend on the angle of foot and are represented by two different curves.

  9. Bridge reliability assessment based on the PDF of long-term monitored extreme strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Meiju; Sun, Limin

    2011-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can provide valuable information for the evaluation of bridge performance. As the development and implementation of SHM technology in recent years, the data mining and use has received increasingly attention and interests in civil engineering. Based on the principle of probabilistic and statistics, a reliability approach provides a rational basis for analysis of the randomness in loads and their effects on structures. A novel approach combined SHM systems with reliability method to evaluate the reliability of a cable-stayed bridge instrumented with SHM systems was presented in this paper. In this study, the reliability of the steel girder of the cable-stayed bridge was denoted by failure probability directly instead of reliability index as commonly used. Under the assumption that the probability distributions of the resistance are independent to the responses of structures, a formulation of failure probability was deduced. Then, as a main factor in the formulation, the probability density function (PDF) of the strain at sensor locations based on the monitoring data was evaluated and verified. That Donghai Bridge was taken as an example for the application of the proposed approach followed. In the case study, 4 years' monitoring data since the operation of the SHM systems was processed, and the reliability assessment results were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity and accuracy of the novel approach compared with FORM was discussed.

  10. Integrating long-term water and sediment pollution data, in assessing chemical status within the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Tueros, Itziar; Borja, Angel; Larreta, Joana; Rodríguez, J Germán; Valencia, Victoriano; Millán, Esmeralda

    2009-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection and improvement of estuarine (transitional) and coastal waters, attempting to achieve good water status by 2015; this includes, within the assessment, biological and chemical elements. The European Commission has proposed a list of priority dangerous substances (including metals such as Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb), with the corresponding list of environmental quality standards (EQS), to assess chemical status, but only for waters. In this contribution, a long-term (1995-2007) dataset of transitional and coastal water and sediment trace elements concentrations, from the Basque Country (northern Spain), has been used to investigate the response of these systems to water treatment programmes. Moreover, the approach proposed in the WFD, for assessing water chemical status (the 'one out, all out' approach), is compared with the integration of water and sediment data, into a unique assessment. For this exercise, background levels are used as reference conditions, identifying the boundary between high and good chemical status. EQS are used as the boundary between good and moderate chemical status. This contribution reveals that the first approach can lead to misclassification, with the second approach representing the pattern shown by the long-term data trends. Finally, the management implications, using each approach are discussed.

  11. Functional performance of older adults in a long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B

    1998-08-01

    Motivation has been identified as an important factor in the older adult's ability to perform functional activities. The purpose of this study was to explore functional performance and factors that have an impact on functional performance in nursing home residents. Participants included 44 White older adults from two nursing homes. The majority of the participants were female (84%). The mean age of the participants was 88 +/- 6.4 years and, on the average, they had been institutionalized for 2.85 +/- 2.8 years. Following data reduction of the predictors, two factors--motivation (efficacy beliefs and intrinsic motivation) and lower extremity function (contractures and standing balance)--were identified. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, these two factors were the only variables that significantly predicted functional performance and accounted for 81% of the variance in function.

  12. The effects of cockpit environment on long-term pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stave, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    A fixed-base helicopter simulator was used to examine pilot performance as influenced by noise, vibration, and fatigue. Subjects flew the simulator for periods ranging between three and eight hours while exposed to vibrations (at 17 Hz) ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 g, and noise stimuli varying between 74 (ambient) and 100 dB. Despite reports of extreme fatigue on these long flights, subject performance did not degrade. Within the limits of this study, performance tended to improve as environmental stress increased. However, subjects did suffer from lapses resulting in abnormally poor performance. These lapses are probably of short duration (seconds) and occur at unpredictable times. If such lapses occur in actual flight, they could provide an explanation for many so-called 'pilot error' accidents.

  13. Long-term survival and serial assessment of stroke damage and recovery – practical and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Modo, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Impairments caused by stroke remain the main cause for adult disability. Despite a vigorous research effort, only 1 thrombolytic treatment has been approved in acute stroke (<3h). The limitations of preclinical studies and how these can be overcome have been the subject of various guidelines. However, often these guidelines focus on the acute stroke setting and omit long-term outcome measures, such as behaviour and neuroimaging. The considerations and practicalities of including the serial assessment of these approaches and their significance to establish therapeutic efficacy are discussed here. PMID:22389748

  14. The timing of maternal separation affects morris water maze performance and long-term potentiation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiujing; Huang, Shenghai; Cao, Jiejie; Chen, Tingting; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Rui; Su, Puyu; Ruan, Diyun

    2014-07-01

    The increasing evidences showed that adverse early life events have profound long lasting consequences in adult rats including neural, behavioral, and cognitive effects. Early maternal separation was one of the models of adverse early life stress, but which period acts critically was unknown until now. The purpose of this paper was to explore the effects of maternal separation in different periods, that is, postnatal Day 2-9 and postnatal Day 14-21, on spatial learning and memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus of adolescent rats. Rat pups were assigned to three groups: early maternal separation from postnatal Day 2-9 (EMS2-9), separation from postnatal Day 14-21 (EMS14-21), and control (Con)--rats stayed with their mother all the time before weaning. Morris water maze test (MWM) and electrophysiological test were performed at 40-50 days of age. The results indicated that EMS14-21 impaired spatial learning and memory ability. For the excitatory postsynaptic potential long-term potentiation (EPSP LTP), both the two maternal separation groups showed decreased values compared to control group. In terms of population spike long-term potentiation (PS LTP), both the two maternal separation groups also showed lower values compared with control group, but only EMS14-21 group had significant difference compared with control group. In conclusion, our results revealed that EMS14-21 showed worst in both escape latency in Morris Water Maze test and LTP compared to control group and EMS2-9 group.

  15. Long-term assessment of an autonomous wireless structural health monitoring system at the new Carquinez Suspension Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Kim, Junhee; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome P.; van der Linden, G. W.; Jacob, Vince; Thometz, Ed; Hipley, Pat; Sheng, Li-Hong

    2011-04-01

    A dense network of sensors installed in a bridge can continuously generate response data from which the health and condition of the bridge can be analyzed. This approach to structural health monitoring the efforts associated with periodic bridge inspections and can provide timely insight to regions of the bridge suspected of degradation or damage. Nevertheless, the deployment of fine sensor grids on large-scale structures is not feasible using wired monitoring systems because of the rapidly increasing installation labor and costs required. Moreover, the enormous size of raw sensor data, if not translated into meaningful forms of information, can paralyze the bridge manager's decision making. This paper reports the development of a large-scale wireless structural monitoring system for long-span bridges; the system is entirely wireless which renders it low-cost and easy to install. Unlike central tethered data acquisition systems where data processing occurs in the central server, the distributed network of wireless sensors supports data processing. In-network data processing reduces raw data streams into actionable information of immediate value to the bridge manager. The proposed wireless monitoring system has been deployed on the New Carquinez Suspension Bridge in California. Current efforts on the bridge site include: 1) long-term assessment of a dense wireless sensor network; 2) implementation of a sustainable power management solution using solar power; 3) performance evaluation of an internet-enabled cyber-environment; 4) system identification of the bridge; and 5) the development of data mining tools. A hierarchical cyber-environment supports peer-to-peer communication between wireless sensors deployed on the bridge and allows for the connection between sensors and remote database systems via the internet. At the remote server, model calibration and damage detection analyses that employ a reduced-order finite element bridge model are implemented.

  16. Exercise as Countermeasure for Decrements of Performance and Mood During Long-Term Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Piacentini, Maria F.; Meeusen, Romain; Brummer, Vera; Struder, Heiko K.

    2008-06-01

    In order to prepare for crewed exploratory missions to Moon and Mars, currently ESA is participating in two isolation studies, MARS 500 and on the antarctis station CONCORDIA. The aim of the present study is to identify exercise as a countermeasure to confinement addicted changes in mood. It is planned (1) to look at influences of exercise on the serotonergic system, which is known to have mood regulating effects and (2) to record changes in brain cortical activity due to exercise. Mood and performance tests will be carried out several times during the confinement. We hypothesize that impairments in mood due to the isolated and confined environment together with a lack of physical exercise lead to decreases in mental and perceptual motor performance whereas physical exercise linked with an activation of the serotonergic system will improve mood and therefore performance irrespectively of the environmental restrictions.

  17. Improved long-term bonding performance of an experimental all-in-one adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Shinichi; Fu, Jiale; Nakaoki, Yasuko; Ikeda, Takatsumi; Tanaka, Toru; Sano, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of an experimental all-in-one adhesive. The adhesive, named MTB-200 (Kuraray Medical), contained components to enhance both bond strength and hydrophobicity. The performance of the adhesive was compared with that of CLEARFIL TRI-S BOND (Kuraray Medical) and BeautiBond (SHOFU) using micro-tensile bond strength test and ultramicroscopic observations. The study revealed that the new adhesive had the highest tensile strength value among the three adhesives over time, although transmission electron microscopic images showed the phenomenon of filler de-bonding in the adhesive resin layer. In spite of modification in the experimental adhesive, the adhesive was suspected to degrade bond performance. However, revision of the composition of adhesives would be one of the solutions to enhance durability of interface.

  18. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  19. Functional capacity and obesity reflect the cognitive performance of older adults living in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Damascena, Karine; Batisti Ferreira, Cristiane; Dos Santos Teixeira, Pâmela; Madrid, Bibiano; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Córdova, Cláudio; de Toledo Nóbrega, Otávio; Pimentel Ferreira, Aparecido

    2017-06-06

    With the increase in life expectancy, the elderly Brazilian population has grown considerably. However, longevity is usually accompanied by problems such as the loss of functional capacity, cognitive decline, and deterioration in anthropometric parameters, particularly among those living in long-term care facilities. We analyzed the relationship among cognitive performance, anthropometry, and functional capacity in institutionalized elderly individuals. In a sample of 38 older adults (20 men, 18 women) aged 73.4 ± 8.1 years, data regarding anthropometric and functional measurements as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination were collected. Functional tests were based on a battery adapted from the Functional Fitness Test. The independent t-test and χ(2) test were applied. P < 0.05 was set as the significance threshold. The rate of cognitive impairment among obese individuals (78.6%) differed from that among eutrophic subjects (45.8%), but there was no difference between sexes. There was a significant positive correlation between handgrip strength and Mini-Mental State Examination score, and the scores of the timed up-and-go test and the sitting-rising test were negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score. Cognitive impairment in the elderly living in long-term care facilities was more pronounced and frequent in obese individuals. This study also demonstrated that better functional capacity reflects better cognitive performance. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. Effect of porous YSZ scaffold microstructure on the long-term performance of infiltrated Ni-YSZ anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Kammampata, Sanoop P.; Birss, Viola I.

    2015-08-01

    Ni infiltration into porous YSZ scaffolds is a promising route for the construction of high performing and redox-stable Ni-YSZ anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the long-term instability of this type of anode is a critical problem. Here, it is shown that an interconnected Ni film, rather than discrete Ni particles, can be formed inside a porous, pre-sintered YSZ scaffold by using a polymeric Ni-based precursor as the infiltration medium. To understand the effect of the YSZ microstructure on the long-term stability and the electrochemical performance of the resulting composites, two types of Ni-YSZ anodes were investigated. Anodes prepared by polymeric Ni infiltration into a YSZ scaffold with large grains (0.5 μm) and pores (0.5 μm and 5 μm) showed extensive agglomeration in the Ni phase, resulting in poor stability and poor activity. In contrast, Ni infiltration into YSZ scaffolds with finer particle and pore sizes (∼200 nm each) produced anodes with a very small polarization resistance of ca. 0.1 Ω cm2 per electrode at 800 °C. An increase of only ∼5% was seen in the resistance after ca. 110 h at this temperature, achieved by preventing Ni agglomeration.

  1. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS: LESSONS LEARNED, FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, a synthesis of research findings by EPA has been prepared and presented in an EPA report titled Capstone Report on the Application, Monitoring, and Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Ground-Water Remediation (EPA/600/R-03/045 a,b). Another report has also be...

  2. Long-Term Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Surface Treatments: Product Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Polymer Modified MasterSeal (PMM). .................................... 27 Figure 24. Application of Pass QB...yards 0.8361274 square meters yards 0.9144 meters ERDC/GSL SR-10-1 1 1 Introduction Background Environmental degradation of asphalt concrete ...significant damage. Techniques for maintaining asphalt concrete airfield pavements are typi- cally performed in response to the formation of environmental

  3. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS: LESSONS LEARNED, FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, a synthesis of research findings by EPA has been prepared and presented in an EPA report titled Capstone Report on the Application, Monitoring, and Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Ground-Water Remediation (EPA/600/R-03/045 a,b). Another report has also be...

  4. Long-Term Radiometric Performance of the SCIAMACHY Quartz Tungsten Halogen Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, S.; Bramstedt, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Gottwald, M.; Krieg, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) is part of the atmospheric chemistry payload of ESAś Environmental Satellite ENVISAT. Since 2002, SCIAMACHY provides the amount and global distribution of various atmospheric constituents relevant in the contexts of ozone chemistry, air pollution and climate change. Originally designed for a 5-year mission, the SCIAMACHY instrument is still working well and ready for the planned mission extension until 2010 or even further. Calibration and monitoring of the instrument performance are a pre-requisite for a continuously high data product quality. Here, results from the monitoring of the optical performance of the SCIAMACHY instrument are presented. Emphasis is placed on the investigation of the performance of the SCIAMACHY internal Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) lamp. This type of lamp has been used for monitoring the radiometric performance of an UV-VIS-SWIR Earth observation sensor over mission lifetime for the first time. The analysis of regular in-flight measurements has shown the radiometric stability of the SCIAMACHY QTH lamp over time especially in the visible/NIR spectral range. Lamps of this type are therefore considered as useful components for further space-borne spectroscopic missions, as they provide a relatively cheap and reliable mean for (at least relative) radiometric calibration and monitoring.

  5. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach. We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results. Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance. Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements.

  6. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements. PMID:23918061

  7. Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Dean, Philip J A; Sterr, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Although a proportion of individuals report chronic cognitive difficulties after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), results from behavioral testing have been inconsistent. In fact, the variability inherent to the mTBI population may be masking subtle cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that this variability could be reduced by accounting for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in the sample. Thirty-six participants with mTBI (>1 year post-injury) and 36 non-head injured controls performed information processing speed (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task, PVSAT) and working memory (n-Back) tasks. Both groups were split by PCS diagnosis (4 groups, all n = 18), with categorization of controls based on symptom report. Participants with mTBI and persistent PCS had significantly greater error rates on both the n-Back and PVSAT, at every difficulty level except 0-Back (used as a test of performance validity). There was no difference between any of the other groups. Therefore, a cognitive deficit can be observed in mTBI participants, even 1 year after injury. Correlations between cognitive performance and symptoms were only observed for mTBI participants, with worse performance correlating with lower sleep quality, in addition to a medium effect size association (falling short of statistical significance) with higher PCS symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety. These results suggest that the reduction in cognitive performance is not due to greater symptom report itself, but is associated to some extent with the initial injury. Furthermore, the results validate the utility of our participant grouping, and demonstrate its potential to reduce the variability observed in previous studies.

  8. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Song, Yun-Mi; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81-14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation.

  9. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A cross-sectional assessment of the long term effects of brief strategic family therapy for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Horigian, Viviana E; Feaster, Daniel J; Robbins, Michael S; Brincks, Ahnalee M; Ucha, Jessica; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Shoham, Varda; Bachrach, Ken; Miller, Michael; Burlew, A Kathleen; Hodgkins, Candace C; Carrion, Ibis S; Silverstein, Meredith; Werstlein, Robert; Szapocznik, José

    2015-10-01

    Young adult drug use and law-breaking behaviors often have roots in adolescence. These behaviors are predicted by early drug use, parental substance use disorders, and disrupted and conflict-ridden family environments. To examine long-term outcomes of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in the rates of drug use, number of arrests and externalizing behaviors in young adults who were randomized into treatment conditions as adolescents. 261 of 480 adolescents who had been randomized to BSFT or TAU in the BSFT effectiveness study were assessed at a single time, 3-7 years post randomization. Assessments of drug use, externalizing behaviors, arrests and incarcerations were conducted using Timeline Follow Back, Adult Self Report, and self-report, respectively. Drug use, arrests and incarcerations were examined using negative binomial models and externalizing behaviors were examined using linear regression. When compared with TAU, BSFT youth reported lower incidence of lifetime (IRR = 0.68, 95%CI [0.57, 0.81]) and past year (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI [0.40, 0.71]) arrests; lower rates of lifetime (IRR = 0.63, 95%CI [0.49, 0.81]) and past year (IRR = 0.70, 95%CI [0.53, 0.92]) incarcerations; and lower scores on externalizing behaviors at follow-up (B = -0.42, SE = .15, p = .005). There were no differences in drug use. BSFT may have long term effects in reducing the number of arrests, incarcerations and externalizing problems. These effects could be explained by the improvements in family functioning that occurred during the effectiveness study. This study contributes to the literature by reporting on the long term outcomes of family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. [The applicable study of two models used in the assessment of long-term exposure to food lead].

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying-liang; Zhang, Ya-fei; Liu, Pei

    2013-07-01

    To compare the results of observed individual means (OIM) model with beta binomial-normal (BBN) model and to apply the two models to assessment of long-term dietary lead exposure. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Nutrition and Health Survey conducted in 2002 by 24-hour recall method. Contamination data were derived from the national food contamination monitoring program from 2000 to 2006 and from monitoring data of Customs exports for agricultural products between 2005 and 2006. By multiplying the average consumption of food with the average concentration of contaminant, the OIM model calculated dietary intake per day. By correcting the within-person variation and keeping the between-person variation, the BBN model built dietary intake in the long-term.Using the example of food lead data, the results of two models were compared. The high-end percentile of OIM model was higher than the BBN model in various age groups.In the general population, the dietary intake of OIM model from 25th percentile to 99.9th percentile was between 1.167 and 7.313 µg×kg(-1)×d(-1), and the dietary intake of BBN model with the same percentile range was between 1.193 and 5.729 µg×kg(-1)×d(-1). The median of various groups was similar between the two models. The dietary intakes in the general population of two models were 1.543 and 1.579 µg×kg(-1)×d(-1). The high-end percentile of OIM model is more conservative than BBN model in the long-term dietary exposure assessment.

  12. Assessment of welfare of finishing beef cattle kept on different types of floor after short- or long-term housing.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Gottardo, F; Tessitore, E; Guzzo, L; Ricci, R; Cozzi, G

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1 ± 0.5 v. 6.5 ± 0.4 s; P<0.05) and lower risk of hairless patches (odds ratio=0.09; 95% confidence interval=0.01 to 0.68; P<0.05) were already observed after 1 month. Heavy bulls after a long-term housing on FS showed a higher prevalence of bursitis, hairless patches and lesions/swellings than animals on DL. Bulls on fully slatted floor were at higher risk of early culling (odds ratio=6.44; 95% confidence interval=1.57 to 26.37; P<0.01), mainly due to musculoskeletal system pathologies/lameness. Deep litter proved to be a valid alternative to slatted floor, making animals more confident to interact with powerful movements such as mounting at the end of the finishing period. A negative aspect of the deep litter was the poor cleanliness of the bulls. Compared with the fully slatted floor, there were higher odds ratios for dirty bulls at both, the short- (odds ratio=25.09; 95% confidence interval=8.96 to 70.22; P<0.001) and the long-term housing (odds ratio=276.13; 95% confidence interval=98.21 to 776.38; P<0.001). In order to improve health and welfare of beef cattle finished at a heavy weight, deep litter systems are a promising alternative to fully slatted floors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls.

  13. Potential for assessing long-term dynamics in soil nitrogen availability from variations in delta15N of tree rings.

    PubMed

    Hart, S C; Classen, A T

    2003-03-01

    Numerous researchers have used the isotopic signatures of C, H, and O in tree rings to provide a long-term record of changes in the physiological status, climate, or water-source use of trees. The frequently limiting element N is also found in tree rings, and variation in its isotopic signature may provide insight into long-term changes in soil N availability of a site. However, research has suggested that N is readily translocated among tree ring of different years; such infidelity between the isotopic compositions of the N taken up from the soil and the N contained in the ring of that growth year would obscure the long-term N isotopic record. We used a 15-year 15N-tracer study to assess the degree of N translocation among tree rings in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees growing in a young, mixed-conifer plantation. We also measured delta13C and delta15N values in unlabeled trees to assess the degree of their covariance in wood tissue, and to explore the potential for a biological linkage between them. We found that the maximum delta15N values in rings from the labeled trees occurred in the ring formed one-year after the 15N was applied to the roots. The delta15N value of rings from labeled trees declined exponentially and bidirectionally from this maximum peak, toward younger and older rings. The unlabeled trees showed considerable interannual variation in the delta15N values of their rings (up to 3 and 5 per thousand), but these values correlated poorly between trees over time and differed by as much as 6 per thousand. Removal of extractives from the wood reduced their delta15N value, but the change was fairly small and consistent among unlabeled trees. The delta13C and delta15N values of tree rings were correlated over time in only one of the unlabeled trees. Across all trees, both delta13C values of tree rings and annual stem wood production were well correlated with annual precipitation, suggesting that soil water balance is an important environmental

  14. Structural Analyses of Stirling Power Convertor Heater Head for Long-Term Reliability, Durability, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Shah, Ashwin; Arya, Vinod K.; Krause, David L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Deep-space missions require onboard electric power systems with reliable design lifetimes of up to 10 yr and beyond. A high-efficiency Stirling radioisotope power system is a likely candidate for future deep-space missions and Mars rover applications. To ensure ample durability, the structurally critical heater head of the Stirling power convertor has undergone extensive computational analyses of operating temperatures (up to 650 C), stresses, and creep resistance of the thin-walled Inconel 718 bill of material. Durability predictions are presented in terms of the probability of survival. A benchmark structural testing program has commenced to support the analyses. This report presents the current status of durability assessments.

  15. 8 years of CPV: ISFOC CPV plants, long-term performance analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Sánchez, Daniel; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; Hipólito, Ángel; de Gregorio, Fernando; de la Rubia, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    ISFOC is an R&D center focused on CPV in Puertollano (Spain). It was founded in 2006 and has 2.3MW of CPV plants in operation and connected to the grid since 2008. Therefore, for the time of the conference ISFOC has more than 8 years of real operation data. The performance analysis has been focused on ISFOC - La Nava CPV plant: 800kW of Concentrix (Soitec), SolFocus and Isofotón and one flat PV plant mounted on two-axis tracker. The main result obtained is that the rate of performance decrease obtained for a mature CPV technology and IEC 62108 certified is in the range of flat PV values, this means that the CPV technology does not present higher degradation rates than flat PV.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Attentional Performance on Functional Brain Network Topology

    PubMed Central

    Breckel, Thomas P. K.; Thiel, Christiane M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Zalesky, Andrew; Patel, Ameera X.; Giessing, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Individuals differ in their cognitive resilience. Less resilient people demonstrate a greater tendency to vigilance decrements within sustained attention tasks. We hypothesized that a period of sustained attention is followed by prolonged changes in the organization of “resting state” brain networks and that individual differences in cognitive resilience are related to differences in post-task network reorganization. We compared the topological and spatial properties of brain networks as derived from functional MRI data (N = 20) recorded for 6 mins before and 12 mins after the performance of an attentional task. Furthermore we analysed changes in brain topology during task performance and during the switches between rest and task conditions. The cognitive resilience of each individual was quantified as the rate of increase in response latencies over the 32-minute time course of the attentional paradigm. On average, functional networks measured immediately post-task demonstrated significant and prolonged changes in network organization compared to pre-task networks with higher connectivity strength, more clustering, less efficiency, and shorter distance connections. Individual differences in cognitive resilience were significantly correlated with differences in the degree of recovery of some network parameters. Changes in network measures were still present in less resilient individuals in the second half of the post-task period (i.e. 6–12 mins after task completion), while resilient individuals already demonstrated significant reductions of functional connectivity and clustering towards pre-task levels. During task performance brain topology became more integrated with less clustering and higher global efficiency, but linearly decreased with ongoing time-on-task. We conclude that sustained attentional task performance has prolonged, “hang-over” effects on the organization of post-task resting-state brain networks; and that more cognitively resilient

  17. Long-term Outcomes of Performing a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship During General Surgery Residency

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Charles M.; Klingensmith, Mary E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether dedicated research time during surgical residency leads to funding following postgraduate training. Summary Background Data: Unlike other medical specialties, a significant number of general surgery residents spend 1 to 3 years in dedicated laboratory research during their training. The impact this has on obtaining peer reviewed research funding after residency is unknown. Methods: Survey of all graduates of an academic general surgery resident program from 1990 to 2005 (n = 105). Results: Seventy-five (71%) of survey recipients responded, of which 66 performed protected research during residency. Fifty-one currently perform research (mean effort, 26%; range, 2%–75%). Twenty-three respondents who performed research during residency (35%) subsequently received independent faculty funding. Thirteen respondents (20%) obtained NIH grants following residency training. The number of papers authored during resident research was associated with obtaining subsequent faculty grant support (9.3 vs. 5.2, P = 0.02). Faculty funding was associated with obtaining independent research support during residency (42% vs. 17%, P = 0.04). NIH-funded respondents spent more combined years in research before and during residency (3.7 vs. 2.8, P = 0.02). Academic surgeons rated research fellowships more relevant to their current job than private practitioners (4.3 vs. 3.4 by Likert scale, P < 0.05). Both groups considered research a worthwhile use of their time during residency (4.5 vs. 4.1, P = not significant). Conclusions: A large number of surgical trainees who perform a research fellowship in the middle of residency subsequently become funded investigators in this single-center survey. The likelihood of obtaining funding after residency is related to productivity and obtaining grant support during residency as well as cumulative years of research prior to obtaining a faculty position. PMID:17414597

  18. Cost and Performance Report for Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites (ER-0629)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Tracker Plot with “Out-of-Bounds” Value that is a Potential Concern Figure 6-1 Conceptual Example to Illustrate Temporal Interpolation Issue Figure 6...representation of the plumes with Model Builder.  Sampling Optimizer provided useful trade-off curves of sampling cost versus the interpolation ...The software interpolates spatially but does not perform interpolations in time. The software would be improved if there was a feature to optionally

  19. Long-term outcomes of performing a postdoctoral research fellowship during general surgery residency.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Charles M; Klingensmith, Mary E; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether dedicated research time during surgical residency leads to funding following postgraduate training. Unlike other medical specialties, a significant number of general surgery residents spend 1 to 3 years in dedicated laboratory research during their training. The impact this has on obtaining peer reviewed research funding after residency is unknown. Survey of all graduates of an academic general surgery resident program from 1990 to 2005 (n = 105). Seventy-five (71%) of survey recipients responded, of which 66 performed protected research during residency. Fifty-one currently perform research (mean effort, 26%; range, 2%-75%). Twenty-three respondents who performed research during residency (35%) subsequently received independent faculty funding. Thirteen respondents (20%) obtained NIH grants following residency training. The number of papers authored during resident research was associated with obtaining subsequent faculty grant support (9.3 vs. 5.2, P = 0.02). Faculty funding was associated with obtaining independent research support during residency (42% vs. 17%, P = 0.04). NIH-funded respondents spent more combined years in research before and during residency (3.7 vs. 2.8, P = 0.02). Academic surgeons rated research fellowships more relevant to their current job than private practitioners (4.3 vs. 3.4 by Likert scale, P < 0.05). Both groups considered research a worthwhile use of their time during residency (4.5 vs. 4.1, P = not significant). A large number of surgical trainees who perform a research fellowship in the middle of residency subsequently become funded investigators in this single-center survey. The likelihood of obtaining funding after residency is related to productivity and obtaining grant support during residency as well as cumulative years of research prior to obtaining a faculty position.

  20. The NAEP Long-Term Trend Assessment: A Review of Its Transformation, Use, and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    During the past 25 years, the country witnessed a dramatic transformation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Actions by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), Congress, and the National Assessment Governing Board fundamentally changed NAEP's role in federal educational policy and the nation's schools. Developed in the 1960s…

  1. Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Marina; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates' subsequent grades…

  2. A Model for Long Term Assessment of Computing and Information Systems Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mubaid, Hisham; Kim, Dan J.; Yue, Kwok-Bun; Hall, Sharon; Abeysekera, Krishani

    2011-01-01

    Assessment practices and requirements are very broad and vary widely among academic programs and from one institution to the other. Consequently, we noticed, in the recent years, increased volumes of research and interest geared into the assessment process and procedures in various disciplines in higher education. In this paper, we present and…

  3. Long-term field performance of biosand filters in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Andrew J; Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; McNair, James N; Frobish, Daniel J

    2013-05-01

    A field study assessing the sustainability and efficacy of 55 biosand filters installed during 1999-2010 was conducted in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti during 2011. Twenty-nine filters were still in use. Duration of filter use ranged from < 1 to 12 years. Water quality, microbial analysis, and flow rate were evaluated for each functioning filter. Kaplan-Meier analysis of filter lifespans showed that filter use remained high (> 85%) up to seven years after installation. Several filters were still in use after 12 years, which is longer than documented in any previous study. Filtered water from 25 filters (86%) contained Escherichia coli concentrations of < 10 most probable number of coliforms/100 mL. Recontamination of stored filtered water was negligible. Bacterial removal efficiency was 1.1 log(10). Comparable results from previous studies in the same region and elsewhere show that biosand filter technology continues to be an effective and sustainable water treatment method in developing countries worldwide.

  4. Long-term performance and stability of molecular shotgun lipidomic analysis of human plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Laura A; Suoniemi, Matti; Ta, Hung Xuan; Tarasov, Kirill; Ekroos, Kim

    2013-09-17

    The stability of the lipid concentration levels in shotgun lipidomics analysis was tracked over a period of 3.5 years. Concentration levels in several lipid classes, such as phospholipids, were determined in human plasma lipid extracts. Impact of the following factors on the analysis was investigated: sample amount, internal standard amount, and sample dilution factor. Moreover, the reproducibility of lipid profiles obtained in both polarity modes was evaluated. Total number of samples analyzed was approximately 6800 and 7300 samples in negative and positive ion modes, respectively, out of which 610 and 639 instrument control samples were used in stability calculations. The assessed shotgun lipidomics approach showed to be remarkably robust and reproducible, requiring no batch corrections. Coefficients of variation (CVs) of lipid mean concentration measured with optimized analytical parameters were typically less than 15%. The high reproducibility indicated that no lipid degradation occurred during the monitored time period.

  5. Is long term creatine and glutamine supplementation effective in enhancing physical performance of military police officers?

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-09-29

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p<0,05). However, these differences were not observed when the univaried intragroups and intergroups analysis was performed (p>0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.

  6. Tenth interim status report: Model 9975 O-ring fixture long-term leak performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-08-26

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 °F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 °F.

  7. Eleventh interim status report: Model 9975 O-Ring fixture long-term leak performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2016-08-01

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperature. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF.

  8. Long-term effects of graduated compression stockings on cardiorespiratory performance

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Cuevas, AG; Aparicio, I; Giménez, JV; Cortell-Tormo, JM; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-01-01

    The use of graduated compression stockings (GCS) in sport has been increasing in the last years due to their potential positive effects for athletes. However, there is little evidence to support whether these types of garments actually improve cardiorespiratory performance. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory responses of GCS during running after three weeks of regular use. Twenty recreational runners performed three tests on different days: test 1) – a 5-min maximal effort run in order to determine the participants’ maximal aerobic speed; and tests 2) and 3) – a fatigue running test of 30 minutes at 80% of their maximal aerobic speed with either GCS or PLACEBO stockings at random. Cardiorespiratory parameters (minute ventilation, heart rate, relative oxygen consumption, relative carbon dioxide production, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and oxygen pulse) were measured. Before each test in the laboratory, the participants trained with the randomly assigned stockings (GCS or PLACEBO) for three weeks. No significant differences between GCS and PLACEBO were found in any of the cardiorespiratory parameters. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that running with GCS for three weeks does not influence cardiorespiratory parameters in recreational runners. PMID:26424925

  9. Effects of being born small for gestational age on long-term intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Ester Maria; Tuvemo, Torsten

    2008-06-01

    Size at birth has been associated repeatedly with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality later in life. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest an association between being born small for gestational age (SGA) and increased risk of lower intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence and behavioural problems, compared with individuals born appropriate for gestational age. Crude neurological handicaps, such as cerebral palsy, are extremely rare in children born SGA at term. Such handicaps are more common in very premature children. However, there does appear to be an increase in the risk for non-severe neurological dysfunction in individuals born SGA. Intellectual performance is evaluated in young children in several different ways, including standardized tests such as Weschler's Intelligence Scale - Revised, and teachers and parents' reports. In adulthood, indirect variables such as education and occupation are used in addition to standardized tests. It may be possible to modify the effects of SGA on intellectual development by breast feeding the baby for more than 6 months. Nutrient-enriched formula does not have any advantages when it comes to intellectual development, and induces a risk of rapid weight gain and eventually overweight. Growth hormone treatment may also have some effect on intelligence quotient.

  10. Intermediate and long-term anaerobic performance of elite Alpine skiers.

    PubMed

    Bacharach, D W; von Duvillard, S P

    1995-03-01

    Physiological requirements of Alpine skiing, demanding power from both aerobic and anaerobic sources, were first reported in 1965 by Bengt Saltin and coworkers. An update on the physiology of Alpine skiing was presented by Karlsson and colleagues in 1978, and their work remains a benchmark for most current research dealing with Alpine skiers. These works have identified muscular strength and complex motor skill abilities as essential to the competitive ski racer. The energy demands of Alpine ski racing dominate the range between 45 and 2 min. Since the late 1970s, many researchers have reported a variety of tests that associate test scores to skiing performance. Traditionally, short tests of anaerobic power such as the 30-s Wingate test have been used to reflect anaerobic capacity. Only recently have researchers and coaches begun to question whether a test that is shorter in duration than most skiing performances can estimate anaerobic power as it relates to Alpine ski racing. This study reviews current literature relative to physiological requirements for Alpine skiing as well as relating 18 nationally ranked male (N = 10) and female (N = 8) Alpine ski racers' USSA national points lists for slalom and giant slalom to power measures from 30-s and 90-s Wingate cycle ergometer tests. Further directions of physiological research in Alpine skiing are also offered.

  11. Long-term effects of graduated compression stockings on cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Priego, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; Aparicio, I; Giménez, J V; Cortell-Tormo, J M; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-09-01

    The use of graduated compression stockings (GCS) in sport has been increasing in the last years due to their potential positive effects for athletes. However, there is little evidence to support whether these types of garments actually improve cardiorespiratory performance. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory responses of GCS during running after three weeks of regular use. Twenty recreational runners performed three tests on different days: test 1) - a 5-min maximal effort run in order to determine the participants' maximal aerobic speed; and tests 2) and 3) - a fatigue running test of 30 minutes at 80% of their maximal aerobic speed with either GCS or PLACEBO stockings at random. Cardiorespiratory parameters (minute ventilation, heart rate, relative oxygen consumption, relative carbon dioxide production, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and oxygen pulse) were measured. Before each test in the laboratory, the participants trained with the randomly assigned stockings (GCS or PLACEBO) for three weeks. No significant differences between GCS and PLACEBO were found in any of the cardiorespiratory parameters. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that running with GCS for three weeks does not influence cardiorespiratory parameters in recreational runners.

  12. Optimisation of rheumatic disease assessments in clinical trials, clinical care, and long-term databases.

    PubMed

    Landewé, R B M; van der Heijde, D

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of disease in rheumatological diseases is rather complicated, because it may involve different contexts (clinical practice, clinical trials, observational studies, registries, etc.) as well as different domains (disease activity, physical function, radiographic damage, quality of life, etc.). Furthermore, available tools can be comprehensive but also rather condense, may be patient-oriented or rather physician-oriented, and so on. In this article all these levels that may matter in case of a choice of disease assessment tool are discussed, arriving at a conclusion that choosing the appropriate tool for the assessment of disease is not 'cookbook medicine'.

  13. Vertically Aligned Porous Nickel(II) Hydroxide Nanosheets Supported on Carbon Paper with Long-Term Oxygen Evolution Performance.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dehua; Li, Wei; Liu, Lifeng

    2017-03-02

    Vertically aligned Ni(OH)2 nanosheets were grown on carbon paper (CP) current collectors through a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal approach. The as-grown nanosheets are porous and highly crystallized. If used as a monolithic electrode for electrochemical water oxidation in alkaline solution, the carbon paper supported Ni(OH)2 nanosheets [CP@Ni(OH)2 ] exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and excellent long-term stability. The electrode can attain an anodic current density of 20 mA cm(-2) at a low overpotential of 338 mV, comparable to that of state-of-the-art RuO2 nanocatalysts supported on CP (CP/RuO2 ) with the same catalyst loading. Significantly, CP@Ni(OH)2 shows much better long-term stability than CP/RuO2 upon continuous galvanostatic electrolysis, particularly at a high industry-relevant current density such as 100 mA cm(-2) . CP@Ni(OH)2 can sustain water oxidation at 100 mA cm(-2) for 50 h without any degradation, whereas the performance of CP/RuO2 is much poorer and deteriorates gradually over time. CP@Ni(OH)2 electrodes hold substantial promise for use as low-costing water oxidation anodes in electrolyzers.

  14. Long-Term Anti-Corrosion Performance of a Conducting Polymer-Based Coating System for Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tongyan; Yu, Qifeng

    2016-06-01

    The long-term durability of a two-layer coating system was evaluated by two accelerated corrosion tests, i.e., the ASTM B117 Salt spray test and the ASTM D5894 Cyclic salt fog/UV exposure test, and a series of surface analyses. The coating system was developed for protecting structural steels from corrosion, including a functional primer made of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) and a protective topcoat. The standard pull-off test per ASTM D4541 was employed for characterizing the adhesion of the coating systems to substrate, aided by visual examination of the surface deterioration of the samples. The ICP-based systems demonstrated superior long-term anti-corrosion capacity when a polyurethane topcoat is used. The ICP-based primer made of a waterborne epoxy gave poorer anti-corrosion performance than the ICP-based primer made of regular non-waterborne epoxy, which can be attributed to the lower adhesion the waterborne epoxy demonstrated to the substrate surface. The zinc-rich control systems showed good anti-corrosion durability; however, they may produce excessive oxidative products of zinc to cause coating delamination. Based on the test results, the two-layer coating system consisting of an ICP-based primer and a polyurethane topcoat outperforms the conventional zinc-rich coating systems for corrosion protection of steels.

  15. EFFECT OF METALLIC INTERCONNECT THICKNESS ON ITS LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE IN SOFCS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-11-01

    At the operating environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxide scale will grow on the ferritic interconnect (IC) surface unavoidably and furfures induce growth stress in oxide scale and along the interface of the oxide scale and IC substrate. A combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. In this paper, the effect of the ferritic IC thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated numerically. The predicted results show that the interfacial shear stresses increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation.

  16. Long-term outcome after heart transplantation performed in the University Medical Centre Groningen

    PubMed Central

    Brügemann, J.; van der Horst, I.C.C.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; van den Broek, S.A.J.; de Jonge-Weber, A.T.G.; Ebels, T.; Boonstra, P.W.; Zijlstra, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background Ten years ago, there was a difference of opinion about the suitability of ventilated patients with end-stage cardiac failure for heart transplantation (HTX). Although guidelines at that time qualified mechanical ventilation as a contraindication, we thought those patients could be candidates for HTX. In the same period a number of other patients received a donor heart in our centre. In this article we describe the clinical course and survival after these procedures. Methods We performed a retrospective study using our post HTX database. All patients undergoing transplants in our hospital were selected. Patients underwent echocardiography, scintigraphy (MUGA), ergo-spirometry (VO2 peak), blood tests and completed a quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). All tests were completed in the 1st quarter of 2006. Results Eight patients were identified; three were mechanically ventilated at the time of HTX. All eight patients were treated according to the standard protocol. Repeated surveillance cardiac biopsies were taken. One patient died 3.5 years after HTX due to an acute myocardial infarction. Seven patients, including the three patients on a ventilator at the time of the HTX, are alive, resulting in a survival rate of 88%. The current median survival time is 126 months (range 55 to 184 months). All patients are in good cardiac condition. The SF-36 domains of social functioning and mental health show high scores, the average score of general health and vitality is moderate. Conclusion Survival of our eight transplanted patients after a median period of ten years was 88%, which is at least comparable with data from larger series. This finding suggests that HTX can be performed effectively and safely in a low volume centre. The finding that all three patients on a ventilator prior to HTX are alive is remarkable. It appears that mechanical ventilation is not always an absolute contraindication for HTX. PMID:25696580

  17. Effect of Isosporiasis Prevention with Toltrazuril on Long-Term Pig Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rypula, K.; Porowski, M.; Kaba, J.; Gorczykowski, M.; Deniz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of toltrazuril treatment was assessed in two experiments in Polish swine herds. Experiment 1 included a toltrazuril treatment group, Group A (n = 410), and untreated control, Group B (n = 386). Time to sale in Group A was 108 days versus 120 days for Group B, with average body weights at sale of 114.2 kg and 108.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the health status and body weight gain of 238 piglets treated with toltrazuril (Group D) were compared to 235 untreated piglets (Group K). A similar difference was observed in average body weights of slaughtered animals, being on average 104 kg in Group D and 101 kg in Group K (P < 0.01). Animals from Group D were slaughtered 5 days earlier than animals from Group K (day 166 versus day 171). Data from clinical trials suggest treatment of coccidiosis with toltrazuril offering potential for improved animal welfare and yields, however this has remained unproven in field conditions in large swine production facilities. The present study confirms the efficacy of toltrazuril treatment when used in the field and the subsequent positive impact on time to weaning, time to market, and on weight gain at all time points. PMID:22547982

  18. Effect of isosporiasis prevention with toltrazuril on long-term pig performance.

    PubMed

    Rypula, K; Porowski, M; Kaba, J; Gorczykowski, M; Deniz, A

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of toltrazuril treatment was assessed in two experiments in Polish swine herds. Experiment 1 included a toltrazuril treatment group, Group A (n = 410), and untreated control, Group B (n = 386). Time to sale in Group A was 108 days versus 120 days for Group B, with average body weights at sale of 114.2 kg and 108.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the health status and body weight gain of 238 piglets treated with toltrazuril (Group D) were compared to 235 untreated piglets (Group K). A similar difference was observed in average body weights of slaughtered animals, being on average 104 kg in Group D and 101 kg in Group K (P < 0.01). Animals from Group D were slaughtered 5 days earlier than animals from Group K (day 166 versus day 171). Data from clinical trials suggest treatment of coccidiosis with toltrazuril offering potential for improved animal welfare and yields, however this has remained unproven in field conditions in large swine production facilities. The present study confirms the efficacy of toltrazuril treatment when used in the field and the subsequent positive impact on time to weaning, time to market, and on weight gain at all time points.

  19. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  20. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  1. Long-Term Creep of a Thin-Walled Inconel 718 Stirling Power-Convertor Heater Head Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy R.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy and NASA have identified Stirling power convertors as candidate power supply systems for long-duration, deep-space science missions. A key element for qualifying the flight hardware is a long-term durability assessment for critical hot section components of the power convertor. One such critical component is the power convertor heater head. The heater head is a high-temperature pressure vessel that transfers heat to the working gas medium of the convertor, which is typically helium. An efficient heater head design is the result of balancing the divergent requirements of thin walls for increased heat transfer versus thick walls to lower the wall stresses and thus improve creep resistance and durability. In the current design, the heater head is fabricated from the Ni-base superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718, Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV). Although IN 718 is a mature alloy system (patented in 1962), there is little long-term (>50,000-hr) creep data available for thin-specimen geometries. Since thin-section properties tend to be inferior to thicker samples, it is necessary to generate creep data using specimens with the same geometry as the actual flight hardware. Therefore, one facet of the overall durability assessment program involves generating relatively short-term creep data using thin specimens at the design temperature of 649 C (1200 F).

  2. Long-term safety assessment of live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccines: deliberations from a WHO technical consultation.

    PubMed

    Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Schmitz, Julia; Edelman, Robert; Durbin, Anna; Roehrig, John T; Smith, Peter G; Hombach, Joachim; Farrar, Jeremy

    2013-05-28

    Dengue is a rapidly growing public health threat with approximately 2.5 billion people estimated to be at risk. Several vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Thus far, live dengue vaccine candidates have been administered to several thousands of volunteers and were well-tolerated, with minimal short-term safety effects reported in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. Based on the natural history of dengue, a theoretical possibility of an increased risk of severe dengue as a consequence of vaccination has been hypothesized but not yet observed. In October 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a consultation of experts in dengue, vaccine regulation and vaccine safety to review the current scientific evidence regarding safety concerns associated with live attenuated dengue vaccines and, in particular, to consider methodological approaches for their long-term evaluation. In this paper we summarize the scientific background and methodological considerations relevant to the safety assessment of these vaccines. Careful planning and a coordinated approach to safety assessment are recommended to ensure adequate long-term evaluation of dengue vaccines that will support their introduction and continued use.

  3. Assessing the long-term impact of public investments in comparative effectiveness research: conceptual framework and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rich, Eugene C; Esposito, Dominick; Kimmey, Laura D; Valenzano, Christal Stone; Yong, Pierre L

    2014-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 directed US$1.1 billion to the US Department of Health and Human Services for support of comparative effectiveness research (CER). As part of this investment, US Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a midstream evaluation of the ARRA CER portfolio. One goal of the evaluation was to identify issues to consider for a future evaluation of the long-term impact of this portfolio and other CER investments. In planning the ARRA CER evaluation, we developed and revised a conceptual framework and related policy research questions that may be useful to future efforts to assess the impact of CER or patient-centered outcomes research investments. In addition, we explored methodological challenges related to designing an evaluation to assess investments in CER that may be informative to any future plans to evaluate the long-term impact of ARRA CER as well subsequent investments made from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund.

  4. Journeys through the valley of death: multimethod psychological assessment and personality transformation in long-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Finn, Stephen E

    2011-03-01

    The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) is based on the assumption that an in-depth understanding of clients' underlying emotional, personality, and interpersonal patterns will facilitate their treatment. In this article I show how such an understanding can be achieved through multimethod psychological assessment, and how useful such information can be in long-term psychotherapy with high-achieving, successful clients who struggle with forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Such treatments are extremely difficult, because when these clients attach to their psychotherapists, many of them temporarily become more symptomatic. I illustrate these points with a detailed account of my long-term therapy with a resilient but highly traumatized young man. Repeated use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Rorschach with my client helped guide us in our work, and also helped create an important therapeutic "opening" into the underlying traumatic material. This and other experiences have convinced me that it is extremely useful for psychologists to have training in both assessment and psychotherapy.

  5. FIFTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.

    2011-04-11

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for six years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Sixty-seven mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested at nominal six month intervals to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 36 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-350 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in 6 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 and 350 F, and in all 3 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at higher temperatures. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 30-48 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KAMS. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 or 300 F for 19 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-95%. This is significantly greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAMS field surveillance (23% average). For GLT O-rings, service life based on the room temperature leak rate criterion is comparable to that predicted by compression stress relaxation (CSR) data at higher temperatures (350-400 F). While there are no comparable failure data yet at aging temperatures below 300 F, extrapolations of the data for GLT O-rings suggests the CSR model predictions provide a conservative prediction of service

  6. FIFTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-11-01

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{sup reg.} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for six years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Sixty-seven mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested at nominal six month intervals to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 36 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200--350 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in 5 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 and 350 F, and in all 3 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at higher temperatures. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 30--48 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KAMS. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200--300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 or 300 F for 19 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51--95%. This is significantly greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAMS field surveillance (23% average). For GLT O-rings, service life based on the room temperature leak rate criterion is comparable to that predicted by compression stress relaxation (CSR) data at higher temperatures (350--400 F). While there are no comparable failure data yet at aging temperatures below 300 F, extrapolations of the data for GLT O-rings suggests that CSR model predictions provide a conservative prediction of

  7. Long-term fate of carbon in deeply rooted terrestrial sediment assessed by molecular proxies: sequestration vs. mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenberg, G. L.; Gocke, M. I.; Huguet, A.; Derenne, S.; Kolb, S.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable amounts of atmospheric CO2 are incorporated in plant belowground biomass and thus contribute to soil OM. However, associated with rooting, microorganisms enter the soil and, due to priming effects, might improve C mineralisation. Although these processes are well known for recent topsoils, it remains unclear if and how microorganisms contribute to long-term C dynamics in the subsoil and underlying soil parent material. This study comprises several state-of-the-art techniques like bacterial DNA and lipid molecular proxies to trace living and fossil microbial biomass in modern and ancient root systems. Throughout a 13 m thick loess-paleosol sequence in SW Germany, which has been penetrated by several generations of roots since the last glacial maximum, both bulk (Corg and Ccarb) and molecular changes in the rhizosphere were assessed at different depth intervals. Phospholipid fatty acids, DNA and intact polar glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers argue for the presence of living microorganisms in the rhizosphere not only of living but also ancient (≥3 ky) roots, which is associated with long-term C dynamics after the lifetime of the root. In the surrounding of living and ancient roots either C enrichment or C depletion was determined, depending on depth and rooting intensity. Especially in areas with high root densities (up to 20.000 root features like biopores, recent and calcified roots m-2), rhizomicrobial degradation led to decrease of C contents. In depth intervals of lower root feature densities (<<100 m-2), C accumulation was observed in the rhizosphere and rhizomicrobial degradation was limited. The penetration of subsoil and underlying sediment by roots does not necessarily lead to additional C stabilization in the long-term, despite locally abundant root features and high portions of incorporated root- and rhizomicrobial-derived OM on a molecular level. At the contrary, priming effects may lead to considerable C loss in densely rooted sediment.

  8. Assessment of bone microarchitecture in postmenopausal women on long-term bisphosphonate therapy with atypical fractures of the femur.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Maria Belen; Diehl, Maria; Buttazzoni, Mirena; Galich, Ana; Silveira, Fernando; Bogado, Cesar E; Zanchetta, Jose Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Reports of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in patients receiving long- term bisphosphonate therapy have raised concerns regarding the genesis of this rare event. Using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we conducted a study to evaluate bone microarchitecture in patients who had suffered an AFF during long-term bisphosphonate treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate if bone microarchitecture assessment could help explain the pathophysiology of these fractures. We compared bone volumetric density and microarchitectural parameters measured by HR-pQCT in the radius and tibia in 20 patients with AFFs with 35 postmenopausal women who had also received long-term bisphosphonate treatment but had not experienced AFFs, and with 54 treatment-naive postmenopausal women. Control groups were similar in age, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). Mean age of the 20 patients with AFFs was 71 years, mean lumbar spine T-score was -2.2, and mean femoral neck T-score was -2. Mean time on bisphosphonate treatment was 10.9 years (range, 5-20 years). None of the patients had other conditions associated with AFFs such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes or glucocorticoid use. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters measured by HR-pQCT between postmenopausal women with or without treatment history and with or without history of atypical fractures. We could not find any distinctive microarchitecture features in the peripheral skeleton of women who had suffered an atypical fracture of the femur while receiving bisphosphonate treatment. This suggests that risk of developing an atypical fracture is not related to bone microarchitecture deterioration. Our results indicate that there may be other individual factors predisposing to atypical fractures in patients treated with bisphosphonates, and that those are independent of bone microarchitecture. In the future, identification of those factors could

  9. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users.

  10. Long-term performance of precision crystal oscillators in a near-Earth orbital environment.

    PubMed

    Rueger, L J; Norton, J R; Lasewicz, P T

    1993-01-01

    The Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) uses precision quartz crystal oscillators to provide time and frequency in the orbiting spacecraft. The frequency changes for multiple oscillators, which were observed for 28 years of operational service in the orbital environment, are discussed. The primary frequency changes are believed to be caused by mass transfer to and from the resonator, stress relief in the resonator mounting structure and electrodes, and ionizing radiation of the quartz resonator. Observations to a resolution of 10- 13 have been made from 1963 to 1991 on 20 operational satellites in near-Earth orbit. No oscillator failures have occurred during the entire program life of nearly 30 years. One oscillator provided continuous operational service for over 21 years, and several have served more than 15 years. No oscillator changed frequency more than two parts in 107 while in operational service. One of the best performing oscillators had a predictable drift rate of 9x10(-13)+/-1x10(-13) per day after three years of service.

  11. Comparison of TCLP and long-term PCT performance on low-level mixed waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-06-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating technologies for conversion of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) into a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the preferred technologies since it is capable of consistently producing a durable, leach resistant wasteform, while simultaneously minimizing disposal volumes. Since vitrification of LLMW is a relatively new concept, final wasteform specifications have not been developed. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed the Product Consistency Test (PCI), which is a 7-day leaching procedure for glass. Comparison indicates that both tests have merit where LLMW glasses are concerned. The TCLP is an important test for determining the release of metals and for allowing the wasteform to be delisted while the PCT is more useful for determining consistent production of durable glass. It is a better indicator of the behavior of glass in disposal site conditions. Most aggressive leaching of common oxide glasses occurs under caustic rather than acidic conditions, therefore it is necessary to perform both tests. Further tests will be conducted using additional glass compositions and variations in the TCLP and the PCT.

  12. SIXTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-08-31

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for seven years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 33 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 F and higher temperatures, and in 7 fixtures aging at 300 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 41-60 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 F will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging within the past year at an intermediate temperature of 270 F, with hopes that they may leak before the 200 F fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200-300 F for up to 26 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-96%. This is greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAC field surveillance (24% average). For GLT O-rings, separate service life estimates have been made based on the O-ring fixture leak test data and based on compression stress relaxation

  13. NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-08-06

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The earliest 300 °F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 ºF fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the

  14. SEVENTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-08-30

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 54-72 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 30 - 36 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51 – 96%. This is greater than seen to date for any packages inspected during KAC field

  15. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a pressure ulcer risk assessment scale for patients in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Lepisto, Mervi; Eriksson, Elina; Hietanen, Helvi; Lepisto, Jyri; Lauri, Sirkka

    2006-02-01

    Previous pressure ulcer risk assessment scales appear to have relied on opinions about risk factors and are based on care setting rather than research evidence. Utilizing 21 existing risk assessment scales and relevant