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Sample records for long-term social recognition

  1. Long-term social recognition memory is mediated by oxytocin-dependent synaptic plasticity in the medial amygdala.

    PubMed

    Gur, Rotem; Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2014-09-01

    Recognition of specific individuals is fundamental to mammalian social behavior and is mediated in most mammals by the main and accessory olfactory systems. Both these systems innervate the medial amygdala (MeA), where activity of the neuropeptide oxytocin is thought to mediate social recognition memory (SRM). The specific contribution of the MeA to SRM formation and the specific actions of oxytocin in the MeA are unknown. We used the social discrimination test to evaluate short-term and long-term SRM in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 38). The role of protein synthesis in the MeA was investigated by local application of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin (n = 11). Synaptic plasticity was assessed in vivo by recording the MeA evoked field potential responses to stimulation of the main (n = 21) and accessory (n = 56) olfactory bulbs before and after theta burst stimulation. Intracerebroventricular administration of saline, oxytocin, or oxytocin receptor antagonist was used to measure the effect of oxytocin on synaptic plasticity. Anisomycin application to the MeA prevented the formation of long-term SRM. In addition, the responses of MeA neurons underwent long-term depression (LTD) after theta burst stimulation of the accessory olfactory bulb, but not the main accessory bulb, in an oxytocin-dependent manner. No LTD was found in socially isolated rats, which are known to lack long-term SRM. Finally, accessory olfactory bulb stimulation before SRM acquisition blocked long-term SRM, supporting the involvement of LTD in the MeA in formation of long-term SRM. Our results indicate that long-term SRM in rats involves protein synthesis and oxytocin-dependent LTD in the MeA. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, David; Spiro, Adena S; Jenner, Andrew M; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Here we evaluate the preventative properties of long-term CBD treatment in male AβPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (AβPP × PS1) mice, a transgenic model of AD. Control and AD transgenic mice were treated orally from 2.5 months of age with CBD (20 mg/kg) daily for 8 months. Mice were then assessed in the social preference test, elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning paradigms, before cortical and hippocampal tissues were analyzed for amyloid load, oxidative damage, cholesterol, phytosterols, and inflammation. We found that AβPP × PS1 mice developed a social recognition deficit, which was prevented by CBD treatment. CBD had no impact on anxiety or associative learning. The prevention of the social recognition deficit was not associated with any changes in amyloid load or oxidative damage. However, the study revealed a subtle impact of CBD on neuroinflammation, cholesterol, and dietary phytosterol retention, which deserves further investigation. This study is the first to demonstrate CBD's ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition.

  3. Genetic Mapping in Mice Reveals the Involvement of Pcdh9 in Long-Term Social and Object Recognition and Sensorimotor Development.

    PubMed

    Bruining, Hilgo; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S; Van't Spijker, Heleen M; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; van Engeland, Herman; Koopmans, Bastijn; van Lith, Hein A; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J Peter H; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the functional impact of an identified candidate gene on behavioral development. Genetic mapping of single-trial social recognition was performed in chromosome substitution strains, a sophisticated tool for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) of complex traits. Follow-up occurred by generating and testing knockout (KO) mice of a selected QTL candidate gene. Functional characterization of these mice was performed through behavioral and neurological assessments across developmental stages and analyses of gene expression and brain morphology. Chromosome substitution strain 14 mapping studies revealed an overlapping QTL related to long-term social and object recognition harboring Pcdh9, a cell-adhesion gene previously associated with autism spectrum disorder. Specific long-term social and object recognition deficits were confirmed in homozygous (KO) Pcdh9-deficient mice, while heterozygous mice only showed long-term social recognition impairment. The recognition deficits in KO mice were not associated with alterations in perception, multi-trial discrimination learning, sociability, behavioral flexibility, or fear memory. Rather, KO mice showed additional impairments in sensorimotor development reflected by early touch-evoked biting, rotarod performance, and sensory gating deficits. This profile emerged with structural changes in deep layers of sensory cortices, where Pcdh9 is selectively expressed. This behavior-to-gene study implicates Pcdh9 in cognitive functions required for long-term social and nonsocial recognition. This role is supported by the involvement of Pcdh9 in sensory cortex development and sensorimotor phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  4. Rapid and reversible impairments of short- and long-term social recognition memory are caused by acute isolation of adult rats via distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.

  5. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  6. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The long-term recency effect in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2006-05-01

    Three classes of theories explain the recency effect: the modal model, single-store models, and the composite view, which integrates the two positions. None could explain the absence of a long-term recency effect in recognition memory in previous studies. We suggest that prior work did not obtain a recency effect because testing used a multiple-probe rather than a single-probe recognition procedure. Here we tested memory using a single-probe recognition procedure. Experimental conditions included an immediate test, a delayed test after a filled interval, and a continuous-distractor paradigm in which the same filled delay preceded the first word and followed every study word. The long-term recency effect in continuous-distractor recognition was equivalent to the recency effect in immediate recognition. Its absence in the delayed recognition condition demonstrated that it was not attributed to the use of a putative short-term memory store. Single-store models and the composite view can account for this novel finding.

  8. Long-term visual object recognition memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Platano, Daniela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Balietti, Marta; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Aicardi, Giorgio

    2008-04-01

    Aging is associated with memory impairments, but the neural bases of this process need to be clarified. To this end, behavioral protocols for memory testing may be applied to aged animals to compare memory performances with functional and structural characteristics of specific brain regions. Visual object recognition memory can be investigated in the rat using a behavioral task based on its spontaneous preference for exploring novel rather than familiar objects. We found that a behavioral task able to elicit long-term visual object recognition memory in adult Long-Evans rats failed in aged (25-27 months old) Wistar rats. Since no tasks effective in aged rats are reported in the literature, we changed the experimental conditions to improve consolidation processes to assess whether this form of memory can still be maintained for long term at this age: the learning trials were performed in a smaller box, identical to the home cage, and the inter-trial delays were shortened. We observed a reduction in anxiety in this box (as indicated by the lower number of fecal boli produced during habituation), and we developed a learning protocol able to elicit a visual object recognition memory that was maintained after 24 h in these aged rats. When we applied the same protocol to adult rats, we obtained similar results. This experimental approach can be useful to study functional and structural changes associated with age-related memory impairments, and may help to identify new behavioral strategies and molecular targets that can be addressed to ameliorate memory performances during aging.

  9. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Bouma, Henri; Veerman, Henny E. T.; Benoist, Koen W.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to make this assessment with sensors (such as cameras) at a distance, to avoid costs of bringing an own asset closer to the ship for verification. The emphasis of the research presented in this paper, is on the use of several feature extraction and matching methods for recognizing ships from electro-optical imagery within different categories of vessels. We compared central moments, SIFT with localization and SIFT with Fisher Vectors. From the evaluation on imagery of ships, an indication of discriminative power is obtained between and within different categories of ships. This is used to assess the usefulness in persistent tracking, from short intervals (track improvement) to larger intervals (re-identifying ships). The result of this assessment on real data is used in a simulation environment to determine how track continuity is improved. The simulations showed that even limited recognition will improve tracking, connecting both tracks at short intervals as well as over several days.

  10. The Effect of Modality on Long-Term Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of visual and auditory modes of input on long-term memory were examined in two experiments, each with 40 and 80 undergraduates, respectively. In both experiments, visual stimulus attributes were a more salient dimension than were auditory features in the long-term encoding and retrieval process. (SLD)

  11. Long-Term Recency Is Not Found on a Recognition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Kraus, Thomas A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of this study disconfirm the predictions of the decay hypothesis because long-term recency effects appear to result from the use of contextually based retrieval cues. Long-term recency effects were attenuated on immediate recognition tests, while long-term recency effects were found on free recall tests. (DWH)

  12. Recognition of complex mental states in patients with alcoholism after long-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    Mátyássy, Adrienne; Kelemen, Oguz; Sárközi, Zsuzsa; Janka, Zoltán; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that patients with alcoholism display impaired emotional facial expression recognition even after long-term abstinence. These studies focused on basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness, and disgust). In this study, we investigated the recognition of complex social emotions and mental states in patients with alcoholism after long-term abstinence and healthy control subjects. Thirty patients with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and 30 age-matched, gender-matched, education-matched, and IQ-matched healthy control subjects participated. The patients were abstinent for >6 months. For the assessment of the recognition of complex social emotions and mental states, the Baron-Cohen Eyes Test was used. The experimenter presented 29 photographs of the eye-region of faces of actors and actresses on separate cards. Participants were asked to choose which of the four words (one target and three foils) best described the mental state of the actor/actress (for example, interested, doubtful, flirtatious, and insisting). The primary dependent measure was the number of correctly recognized stimuli. Patients with alcoholism correctly identified 22.4 (SD = 3.4) stimuli, whereas control participants identified 22.5 (SD = 2.9) stimuli. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.85). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients and controls who correctly recognized each mental state. These results are against the hypotheses suggesting long-term adverse effects of alcohol on social cognition or supposing an inherent vulnerability of patients that may manifest before the development of alcohol dependence.

  13. Long-term effects of covert face recognition.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike; Ellis, Andrew W

    2002-12-01

    Covert face recognition has previously been thought to produce only very short-lasting effects. In this study we demonstrate that manipulating subjects' attentional load affects explicit, but not implicit memory for faces, and that implicit effects can persist over much longer intervals than is normally reported. Subjects performed letter-string tasks of high vs. low perceptual load (Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Perfomance. 21, 451-468.), while ignoring task-irrelevant celebrity faces. Memory for the faces was then assessed using (a) a surprise recognition test for the celebrities' names, and (b) repetition priming in a face familiarity task. The load manipulation strongly influenced explicit recognition memory, but had no effect on repetition priming from the same items. Moreover, faces from the high load condition produced the same amount of priming whether they were explicitly remembered or not. This result resolves a long-standing anomaly in the face recognition literature, and is discussed in relation to covert processing in prosopagnosia.

  14. Long-term activity recognition from wristwatch accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Brena, Ramon F; Carrasco-Jimenez, Jose C; Garrido, Leonardo

    2014-11-27

    With the development of wearable devices that have several embedded sensors, it is possible to collect data that can be analyzed in order to understand the user's needs and provide personalized services. Examples of these types of devices are smartphones, fitness-bracelets, smartwatches, just to mention a few. In the last years, several works have used these devices to recognize simple activities like running, walking, sleeping, and other physical activities. There has also been research on recognizing complex activities like cooking, sporting, and taking medication, but these generally require the installation of external sensors that may become obtrusive to the user. In this work we used acceleration data from a wristwatch in order to identify long-term activities. We compare the use of Hidden Markov Models and Conditional Random Fields for the segmentation task. We also added prior knowledge into the models regarding the duration of the activities by coding them as constraints and sequence patterns were added in the form of feature functions. We also performed subclassing in order to deal with the problem of intra-class fragmentation, which arises when the same label is applied to activities that are conceptually the same but very different from the acceleration point of view.

  15. Long-Term Activity Recognition from Wristwatch Accelerometer Data *

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Brena, Ramon F.; Carrasco-Jimenez, Jose C.; Garrido, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of wearable devices that have several embedded sensors, it is possible to collect data that can be analyzed in order to understand the user's needs and provide personalized services. Examples of these types of devices are smartphones, fitness-bracelets, smartwatches, just to mention a few. In the last years, several works have used these devices to recognize simple activities like running, walking, sleeping, and other physical activities. There has also been research on recognizing complex activities like cooking, sporting, and taking medication, but these generally require the installation of external sensors that may become obtrusive to the user. In this work we used acceleration data from a wristwatch in order to identify long-term activities. We compare the use of Hidden Markov Models and Conditional Random Fields for the segmentation task. We also added prior knowledge into the models regarding the duration of the activities by coding them as constraints and sequence patterns were added in the form of feature functions. We also performed subclassing in order to deal with the problem of intra-class fragmentation, which arises when the same label is applied to activities that are conceptually the same but very different from the acceleration point of view. PMID:25436652

  16. Early Exposure to Volatile Anesthetics Impairs Long-Term Associative Learning and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bradley H.; Chan, John Thomas; Hazarika, Obhi; Vutskits, Laszlo; Sall, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anesthetic exposure early in life affects neural development and long-term cognitive function, but our understanding of the types of memory that are altered is incomplete. Specific cognitive tests in rodents that isolate different memory processes provide a useful approach for gaining insight into this issue. Methods Postnatal day 7 (P7) rats were exposed to either desflurane or isoflurane at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Acute neuronal death was assessed 12 h later in the thalamus, CA1-3 regions of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus. In separate behavioral experiments, beginning at P48, subjects were evaluated in a series of object recognition tests relying on associative learning, as well as social recognition. Results Exposure to either anesthetic led to a significant increase in neuroapoptosis in each brain region. The extent of neuronal death did not differ between groups. Subjects were unaffected in simple tasks of novel object and object-location recognition. However, anesthetized animals from both groups were impaired in allocentric object-location memory and a more complex task requiring subjects to associate an object with its location and contextual setting. Isoflurane exposure led to additional impairment in object-context association and social memory. Conclusion Isoflurane and desflurane exposure during development result in deficits in tasks relying on associative learning and recognition memory. Isoflurane may potentially cause worse impairment than desflurane. PMID:25165850

  17. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2011-01-25

    The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs). In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  18. Deficits in Long-Term Recognition Memory Reveal Dissociated Subtypes in Congenital Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs). In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception. PMID:21283572

  19. Estrogen involvement in social behavior in rodents: Rapid and long-term actions.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Kelsy S J; Lymer, Jennifer M; Matta, Richard; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue ("Estradiol and cognition"). Estrogens have repeatedly been shown to influence a wide array of social behaviors, which in rodents are predominantly olfactory-mediated. Estrogens are involved in social behavior at multiple levels of processing, from the detection and integration of socially relevant olfactory information to more complex social behaviors, including social preferences, aggression and dominance, and learning and memory for social stimuli (e.g. social recognition and social learning). Three estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled ER 1 (GPER1), differently affect these behaviors. Social recognition, territorial aggression, and sexual preferences and mate choice, all requiring the integration of socially related olfactory information, seem to primarily involve ERα, with ERβ playing a lesser, modulatory role. In contrast, social learning consistently responds differently to estrogen manipulations than other social behaviors. This suggests differential ER involvement in brain regions important for specific social behaviors, such as the ventromedial and medial preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in social preferences and aggression, the medial amygdala and hippocampus in social recognition, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in social learning. While the long-term effects of ERα and ERβ on social behavior have been extensively investigated, our knowledge of the rapid, non-genomic, effects of estrogens is more limited and suggests that they may mediate some social behaviors (e.g. social learning) differently from long-term effects. Further research is required to compare ER involvement in regulating social behavior in male and female animals, and to further elucidate the roles of the more recently described G protein-coupled ERs, both the GPER1 and the Gq-mER.

  20. Dealing with the long-term social implications of research.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Alan; Levine, Carol; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Grady, Christine; Hammerschmidt, Dale E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Biomedical and behavioral research may affect strongly held social values and thereby create significant controversy over whether such research should be permitted in the first place. Institutional review boards (IRBs) responsible for protecting the rights and welfare of participants in research are sometimes faced with review of protocols that have significant implications for social policy and the potential for negative social consequences. Although IRB members often raise concerns about potential long-term social implications in protocol review, federal regulations strongly discourage IRBs from considering them in their decisions. Yet IRBs often do consider the social implications of research protocols and sometimes create significant delays in initiating or even prevent such research. The social implications of research are important topics for public scrutiny and professional discussion. This article examines the reasons that the federal regulations preclude IRBs from assessing the social risks of research, and examines alternative approaches that have been used with varying success by national advisory groups to provide such guidance. The article concludes with recommendations for characteristics of a national advisory group that could successfully fulfill this need, including sustainability, independence, diverse and relevant expertise, and public transparency.

  1. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs. PMID:22888794

  2. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Hirotaka; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Asano, Mizuki; Omori, Masao; Sato, Makoto; Tomoda, Akemi; Wada, Yuji

    2012-08-13

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl's social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  3. Social outcomes of long-term survivors of adolescent cancer.

    PubMed

    Dieluweit, Ute; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Grabow, Desiree; Kaatsch, Peter; Peter, Richard; Seitz, Diana C M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2010-12-01

    The study investigates psychosexual and family outcomes among German long-term survivors of adolescent cancer. Survivors of cancer during adolescence (n = 820; age at onset of disease: M = 15.8 years, SD = 0.9, age at follow-up: M = 30.4, SD = 6.0 years) completed questionnaires on their family life and their psychosexual and autonomy development. Outcomes were compared to an age-matched sample (German Socio-Economic Panel, G-SOEP, n = 820, age: M = 30.4, SD = 6.7 years) from the general population and to a control group of adults without cancer (n = 1027, age: M = 31.5, SD = 7.0 years). Compared to controls of the same sex, female survivors had achieved fewer developmental milestones in their psychosexual development such as having their first boyfriend, or reached these milestones later, and reported a significantly stronger desire for children. Male survivors were more likely to live with their parents when compared to same sex controls. Equivalent proportions of survivors and persons in the G-SOEP were living in a long-term relationship; however, survivors were less likely to have ever married or had children. At first marriage and at the birth of their first child, survivors were significantly older compared to the G-SOEP. About 14.5% of survivors reported cancer-related infertility. Survivors of adolescent cancer experience some social late effects of the disease in adulthood, such as a delayed social development as well as substantial differences in their family life and living conditions compared to healthy peers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. SCOP/PHLPP1β mediates circadian regulation of long-term recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Kimiko; Kobayashi, Yodai; Nakatsuji, Erika; Yamazaki, Maya; Shimba, Shigeki; Sakimura, Kenji; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on the time of day in various organisms, but it is not clear whether and how the circadian clock regulates memory performance. Here we show that consolidation of long-term recognition memory is a circadian-regulated process, which is blunted by disruption of the hippocampal clock. We focused on SCOP, a key molecule regulating hippocampus-dependent long-term memory for objects. The amounts of SCOP and its binding partner K-Ras in the hippocampal membrane rafts exhibit robust circadian changes, and SCOP knockdown in the hippocampal CA1 impairs long-term memory at night. Circadian changes in stimulus-dependent activation of ERK in the hippocampal neurons are dependent on the SCOP levels in the membrane rafts, while Scop knockout abrogates the activation rhythm. We conclude that long-term memory formation is regulated by the circadian clock through SCOP dynamics in the membrane rafts of the hippocampal CA1. PMID:27686624

  5. Recognition-induced forgetting of faces in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Kelsi F; Tamler, Kendall N; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Maxcey, Ashleigh M

    2017-09-12

    Despite more than a century of evidence that long-term memory for pictures and words are different, much of what we know about memory comes from studies using words. Recent research examining visual long-term memory has demonstrated that recognizing an object induces the forgetting of objects from the same category. This recognition-induced forgetting has been shown with a variety of everyday objects. However, unlike everyday objects, faces are objects of expertise. As a result, faces may be immune to recognition-induced forgetting. However, despite excellent memory for such stimuli, we found that faces were susceptible to recognition-induced forgetting. Our findings have implications for how models of human memory account for recognition-induced forgetting as well as represent objects of expertise and consequences for eyewitness testimony and the justice system.

  6. A Novel Unsupervised Adaptive Learning Method for Long-Term Electromyography (EMG) Pattern Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Yang, Dapeng; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Huajie; Liu, Hong; Kotani, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Performance degradation will be caused by a variety of interfering factors for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control methods in the long term. This paper proposes an adaptive learning method with low computational cost to mitigate the effect in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios. We presents a particle adaptive classifier (PAC), by constructing a particle adaptive learning strategy and universal incremental least square support vector classifier (LS-SVC). We compared PAC performance with incremental support vector classifier (ISVC) and non-adapting SVC (NSVC) in a long-term pattern recognition task in both unsupervised and supervised adaptive learning scenarios. Retraining time cost and recognition accuracy were compared by validating the classification performance on both simulated and realistic long-term EMG data. The classification results of realistic long-term EMG data showed that the PAC significantly decreased the performance degradation in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios compared with NSVC (9.03% ± 2.23%, p < 0.05) and ISVC (13.38% ± 2.62%, p = 0.001), and reduced the retraining time cost compared with ISVC (2 ms per updating cycle vs. 50 ms per updating cycle). PMID:28608824

  7. Quality Preschool Programs: A Long-Term Social Investment. Occasional Paper Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, David P.

    This report analyzes the long-term benefits, to children and society, of high-quality early childhood education. Specifically, it explores the contribution which these programs can make as a long-term social investment and as a means of ameliorating the effects of poverty. Evidence for the outcomes of such programs comes from a long-term study of…

  8. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Shannon J.; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S.; Seasholtz, Audrey F.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. PMID:23835143

  10. Arousal Rather than Basic Emotions Influence Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Artur; Wypych, Marek; Moslehi, Abnoos; Riegel, Monika; Michałowski, Jarosław M; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized) vs. forgotten (not recognized) images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia.

  11. Depletion of perineuronal nets enhances recognition memory and long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Carola; Yang, Sujeong; Melani, Riccardo; Andrews, Melissa R.; Horner, Alexa E.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Fawcett, James W.; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Perineuronal nets are extracellular matrix structures surrounding cortical neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and are involved in the control of brain plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Expression of the link protein Crtl1/Hapln1 in neurons has recently been identified as the key event triggering the formation of perineuronal nets. Here we show that the genetic attenuation of perineuronal nets in adult brain Crtl1 knockout mice enhances long term object recognition memory and facilitates long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex, a neural correlate of object recognition memory. Identical prolongation of memory follows localised digestion of perineuronal nets with chondroitinase ABC, an enzyme that degrades the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) components of PNNs. The memory-enhancing effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment attenuated over time, suggesting that regeneration of PNNs gradually restored control plasticity levels. Our findings indicate that perineuronal nets regulate both memory and experience-driven synaptic plasticity in adulthood. PMID:23595763

  12. Israel's Long-Term Care Social Insurance Scheme After a Quarter of a Century.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Long-term care social insurance schemes exist in a number of countries, while the introduction of such schemes enjoys some support in others. Israel's long-term care social insurance scheme has been operating since 1988. This article examines the emergence, goals, design, and impacts of this scheme and draws out some of the lessons that can be learned from Israel's quarter century experience of long-term care social insurance.

  13. Nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression but not endocannabinoid-mediated long-term potentiation is crucial for visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Barker, Gareth; Warburton, E Clea; Burattini, Costanza; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bashir, Zafar I

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in perirhinal cortex is essential for recognition memory. Nitric oxide and endocannabinoids (eCBs), which are produced in the postsynaptic cell and act on the presynaptic terminal, are implicated in mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in other brain regions. In this study, we examine these two retrograde signalling cascades in perirhinal cortex synaptic plasticity and in visual recognition memory in the rat. We show that inhibition of NO-dependent signalling prevented both carbachol- and activity (5 Hz)-dependent LTD but not activity (100 Hz theta burst)-dependent LTP in the rat perirhinal cortex in vitro. In contrast, inhibition of the eCB-dependent signalling prevented LTP but not the two forms of LTD in vitro. Local administration into perirhinal cortex of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NPA (2 μm) disrupted acquisition of long-term visual recognition memory. In contrast, AM251 (10 μm), a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, did not impair visual recognition memory. The results of this study demonstrate dissociation between putative retrograde signalling mechanisms in LTD and LTP in perirhinal cortex. Thus, LTP relies on cannabinoid but not NO signalling, whilst LTD relies on NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling. Critically, these results also establish, for the first time, that NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling is important in perirhinal cortex-dependent visual recognition memory. PMID:23671159

  14. Accelerometer's position independent physical activity recognition system for long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2010-12-01

    Mobility is a good indicator of health status and thus objective mobility data could be used to assess the health status of elderly patients. Accelerometry has emerged as an effective means for long-term physical activity monitoring in the elderly. However, the output of an accelerometer varies at different positions on a subject's body, even for the same activity, resulting in high within-class variance. Existing accelerometer-based activity recognition systems thus require firm attachment of the sensor to a subject's body. This requirement makes them impractical for long-term activity monitoring during unsupervised free-living as it forces subjects into a fixed life pattern and impede their daily activities. Therefore, we introduce a novel single-triaxial-accelerometer-based activity recognition system that reduces the high within-class variance significantly and allows subjects to carry the sensor freely in any pocket without its firm attachment. We validated our system using seven activities: resting (lying/sitting/standing), walking, walking-upstairs, walking-downstairs, running, cycling, and vacuuming, recorded from five positions: chest pocket, front left trousers pocket, front right trousers pocket, rear trousers pocket, and inner jacket pocket. Its simplicity, ability to perform activities unimpeded, and an average recognition accuracy of 94% make our system a practical solution for continuous long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

  15. Repeated Neonatal Propofol Administration Induces Sex-Dependent Long-Term Impairments on Spatial and Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Choi, Chang Soon; Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25995824

  16. The effect of the social regulation of emotion on emotional long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Flores, Luis E; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Memories for emotional events tend to be stronger than for neutral events, and weakening negative memories can be helpful to promote well-being. The present study examined whether the social regulation of emotion (in the form of handholding) altered the strength of emotional long-term memory. A sample of 219 undergraduate students viewed sets of negative, neutral, and positive images. Each participant held a stress ball while viewing half of the images and held someone's hand while viewing the other half. Participants returned 1 week later to complete a recognition task. Performance on the recognition task demonstrated that participants had lower memory accuracy for negative but not for positive pictures that were shown while they were holding someone's hand compared with when they were holding a stress ball. Although handholding altered the strength of negative emotional long-term memory, it did not down-regulate negative affective response as measured by self-report or facial expressivity. The present findings provide evidence that the social regulation of emotion can help weaken memory for negative information. Given the role of strong negative memories in different forms of psychopathology (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder), these findings may help better understand how close relationships protect against psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Charlotte K; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    The neurotrophin family of proteins are believed to mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Here we have assessed the roles of these proteins in object recognition memory in the rat, using icv infusions of function-blocking antibodies or the tyrosine kinase antagonist, tyrphostin AG879, to block Trk receptors. We report that tyrphostin AG879 impairs both short-term and long-term recognition memory, indicating a requirement for Trk receptor activation in both processes. The effect of inhibition of each of the neurotrophins with activity-blocking neutralising antibodies was also tested. Treatment with anti-BDNF, anti-NGF or anti-NT4 had no effect on short-term memory, but blocked long-term recognition memory. Treatment with anti-NT3 had no effect on either process. We also assessed changes in expression of neurotrophins and their respective receptors in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex over a 24 h period following training in the object recognition task. We observed time-dependent changes in expression of the Trk receptors and their ligands in the dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex. The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Arousal Rather than Basic Emotions Influence Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, Artur; Wypych, Marek; Moslehi, Abnoos; Riegel, Monika; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized) vs. forgotten (not recognized) images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia. PMID:27818626

  19. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    PubMed

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  20. Speech-recognition performance after long-term hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Janet E; Wilson, Richard H; Stelmachowicz, Patricia; Bratt, Gene W; Williams, David W

    2007-04-01

    Larson et al (2000) reported the findings of a multicenter, NIDCDNA clinical trial that compared hearing aid performance for three output limiting circuits in 360 adults with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. The current study was undertaken to examine long-term hearing aid benefit in this same group of participants following five to six years of hearing aid use. The speech-recognition portion of the follow-up study enrolled 108 participants from the original study, 85% of whom were current hearing aid users and 15% of whom had not worn hearing aids during the past month (nonusers). Recognition performance in sound field on the NU-6 (quiet at 62 dB SPL) and the CST (quiet at 74 dB SPL and with -3 and 3 dB signal-to-babble ratios [S/B] at 62 and 74 dB SPL) was measured unaided and aided whenever possible. Speech-recognition abilities decreased significantly since the original study. Speech-recognition decrements were observed regardless of the speech materials (NU-6 and CST), test condition (quiet and noise), S/B (-3 and 3 dB), or stimulus level (62 and 74 dB SPL). Despite decreases in speech recognition, hearing aid benefit remained largely unchanged since the original study; aided performance exceeded unaided performance regardless of presentation level or noise condition. As in the original study, the relations among stimulus level, S/B, and speech-recognition performance were complex.

  1. Out of Place: Mediating Health and Social Care in Ontario's Long-Term Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a "managed competition" delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of "health care" over "social care" through changes to which…

  2. Out of Place: Mediating Health and Social Care in Ontario's Long-Term Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a "managed competition" delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of "health care" over "social care" through changes to which…

  3. Social Justice: A Long-Term Challenge for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Allen E.; Collins, Noah M.

    2003-01-01

    Counseling psychology has a long history of interest and commitment to social justice and multicultural issues. This article discusses some of that history and, in addition, speaks to specifics of implementing a liberation psychology frame of reference into clinical practice along with the issues of implementation and challenges faced by those of…

  4. Short- and long-term memory contributions to immediate serial recognition: evidence from serial position effects.

    PubMed

    Purser, Harry; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    A long-standing body of research supports the existence of separable short- and long-term memory systems, relying on phonological and semantic codes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to measure the contribution of long-term knowledge to short-term memory performance by looking for evidence of phonologically and semantically coded storage within a short-term recognition task, among developmental samples. Each experimental trial presented 4-item lists. In Experiment 1 typically developing children aged 5 to 6 years old showed evidence of phonologically coded storage across all 4 serial positions, but evidence of semantically coded storage at Serial Positions 1 and 2. In a further experiment, a group of individuals with Down syndrome was investigated as a test case that might be expected to use semantic coding to support short-term storage, but these participants showed no evidence of semantically coded storage and evidenced phonologically coded storage only at Serial Position 4, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have a verbal short-term memory capacity of 1 item. Our results suggest that previous evidence of semantic effects on "short-term memory performance" does not reflect semantic coding in short-term memory itself, and provide an experimental method for researchers wishing to take a relatively pure measure of verbal short-term memory capacity, in cases where rehearsal is unlikely.

  5. Cervical cancer survivorship: Long-term quality of life and social support

    PubMed Central

    Pfaendler, Krista S.; Wenzel, Lari; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Penner, Kristine R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the mainstays of cervical cancer treatment. Many patients receive multiple treatment modalities, each with its own long-term effects. Given the high 5 year survival rate for cervical cancer patients, evaluation and improvement of long-term quality of life are essential. Methods Pertinent articles were identified through searches of PubMed for literature published from 1993-2014. We summarize quality of life data from long-term follow up studies of cervical cancer patients. We additionally summarize small group interviews of Hispanic and non-Hispanic cervical cancer survivors regarding social support and coping. Findings Data is varied in terms of the long term impact of treatment on quality of life but consistent in suggesting that patients who receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment have the highest risk of increased long term dysfunction of bladder and bowel, as well as sexual dysfunction and psychosocial consequences. Rigorous investigations regarding long-term consequences of treatment modalities are lacking. Implications Continued work to improve treatment outcomes and survival should also include a focus on reducing adverse long-term side effects. Providing supportive care during treatment, and evaluating the effects of supportive care, may reduce the prevalence and magnitude of long-term sequelae of cervical cancer, which will in turn improve quality of life and quality of care. PMID:25592090

  6. Binding neutral information to emotional contexts: Brain dynamics of long-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Moltó, Javier; Poy, Rosario; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    There is abundant evidence in memory research that emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. However, effects of an emotionally charged context on memory for associated neutral elements is also important, particularly in trauma and stress-related disorders, where strong memories are often activated by neutral cues due to their emotional associations. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate long-term recognition memory (1-week delay) for neutral objects that had been paired with emotionally arousing or neutral scenes during encoding. Context effects were clearly evident in the ERPs: An early frontal ERP old/new difference (300-500 ms) was enhanced for objects encoded in unpleasant compared to pleasant and neutral contexts; and a late central-parietal old/new difference (400-700 ms) was observed for objects paired with both pleasant and unpleasant contexts but not for items paired with neutral backgrounds. Interestingly, objects encoded in emotional contexts (and novel objects) also prompted an enhanced frontal early (180-220 ms) positivity compared to objects paired with neutral scenes indicating early perceptual significance. The present data suggest that emotional--particularly unpleasant--backgrounds strengthen memory for items encountered within these contexts and engage automatic and explicit recognition processes. These results could help in understanding binding mechanisms involved in the activation of trauma-related memories by neutral cues.

  7. Long-Term Outcome of Social Skills Intervention Based on Interactive LEGO[C] Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legoff, Daniel B.; Sherman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    LEGO[C] building materials have been adapted as a therapeutic modality for increasing motivation to participate in social skills intervention, and providing a medium through which children with social and communication handicaps can effectively interact. A 3 year retrospective study of long-term outcome for autistic spectrum children participating…

  8. Long-Term Outcome of Social Skills Intervention Based on Interactive LEGO[C] Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legoff, Daniel B.; Sherman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    LEGO[C] building materials have been adapted as a therapeutic modality for increasing motivation to participate in social skills intervention, and providing a medium through which children with social and communication handicaps can effectively interact. A 3 year retrospective study of long-term outcome for autistic spectrum children participating…

  9. Social science in the context of the long term ecological research program

    Treesearch

    Ted L. Gragson; Morgan Grove

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of Society and Natural Resources brings the results of long-term ecological research with an explicit social dimension to the attention of the social scientific research community. Contributions are from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER, the Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER, the Coweeta LTER and the Northern Temperate Lakes LTER. The range of practice...

  10. Social science in the context of the long term ecological research program

    Treesearch

    Ted L. Gragson; Morgan Grove

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of Society and Natural Resources brings the results of long-term ecological research with an explicit social dimension to the attention of the social scientific research community. Contributions are from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER, the Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER, the Coweeta LTER and the Northern Temperate Lakes LTER The range of practice...

  11. Long-term functioning following whiplash injury: the role of social support and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Bernheim, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Transition from acute whiplash injury to either recovery or chronicity and the development of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) remains a challenging issue for researchers and clinicians. The roles of social support and personality traits in long-term functioning following whiplash have not been studied concomitantly. The present study aimed to examine whether social support and personality traits are related to long-term functioning following whiplash. One hundred forty-three subjects, who had experienced a whiplash injury in a traffic accident 10-26 months before the study took place, participated. The initial diagnoses were a 'sprain of the neck' (ICD-9 code 847.0); only the outcome of grades I-III acute WAD was studied. Long-term functioning was considered within the biopsychosocial model: it was expressed in terms of disability, functional status, quality of life and psychological well-being. Participants filled out a set of questionnaires to measure the long-term functioning parameters (i.e. the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being and the Symptom Checklist-90) and potential determinants of long-term functioning (the Dutch Personality Questionnaire and the Social Support List). The results suggest that social support (especially the discrepancies dimension of social support) and personality traits (i.e. inadequacy, self-satisfaction and resentment) are related to long-term functioning following whiplash injury (Spearman rho varied between 0.32 and 0.57; p < 0.01). Within the discrepancy dimension, everyday emotional support, emotional support during problems, appreciative support and informative support were identified as important correlates of long-term functioning. Future prospective studies are required to confirm the role of social support and personality traits in relation to long-term functioning following whiplash. For such

  12. Long-term care: dignity, autonomy, family integrity, and social sustainability: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho Mun; Pang, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This article reveals the outcome of a study on the perceptions of elders, family members, and healthcare professionals and administration providing care in a range of different long-term care facilities in Hong Kong with primary focus on the concepts of autonomy and dignity of elders, quality and location of care, decision making, and financing of long term care. It was found that aging in place and family care were considered the best approaches to long term care insofar as procuring and balancing the values of dignity, autonomy, family integrity and social sustainability were concerned. An elder having the final say was generally accepted. The results also initiated the importance of sharing of financial responsibility among elders, children and government albeit the emphasis was placed on individuals. Furthermore, dignity of elders was not considered purely a synonym of autonomy, but it had also to do with respect, family and social connections.

  13. Development of a Curriculum for Long-Term Care Nurses to Improve Recognition of Depression in Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine L.; Molinari, Victor; Bond, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Hyer, Kathryn; Malphurs, Julie

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the severe consequences of depression in long-term care residents with dementia. Most health care providers are unprepared to recognize and to manage the complexity of depression in dementia. Targeted educational initiatives in nursing homes are needed to address this growing problem. This paper describes the…

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: A Systematic Review of Self-Esteem and Social Function.

    PubMed

    Harpin, V; Mazzone, L; Raynaud, J P; Kahle, J; Hodgkins, P

    2016-04-01

    To compare the long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes of individuals with untreated and treated ADHD across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A systematic search of 12 databases was performed to identify peer-reviewed, primary research articles, published January 1980 to December 2011, reporting long-term self-esteem and/or social function outcomes (≥2 years; life consequences distinct from symptoms) of individuals with untreated or treated ADHD. Overall, 127 studies reported 150 outcomes. Most outcomes were poorer in individuals with untreated ADHD versus non-ADHD controls (57% [13/23] for self-esteem; 73% [52/71] for social function). A beneficial response to treatment (pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and multimodal treatments) was reported for the majority of self-esteem (89% [8/9]) and social function (77% [17/22]) outcomes. Untreated ADHD was associated with poorer long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes compared with non-ADHD controls. Treatment for ADHD was associated with improvement in outcomes; however, further long-term outcome studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Long-Term Social and Emotional Outcomes of Subject-Area Acceleration on Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dana Cantrell

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study utilizing transcendental phenomenology methods sought to understand the long-term social and emotional outcomes associated with subject-area acceleration. The participants were high school gifted juniors and seniors from one rural high school the southeastern United States. Data was collected through…

  16. Misremembering what you see or hear: Dissociable effects of modality on short- and long-term false recognition.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Justyna M; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A

    2015-09-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds of encoding in either the visual or auditory modality. However, false memories were nearly twice as frequent when study lists were seen than when they were heard, regardless of test modality, although study-test modality mismatch was generally disadvantageous (consistent with encoding specificity). A final experiment that varied study-test modality using a hybrid short- and long-term memory test (Flegal, Atkins & Reuter-Lorenz, 2010) replicated the auditory advantage in the short term but revealed a reversal in the long term: The false memory effect was greater in the auditory study-test condition than in the visual study-test condition. Thus, the same encoding conditions gave rise to an opposite modality advantage depending on whether recognition was tested under short-term or long-term memory conditions. Although demonstrating continuity in associative processing across delay, the results indicate that delay condition affects the availability of modality-dependent features of the memory trace and, thus, distinctiveness, leading to dissociable patterns of short- and long-term memory performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Marketing and social work--synergy in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Loomis, L M; Bufano, J T

    1985-08-01

    The concept of marketing is new to the long-term care industry. Limited financial resources dictate that administrators investigate ways to supplement marketing staff. St. John's Home in Rochester, New York, has focused attention on the way in which social work can enhance the effectiveness of the marketing program. Presented here is the role of social work in the marketing mix: product, place, price, promotion, and public relations.

  18. Interteaching and Lecture: A Comparison of Long-Term Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Bryan K.; Bureau, Alex; Eckenrode, Claire; Fullerton, Alison; Herbert, Reanna; Maley, Michelle; Porter, Allen; Zombakis, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies suggest that interteaching is an effective alternative to traditional teaching methods, no studies have systematically examined whether interteaching improves long-term memory. In this study, we assigned students to different teaching conditions--interteaching, lecture, or control--and then gave them a multiple-choice…

  19. Interteaching and Lecture: A Comparison of Long-Term Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Bryan K.; Bureau, Alex; Eckenrode, Claire; Fullerton, Alison; Herbert, Reanna; Maley, Michelle; Porter, Allen; Zombakis, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies suggest that interteaching is an effective alternative to traditional teaching methods, no studies have systematically examined whether interteaching improves long-term memory. In this study, we assigned students to different teaching conditions--interteaching, lecture, or control--and then gave them a multiple-choice…

  20. Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Booms, Andrew S; Holekamp, Kay E

    2015-07-01

    Social structure influences ecological processes such as dispersal and invasion, and affects survival and reproductive success. Recent studies have used static snapshots of social networks, thus neglecting their temporal dynamics, and focused primarily on a limited number of variables that might be affecting social structure. Here, instead we modelled effects of multiple predictors of social network dynamics in the spotted hyena, using observational data collected during 20 years of continuous field research in Kenya. We tested the hypothesis that the current state of the social network affects its long-term dynamics. We employed stochastic agent-based models that allowed us to estimate the contribution of multiple factors to network changes. After controlling for environmental and individual effects, we found that network density and individual centrality affected network dynamics, but that social bond transitivity consistently had the strongest effects. Our results emphasise the significance of structural properties of networks in shaping social dynamics.

  1. Long-Term Evolution of Email Networks: Statistical Regularities, Predictability and Stability of Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In social networks, individuals constantly drop ties and replace them by new ones in a highly unpredictable fashion. This highly dynamical nature of social ties has important implications for processes such as the spread of information or of epidemics. Several studies have demonstrated the influence of a number of factors on the intricate microscopic process of tie replacement, but the macroscopic long-term effects of such changes remain largely unexplored. Here we investigate whether, despite the inherent randomness at the microscopic level, there are macroscopic statistical regularities in the long-term evolution of social networks. In particular, we analyze the email network of a large organization with over 1,000 individuals throughout four consecutive years. We find that, although the evolution of individual ties is highly unpredictable, the macro-evolution of social communication networks follows well-defined statistical patterns, characterized by exponentially decaying log-variations of the weight of social ties and of individuals’ social strength. At the same time, we find that individuals have social signatures and communication strategies that are remarkably stable over the scale of several years. PMID:26735853

  2. Long-Term Evolution of Email Networks: Statistical Regularities, Predictability and Stability of Social Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In social networks, individuals constantly drop ties and replace them by new ones in a highly unpredictable fashion. This highly dynamical nature of social ties has important implications for processes such as the spread of information or of epidemics. Several studies have demonstrated the influence of a number of factors on the intricate microscopic process of tie replacement, but the macroscopic long-term effects of such changes remain largely unexplored. Here we investigate whether, despite the inherent randomness at the microscopic level, there are macroscopic statistical regularities in the long-term evolution of social networks. In particular, we analyze the email network of a large organization with over 1,000 individuals throughout four consecutive years. We find that, although the evolution of individual ties is highly unpredictable, the macro-evolution of social communication networks follows well-defined statistical patterns, characterized by exponentially decaying log-variations of the weight of social ties and of individuals' social strength. At the same time, we find that individuals have social signatures and communication strategies that are remarkably stable over the scale of several years.

  3. "Everyone Needs a Friend Sometimes" - Social Predictors of Long-Term Remission In First Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Bjornestad, Jone; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor K; Langeveld, Johannes; Davidson, Larry; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Anda, Liss G; Veseth, Marius; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan O; Bronnick, Kolbjorn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Predictors of long-term symptomatic remission are crucial to the successful tailoring of treatment in first episode psychosis. There is lack of studies distinguishing the predictive effects of different social factors. This prevents a valid evaluating of their independent effects. Objectives: To test specific social baseline predictors of long-term remission. We hypothesized that first, satisfaction with social relations predicts remission; second, that frequency of social interaction predicts remission; and third, that the effect of friend relationship satisfaction and frequency will be greater than that of family relations satisfaction and frequency. Material and Methods: A sample of first episode psychosis (n = 186) completed baseline measures of social functioning, as well as clinical assessments. We compared groups of remitted and non-remitted individuals using generalized estimating equations analyses. Results: Frequency of social interaction with friends was a significant positive predictor of remission over a two-year period. Neither global perceived social satisfaction nor frequency of family interaction showed significant effects. Conclusions: The study findings are of particular clinical importance since frequency of friendship interaction is a possibly malleable factor. Frequency of interaction could be affected through behavioral modification and therapy already from an early stage in the course, and thus increase remission rates.

  4. Long-term adaptation of the influenza A virus by escaping cytotoxic T-cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Woolthuis, Rutger G.; van Dorp, Christiaan H.; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J.; van Boven, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary adaptation of the influenza A virus (IAV) to human antibodies is well characterised. Much less is known about the long-term evolution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, which are important antigens for clearance of infection. We construct an antigenic map of IAVs of all human subtypes using a compendium of 142 confirmed CTL epitopes, and show that IAV evolved gradually in the period 1932–2015, with infrequent antigenic jumps in the H3N2 subtype. Intriguingly, the number of CTL epitopes per virus decreases with more than one epitope per three years in the H3N2 subtype (from 84 epitopes per virus in 1968 to 64 in 2015), mostly attributed to the loss of HLA-B epitopes. We confirm these observations with epitope predictions. Our findings indicate that selection pressures imposed by CTL immunity shape the long-term evolution of IAV. PMID:27629812

  5. Long-term adaptation of the influenza A virus by escaping cytotoxic T-cell recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolthuis, Rutger G.; van Dorp, Christiaan H.; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J.; van Boven, Michiel

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary adaptation of the influenza A virus (IAV) to human antibodies is well characterised. Much less is known about the long-term evolution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, which are important antigens for clearance of infection. We construct an antigenic map of IAVs of all human subtypes using a compendium of 142 confirmed CTL epitopes, and show that IAV evolved gradually in the period 1932-2015, with infrequent antigenic jumps in the H3N2 subtype. Intriguingly, the number of CTL epitopes per virus decreases with more than one epitope per three years in the H3N2 subtype (from 84 epitopes per virus in 1968 to 64 in 2015), mostly attributed to the loss of HLA-B epitopes. We confirm these observations with epitope predictions. Our findings indicate that selection pressures imposed by CTL immunity shape the long-term evolution of IAV.

  6. Long-term adaptation of the influenza A virus by escaping cytotoxic T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Woolthuis, Rutger G; van Dorp, Christiaan H; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J; van Boven, Michiel

    2016-09-15

    The evolutionary adaptation of the influenza A virus (IAV) to human antibodies is well characterised. Much less is known about the long-term evolution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, which are important antigens for clearance of infection. We construct an antigenic map of IAVs of all human subtypes using a compendium of 142 confirmed CTL epitopes, and show that IAV evolved gradually in the period 1932-2015, with infrequent antigenic jumps in the H3N2 subtype. Intriguingly, the number of CTL epitopes per virus decreases with more than one epitope per three years in the H3N2 subtype (from 84 epitopes per virus in 1968 to 64 in 2015), mostly attributed to the loss of HLA-B epitopes. We confirm these observations with epitope predictions. Our findings indicate that selection pressures imposed by CTL immunity shape the long-term evolution of IAV.

  7. Long-Term Predictors of Social and Leisure Activity 10 Years after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Norlander, Anna; Carlstedt, Emma; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin; Lexell, Eva M.; Ståhl, Agneta; Lindgren, Arne; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Restrictions in social and leisure activity can have negative consequences for the health and well-being of stroke survivors. To support the growing number of people who are ageing with stroke, knowledge is needed about factors that influence such activity in a long-term perspective. Aim To identify long-term predictors of the frequency of social and leisure activities 10 years after stroke. Method 145 stroke survivors in Sweden were followed-up at16 months and 10 years after a first-ever stroke. Data representing body functions, activities & participation, environmental factors and personal factors at 16 months after stroke, were used in multiple linear regression analyses to identify predictors of the activity frequency after 10 years, as assessed by the ‘Community, social and civic life’ sub-domain of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI-CSC). Results At the 10-year follow-up the frequency of social and leisure activities varied considerably among the participants, with FAI-CSC scores spanning the entire score range 0–9 (mean/median 4.9/5.0). Several factors at 16 months post stroke were independently related to the long-term activity frequency. The final regression model included four significant explanatory variables. Driving a car (B = 0.999), ability to walk a few hundred meters (B = 1.698) and extent of social network (B = 1.235) had a positive effect on activity frequency, whereas an age ≥ 75 years had a negative effect (B = -1.657). This model explained 36.9% of the variance in the FAI-CSC (p<0.001). Conclusion Stroke survivors who drive a car, have the ability to walk a few hundred meters and have a wide social network at 16 months after a first-ever stroke are more likely to have a high frequency of social and leisure activities after 10 years, indicating that supporting outdoor mobility and social anchorage of stroke survivors during rehabilitation is important to counteract long-term inactivity. PMID:26901501

  8. Place memory and dementia: Findings from participatory film-making in long-term social care.

    PubMed

    Capstick, Andrea; Ludwin, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    A participatory film-making study carried out in long-term social care with 10 people with Alzheimer-type dementia found that places the participants had known early in life were spontaneously foregrounded. Participants' memories of such places were well-preserved, particularly when photo-elicitation techniques, using visual images as prompts, were employed. Consistent with previous work on the 'reminiscence bump' in dementia, the foregrounded memories belonged in all cases to the period of life between approximately 5 and 30 years. Frequently the remembered places were connected with major life events which continued to have a strong emotional component. The continuing significance of place in the context of long-term dementia care is considered from a psychogeographical perspective.

  9. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica H.; Wiseman, Frances K.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Harwood, John L.; Good, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30 sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the shortterm recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory. PMID:26868479

  10. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jessica H; Wiseman, Frances K; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Harwood, John L; Good, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the short-term recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term monitoring of social behavior in a grouping of six female tigers (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Miller, Angela; Kuhar, Christopher W

    2008-03-01

    Although literature on the reproduction of captive tigers is plentiful, there is little information on other social behaviors, particularly within large social groupings. Here we report on the long-term monitoring of social behaviors in six female tigers (Panthera tigris). Over a period of 6 years, behavioral data were collected on spraying, vocalizations, non-contact aggression, and contact aggression during outdoor observations, as well as nearest neighbors in the morning, as a proxy measure of affiliation. Regression analyses showed that non-contact aggression and vocalizing were increasing, whereas spraying and social proximity were decreasing over the 6 years of the study. Paired t-tests showed no seasonal differences in aggression, but animals had higher social proximity scores during the mornings of the colder winter months. Correlations showed that spraying was positively related to contact aggression whereas social proximity was negatively correlated with non-contact aggression. In addition to documenting levels of contact and non-contact aggression over time, this study showed these behaviors correlated with behaviors that were more easily scored (spraying and social proximity). Behavioral monitoring has played a key role in the management and husbandry of this large social grouping of female tigers. In addition to providing keepers with the opportunity to observe their animals in regularly scheduled sessions, behavioral monitoring has provided baseline information on social relationships in this grouping over time. If future research validates the relationship between aggression and spraying/social proximity, this can be a valuable tool for long-term monitoring of groups of tigers. Zoo Biol 27:89-99, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Social evolution and genetic interactions in the short and long term.

    PubMed

    Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of social traits remains one of the most fascinating and feisty topics in evolutionary biology even after half a century of theoretical research. W.D. Hamilton shaped much of the field initially with his 1964 papers that laid out the foundation for understanding the effect of genetic relatedness on the evolution of social behavior. Early theoretical investigations revealed two critical assumptions required for Hamilton's rule to hold in dynamical models: weak selection and additive genetic interactions. However, only recently have analytical approaches from population genetics and evolutionary game theory developed sufficiently so that social evolution can be studied under the joint action of selection, mutation, and genetic drift. We review how these approaches suggest two timescales for evolution under weak mutation: (i) a short-term timescale where evolution occurs between a finite set of alleles, and (ii) a long-term timescale where a continuum of alleles are possible and populations evolve continuously from one monomorphic trait to another. We show how Hamilton's rule emerges from the short-term analysis under additivity and how non-additive genetic interactions can be accounted for more generally. This short-term approach reproduces, synthesizes, and generalizes many previous results including the one-third law from evolutionary game theory and risk dominance from economic game theory. Using the long-term approach, we illustrate how trait evolution can be described with a diffusion equation that is a stochastic analogue of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics. Peaks in the stationary distribution of the diffusion capture classic notions of convergence stability from evolutionary game theory and generally depend on the additive genetic interactions inherent in Hamilton's rule. Surprisingly, the peaks of the long-term stationary distribution can predict the effects of simple kinds of non-additive interactions. Additionally, the peaks

  13. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning.

    PubMed

    Månsson, K N T; Frick, A; Boraxbekk, C-J; Marquand, A F; Williams, S C R; Carlbring, P; Andersson, G; Furmark, T

    2015-03-17

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge. This study aimed at assessing neural predictors of long-term treatment outcome in participants with SAD 1 year after completion of Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT). Twenty-six participants diagnosed with SAD underwent iCBT including attention bias modification for a total of 13 weeks. Support vector machines (SVMs), a supervised pattern recognition method allowing predictions at the individual level, were trained to separate long-term treatment responders from nonresponders based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to self-referential criticism. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale was the main instrument to determine treatment response at the 1-year follow-up. Results showed that the proportion of long-term responders was 52% (12/23). From multivariate BOLD responses in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) together with the amygdala, we were able to predict long-term response rate of iCBT with an accuracy of 92% (confidence interval 95% 73.2-97.6). This activation pattern was, however, not predictive of improvement in the continuous Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-report version. Follow-up psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that lower dACC-amygdala coupling was associated with better long-term treatment response. Thus, BOLD response patterns in the fear-expressing dACC-amygdala regions were highly predictive of long-term treatment outcome of iCBT, and the initial coupling between these regions differentiated long-term responders from nonresponders. The SVM-neuroimaging approach could be of particular clinical value as it allows for accurate prediction of treatment outcome at the level of the individual.

  14. Interpersonal and group processes in long-term spaceflight crews: perspectives from social and organizational psychology.

    PubMed

    Dion, Kenneth L

    2004-07-01

    The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space

  15. Representations of Shape in Object Recognition and Long-Term Visual Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-11

    Pinker (1989) proposed the Multiple- Views-Plus-Transformation theory of object recognition. The foundation of this theory is th at objecto a,- represented... Pinker (1990) have shown that such shapes are immediately and consistently recognized independently of their orientation. Consequentially, throughout...along which parts may be located. Tarr and Pinker have shown that such contrasts lead to the use of orientation-dependent recognition mechanisms utilizing

  16. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN CREATINE CONCENTRATIONS UNDER LONG-TERM SOCIAL ISOLATION (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    PubMed

    Koshoridze, N; Kuchukashvili, Z; Menabde, K; Lekiashvili, Sh; Koshoridze, M

    2016-02-01

    Stress represents one of the main problems of modern humanity. This study was done for understanding more clearly alterations in creatine content of the brain under psycho-emotional stress induced by long-term social isolation. It was shown that under 30 days social isolation creatine amount in the brain was arisen, while decreasing concentrations of synthesizing enzymes (AGAT, GAMT) and creatine transporter protein (CrT). Another important point was that such changes were accompanied by down-regulation of creatine kinase (CK), therefore the enzyme's concentration was lowered. In addition, it was observed that content of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were also reduced, thus indicating down-regulation of energy metabolism of brain that is really a crucial point for its normal functioning. To sum up the results it can be underlined that long-term social isolation has negative influence on energy metabolism of brain; and as a result reduce ATP content, while increase of free creatine concentration, supposedly maintaining maximal balance for ATP amount, but here must be also noted that up-regulated oxidative pathways might have impact on blood brain barrier, resulting on its permeability.

  17. Recognition of music in long-term memory: are melodic and temporal patterns equal partners?

    PubMed

    Hébert, S; Peretz, I

    1997-07-01

    The notion that the melody (i.e., pitch structure) of familiar music is more recognizable than its accompanying rhythm (i.e., temporal structure) was examined with the same set of nameable musical excerpts in three experiments. In Experiment 1, the excerpts were modified so as to keep either their original pitch variations, whereas durations were set to isochrony (melodic condition) or their original temporal pattern while played on a single constant pitch (rhythmic condition). The subjects, who were selected without regard to musical training, were found to name more tunes and to rate their feeling of knowing the musical excerpts far higher in the melodic condition than in the rhythmic condition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, wherein the melodic and rhythmic patterns of the musical excerpts were interchanged to create chimeric mismatched tunes. The difference in saliency of the melodic pattern and the rhythmic pattern also emerged with a music-title-verification task in Experiment 3, hence discarding response selection as the main source of the discrepancy. The lesser effectiveness of rhythmic structure appears to be related to its lesser encoding distinctiveness relative to melodic structure. In general, rhythm was found to be a poor cue for the musical representations that are stored in long-term memory. Nevertheless, in all three experiments, the most effective cue for music identification involved the proper combination of pitches and durations. Therefore, the optimal code of access to long-term memory for music resides in a combination of rhythm and melody, of which the latter would be the most informative.

  18. Long-term social isolation in the adulthood results in CA1 shrinkage and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Popović, Natalija; Otalora, Beatriz Baño; Popović, Miroljub; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Venero, César

    2013-11-01

    Social isolation in adulthood is a psychosocial stressor that can result in endocrinological and behavioral alterations in different species. In rodents, controversial results have been obtained in fear conditioning after social isolation at adulthood, while neural substrates underlying these differences are largely unknown. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) are prominent modulators of synaptic plasticity underlying memory processes in many tasks, including fear conditioning. In this study, we used adult female Octodon degus to investigate the effects of long-term social isolation on contextual and cued fear conditioning, and the possible modulation of the synaptic levels of NCAM and PSA-NCAM in the hippocampus. After 6½ months of social isolation, adult female degus showed a normal auditory-cued fear memory, but a deficit in contextual fear memory, a hippocampal dependent task. Subsequently, we observed reduced hippocampal synaptic levels of PSA-NCAM in isolated compared to grouped-housed female degus. No significant differences were found between experimental groups in hippocampal levels of the three main isoforms of NCAM (NCAM180, NCAM140 and NCAM120). Interestingly, social isolation reduced the volume of the hippocampal CA1 subfield, without affecting the volume of the CA3 subregion or the total hippocampus. Moreover, attenuated body weight gain and reduced number of granulocytes were detected in isolated animals. Our findings indicate for the first time, that long-term social isolation of adult female animals induces a specific shrinkage of CA1 and a decrease in synaptic levels of PSA-NCAM in the hippocampus. These effects may be related to the deficit in contextual fear memory observed in isolated female degus.

  19. Zif268/Egr1 gain of function facilitates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term spatial recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Morice, Elise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Chagneau, Carine; LeBlanc, Pascale; Samson, Nathalie; Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2014-01-05

    It is well established that Zif268/Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memory; however, it is as yet uncertain whether increasing expression of Zif268 in neurons can facilitate memory formation. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to specifically induce Zif268 overexpression in forebrain neurons and examined the effect on recognition memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found that Zif268 overexpression during the establishment of memory for objects did not change the ability to form a long-term memory of objects, but enhanced the capacity to form a long-term memory of the spatial location of objects. This enhancement was paralleled by increased long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and by increased activity-dependent expression of Zif268 and selected Zif268 target genes. These results provide novel evidence that transcriptional mechanisms engaging Zif268 contribute to determining the strength of newly encoded memories.

  20. Zif268/Egr1 gain of function facilitates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term spatial recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Morice, Elise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Chagneau, Carine; LeBlanc, Pascale; Samson, Nathalie; Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M.; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Zif268/Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memory; however, it is as yet uncertain whether increasing expression of Zif268 in neurons can facilitate memory formation. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to specifically induce Zif268 overexpression in forebrain neurons and examined the effect on recognition memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found that Zif268 overexpression during the establishment of memory for objects did not change the ability to form a long-term memory of objects, but enhanced the capacity to form a long-term memory of the spatial location of objects. This enhancement was paralleled by increased long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and by increased activity-dependent expression of Zif268 and selected Zif268 target genes. These results provide novel evidence that transcriptional mechanisms engaging Zif268 contribute to determining the strength of newly encoded memories. PMID:24298160

  1. Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby; Lauren H. Kuby

    2004-01-01

    The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change...

  2. Out of place: mediating health and social care in Ontario's long-term care sector.

    PubMed

    Daly, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a "managed competition" delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of "health care" over "social care" through changes to which types of home care and home support services receive public funding. It addresses the effects of these reforms on the state–non-profit relationship, and the shifting balance between public funding of health and social care. At a program level, and with few exceptions, homemaking services have been cut from home care, and home support services are more medicalized. With these changes, growing numbers of people no longer eligible to receive publicly funded home care services look for other alternatives: they draw available resources from home support, they draw on family and friend networks, they hire privately and pay out of pocket, they leave home and enter an institution, or they do without.

  3. Long-term physical, psychological and social consequences of severe injuries.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C K; Eisma, W H; Groothoff, J W; ten Duis, H J

    1998-05-01

    This 6 year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the long-term physical, psychological and social outcomes of severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16). Patients were treated at the University Hospital Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 1989 and December 1989. Outcomes were assessed using a postal questionnaire. After injury, the 55 respondents had predominantly complaints of the extremities, the spine and the head. Psychological complaints were present in 84 per cent of patients and mainly concerned fatigue, slowness and memory impairments. Despite these physical and psychological complaints, 74 per cent of patients were able to return to work and the memory succeeded in complying with job requirements. Injuries of the extremities and the spine were risk factors for failing to return to work. Social consequences were also reflected in broken marriages (6/22) and changes of leisure activities (45 per cent). On the basis of the impairments and disabilities revealed, we conclude that further improvement of the long-term outcomes of severely injured patients may be achieved by advancements in the treatment of injuries to the head, spine or extremities, comprehensive psychological support and vocational rehabilitation.

  4. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings. PMID:22232656

  5. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    PubMed

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  6. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of lexical and sublexical variables on visual word recognition are often treated as homogeneous across participants and stable over time. In this study, we examine the modulation of frequency, length, syllable and bigram frequency, orthographic neighborhood, and graphophonemic consistency effects by (a) individual differences, and (b) item…

  7. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of lexical and sublexical variables on visual word recognition are often treated as homogeneous across participants and stable over time. In this study, we examine the modulation of frequency, length, syllable and bigram frequency, orthographic neighborhood, and graphophonemic consistency effects by (a) individual differences, and (b) item…

  8. Effect of General Anesthesia in Infancy on Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Greg; Lee, Joshua; Sall, Jeffrey W; Lee, Bradley H; Alvi, Rehan S; Shih, Jennifer; Rowe, Allison M; Ramage, Tatiana M; Chang, Flora L; Alexander, Terri G; Lempert, David K; Lin, Nan; Siu, Kasey H; Elphick, Sophie A; Wong, Alice; Schnair, Caitlin I; Vu, Alexander F; Chan, John T; Zai, Huizhen; Wong, Michelle K; Anthony, Amanda M; Barbour, Kyle C; Ben-Tzur, Dana; Kazarian, Natalie E; Lee, Joyce YY; Shen, Jay R; Liu, Eric; Behniwal, Gurbir S; Lammers, Cathy R; Quinones, Zoel; Aggarwal, Anuj; Cedars, Elizabeth; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia in infancy impairs performance in recognition memory tasks in mammalian animals, but it is unknown if this occurs in humans. Successful recognition can be based on stimulus familiarity or recollection of event details. Several brain structures involved in recollection are affected by anesthesia-induced neurodegeneration in animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. Twenty eight children ages 6–11 who had undergone a procedure requiring general anesthesia before age 1 were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched children who had not undergone anesthesia. Recollection and familiarity were assessed in an object recognition memory test using receiver operator characteristic analysis. In addition, IQ and Child Behavior Checklist scores were assessed. In parallel, thirty three 7-day-old rats were randomized to receive anesthesia or sham anesthesia. Over 10 months, recollection and familiarity were assessed using an odor recognition test. We found that anesthetized children had significantly lower recollection scores and were impaired at recollecting associative information compared with controls. Familiarity, IQ, and Child Behavior Checklist scores were not different between groups. In rats, anesthetized subjects had significantly lower recollection scores than controls while familiarity was unaffected. Rats that had undergone tissue injury during anesthesia had similar recollection indices as rats that had been anesthetized without tissue injury. These findings suggest that general anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. In rats, this effect is independent of underlying disease or tissue injury. PMID:24910347

  9. Kinship of long-term associates in the highly social sperm whale.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G; Engelhaupt, Daniel; Winsor, Martha; Mate, Bruce R; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of stable social groups can be promoted by both indirect and direct fitness benefits. Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are highly social, with a hierarchical social structure based around core groups of adult females and subadults, a rare level of complexity among mammals. We combined long-term satellite tracking (ranging from 11 to 607 days) of 51 individual sperm whales with genetic kinship analysis to assess the pattern of kin associations within and among coherent social units. Unlike findings for other species with similar social structure, we find no consistent correlation between kinship and association apart from close associations between two pairs of first-order relatives. A third pair of first-order relatives did not associate, and overall, the mean relatedness was the same within as among social groups. However, social behaviour can also be promoted by ecological factors such as resource dispersion. We assessed putative foraging behaviour during travel from the satellite-tracking data, which suggested that prey resources were dispersed and unpredictable, a condition that could promote living in groups. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Spatial memory and long-term object recognition are impaired by circadian arrhythmia and restored by the GABAAAntagonist pentylenetetrazole.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Norman F; Fernandez, Fabian; Garrett, Alex; Klima, Jessy; Zhang, Pei; Sapolsky, Robert; Heller, H Craig

    2013-01-01

    Performance on many memory tests varies across the day and is severely impaired by disruptions in circadian timing. We developed a noninvasive method to permanently eliminate circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) [corrected] so that we could investigate the contribution of the circadian system to learning and memory in animals that are neurologically and genetically intact. Male and female adult hamsters were rendered arrhythmic by a disruptive phase shift protocol that eliminates cycling of clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but preserves sleep architecture. These arrhythmic animals have deficits in spatial working memory and in long-term object recognition memory. In a T-maze, rhythmic control hamsters exhibited spontaneous alternation behavior late in the day and at night, but made random arm choices early in the day. By contrast, arrhythmic animals made only random arm choices at all time points. Control animals readily discriminated novel objects from familiar ones, whereas arrhythmic hamsters could not. Since the SCN is primarily a GABAergic nucleus, we hypothesized that an arrhythmic SCN could interfere with memory by increasing inhibition in hippocampal circuits. To evaluate this possibility, we administered the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) to arrhythmic hamsters for 10 days, which is a regimen previously shown to produce long-term improvements in hippocampal physiology and behavior in Ts65Dn (Down syndrome) mice. PTZ restored long-term object recognition and spatial working memory for at least 30 days after drug treatment without restoring circadian rhythms. PTZ did not augment memory in control (entrained) animals, but did increase their activity during the memory tests. Our findings support the hypothesis that circadian arrhythmia impairs declarative memory by increasing the relative influence of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus.

  11. Spatial Memory and Long-Term Object Recognition Are Impaired by Circadian Arrhythmia and Restored by the GABAAAntagonist Pentylenetetrazole

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Norman F.; Fernandez, Fabian; Garrett, Alex; Klima, Jessy; Zhang, Pei; Sapolsky, Robert; Heller, H. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Performance on many memory tests varies across the day and is severely impaired by disruptions in circadian timing. We developed a noninvasive method to permanently eliminate circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters (Phodopussungorus) so that we could investigate the contribution of the circadian system to learning and memory in animals that are neurologically and genetically intact. Male and female adult hamsters were rendered arrhythmic by a disruptive phase shift protocol that eliminates cycling of clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but preserves sleep architecture. These arrhythmic animals have deficits in spatial working memory and in long-term object recognition memory. In a T-maze, rhythmic control hamsters exhibited spontaneous alternation behavior late in the day and at night, but made random arm choices early in the day. By contrast, arrhythmic animals made only random arm choices at all time points. Control animals readily discriminated novel objects from familiar ones, whereas arrhythmic hamsters could not. Since the SCN is primarily a GABAergic nucleus, we hypothesized that an arrhythmic SCN could interfere with memory by increasing inhibition in hippocampal circuits. To evaluate this possibility, we administered the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) to arrhythmic hamsters for 10 days, which is a regimen previously shown to produce long-term improvements in hippocampal physiology and behavior in Ts65Dn (Down syndrome) mice. PTZ restored long-term object recognition and spatial working memory for at least 30 days after drug treatment without restoring circadian rhythms. PTZ did not augment memory in control (entrained) animals, but did increase their activity during the memory tests. Our findings support the hypothesis that circadian arrhythmia impairs declarative memory by increasing the relative influence of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus. PMID:24009680

  12. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (p<0.01), supporting the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic tone emerges in the nucleus accumbens after prefrontocortical dopamine loss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning

  13. Presentations of Shape in Object Recognition and Long-Term Visual Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-05

    a 2AFC recognition task on single parts similar to that used by Tanaka. Again the critical manipulation will be whether the part in question appears...are paired with unstudied faces and presented to the subject in a 2AFC format. The subject indicated which of the two faces they preferred. For the...explicit task, the same pairings were once again shown in a 2AFC format; however, this time the subject indicated which one of the faces was previously

  14. Long-term Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Visual Recognition and Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    scale visual learning which is end-to-end trainable, and demonstrate the value of these models on benchmark video recognition tasks, image description...and retrieval problems, and video narration challenges. In contrast to current models which assume a fixed spatio-temporal receptive field or simple...variable-length inputs (e.g. video frames) to variable length outputs (e.g., natural language text) and can model complex temporal dynamics; yet they can

  15. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  16. Long-Term Effects of the Seattle Social Development Intervention on School Bonding Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Guo, Jie; Hill, Karl G.; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Abbott, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Bonding to school has been shown to be a protective factor against many problem behaviors. This study examines the effects of intervention during the elementary grades on changes in school bonding from middle school through high school, using hierarchical linear modeling. A full intervention group (Grades 1–6), a late intervention group (interventions in Grades 5 and 6 only), and a control group offered no special intervention were compared. The full intervention group was significantly more bonded to school than the control group at ages 13 and 18. Moreover, the full intervention group showed a curvilinear change in school bonding over time, decreasing to age 16 and then increasing to age 18, whereas bonding to school in both the control and late intervention groups continued to decline from age 13 to age 18. These findings suggest that social development interventions through elementary school can have positive long-term effects on school bonding and demonstrate the importance of long-term follow-up studies of preventive interventions. PMID:17955057

  17. Long-term psychological outcomes in older adults after disaster: relationships to religiosity and social support.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Sampson, Laura; Nezat, Pamela F; Cacamo, Ashley; Marks, Loren D; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Natural disasters are associated with catastrophic losses. Disaster survivors return to devastated communities and rebuild homes or relocate permanently, although the long-term psychological consequences are not well understood. The authors examined predictors of psychological outcomes in 219 residents of disaster-affected communities in south Louisiana. Current coastal residents with severe property damage from the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and exposure to the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill were compared and contrasted with former coastal residents and an indirectly affected control group. Participants completed measures of storm exposure and stressors, religiosity, perceived social support, and mental health. Non-organizational religiosity was a significant predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Follow-up analyses revealed that more frequent participation in non-organizational religious behaviors was associated with a heightened risk of PTSD. Low income and being a coastal fisher were significant predictors of depression symptoms in bivariate and multivariate models. Perceived social support had a protective effect for all mental health outcomes, which also held for symptoms of depression and GAD in multivariate models. People who experienced recent and severe trauma related to natural and technological disasters are at risk for adverse psychological outcomes in the years after these events. Individuals with low income, low social support, and high levels of non-organizational religiosity are also at greater risk. Implications of these data for current views on the post-disaster psychological reactions and the development of age-sensitive interventions to promote long-term recovery are discussed.

  18. Short- and long-term social outcomes following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Swift, Erika; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L; Drotar, Dennis; Stancin, Terry; Minich, Nori

    2004-05-01

    The social outcomes of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) were examined in a prospective, longitudinal study that included 53 children with severe TBI, 56 with moderate TBI, and 80 with orthopedic injuries, recruited between 6 and 12 years of age. Child and family functioning were assessed at baseline, at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, and at an extended follow-up a mean of 4 years post injury. Growth curve analyses revealed that pediatric TBI yields negative social outcomes that are exacerbated by family environments characterized by lower socioeconomic status, fewer family resources, and poorer family functioning. After controlling for group membership, age, race, socioeconomic status, and IQ, path analyses indicated that long-term social outcomes were accounted for in part by specific neurocognitive skills, including executive functions and pragmatic language, and by social problem-solving. Deficits in these domains among children with TBI are likely to reflect damage to a network of brain regions that have been implicated in social cognition.

  19. Long-term outcome of social skills intervention based on interactive LEGO play.

    PubMed

    Legoff, Daniel B; Sherman, Michael

    2006-07-01

    LEGO building materials have been adapted as a therapeutic modality for increasing motivation to participate in social skills intervention, and providing a medium through which children with social and communication handicaps can effectively interact. A 3 year retrospective study of long-term outcome for autistic spectrum children participating in LEGO therapy (N = 60) compared Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale socialization domain (VABS-SD) and Gilliam Autism Rating Scale social interaction subscale (GARS-SI) scores preand post-treatment with a matched comparison sample (N = 57) who received comparable non-LEGO therapy. Although both groups made significant gains on the two outcome measures, LEGO participants improved significantly more than the comparison subjects. Diagnosis and pre-treatment full-scale IQ scores did not predict outcome scores; however, Vineland adaptive behavior composite, Vineland communication domain, and verbal IQ all predicted outcome on the VABS-SD, especially for the LEGO therapy group. Results are discussed in terms of implications for methods of social skills intervention for autistic spectrum disorders.

  20. Mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucoxilxanthone improves long-term object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto L; Maurmann, Natasha; Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; de Farias, Caroline B; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Delgado, René; Roesler, Rafael

    2010-06-10

    Mangiferin (2-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of mangiferin on behavioral outcomes of neurological function in normal rats. A single intraperitoneal injection of mangiferin (10, 50, or 100mg/kg body weight) enhanced novel object recognition (NOR) memory when given immediately post-training. The administration of mangiferin 6h post-training did not affect NOR memory. There were no significant differences between groups in the total time exploring both objects, indicating that mangiferin did not affect locomotion or motivation. Mangiferin stimulated cell proliferation and induced a significant increase in the supernatant levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in vitro in human U138-MG glioblastoma cells. The results indicate that mangiferin enhances recognition memory through a mechanism that might involve an increase in neurotrophin and cytokine levels.

  1. Impact of Negative Emotion on the Neural Correlates of Long-Term Recognition in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fischer, Håkan; Rieckmann, Anna; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Bäckman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (“negativity effect”) is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after 1- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false, and true recognition. This study revealed four key findings: (1) increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, canceling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only) on discrimination in both younger and older adults; (2) in younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; (3) engagement of amygdala (AMG) was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits vs. misses) in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to AMG activity and performance; and (4) after 3 weeks, but not after 1 week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits vs. false alarms). As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on

  2. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fischer, Håkan; Rieckmann, Anna; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Bäckman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information ("negativity effect") is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after 1- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false, and true recognition. This study revealed four key findings: (1) increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, canceling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only) on discrimination in both younger and older adults; (2) in younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; (3) engagement of amygdala (AMG) was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits vs. misses) in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to AMG activity and performance; and (4) after 3 weeks, but not after 1 week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits vs. false alarms). As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults' low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual

  3. Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    PubMed Central

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244

  4. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  5. The Role of Stress Reactivity in the Long-term Persistence of Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, S A; Hale, W W; Branje, S J T; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J

    2017-03-05

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with persistence of SAD symptoms from early to late adolescence. A community sample of 327 adolescents (56% boys, Mage=13.01 at T1) reported their SAD symptoms for 6 successive years and participated in a public speaking task, during which self-reported (i.e., perceived nervousness and heart rate) and physiological (i.e., cortisol and heart rate) measures of stress were taken. Overall, our results point to a developmental process in which adolescents with a developmental history of higher SAD symptoms show both heightened perceived stress reactivity and heart rate reactivity, which, in turn, predict higher SAD symptoms into late adolescence.

  6. Long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Martin, Mike

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal measurement invariance (MI) was established for both measures. The mean rank-order stabilities were .79 and .62 for personality traits and for perceived social support, respectively. The results demonstrated a mean-level increase for neuroticism and a decrease for extraversion and significant change variances for all constructs. The results of latent change models showed significant initial level correlations and correlated changes between personality traits and social support, implying that changes in these constructs show commonality. The results can expand our current thinking about correlated change in personality.

  7. Marmosets treated with oxytocin are more socially attractive to their long-term mate

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Jon; Huffman, Michelle C.; Harnisch, April M.; French, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    long-term mate, as well as increase female interest in initiating and maintaining proximity with their long-term mate. Furthermore, these results support the notion that central OXT activity plays an important neuromodulatory role in the maintenance of long-lasting male-female relationships. PMID:26528149

  8. Short- and long-term behavioral analysis of social interaction, ultrasonic vocalizations and social motivation in a chronic phencyclidine model.

    PubMed

    Peters, Suzanne M; Tuffnell, Joe A; Pinter, Ilona J; van der Harst, Johanneke E; Spruijt, Berry M

    2017-05-15

    Phencyclidine (PCP) has been suggested to induce symptoms of schizophrenia. However, animal models using PCP administration have produced ambiguous results thus far. It seems that acute effects are similar to symptoms of schizophrenia, however, it is not clear if PCP can induce permanent behavioral changes that reflect schizophrenic-like symptoms. Therefore, we assessed the ability of chronic PCP administration (3mg/kg, 14 days) to induce short or long lasting behavioral changes in rats. Social behavior, including ultrasonic vocalizations and motivation for social contact were investigated at different time points, up to 29-36 days, after cessation of PCP treatment. During a social separation test, performed at 5 and 36 days, PCP treated rats spent less time near the divider that separates them from their familiar cage mate compared with saline (SAL) treated rats. Further, at short term, PCP was able to induce a decrease in social behavior. In contrast, at long-term, PCP treated animals spent more time in contact when exposed to an unfamiliar partner as compared to SAL treated rats. But, this difference was not observed when exposed to a familiar partner. We did not find any difference in ultrasonic vocalizations at all time points. The results of our study indicate that PCP is unable to induce overt long term deficits in social interaction behavior. Rather, it seems that PCP diminishes motivation for social contact. The long-term consequences of chronic PCP administration on social behavior in rodent models remain complex, and future studies addressing this are still needed.

  9. Long term outcome after poliomyelitis in different health and social conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rekand, T; Korv, J; Farbu, E; Roose, M; Gilhus, N; Langeland, N; Aarli, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine and compare the long term outcome after polio in an east European and a west European country with different access to rehabilitation and with different medical and social conditions. Design and Setting: The patients who were acutely hospitalised for polio 1950–54 in the University Hospital in Bergen, Norway and 1958 in the University Hospital in Tartu, Estonia received the mailed questionnaire in the period between January 1998 and December 1998. Patients: Patient files concerning 334 patients hospitalised in Tartu and 243 patients hospitalised in Bergen were obtained; of these 128 Estonian and 148 Norwegian patients were re-examined. Main results: Despite more pronounced disability in the acute stage, significantly more Norwegian patients were working full time and part time in 1998 (p<0.0001) and also through the period 1958–1998. In both countries, 30% of patients had manual work and 18% changed profession during their career. Low income (below 50% of national average) was reported by 73% of Estonian and 35% of Norwegian patients (p<0.0001). Except for the odds ratio for muscular pain of 1.89 (95%CI =1.14 to 3.14) for Norwegian patients, new symptoms indicating late progression did not differ. Norwegian patients were more independent with significantly less need for assistance in housekeeping (p=0.02), whereas the use of orthopaedic devices did not differ. Conclusions: The long term outcome after polio is different in eastern and western Europe. Access to continuous rehabilitation seems to maintain physical independence in polio patients, improves their ability to earn their own income, and lessens the need for disability pensions. PMID:12700222

  10. Differential involvement of cholinergic and beta-adrenergic systems during acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of long-term memory of social and neutral odors.

    PubMed

    Miranda, María Isabel; Ortiz-Godina, Fatima; García, Dafne

    2009-08-24

    Acetylcholine and norepinephrine have been implicated during different kinds of social recognition that involves olfactory memory formation. For example, blockade of muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors has been shown to impair short-term memory of both socially relevant as well as of neutral odors. However, previous studies have not explicitly compared the role of cholinergic and adrenergic modulation in long-term memory for socially relevant odor vs. incidental odor stimuli. In this work, we studied the function of muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors during acquisition and/or consolidation of a novel odor and during the retrieval of a familiar odor. The effects of systemic injections of scopolamine and propranolol, before and after presentation of estrous urine odor or mint odor, were evaluated by a long-term odor habituation task. The results demonstrated that scopolamine disrupts memory acquisition and/or consolidation of mint odor, and did not have any effect during retrieval of mint odor memory. Conversely, scopolamine disrupts memory consolidation and retrieval of estrous odor, depending on the dose applied. Propranolol injections have no effect on acquisition or consolidation for mint or estrous odor, but disrupt memory retrieval of familiar odor regarding their social/sexual or neutral content. These results demonstrate that muscarinic receptors are required differentially during long-term odor memory formation and for familiar odor recognition depending on the socially relevant content of the stimulus. Furthermore, the beta-adrenergic system could play an important role in memory recognition for familiar odors, regardless of the sexual/social or neutral content of the stimuli.

  11. An Exemplar-Familiarity Model Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Probe Recognition across Diverse Forms of Memory Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Cox, Gregory E.; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across…

  12. An Exemplar-Familiarity Model Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Probe Recognition across Diverse Forms of Memory Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Cox, Gregory E.; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across…

  13. Seasonality, sociality, and reproduction: Long-term stressors of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Starling, Anne P; Charpentier, Marie J E; Fitzpatrick, Courtney; Scordato, Elizabeth S; Drea, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations are reliable, non-invasive indices of physiological stress that provide insight into an animal's energetic and social demands. To better characterize the long-term stressors in adult members of a female-dominant, seasonally breeding species - the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) - we first validated fecal samples against serum samples and then examined the relationship between fGC concentrations and seasonal, social, demographic, genetic, and reproductive variables. Between 1999 and 2006, we collected 1386 fecal samples from 32 adult, semi-free-ranging animals of both sexes. In males and non-pregnant, non-lactating females, fGC concentrations were significantly elevated during the breeding season, specifically during periods surrounding known conceptions. Moreover, group composition (e.g., multi-male versus one-male) significantly predicted the fGC concentrations of males and females in all reproductive states. In particular, the social instability introduced by intra-male competition likely created a stressor for all animals. We found no relationship, however, between fGC and the sex, age, or heterozygosity of animals. In reproducing females, fGC concentrations were significantly greater during lactation than during the pre-breeding period. During pregnancy, fGC concentrations were elevated in mid-ranking dams, relative to dominant or subordinate dams, and significantly greater during the third trimester than during the first or second trimesters. Thus, in the absence of nutritional stressors, social dominance was a relatively poor predictor of fGC in this female-dominant species. Instead, the animals were maximally challenged by their social circumstances and reproductive events-males by competition for mating opportunities and females by late-term gestation and lactation.

  14. Social Environmental Moderators of Long-term Functional Outcomes of Early Childhood Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wade, Shari L; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child's home, school, and hospital, including 3 children's hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67% of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P < .05). Children with complicated mild TBI had greater impairments in school (odds ratio = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.10-7.82) and with thinking (odds ratio = 15.72; 95% CI = 3.31-74.73) than those with OIs. Functional impairments in children with TBI were more pronounced among children from families with higher levels of permissive (mean CAFAS of 49.71, 35

  15. Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs.

    PubMed

    de Groot, J; Ruis, M A; Scholten, J W; Koolhaas, J M; Boersma, W J

    2001-05-01

    Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is common practice in intensive pig husbandry. Since pigs maintain a dominance hierarchy, mixing often leads to vigorous fighting. Apart from the negative impact that fighting has on welfare, there is evidence that the social stress associated with fighting suppresses immune function. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of mixing on specific long-term immune responses and protection against challenge infection after vaccination with pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were mixed pairwise with an unfamiliar same-gender conspecific or left undisturbed with a same-gender littermate at 3 days after vaccination with PRV. Half of the pigs were females (gilts) and half were castrated males (barrows). Mixing increased agonistic behavior to the same degree in gilts and barrows. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and catecholamine excretion in urine were increased in mixed pigs, and these effects were independent of dominance status and gender. Subsequently, the effects of mixing, gender, dominance status and interactions between these factors on immune response parameters were studied. The main result was that mixed barrows showed suppressed immune responses after vaccination and increased clinical symptoms after challenge infection compared to control barrows. Mixed gilts however did not differ from control gilts. It also appeared that mixed dominants were more seriously affected than mixed subordinates were. We conclude that, in some pigs, social stress after mixing suppresses the immune response to a viral vaccine and consequently impairs protection against challenge infection.

  16. The Meaning of ‘Dining’: The Social Organization of Food in Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Ruth; Armstrong, Pat; Daly, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the social organization of food provision in publicly funded and regulated long-term care facilities. Methods Observations were conducted, along with 90 interviews with residents, families, and health providers in two Southern Ontario sites using rapid site-switching ethnography within a feminist political economy framework as part of an international, interdisciplinary study investigating healthy ageing. Results Food is purchased within a daily $7.80/per resident allotment, limiting high quality choices, which is further problematized by privatization of food services. Funding restrictions also result in low staffing levels, creating tensions in aligning with other Ministry mandated tasks such as bathing, and documenting: competing demands often lead to rushed meals. Regulations, primarily set in response to scandals and to ensure appropriate measured nutrition, reinforce the problem. Further, regulations regarding set meal times result in lack of resident agency, which is compounded by fixed menu options and seating arrangements in one common dining room. Rather than being viewed as an important part of resident socialization, food is reduced to a medicalized task, organized within a climate of cost-containment. Implications Findings warrant Ministry financial support for additional staff and for food provision. Policy changes are also required to give primacy to this population’s quality of life. PMID:27088052

  17. Long-term social bonds promote cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique

    2009-12-07

    Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail to cooperate because they behave as if they were to play only once. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with monogamous zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were tested in a two-choice apparatus, with either their social partner or an experimental opponent of the opposite sex. We found that zebra finches maintained high levels of cooperation in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game only when interacting with their social partner. Although other mechanisms may have contributed to the observed difference between the two treatments, our results support the hypothesis that animals do not systematically give in to the short-term temptation of cheating when long-term benefits exist. Thus, our findings contradict the commonly accepted idea that reciprocal altruism will be rare in non-human animals.

  18. Gerontological Social Workers are Key to a Sustainable Long-Term Services and Supports System.

    PubMed

    Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-12-20

    Of the myriad challenges that the new administration and 115th Congress will face, one of the most pressing will be establishing a sustainable long-term services and supports (LTSS) system responsive to the aging US population. Currently, the majority of LTSS is paid for with Medicaid and other public programs; an additional and sizeable burden falls on unpaid caregivers. Individuals generally have unrealistic expectations about their likelihood of needing LTSS and a minority of adults have made any concrete plans for their own care. With the aging of the US population, the current structure of LTSS will be unsustainable going forward. Past administrations have been unsuccessful in developing practical, sustainable solutions to address the impending LTSS crisis. The new administration will need to be creative and resourceful in finding new ways to address this issue. Involving gerontological social workers in facilitating private LTSS planning decisions and in informing public LTSS policy making is crucial, as social workers are intricately involved in LTSS now and have invaluable wisdom to share in the face of changing demographics and growing need going forward.

  19. Measuring social activities and social function in long-term cancer survivors who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Syrjala, Karen L; Stover, Allison C; Yi, Jean C; Artherholt, Samantha B; Abrams, Janet R

    2010-05-01

    Cancer survivors report deficits in social functioning even years after completing treatment. Commonly used measures of social functioning provide incomplete understanding of survivors' social behavior. This study describes social activities of survivors and evaluates the psychometric properties of the Social Activity Log (SAL) in a cohort of long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for cancer. One hundred and two (5-20 year) survivors completed the SAL, Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and other patient-reported outcomes. Principal components analysis determined the factor structure of the SAL along with correlations and regressions to establish validity. Principal component analysis yielded three factors in the SAL: 'non-contact events' (e.g. telephone calls), 'regular events' (e.g. played cards), and 'special events' (e.g. concerts), which explained 59% of the total variance. The SAL possessed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.82). SF-36 social function and SAL were moderately correlated (r=0.31). In linear regressions, physical function and depression explained 16% of the variance in the SAL (P<0.001), while physical function, depression, and fatigue predicted 55% of the variance in SF-36 social function (P<0.001). Results support the use of the SAL as a measure of social activity in cancer survivors who received HSCT. Although the SAL is designed to measure social behaviors, SF-36 social function assesses subjective experience and is more strongly associated with depression and fatigue. The SAL appears to be a promising tool to understand the behavioral social deficits reported by long-term survivors of cancer. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Measuring social activities and social function in long-term cancer survivors who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Syrjala, Karen L.; Stover, Allison C.; Yi, Jean C.; Artherholt, Samantha B.; Abrams, Janet R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cancer survivors report deficits in social functioning even years after completing treatment. Commonly used measures of social functioning provide incomplete understanding of survivors’ social behavior. This study describes social activities of survivors and evaluates the psychometric properties of the Social Activity Log (SAL) in a cohort of long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for cancer. Methods One hundred two 5–20 year survivors completed the SAL, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and other patient reported outcomes. Principal components analysis determined the factor structure of the SAL along with correlations and regressions to establish validity. Results Principal component analysis yielded three factors in the SAL: “non-contact events” (eg, telephone calls), “regular events” (eg, played cards),” and “special events” (eg, concerts), which explained 59% of the total variance. The SAL possessed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.82). SF-36 social function and SAL were moderately correlated (r = .31). In linear regressions, physical function and depression explained 16% of the variance in the SAL (P<.001), while physical function, depression and fatigue predicted 55% of the variance in SF-36 social function (P<.001). Conclusions Results support the use of the SAL as a measure of social activity in cancer survivors who received HSCT. Whereas the SAL is designed to measure social behaviors, SF-36 social function assesses subjective experience and is more strongly associated with depression and fatigue. The SAL appears to be a promising tool to understand the behavioral social deficits reported by long-term survivors of cancer. PMID:19358230

  1. User adaptation in long-term, open-loop myoelectric training: implications for EMG pattern recognition in prosthesis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have reported that the classification performance of electromyographic (EMG) signals degrades over time without proper classification retraining. This problem is relevant for the applications of EMG pattern recognition in the control of active prostheses. Approach. In this study we investigated the changes in EMG classification performance over 11 consecutive days in eight able-bodied subjects and two amputees. Main results. It was observed that, when the classifier was trained on data from one day and tested on data from the following day, the classification error decreased exponentially but plateaued after four days for able-bodied subjects and six to nine days for amputees. The between-day performance became gradually closer to the corresponding within-day performance. Significance. These results indicate that the relative changes in EMG signal features over time become progressively smaller when the number of days during which the subjects perform the pre-defined motions are increased. The performance of the motor tasks is thus more consistent over time, resulting in more repeatable EMG patterns, even if the subjects do not have any external feedback on their performance. The learning curves for both able-bodied subjects and subjects with limb deficiencies could be modeled as an exponential function. These results provide important insights into the user adaptation characteristics during practical long-term myoelectric control applications, with implications for the design of an adaptive pattern recognition system.

  2. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  3. Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously. Serum corticosterone levels were lower in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats even after exposure to stress. CA1 LTP induced by a 100-Hz tetanus for 1s was inhibited in the presence of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in hippocampal slices from the control rats and was attenuated by water immersion stress. In contrast, CA1 LTP was not significantly inhibited in the presence of APV in hippocampal slices from theanine-administered rats and was not attenuated by the stress. Furthermore, object recognition memory was impaired in the control rats, but not in theanine-administered rats. The present study indicates the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of hippocampal LTP and recognition memory. It is likely that the modification of corticosterone secretion after theanine intake is involved in the preventive effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Depression, social support, and long-term risk for coronary heart disease in a 13-year longitudinal epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Richard T; Hernandez, Evelyn M; Trout, Zoë M; Kleiman, Evan M; Bozzay, Melanie L

    2017-02-06

    Depression has been linked with long-term risk for a variety of physical health ailments, including coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about resilience factors that may attenuate this relationship. The current study assessed whether social support moderates the long-term risk for CHD associated with this disorder. Data were drawn from the Americans' Changing Lives study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adults in the United States. Participants (unweighted n=1636) completed initial assessments of functional social support, body mass index, recent history of major depression, CHD, hypertension, and diabetes. Participants were again assessed for CHD at a follow-up assessment 13 years later. Social support was found to moderate the relationship between depression and the occurrence of CHD 13 years later. Specifically, among individuals with low social support, depression was prospectively associated with CHD. In contrast, depression was not prospectively associated with CHD among individuals with high social support. The results indicate that social support may function as a resilience factor against the long-term cardiovascular risk associated with depression. Clinical interventions focusing on the development of social support systems are important not only for addressing depression itself, but also for associated long-term physical health outcomes.

  5. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Insurance Coverage Among Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen M.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Park, Elyse R.

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. PMID:25770148

  7. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer.

  8. Development and reliability of the Mealtime Social Interaction Measure for Long-Term Care (MSILTC).

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H; Laurie, Courtney Brooke; McLeod, Jessica; Ridgeway, Natalee

    2013-09-01

    Mealtimes are important social events in retirement (RH) and long term care homes (LTC). This manuscript describes the development, refining and scaling of the MSILTC as well as inter-observer reliability. Two facilities provided access to their RH (n~100) and LTC (n~30-45) dining rooms. This observation-based tool captures both frequency and nature of interactions. Mealtime observations were carried out by trained researchers for development (n=13 tables), refinement (n=12 tables) scaling (n=17 tables) and reliability (n= 30 tables). Tablemate and staff level sub scores are calculated considering number of residents at the table and duration of the meal. Statistical analysis using Cohen's kappa demonstrated that the tool possesses adequate reliability for capturing frequency of interaction among residents and staff [kappa 0.712 and 0.790 respectively]; reliability for nature of interaction was lower [kappa 0.590 and 0.441 respectively]. Construct validity testing is planned to complete the development of the MSILTC.

  9. Health: an essential component of long-term economic and social development.

    PubMed

    Drobny, A

    1977-01-01

    Isolated growth of the economy in a developing country, without due consideration of social aspects, does not necessarily increase the welfare of all its population. In such cases, there will always be a large group with poor education and negligible health care. Health services in these countries should not try to duplicate those of the technologically developed nations and should be more health-oriented than disease-oriented. This entails wider utilization of auxiliary and paramedical personnel and, above all, community involvement. At the same time, the teaching of medicine should be based on the needs of the country rather than try to emulate developed countries' programmes, which can only result in dissatisfaction among physicians and/or in emigration. The Inter-American Development Bank considers that health is a component of long-term economic development; it is therefore fostering and participating in the expansion of rural health services with strong emphasis placed on community participation. In this process health education, both of the public and of local and national authorities, is paramount. Of particular importance is the interaction of health officials and the community itself in order to enlist the rural dweller in spontaneous and active participation that will ensure the success of health programmes.

  10. Long-term effect of social interactions on behavioral plasticity and lifetime mating success.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang S; Brooks, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral traits often change over an individual's lifetime. Experience, physiological senescence, and age-dependent differences in optimal behavior can, in theory, all cause longitudinal behavioral changes. Yet most studies of behavioral plasticity and selection on behavior focus on short-term population-level responses to social factors such as conspecific density or sex ratio. Longer-term effects of social interactions on individual behavior have rarely been tested. Here we tested these effects by exposing male water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) to two different social conditions throughout their lifetime; we call these the nonsocial and social treatments. We then measured each male's lifetime mating success and individual behavioral plasticity by observing four different behaviors (exploring a novel environment, dispersal ability, sex-recognition sensitivity, and tendency to remount a resistant female after being dislodged) every 2 weeks. The social environment influenced individual variation in behavioral plasticity as well as population-level behavioral plasticity. Moreover, when we calculated linear selection gradients of individual behavioral traits and their plasticities on lifetime mating success, male remounting tendency and individual plasticity in exploration ability were likely to be the most important factors explaining variation in male lifetime mating success. In conclusion, the variation in social interactions throughout an individual's lifetime contributes to the individual variation in behavioral plasticity, which can significantly affect a male's lifetime fitness.

  11. Using an ICT Tool as a Solution for the Educational and Social Needs of Long-Term Sick Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Van Winkel, Lies

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of an ICT tool for meeting the educational and social needs of long-term sick adolescents. Both surveys and interviews were conducted in this study. The participants of this study were sick school students between 12-19 years old. The interviewed participants had used the ICT-supporting tool for three months to…

  12. Long-Term Outcomes of Parent-Assisted Social Skills Intervention for High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelberg, Josh; Frankel, Fred; Cunningham, Tina; Gorospe, Clarissa; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of Children's Friendship Training, a parent-assisted social skills intervention for children. Prior research has shown Children's Friendship Training to be superior to wait-list control with maintenance of gains at 3-month follow-up. Participants were families of children diagnosed with autism…

  13. Socialization Goals and Mother-Child Interaction: Mothers' Strategies for Long-Term and Short-Term Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczynski, Leon

    Situational socialization goals were investigated as determinants of parental choice of disciplinary technique. It was predicted that parents would tend to use techniques such as reasoning when they had long-term compliance goals for their children and power-assertive techniques when they had short-term compliance goals. A total of 64 mothers and…

  14. Using an ICT Tool as a Solution for the Educational and Social Needs of Long-Term Sick Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Van Winkel, Lies

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of an ICT tool for meeting the educational and social needs of long-term sick adolescents. Both surveys and interviews were conducted in this study. The participants of this study were sick school students between 12-19 years old. The interviewed participants had used the ICT-supporting tool for three months to…

  15. Long-Term Outcomes of Parent-Assisted Social Skills Intervention for High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelberg, Josh; Frankel, Fred; Cunningham, Tina; Gorospe, Clarissa; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of Children's Friendship Training, a parent-assisted social skills intervention for children. Prior research has shown Children's Friendship Training to be superior to wait-list control with maintenance of gains at 3-month follow-up. Participants were families of children diagnosed with autism…

  16. Long-Term Impacts of Pre-K Education on Childhood Educational, Social, and Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to run a longitudinal, ten year experimental study studying the effects of preschool attendance on long-term academic performance throughout elementary school. This study will sample 500 students from the Kalamazoo, Michigan community and observe their standardized test scores as well as their behavioral and social…

  17. The social positioning of older people living with Alzheimer's disease who scream in long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Anne; Ducharme, Francine

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the social positioning of older people living with Alzheimer's disease who scream in a long-term care home. Few studies have focused on the social positions taken by older people, their family and formal caregivers during interaction and their effects on screams. A secondary data analysis was conducted using Harré and Van Langenhove's positioning theory. The results show that older people are capable of positioning and repositioning themselves in relational patterns. Family and formal caregivers position older people who scream according to their beliefs about their lived experience. They also react emotionally to older people and try to influence their behaviors. Understanding the social positioning of older people with Alzheimer's disease brought out their capacities and their caregivers' concerns for their well-being. Interventions should focus on these strengths and on promoting healthy relations in the triads to enhance quality of care in long-term care homes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Opening the gift: social inclusion, professional codes and gift-giving in long-term mental healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ootes, S T C; Pols, A J; Tonkens, E H; Willems, D L

    2013-03-01

    Deinstitutionalisation has not only made the social inclusion of clients a key objective in long-term mental healthcare, it may also affect the role of the care professional. This article investigates whether the social inclusion objective clashes with other long-standing professional values, specifically when clients give gifts to care professionals. In making a typology of gifts, we compare the literature on gift-giving with professional codes for gifts and relate both to the objective of social inclusion of clients. Our typology draws on an analysis of ethnographic fieldwork carried out in 2007/2008 at a Dutch mental healthcare centre. We identify four types of gifts for professionals in long-term mental healthcare, each relating individually to professional codes and the objective of social inclusion of clients. Only the 'personal gift' directly supports social inclusion, by fostering personal relationships between professionals and clients. Acceptance of this type of gift is advocated only for long-term care professionals. We suggest that professional codes need to consider this typology of gifts, and we advocate promoting reflexivity as a means of accounting for professional behaviour in deinstitutionalised care settings.

  19. An exploration of social connectedness as perceived by older adults in a long-term care setting in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Social connectedness-that is, the relationships people have with family friends and others-is an important aspect of resident's adjustment to and participation in community living. Little is known about older adult's perceptions of social connectedness in long-term care. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships older adults living in long-term care have with family, friends, the outside world, other residents, and staff. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to collect data from a purposive sample of 10 older adults using audiotaped semi-structured interviews. Findings revealed 6 themes: superficial relationships, substitution, outside world connection, mental ability, attitudes/actions of carers, and isolation. The study supports the understanding that the more social ties people have, the more socially connected they feel. Preventing social isolation among older people is an important area for practice, and older peoples' services should be shaped around maintaining connectedness and promoting integration of residents in long-term care.

  20. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Anneli; Johansson, Eva; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2012-07-12

    Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual's own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities.

  1. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities

  2. Prediction of Individual Social-Demographic Role Based on Travel Behavior Variability Using Long-Term GPS Data

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Lei; Gonder, Jeffrey; Lin, Lei

    2017-08-16

    With the development of and advances in smartphones and global positioning system (GPS) devices, travelers’ long-term travel behaviors are not impossible to obtain. This study investigates the pattern of individual travel behavior and its correlation with social-demographic features. For different social-demographic groups (e.g., full-time employees and students), the individual travel behavior may have specific temporal-spatial-mobile constraints. The study first extracts the home-based tours, including Home-to-Home and Home-to-Non-Home, from long-term raw GPS data. The travel behavior pattern is then delineated by home-based tour features, such as departure time, destination location entropy, travel time, and driving time ratio. The travel behavior variabilitymore » describes the variances of travelers’ activity behavior features for an extended period. After that, the variability pattern of an individual’s travel behavior is used for estimating the individual’s social-demographic information, such as social-demographic role, by a supervised learning approach, support vector machine. In this study, a long-term (18-month) recorded GPS data set from Puget Sound Regional Council is used. The experiment’s result is very promising. In conclusion, the sensitivity analysis shows that as the number of tours thresholds increases, the variability of most travel behavior features converges, while the prediction performance may not change for the fixed test data.« less

  3. Prediction of Individual Social-Demographic Role Based on Travel Behavior Variability Using Long-Term GPS Data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lei; Gonder, Jeffrey; Lin, Lei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of and advances in smartphones and global positioning system (GPS) devices, travelers’ long-term travel behaviors are not impossible to obtain. This study investigates the pattern of individual travel behavior and its correlation with social-demographic features. For different social-demographic groups (e.g., full-time employees and students), the individual travel behavior may have specific temporal-spatial-mobile constraints. The study first extracts the home-based tours, including Home-to-Home and Home-to-Non-Home, from long-term raw GPS data. The travel behavior pattern is then delineated by home-based tour features, such as departure time, destination location entropy, travel time, and driving time ratio. The travel behavior variability describes the variances of travelers’ activity behavior features for an extended period. After that, the variability pattern of an individual’s travel behavior is used for estimating the individual’s social-demographic information, such as social-demographic role, by a supervised learning approach, support vector machine. In this study, a long-term (18-month) recorded GPS data set from Puget Sound Regional Council is used. The experiment’s result is very promising. The sensitivity analysis shows that as the number of tours thresholds increases, the variability of most travel behavior features converges, while the prediction performance may not change for the fixed test data.

  4. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  5. The Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Social Cognitive Processing in Partners of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Cohee, Andrea A.; Adams, Rebecca N.; Fife, Betsy L.; Von Ah, Diane M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zoppi, Kathleen A.; Cella, David; Champion, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To determine 1) if depressive symptoms in partners of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS) could be predicted by social cognitive processing theory, and 2) if partners of younger and older breast cancer survivors were differentially affected by the cancer experience. Design A cross-sectional, descriptive study utilizing self-report questionnaires. Setting Indiana University and 97 ECOG-ACRIN sites. Sample Partners of breast cancer survivors (n=508) diagnosed 3–8 years prior. Methods Secondary data mediation analyses were conducted to determine if cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms. Age-related differences on all scales were tested. Main Research Variables Depressive symptoms; secondary variables included social constraints, cognitive processing (avoidance and intrusive thoughts), and potentially confounding variables. Findings Cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms for partners (F(5,498) = 19.911, R2=.167, p<.001). Partners of young BCS reported worse outcomes on all measures than partners of older breast cancer survivors Conclusions As predicted by the social cognitive processing theory, cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, partners of younger BCS fared worse on social constraints, intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms than partners of older BCS. Implications for Nursing Results provide support for using the social cognitive processing theory in intervention design with partners of long-term BCS to decrease depressive symptoms. PMID:27991603

  6. Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission–fusion dynamics of their groups

    PubMed Central

    Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission–fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20 500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission–fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals. PMID:21307051

  7. Differential roles for Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 in object location vs. object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Susan E; Barrett, Ruth M; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M Felicia; Matheos, Dina P; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A

    2012-11-16

    Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either Nr4a1 or Nr4a2, we found that Nr4a2 is necessary for both long-term memory for object location and object recognition. In contrast, Nr4a1 appears to be necessary only for object location. Indeed, their roles in these different types of long-term memory may be dependent on their expression in the brain, as NR4A2 was found to be expressed in hippocampal neurons (associated with object location memory) as well as in the insular and perirhinal cortex (associated with object recognition memory), whereas NR4A1 showed minimal neuronal expression in these cortical areas. These results begin to elucidate how NR4A1 and NR4A2 differentially contribute to object location versus object recognition memory.

  8. Communication activity in a social network: relation between long-term correlations and inter-event clustering.

    PubMed

    Rybski, Diego; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2012-01-01

    Human communication in social networks is dominated by emergent statistical laws such as non-trivial correlations and temporal clustering. Recently, we found long-term correlations in the user's activity in social communities. Here, we extend this work to study the collective behavior of the whole community with the goal of understanding the origin of clustering and long-term persistence. At the individual level, we find that the correlations in activity are a byproduct of the clustering expressed in the power-law distribution of inter-event times of single users, i.e. short periods of many events are separated by long periods of no events. On the contrary, the activity of the whole community presents long-term correlations that are a true emergent property of the system, i.e. they are not related to the distribution of inter-event times. This result suggests the existence of collective behavior, possibly arising from nontrivial communication patterns through the embedding social network.

  9. “Everyone Needs a Friend Sometimes” – Social Predictors of Long-Term Remission In First Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bjornestad, Jone; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor K.; Langeveld, Johannes; Davidson, Larry; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Anda, Liss G.; Veseth, Marius; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan O.; Bronnick, Kolbjorn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Predictors of long-term symptomatic remission are crucial to the successful tailoring of treatment in first episode psychosis. There is lack of studies distinguishing the predictive effects of different social factors. This prevents a valid evaluating of their independent effects. Objectives: To test specific social baseline predictors of long-term remission. We hypothesized that first, satisfaction with social relations predicts remission; second, that frequency of social interaction predicts remission; and third, that the effect of friend relationship satisfaction and frequency will be greater than that of family relations satisfaction and frequency. Material and Methods: A sample of first episode psychosis (n = 186) completed baseline measures of social functioning, as well as clinical assessments. We compared groups of remitted and non-remitted individuals using generalized estimating equations analyses. Results: Frequency of social interaction with friends was a significant positive predictor of remission over a two-year period. Neither global perceived social satisfaction nor frequency of family interaction showed significant effects. Conclusions: The study findings are of particular clinical importance since frequency of friendship interaction is a possibly malleable factor. Frequency of interaction could be affected through behavioral modification and therapy already from an early stage in the course, and thus increase remission rates. PMID:27757090

  10. Long-term effects of repeated social stress on the conditioned place preference induced by MDMA in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2015-12-03

    Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder.

  11. Direct Social Support and Long-term Health Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176

  12. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  13. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  14. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  15. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  16. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Koetsenruijter, Jan; Orlando, Rosanna; Portillo, Maria Carmen; Culliford, David

    2016-01-01

    Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal network type as a policy in terms of

  17. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. Method A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Results Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Discussion Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal

  18. The possible long-term effects of early-life circadian rhythm disturbance on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in early life with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to early life sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years.

  19. Hypothalamic vasopressin systems are more sensitive to the long term effects of social defeat in males versus females

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, M.Q.; Laredo, S.A.; Lopez, E.M.; Manning, C.E.; Hao, R.C.; Doig, I.E.; Campi, K.L.; Flowers, A.E.; Knight, J.K.; Trainor, B.C.

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin signaling has important effects on the regulation of social behaviors and stress responses, and is considered a promising pathway to target for new therapeutics of stress-induced psychiatric disorders. Although there is evidence for sex differences in the behavioral effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP), few data have directly compared the effects of stress on endogenous AVP signaling in males and females. We used California mice (Peromyscus californicus) to study the short and long term effects of social defeat stress on AVP immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the posteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTmp). Acute exposure to defeat increased AVP/c-fos cells in the PVN and SON of both males and females. In contrast, there were sex differences in the long term effects of defeat. Males but not females exposed to defeat had less avp mRNA in the PVN, and in two experiments defeat reduced the number of AVP positive cells in the caudal PVN of males but not females. Interestingly, during relatively benign social encounters with a target mouse, there was a rapid decrease in AVP percent staining (including cell bodies and fibers) in the PVN of males but not females. Defeat reduced AVP percent staining in males, but did not block the socially induced decrease in percent staining. When mice were tested in resident-intruder tests, males exposed to defeat males were no less aggressive than control males whereas aggression was abolished in females. However, bouts of aggression were positively correlated with the number of AVP neurons in the BNSTmp of control males but not stressed males, suggesting that different mechanisms mediate aggression in control and stressed males. These data show that while acute AVP responses to defeat are similar in males and females, the long term effects of defeat on AVP are stronger in males. PMID:25306217

  20. Social Functioning in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Gallagher, Richard; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test that methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes social skills training, significantly enhances social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and methylphenidate plus nonspecific psychosocial treatment…

  1. Can a Robot Be Perceived as a Developing Creature? Effects of a Robot's Long-Term Cognitive Developments on Its Social Presence and People's Social Responses toward It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwan Min; Park, Namkee; Song, Hayeon

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the effect of long-term artificial development of a robot on users' feelings of social presence and social responses toward the robot. The study is a 2 (developmental capability: developmental versus fully matured) x 2 (number of participants: individual versus group) between-subjects experiment (N = 40) in which participants…

  2. Can a Robot Be Perceived as a Developing Creature? Effects of a Robot's Long-Term Cognitive Developments on Its Social Presence and People's Social Responses toward It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwan Min; Park, Namkee; Song, Hayeon

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the effect of long-term artificial development of a robot on users' feelings of social presence and social responses toward the robot. The study is a 2 (developmental capability: developmental versus fully matured) x 2 (number of participants: individual versus group) between-subjects experiment (N = 40) in which participants…

  3. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. An integrated conceptual framework for long-term social-ecological research

    Treesearch

    S.L. Collins; S.R. Carpenter; S.M. Swinton; D.E. Orenstein; D.L. Childers; T.L. Gragson; N.B. Grimm; J.M. Grove; S.L. Harlan; J.P. Kaye; A.K. Knapp; G.P. Kofinas; J.J. Magnuson; W.H. McDowell; J.M. Melack; L.A. Ogden; G.P. Robertson; M.D. Smith; A.C. Whitmer

    2010-01-01

    The global reach of human activities affects all natural ecosystems, so that the environment is best viewed as a social-ecological system. Consequently, a more integrative approach to environmental science, one that bridges the biophysical and social domains, is sorely needed. Although models and frameworks for social-ecological systems exist, few are explicitly...

  5. Experiential Learning: Exploring Its Long-Term Impact on Socially Responsible Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield, Jay; Woods, Treesa

    2013-01-01

    Today's students are exposed to world events that require considerable cross cultural understanding and recognition that education is far more than learning facts about specific disciplines and diverse groups while sitting in a classroom. For the past several decades, research in education has repeatedly demonstrated that adults learn…

  6. Influence of long-term social interaction on chirping behavior, steroid levels and neurogenesis in weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Kent D.; Chung, Michael; Castellano, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Social interactions dramatically affect the brain and behavior of animals. Studies in birds and mammals indicate that socially induced changes in adult neurogenesis participate in the regulation of social behavior, but little is known about this relationship in fish. Here, we review studies in electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhychus) that link social stimulation, changes in electrocommunication behavior and adult neurogenesis in brain regions associated with electrocommunication. Compared with isolated fish, fish living in pairs have greater production of chirps, an electrocommunication signal, during dyadic interactions and in response to standardized artificial social stimuli. Social interaction also promotes neurogenesis in the periventricular zone, which contributes born cells to the prepacemaker nucleus, the brain region that regulates chirping. Both long-term chirp rate and periventricular cell addition depend on the signal dynamics (amplitude and waveform variation), modulations (chirps) and novelty of the stimuli from the partner fish. Socially elevated cortisol levels and cortisol binding to glucocorticoid receptors mediate, at least in part, the effect of social interaction on chirping behavior and brain cell addition. In a closely related electric fish (Brachyhypopomus gauderio), social interaction enhances cell proliferation specifically in brain regions for electrocommunication and only during the breeding season, when social signaling is most elaborate. Together, these studies demonstrate a consistent correlation between brain cell addition and environmentally regulated chirping behavior across many social and steroidal treatments and suggest a causal relationship. PMID:23761468

  7. Graduate students navigating social-ecological research: insights from the Long-Term Ecological Research Network

    Treesearch

    Sydne Record; Paige F. B. Ferguson; Elise Benveniste; Rose A. Graves; Vera W. Pfeiffer; Michele Romolini; Christie E. Yorke; Ben Beardmore

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary, collaborative research capable of capturing the feedbacks between biophysical and social systems can improve the capacity for sustainable environmental decision making. Networks of researchers provide unique opportunities to foster social-ecological inquiry. Although insights into interdisciplinary research have been discussed elsewhere,...

  8. Long-Term Benefits of Social Ties to Peers--Even among Adolescents with "Risky" Friendships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sletten, Mira Aaboen

    2011-01-01

    Applying the theoretical framework of social capital, this article investigates whether adolescents' popularity among their peers during junior high school protects them against a financially marginalized position (as indicated by unemployment, social assistance reception and low educational attainment) in young adulthood. Based on a Norwegian…

  9. Oxytocin protects against negative behavioral and autonomic consequences of long-term social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.; Trahanas, Diane M.; Zimmerman, Robert R.; Porges, Stephen W.; Carter, C. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Summary Positive social interactions and social support may protect against various forms of mental and physical illness, although the mechanisms for these effects are not well identified. The socially monogamous prairie vole, which – like humans – forms social bonds and displays high levels of parasympathetic activity, has provided a useful model for investigating neurobiological systems that mediate the consequences of sociality. In the present study, adult female prairie voles were exposed to social isolation or continued pairing with a female sibling (control conditions) for 4 weeks. During weeks 3 and 4 of this period, animals were administered oxytocin (20µg/50µl, SC) or saline vehicle (50µl, SC) daily for a total of 14 days. In Experiment 1 autonomic parameters were recorded during and following isolation or pairing. Isolation (vs. pairing) significantly increased basal heart rate (HR) and reduced HR variability and vagal regulation of the heart; these changes in isolated animals were prevented with oxytocin administration. In Experiment 2 behaviors relevant to depression [sucrose intake and swimming in the forced swim test (FST)] were measured as a function of isolation. Isolation reduced sucrose intake and increased immobility in the FST; these behaviors also were prevented by oxytocin. Administration of oxytocin did not significantly alter cardiac, autonomic or behavioral responses of paired animals. These findings support the hypothesis that oxytocinergic mechanisms can protect against behavioral and cardiac dysfunction in response to chronic social stressors, and can provide insight into social influences on behavior and autonomic function in humans. PMID:19553027

  10. Note on social behavior of long-term captive female orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abellii).

    PubMed

    Tobach, Ethel; Porto, Nicole

    2006-02-01

    Some observations of social behavior of two aging female orangutans with a younger male son of one were made in an outdoor and in an indoor enclosure during the day. These included social distance, grooming, and locomotion plus wrestling and genital stimulation. As noted 15 years earlier, the two old females were never in contact with each other. Each showed contact and noncontact with the younger male. No clear social relation between the females was evident. Careful study of aging zoo populations could be useful.

  11. Misremembering What You See or Hear: Dissociable Effects of Modality on Short- and Long-Term False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewska, Justyna M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds…

  12. Misremembering What You See or Hear: Dissociable Effects of Modality on Short- and Long-Term False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewska, Justyna M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds…

  13. Post-Marketing Surveillance of Fluvoxamine Maleate Used Long-Term in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Satoshi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Hosokai, Takeshi; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kajii, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    No data on the long-term 'real-world' use of fluvoxamine for the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Japanese patients are currently available. To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine for SAD in the clinical setting. Japanese patients with SAD who initiated treatment with fluvoxamine were enrolled in this 53-week post-marketing survey from 407 institutions nationwide. Data including rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and efficacy were collected. Overall improvement was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression for Improvement. SAD symptoms and treatment responses were assessed with the Japanese version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. From the 1,974 patients surveyed, 1,790 and 1,504 patients were eligible for analysis of safety and efficacy, respectively. ADRs were reported in 18.2 % of patients, with nausea, somnolence, and constipation the most common. Over 50 % of these ADRs developed in the first 4 weeks of treatment. Serious ADRs were reported in 0.8 % of patients and included six cases of suicide attempt and three cases of suicidal ideation. Response to fluvoxamine was reported in 78.4 % of patients. In patients comorbid with depression, improvement in SAD symptoms with fluvoxamine treatment was significantly affected by clinical improvement in the depression. These findings support the long-term safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine in patients with SAD. Most ADRs developed during the early treatment phase, and higher doses during the later phase were not associated with an increase in ADRs.

  14. Iron Deficiency in Infancy and Neurocognitive Functioning at 19 Years: Evidence of Long-Term Deficits in Executive Function and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lukowski, Angela F.; Koss, Marlene; Burden, Matthew J.; Jonides, John; Nelson, Charles A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency in infancy negatively impacts a variety of neurodevelopmental processes at the time of nutrient insufficiency, with persistent central nervous system alterations and deficits in behavioral functioning, despite iron therapy. In rodent models, early iron deficiency impairs the hippocampus and the dopamine system. We examined the possibility that young adults who had experienced chronic, severe iron deficiency as infants would exhibit deficits on neurocognitive tests with documented frontostriatal (Trail Making Test, Intra-/Extra-dimensional Shift, Stockings of Cambridge, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing) and hippocampal specificity (Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory). Participants with chronic, severe iron deficiency in infancy performed less well on frontostriatal-mediated executive functions, including inhibitory control, set-shifting, and planning. There was also evidence of impairment on a hippocampus-based recognition memory task. We suggest that these deficits may result from the long-term effects of early iron deficiency on the dopamine system, the hippocampus, and their interaction. PMID:20406573

  15. An Examination of Long-Term Environmental-Social Dynamics in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the interactions of environmental and social dynamics in Central Balkans over the past millennium, a period that experienced three major climatic phases (Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the warm 20th century). Meanwhile, the same period witnessed a complex human history with the emergence-rise-decline of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent socio-political events (e.g. wars, famines, migrations). Environmental datasets for the analysis include biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating of two western and central Serbian lakes while social datasets include historic population data, land use, settlement patterns, and critical historic events derived from a review of the literature and local archives. Among the environmental datasets, indigenous tree and herbaceous pollen from these Central Balkans records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics whereas potassium and titanium counts obtained through XRF act as a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes. Microscopic charcoal, cereal pollen and subordinate anthropogenic pollen (e.g. cultivated fruits and vegetables) are used to distinguish strong human impact over the landscape. These key anthropogenic indicators create a more thorough social component of the analysis in association with the social datasets. After reconstructing the individual time series for each environmental and social dataset, the two Central Balkan records are correlated in order to identify the environmental and social homogeneity and heterogeneity patterns occurring at shorter and longer timescales during the period. Results provide insights on how a region responds to social and environmental stressors and our approach demonstrates ways to integrate natural and social science system research.

  16. Neuropeptide Y, social function and long-term outcome in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stålberg, Gabriella; Ekselius, Lisa; Lindström, Leif H; Larhammar, Dan; Bodén, Robert

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of biomarkers in schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in social functioning are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to explore whether neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia is correlated to social function and clinical variables. A further aim was to determine whether baseline levels of NPY were associated with subsequent 3-year outcome. Fifty-six consecutively admitted patients with schizophrenia were included and underwent lumbar puncture and symptom ratings before antipsychotic treatment. NPY levels in CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Social function (Social Competence and Social Interest) was assessed by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation while psychiatric symptoms were rated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Three-year outcome was assessed with the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale. Cross-sectional analysis showed a correlation between level of NPY and Social Competence at index admission (r(s)=0.37, p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis (i.e., at the 3-year follow-up) indicated that, for each standard deviation increase in baseline NPY, there was an increased risk of being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.82), having moderate or severe symptoms (OR 3.09, CI 1.30-7.32) or being hospitalized at least 6 months the previous year (OR 3.24, CI 1.09-9.64). However, NPY was not correlated to Social Interest or clinical variables at index admission. In conclusion, NPY levels in CSF are correlated to Social Competence and seem to predict some aspects of longitudinal outcome in schizophrenia.

  17. Long-term neuropsychological outcome and loss of social autonomy after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mazaux, J M; Masson, F; Levin, H S; Alaoui, P; Maurette, P; Barat, M

    1997-12-01

    To assess which social activities were still impaired 5 years after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults, and which neuropsychological impairments were associated with this loss of social autonomy. Cross-sectional study of 79 patients selected from the follow-up cohort of an epidemiologic survey of 2,116 TBI patients. The present study was of ambulatory patients seen at hospital or at their homes. The inception cohort was from the trauma center of a university hospital and from a general hospital that is representative of level II trauma centers in Aquitaine, France. Seventy-nine patients selected from a representative sample of 407 patients who were included in the 5-year follow-up study of the initial cohort (convenience sample). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and loss of social autonomy as assessed by the European Brain Injury Society's European Head Injury Evaluation Chart; assessment of neurobehavioral impairments by means of the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised. Up to 16 patients suffered disability for at least one social skill because of cognitive/behavioral reasons. Seven needed full-time supervision. Performing administrative tasks and financial management, writing letters and calculating, driving, planning the week, and using public transport were the most impaired social abilities. Loss of social autonomy was mainly observed in severely injured patients. Univariate analysis showed that mental fatigability, motor slowing, memory difficulties, and disorders of executive function were associated with low scores on the GOS, unemployment, and difficulties in shopping, using public transport, and performing financial management and administrative tasks. Persistent impairments of executive functions and speed of psychomotor processing are major factors associated with loss of social autonomy and inability to return to work long after TBI in adults. Improving these impairments in concrete social situations represents a major challenge for cognitive

  18. Men living with long-term conditions: exploring gender and improving social care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, David; Jepson, Marcus; Hastie, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Disabled men have traditionally been seen as incomplete men or as entirely gender-less. Research which has looked at the intersection of disability and male gender has largely treated disabled men as a homogeneous group with little reference to, for example, impairment-related differences. The ongoing move towards self-directed, personalised social care in England suggests that support needs relating to gender may be taken more seriously. A qualitative study with 20 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in England in 2013 explored the men's experiences of the organisation and delivery of social care as it pertained to their sense of being men. Our main finding was that social care in its broadest sense did little to support a positive sense of masculinity or male gender. More often than not the organisation and delivery of social care people de-gendered or emasculated many of the men who took part in the study. Our paper speaks to the need to explore impairment-specific issues for disabled men; to deliver a more person-centred approach to social care which recognises the importance of the social and sexual lives of disabled men; and to create ways in which men can support and empower each other to assert essential human rights relating to independence, dignity and liberty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of social instability stress in adolescence on long-term, not short-term, spatial memory performance.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew R; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2013-11-01

    There is evidence that exposure to stressors in adolescence leads to lasting deficits on hippocampal-dependent tasks, but whether medial prefrontal cortical function is also impaired is unknown. We previously found that rats exposed to social instability stress in adolescence (SS; daily 1h isolation and subsequent change of cage partner between postnatal days 30 and 45) had impaired memory performance on a Spatial Object Location test and in memory for fear conditioning context, tasks that depend on the integrity of the hippocampus. Here we investigated whether impaired performance would be evident after adolescent SS in male rats on a different test of hippocampal function, spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and on a working memory task for which performance depends on the integrity of the medial prefrontal cortex, the Delayed Alternation task (DAT). During MWM testing, SS rats showed greater improvements in performance across trials within days compared to control (CTL) rats, but showed less retention of learning between days (48 h) compared to CTL rats. Similarly, SS rats had impaired long-term memory in the Spatial Object Location test after a long delay (240 min), but not after shorter delays (15 or 60 min) compared to CTL rats. No group differences were observed on the DAT, which assessed working memory across brief delays (5-90 s). Thus, deficits in memory performance after chronic social stress in adolescence may be limited to long-term memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Paranoid delusional disorder follows social anxiety disorder in a long-term case series: evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Veras, André B; Souza, Thalita Gabínio E; Ricci, Thaysse Gomes; de Souza, Clayton Peixoto; Moryiama, Matheus César; Nardi, Antonio E; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients may have self-referential ideas and share other cognitive processes with paranoid delusional disorder (PDD) patients. From an evolutionary perspective, SAD may derive from biologically instinctive social hierarchy ranking, thus causing an assumption of inferior social rank, and thus prompting concerns about mistreatment from those of perceived higher rank. This naturalistic longitudinal study followed four patients with initial SAD and later onset of PDD. These four patients show the same sequence of diagnosed SAD followed by diagnosed PDD, as is often retrospectively described by other PDD patients. Although antipsychotic medication improved psychotic symptoms in all patients, those who also had adjunctive serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors for SAD had much more improvement in both psychosis and social functioning. From an evolutionary perspective, it can be conjectured that when conscious modulation of the SAD social rank instinct is diminished due to hypofrontality (common to many psychotic disorders), then unmodulated SAD can lead to paranoid delusional disorder, with prominent ideas of reference. Non-psychotic SAD may be prodromal or causal for PDD.

  1. Cannabinoid hyperemesis and the cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults: recognition, diagnosis, acute and long-term treatment

    PubMed Central

    Blumentrath, Christian G.; Dohrmann, Boris; Ewald, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) and the cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults (CVS) are both characterized by recurrent episodes of heavy nausea, vomiting and frequently abdominal pain. Both syndromes are barely known among physicians. Literature is inconsistent concerning clinical features which enable differentiation between CVS and CHS. We performed a literature review using the LIVIVO search portal for life sciences to develop a pragmatic approach towards these two syndromes. Our findings indicate that complete and persistent resolution of all symptoms of the disease following cannabis cessation is the only reliable criterion applicable to distinguish CHS from CVS. Psychiatric comorbidities (e.g. panic attacks, depression), history of migraine attacks and rapid gastric emptying may serve as supportive criteria for the diagnosis of CVS. Compulsive bathing behaviour, a clinical observation previously attributed only to CHS patients is equally present in CVS patients. Long-term follow-up is essential in order to clearly separate CHS from CVS. However, long-term follow-up of CVS and CHS cases is seldom. We provide a standard operating procedure applicable to a broad spectrum of health care facilities which addresses the major issues of CVS and CHS: awareness, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:28400711

  2. Social murder: the long-term effects of conservative economic policy.

    PubMed

    Chernomas, Robert; Hudson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors take inspiration from Engels's 1845 account of the social murder committed by British capitalists to assess the contemporary impact of conservative economic policy, which they define as policies designed to maximize the accumulation of profit while socializing the associated risks and costs. Conservative economists argue that if their policy prescription is followed, it will produce broad-based economic benefits including more rapid growth, higher incomes, less illness, and, even, more democracy. The authors contrast the myth of conservative economic policy with the reality. What conservative economic policy has actually accomplished is a redistribution of wealth and power away from the vast majority of the population to firms and their owners. The effects of these policies on citizens and workers have been socially determined economic instability, unemployment, poverty, inequality, dangerous products, and infectious and chronic disease.

  3. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  4. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  5. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Victimization: The Moderating Impact of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; And Others

    The role of social support in moderating the impact of childhood sexual abuse on adult psychological adjustment was examined. Women were drawn from three clinical samples (women in treatment for alcoholism, for being battered, or for mental health treatment) and two nonclinical sources (women arrested for driving while intoxicated and a random…

  6. A case study of long-term cognitive and social functioning following a right temporal lobectomy in infancy.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Catherine A; Mar, Raymond A

    2008-01-01

    We present the rare case of an adult patient, FS, who had a right anterior temporal lobe resection during infancy to treat intractable epilepsy, and underwent a cognitive evaluation 19 years later. Given the paucity of literature on long-term outcomes for infants who receive neurosurgery for epilepsy, this case provides valuable information for both clinicians and patients. What little literature exists on infant and child surgical outcomes for epilepsy suggests a variable course, with several areas of possible cognitive and social difficulty. FS's assessment at the age of 21 revealed only mild difficulties with memory, sequencing, and visual imagery, and spared intellectual functioning, working memory, problem-solving and social cognition, along with a high level of socioeconomic functioning. Thus, the case of FS suggests that neurosurgery during infancy is not necessarily associated with large-scale cognitive impairment, and furthermore, that high levels of functioning both educationally and vocationally are possible after surgical treatment of epilepsy in infancy.

  7. Automated long-term tracking and social behavioural phenotyping of animal colonies within a semi-natural environment.

    PubMed

    Weissbrod, Aharon; Shapiro, Alexander; Vasserman, Genadiy; Edry, Liat; Dayan, Molly; Yitzhaky, Assif; Hertzberg, Libi; Feinerman, Ofer; Kimchi, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Social behaviour has a key role in animal survival across species, ranging from insects to primates and humans. However, the biological mechanisms driving natural interactions between multiple animals, over long-term periods, are poorly studied and remain elusive. Rigorous and objective quantification of behavioural parameters within a group poses a major challenge as it requires simultaneous monitoring of the positions of several individuals and comprehensive consideration of many complex factors. Automatic tracking and phenotyping of interacting animals could thus overcome the limitations of manual tracking methods. Here we report a broadly applicable system that automatically tracks the locations of multiple, uniquely identified animals, such as mice, within a semi-natural setting. The system combines video and radio frequency identified tracking data to obtain detailed behavioural profiles of both individuals and groups. We demonstrate the usefulness of these data in characterizing individual phenotypes, interactions between pairs and the collective social organization of groups.

  8. Long-term outcomes of parent-assisted social skills intervention for high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandelberg, Josh; Frankel, Fred; Cunningham, Tina; Gorospe, Clarissa; Laugeson, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of Children's Friendship Training, a parent-assisted social skills intervention for children. Prior research has shown Children's Friendship Training to be superior to wait-list control with maintenance of gains at 3-month follow-up. Participants were families of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who completed Children's Friendship Training 1-5 years earlier. They were recruited through mail, phone, and email. Information collected included parent and child completed questionnaires and a phone interview. Data were collected on 24 of 52 potential participants (46%). With an average of 35-month follow-up, participants had a mean age of 12.6 years. Results indicated that participants at follow-up were invited on significantly more play dates, showed less play date conflict, improved significantly in parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors, and demonstrated marginally significant decreases in loneliness when compared to pre-Children's Friendship Training.

  9. Vocational rehabilitation of the socially disadvantaged long-term sick: inter-organizational co-operation between welfare state agencies.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, R; Grape, O

    1999-03-01

    Vocational rehabilitation targeted to the socially disadvantaged long-term sick requires that the client keep in touch with a number of welfare state agencies, all of which have different regulations, conflicting goals and various types of benefits. This is an arduous and time-consuming task for clients with medical, social and labour market problems. Many of these clients run the risk of ending up in a no-man's land or being endlessly circulated between agencies because their problems do not correspond to the profile of the typical client. Both government and welfare workers see institutional co-operation between welfare state agencies as the remedy to such problems. This article, which is based on interviews with participants in fourteen cooperating projects, focuses on difficulties and opportunities experienced in such co-operation. It is concluded that such cooperation, when initiated in local settings and supported by local players, is a way of rejuvenating the existing Swedish model.

  10. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location.

  11. Long-Term Efficacy of Methylphenidate in Enhancing Attention Regulation, Social Skills, and Academic Abilities of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Heather M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ashford, Jason; Ogg, Susan; Howard, Scott C.; Morris, E. Brannon; Brown, Ronald; Bonner, Melanie; Christensen, Robbin; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Khan, Raja B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Methylphenidate (MPH) ameliorates attention problems experienced by some cancer survivors in the short term, but its long-term efficacy is unproven. Patients and Methods This study investigates the long-term effectiveness of maintenance doses of MPH in survivors of childhood brain tumors (n = 35) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 33) participating in a 12-month MPH trial. Measures of attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test [CPT], Conners' Rating Scales [CRS]), academic abilities (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test [WIAT]), social skills (Social Skills Rating System [SSRS]), and behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) were administered at premedication baseline and at the end of the MPH trial while on medication. A cancer control group composed of patients who were not administered MPH (brain tumor = 31 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia = 23) was assessed on the same measures 2 months apart. Results For the MPH group, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant improvement in performance on a measure of sustained attention (CPT indices, P < .05); parent, teacher, and self-report ratings of attention (CRS indices, P < .05), and parent ratings of social skills or behavioral problems (SSRS and CBCL indices; P < .05). In contrast, the cancer control group only showed improvement on parent ratings of attention (Conners' Parent Rating Scale indices; P < .05) and social skills (SSRS and CBCL indices; P < .05). There was no significant improvement on the academic measure (WIAT) in either group. Conclusion Attention and behavioral benefits of MPH for childhood cancer survivors are maintained across settings over the course of a year. Although academic gains were not identified, MPH may offer benefits in academic areas not assessed. PMID:20837955

  12. Long-term efficacy of methylphenidate in enhancing attention regulation, social skills, and academic abilities of childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Heather M; Reddick, Wilburn E; Ashford, Jason; Ogg, Susan; Howard, Scott C; Morris, E Brannon; Brown, Ronald; Bonner, Melanie; Christensen, Robbin; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Khan, Raja B

    2010-10-10

    Methylphenidate (MPH) ameliorates attention problems experienced by some cancer survivors in the short term, but its long-term efficacy is unproven. This study investigates the long-term effectiveness of maintenance doses of MPH in survivors of childhood brain tumors (n = 35) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 33) participating in a 12-month MPH trial. Measures of attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test [CPT], Conners' Rating Scales [CRS]), academic abilities (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test [WIAT]), social skills (Social Skills Rating System [SSRS]), and behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) were administered at premedication baseline and at the end of the MPH trial while on medication. A cancer control group composed of patients who were not administered MPH (brain tumor = 31 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia = 23) was assessed on the same measures 12 [corrected] months apart. For the MPH group, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant improvement in performance on a measure of sustained attention (CPT indices, P < .05); parent, teacher, and self-report ratings of attention (CRS indices, P < .05), and parent ratings of social skills or behavioral problems (SSRS and CBCL indices; P < .05). In contrast, the cancer control group only showed improvement on parent ratings of attention (Conners' Parent Rating Scale indices; P < .05) and social skills (SSRS and CBCL indices; P < .05). There was no significant improvement on the academic measure (WIAT) in either group. Attention and behavioral benefits of MPH for childhood cancer survivors are maintained across settings over the course of a year. Although academic gains were not identified, MPH may offer benefits in academic areas not assessed.

  13. Long-term administration of escitalopram in patients with social anxiety disorder in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Satoshi; Hayano, Taiji; Hagino, Atsushi; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of escitalopram in patients with social anxiety disorder in Japan. Methods A 52-week, open-label study was conducted in Japanese patients with social anxiety disorder with a total score ≥60 on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale – Japanese Version (LSAS-J) and ≥4 on the Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale. Escitalopram 10 mg/day was administered for the first week and could be increased to 20 mg/day. Results The study included 158 patients: 81.0% (128/158) completed 52 weeks of escitalopram treatment, 68.4% (108/158) increased their dose to 20 mg/day, and 56.3% (89/158) remained on 20 mg/day. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 57.6% (91/158) of patients. The most common (incidence ≥10%) were somnolence and nausea. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was similar in extensive and poor metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2C19. No adverse drug reactions increased in incidence by >5% after week 12. The incidence of serious adverse events was 1.3% (2/158). No deaths occurred. The LSAS-J total scores improved until week 52. The LSAS-J response rate (≥30% improvement in LSAS-J) was 69.0%, the Clinical Global Impression – Improvement Scale response rate (≤2) was 73.0%, and the LSAS-J remission rate (≤30) was 27.0%. Conclusion In this first 52-week clinical study of social anxiety disorder, escitalopram 10–20 mg/day was safe, well tolerated, and effective in Japanese patients. PMID:27524899

  14. Sex difference in psychological behavior changes induced by long-term social isolation in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Wu, Chun Fu; Liu, Wen; Yang, Jing Yu; Chen, Duo

    2004-01-01

    Social isolation can induce psychological behavior changes. It is interesting to know whether there is sex difference in responding to social isolation or not. The present study compared the behavior difference between male and female mice isolated for 1-4 months. The results showed that the isolated male mice had higher accounts of locomotor activity than the isolated female and group-housed ones. Both isolated male and female mice spent shorter time in the dark box than the group-housed mice in the light/dark test, and isolated male mice spent less time in the closed arms than isolated female and group-housed mice when isolated for 2, 3 and 4 months in the elevated plus-maze test. These results suggest that isolation induce an anxiolytic-like effect. The immobile time in the forced swimming test was shortened in male mice isolated for 1 and 2 months. Both isolated male and female mice showed shorter time in pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and less body weight gain. These results demonstrated that there was a sex difference in psychological behavior changes in mice undergoing social isolation and the male mice were more easily affected by isolation.

  15. Long-term Ovariectomy Alters Social and Anxious Behaviors in Semi-free Ranging Japanese Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kris; Robertson, Nicola D; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression often occur in young women after complete hysterectomy and in older women during menopause. There are many variables that are hard to control in human population studies, but that are absent to a large extent in stable nonhuman primate troops. However, macaques exhibit depressive and anxious behaviors in response to similar situations as humans such as isolation, stress, instability or aggression. Therefore, we hypothesized that examination of behavior in ovariectomized individuals in a stable macaque troop organized along matriarchal lineages and in which individuals have social support from extended family, would reveal effects that were due to the withdrawal of ovarian steroids without many of the confounds of human society. We also tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would elicit and increase anxious behavior in a stressful situation such as brief exposure to single caging. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were ovariectomized (Ovx) or tubal-ligated (intact controls) at 3 years of age and allowed to mature for 3 years in a stable troop of approximately 300 individuals. Behaviors were recorded in the outdoor corral in the third year followed by individual temperament tests in single cages. There was no obvious difference in anxiety-related behaviors such as scratching between Ovx and tubal-ligated animals in the corral. Nonetheless, compared to tubal-ligated animals, Ovx animals exhibited a significant decrease in (1) positive social behavior, (2) initiating dominance behavior (3) time receiving grooming, (4) locomoting, (5) mounting behavior, and in (6) consort behavior. However, Ovx females exhibited a significant increase in (1) consummatory behavior and (2) object play compared to tubal-ligated controls. In the individual temperament tests, Ovx individuals exhibited an increase in anxiety-related behaviors. There was no difference in adrenal weight/body weight suggesting that neither group was under chronic stress

  16. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men.

    PubMed

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L

    2015-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  17. Social Pavlovian conditioning: Short- and long-term effects and the role of anxiety and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Frank H.; Boger, Sabrina; Georgii, Claudio; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Blechert, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Today’s stressors largely arise from social interactions rather than from physical threat. However, the dominant laboratory model of emotional learning relies on physical stimuli (e.g. electric shock) whereas adequate models of social conditioning are missing, possibly due to more subtle and multilayered biobehavioral responses to such stimuli. To fill this gap, we acquired a broad set of measures during conditioning to negative social unconditioned stimuli, also taking into account long-term maintenance of conditioning and inter-individual differences. Fifty-nine healthy participants underwent a classical conditioning task with videos of actors expressing disapproving (US-neg) or neutral (US-neu) statements. Static images of the corresponding actors with a neutral facial expression served as CS+ and CS−, predicting US-neg and US-neu, respectively. Autonomic and facial-muscular measures confirmed differential unconditioned responding whereas experiential CS ratings, event-related potentials, and evoked theta oscillations confirmed differential conditioned responding. Conditioning was maintained at 1 month and 1 year follow-ups on experiential ratings, especially in individuals with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms, documenting the efficiency of social conditioning and its clinical relevance. This novel, ecologically improved conditioning paradigm uncovered a remarkably efficient multi-layered social learning mechanism that may represent a risk factor for anxiety and depression. PMID:27614767

  18. Predicting long-term citation impact of articles in social and personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The citation impact of a comprehensive sample of articles published in social and personality psychology journals in 1998 was evaluated. Potential predictors of the 10-yr. citation impact of 1580 articles from 37 journals were investigated, including number of authors, number of references, journal impact factor, author nationality, and article length, using linear regression. The impact factor of the journal in which articles appeared was the primary predictor of the citations that they accrued, accounting for 30% of the total variance. Articles with greater length, more references, and more authors were cited relatively often, although the citation advantage of longer articles was not proportionate to their length. A citation advantage was also enjoyed by authors from the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. 37% of the variance in the total number of citations was accounted for by the study variables.

  19. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An exemplar-familiarity model predicts short-term and long-term probe recognition across diverse forms of memory search.

    PubMed

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Cox, Gregory E; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2014-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across diverse conditions that manipulated relations between targets and foils across trials. Subjects saw lists of from 1 to 16 items followed by a single item recognition probe. In a varied-mapping condition, targets and foils could switch roles across trials; in a consistent-mapping condition, targets and foils never switched roles; and in an all-new condition, on each trial a completely new set of items formed the memory set. In the varied-mapping and all-new conditions, mean correct response times (RTs) and error proportions were curvilinear increasing functions of memory set size, with the RT results closely resembling ones from hybrid visual-memory search experiments reported by Wolfe (2012). In the consistent-mapping condition, new-probe RTs were invariant with set size, whereas old-probe RTs increased slightly with increasing study-test lag. With appropriate choice of psychologically interpretable free parameters, the model accounted well for the complete set of results. The work provides support for the hypothesis that a common set of processes involving exemplar-based familiarity may govern long-term and short-term probe recognition across wide varieties of memory- search conditions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Communication, advice exchange and job satisfaction of nursing staff: a social network analyses of 35 long-term care units

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in healthcare settings. This is the first study that investigates informal communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care. We examine the structure of the networks, how they are related to the size of units and characteristics of nursing staff, and their relationship with job satisfaction. Methods We collected social network data of 380 nursing staff of 35 units in group projects and psychogeriatric units in nursing homes and residential homes in the Netherlands. Communication and advice networks were analyzed in a social network application (UCINET), focusing on the number of contacts (density) between nursing staff on the units. We then studied the correlation between the density of networks, size of the units and characteristics of nursing staff. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationship between social networks and job satisfaction of nursing staff, taking characteristics of units and nursing staff into account. Results Both communication and advice networks were negatively related to the number of residents and the number of nursing staff of the units. Communication and advice networks were more dense when more staff worked part-time. Furthermore, density of communication networks was positively related to the age of nursing staff of the units. Multilevel analyses showed that job satisfaction differed significantly between individual staff members and units and was influenced by the number of nursing staff of the units. However, this relationship disappeared when density of communication networks was added to the model. Conclusions Overall, communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care are relatively dense. This

  2. Association of social network and social support with health-related quality of life and fatigue in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Soares, A; Biasoli, I; Scheliga, A; Baptista, R L; Brabo, E P; Morais, J C; Werneck, G L; Spector, N

    2013-08-01

    As the number of survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) increases, there has been a growing interest in long-term treatment-related side effects and their impact on the quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess the association of social network and social support with the QoL and fatigue among long-term HL survivors. A total of 200 HL survivors were included. The generic Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire, the QoL cancer survivor's questionnaire (QOL-CS), and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory were used to assess QoL and fatigue. Social network and social support were evaluated with the Social Support Survey. Social network and all social support measures were favorably associated with two or more SF-12 scales, mainly with physical functioning and the mental health scales. Social network and social support dimensions were also associated with better QOL-CS scores. Affective support, informational support, positive interaction, and emotional support were associated with less fatigue. Both social network and social support are associated with better QoL and lower levels of fatigue in HL survivors. This information may be useful to health professionals and community organizations in implementing effective interventions to improve these patients' quality of life.

  3. Posttraining activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus impairs object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia R; Rossato, Janine I; Monteiro, Siomara; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-09-01

    Evidence indicates that brain endocannabinoids are involved in memory processing. However, the participation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in recognition memory has not been yet conclusively determined. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the posttraining activation of hippocampal cannabinoid receptors on the consolidation of object recognition memory. Rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in an object recognition learning task involving exposure to two different stimulus objects. Memory retention was assessed at different times after training. In the test sessions, one of the objects presented during training was replaced by a novel one. When infused in the CA1 region immediately after training, the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 and the endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor VDM-11 blocked long-term memory retention in a dose-dependent manner without affecting short-term memory, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or the functionality of the hippocampus. The amnesic effect of WIN-55,212-2 and VDM-11 was not due to state-dependency and was completely reversed by co-infusion of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 and mimicked by the CB1 receptor agonist ACEA but not by the CB2 receptor agonists JWH-015 and palmitoylethanolamide. Our data indicate that activation of hippocampal CB1 receptors early after training hampers consolidation of object recognition memory.

  4. Social Support, Self-Efficacy for Decision Making, and Follow-up Care Use in Long-term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Laura P.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Kent, Erin E.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Bellizzi, Keith; Arora, Neeraj; Aziz, Noreen; Keel, Gretchen; Rowland, Julia H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer survivors play an important role in coordinating their follow-up care and making treatment-related decisions. Little is known about how modifiable factors like social support are associated with active participation in follow-up care. This study tests associations between social support, cancer-related follow-up care use, and self-efficacy for participation in decision making related to follow-up care (SEDM). We also identified sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with social support among long-term survivors. Methods The FOllow-up Care Use among Survivors (FOCUS) study is a cross-sectional, population based survey of breast, prostate, colon, and gynecologic cancer survivors (n=1522) 4 to 14 years post-diagnosis. Multivariable regression models were used to test associations between perceived social support (tangible and emotional/informational support modeled separately), follow-up care use (past two years), and SEDM, as well as to identify factors associated with perceived support. Results Neither support type was associated with follow-up care use (all p>0.05), although marital status was uniquely, positively associated with follow-up care use (p<0.05). Both tangible support (B for a standard deviation increase (SE)=9.75(3.15), p<0.05) and emotional/informational support (B(SE)=12.61(3.05), p<0.001) were modestly associated with SEDM. Being married, having adequate financial resources, history of recurrence, and better perceived health status were associated with higher perceived tangible and emotional support (all p<0.05). Conclusions While perceived social support may facilitate survivor efficacy for participation in decision making during cancer follow-up care, other factors, including marital satisfaction, appear to influence follow-up care use. Marital status and social support may be important factors to consider in survivorship care planning. PMID:24481884

  5. Synaptic P-Rex1 signaling regulates hippocampal long-term depression and autism-like social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Chai, Anping; Wang, Lifang; Ma, Yuanlin; Wu, Zhiliu; Yu, Hao; Mei, Liwei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Yue, Weihua; Xu, Lin; Rao, Yi; Zhang, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly inheritable mental disorders associated with synaptic dysfunction, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be clarified. Here we report that autism in Chinese Han population is associated with genetic variations and copy number deletion of P-Rex1 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1). Genetic deletion or knockdown of P-Rex1 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in mice resulted in autism-like social behavior that was specifically linked to the defect of long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 region through alteration of AMPA receptor endocytosis mediated by the postsynaptic PP1α (protein phosphase 1α)–P-Rex1–Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) signaling pathway. Rescue of the LTD in the CA1 region markedly alleviated autism-like social behavior. Together, our findings suggest a vital role of P-Rex1 signaling in CA1 LTD that is critical for social behavior and cognitive function and offer new insight into the etiology of ASDs. PMID:26621702

  6. Parental grief after losing a child to cancer: impact of professional and social support on long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kreicbergs, Ulrika C; Lannen, Patrizia; Onelov, Erik; Wolfe, Joanne

    2007-08-01

    It is still uncertain whether or not parents can ever come to terms with the loss of a child and whether professional or social support facilitate the long-term grief process. A Swedish population-based study, which sent an anonymous, mail-in questionnaire to parents who had lost a child to a malignancy 4 to 9 years earlier, gained the participation of 449 (80%) of 561 parents. Parents were asked whether, and to what extent, they had worked through their grief. Questions were also asked regarding those who provided parents with support. We examined candidate factors to determine their associations with greater likelihood of working through parental grief. Overall, most parents (74%) stated that they had worked through their grief "a lot" or "completely" at the time of the follow-up. Parents who had shared their problems with others during the child's illness (fathers: relative risk [RR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.0; mothers: RR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.8) and who had access to psychological support during the last month of their child's life (fathers: RR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; mothers: RR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) were more likely to have worked through their grief. In cases where health care staff offered parents counseling during the child's last month, the parents were more likely to have worked through their grief (fathers: RR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; mothers; RR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.4). Most parents eventually work through the grief associated with losing a child to cancer. In the long term, sharing the emotional burden with others facilitates the grieving process.

  7. The Importance of Long-Term Social Research in Enabling Participation and Developing Engagement Strategies for New Dengue Control Technologies

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, new strategies aimed at reducing the capacity of mosquito vectors to transmit dengue fever have emerged. As with earlier control methods, they will have to be employed in a diverse range of communities across the globe and into the main settings for disease transmission, the homes, businesses and public buildings of residents in dengue-affected areas. However, these strategies are notably different from previous methods and draw on technologies that are not without controversy. Public engagement and authorization are critical to the future success of these programs. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper reports on an Australian case study where long-term social research was used to enable participation and the design of an engagement strategy tailored specifically to the sociopolitical setting of a potential trial release site of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegytpi mosquitoes. Central themes of the social research, methods used and conclusions drawn are briefly described. Results indicate that different communities are likely to have divergent expectations, concerns and cultural sensibilities with regard to participation, engagement and authorization. Conclusions/Significance The findings show that a range of issues need to be understood and taken into account to enable sensitive, ethical and effective engagement when seeking public support for new dengue control methods. PMID:22953011

  8. The importance of long-term social research in enabling participation and developing engagement strategies for new dengue control technologies.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, new strategies aimed at reducing the capacity of mosquito vectors to transmit dengue fever have emerged. As with earlier control methods, they will have to be employed in a diverse range of communities across the globe and into the main settings for disease transmission, the homes, businesses and public buildings of residents in dengue-affected areas. However, these strategies are notably different from previous methods and draw on technologies that are not without controversy. Public engagement and authorization are critical to the future success of these programs. This paper reports on an Australian case study where long-term social research was used to enable participation and the design of an engagement strategy tailored specifically to the sociopolitical setting of a potential trial release site of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegytpi mosquitoes. Central themes of the social research, methods used and conclusions drawn are briefly described. Results indicate that different communities are likely to have divergent expectations, concerns and cultural sensibilities with regard to participation, engagement and authorization. The findings show that a range of issues need to be understood and taken into account to enable sensitive, ethical and effective engagement when seeking public support for new dengue control methods.

  9. What outcomes are important to people with long-term neurological conditions using integrated health and social care?

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gemma; Aspinal, Fiona; Bernard, Sylvia; Parker, Gillian

    2015-09-01

    Measuring the outcomes that are meaningful to people with long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs) using integrated health and social care services may help to assess the effectiveness of integration. Conventional outcomes tend not to be derived from service user experiences, nor are they able to demonstrate the impact of integrated working. This paper reports findings about outcomes identified as being important to people with LTNCs using integrated services. We undertook qualitative work with five community neuro-rehabilitation teams that were integrated in different ways and to different degrees. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 people with LTNCs using these teams. Data were collected between 2010 and 2011 and analysed using an adapted version of the Framework approach. We identified 20 outcomes across three domains: personal comfort outcomes, social and economic participation outcomes, and autonomy outcomes. Inter-relationships between outcomes, both within and across domains, were evident. The outcomes, and the inter-relationships between them, have implications for how individuals are assessed in practice.

  10. Social Isolation During Adolescence Strengthens Retention of Fear Memories and Facilitates Induction of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories.

  11. The Long Term Effects of Social Skills Training in Elevating Overall Academic Grade Point Average, School Attendance, Health Level, and Resistance to Drug Use and Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Nancy; Smith, Manuel J.

    Project STAR (Social Thinking and Reasoning Program) is a classroom-based social skills program for students in grades 5-8. To assess the long-term effectiveness of this program, students participated in the project (N=331) were compared with control students (N=191) during 1980-83. The hypothesis that there are significant differences in current…

  12. A study of dyadic interdependence of control, social participation and occupation of adults who use long-term care services and their carers.

    PubMed

    Rand, Stacey; Forder, Julien; Malley, Juliette

    2017-08-07

    Unpaid care is an important source of support of people with long-term conditions. Interdependence of carers' and care recipients' quality of life would be expected due to the relational nature of caregiving. This study aims to explore interdependence of quality of life in carer/care-recipient dyads, especially in relation to mutual interdependence due to social feedback in the caregiving relationship and also the partner effects of one partner's experience of long-term care support on the other's outcomes. Using data collected in an interview survey of 264 adults with care support needs and their unpaid carers in England, we employed regression analysis to explore whether there is mutual interdependence of care-related quality of life within carer/care-recipient dyads for three quality of life attributes: Control over daily life, Social participation and Occupation. The influence of factors, including satisfaction with long-term care, were also considered on individuals' and dyad partners' care-related quality of life. We found mutual interdependence of quality of life at the dyad-level for Control over daily life, but not Occupation or Social participation. A partner effect of care recipients' satisfaction with long-term care on carers' Control over daily life was also observed. Higher care recipient satisfaction with care services was associated with higher Control over daily life. By contrast, for Social participation and Occupation, there were only significant effects of care recipients' satisfaction with long-term care and their own quality of life. These findings highlight the importance of considering the wider impact beyond the individual of long-term care on quality of life in the evaluation of long-term care policy and practice.

  13. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  14. Viral-mediated Zif268 expression in the prefrontal cortex protects against gonadectomy-induced working memory, long-term memory, and social interaction deficits in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dossat, Amanda M; Jourdi, Hussam; Wright, Katherine N; Strong, Caroline E; Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-06

    In humans, some males experience reductions in testosterone levels, as a natural consequence of aging or in the clinical condition termed hypogonadism, which are associated with impaired cognitive performance and mood disorder(s). Some of these behavioral deficits can be reversed by testosterone treatment. Our previous work in rats reported that sex differences in the expression of the transcription factor Zif268, a downstream target of testosterone, within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates sex differences in social interaction. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of gonadectomy (GNX) in male rats on mPFC Zif268 expression, mood and cognitive behaviors. We also examined whether reinstitution of Zif268 in GNX rats will correct some of the behavioral deficits observed following GNX. Our results show that GNX induced a downregulation of Zif268 protein in the mPFC, which was concomitant with impaired memory in the y-maze and spontaneous object recognition test, reduced social interaction time, and depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Reinstitution of mPFC Zif268, using a novel adeno-associated-viral (AAV) construct, abrogated GNX-induced working memory and long-term memory impairments, and reductions in social interaction time, but not GNX-induced depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that mPFC Zif268 exerts beneficial effects on memory and social interaction, and could be a potential target for novel treatments for behavioral impairments observed in hypogonadal and aged men with declining levels of gonadal hormones.

  15. Viral depletion of VTA BDNF in rats modulates social behavior, consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, and long-term weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

    2011-09-20

    Mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in sustained behavioral changes following chronic social stress, and its depletion may reduce susceptibility to such behavioral alterations. Enhanced mesolimbic BDNF is proposed as pro-depressive and anhedonic, while depleting ventral tegmetal area (VTA) BDNF increases weight by enhancing hedonic eating. Here, we questioned whether depletion of VTA BDNF would alleviate social defeat stress-induced deficits in weight regulation, or affect social behavior in the presence or absence of social stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral intra-VTA infusions of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing shRNA against BDNF or a control virus. Three weeks later, rats underwent 4 episodes of social defeat stress involving exposure to an aggressive Long-Evans resident rat, or control handling every third day. Depleted VTA BDNF conferred resistance to the deficient weight regulation normally observed during intermittent social defeat stress, and enhanced long-term weight gain regardless of stress history. In addition, social approach and avoidance behavior towards a novel social target were measured 7 weeks after stress. Social defeat stress chronically reduced social behavior, whereas depletion of VTA BDNF chronically increased social behavior. Our results reveal that depletion of VTA BDNF alleviates some consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, enhances social behavior, and may contribute to weight gain. These data implicate VTA BDNF in protracted behavioral responses to stress, social stimuli, and weight regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social support as a predictor of the outcome of depressive and anxiety disorder in short-term and long-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Olavi; Ojanen, Sakari; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Knekt, Paul

    2014-04-30

    Social support is known to be important for well-being of individuals, but it is not clear how it predicts psychotherapy outcome in patients suffering from depressive or anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to study the prediction of social support on the outcome of short-term and long-term psychotherapy. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 psychiatric outpatients, aged 20-46 years, and suffering from depressive or anxiety disorders, were randomly assigned to short-term psychotherapy (short-term psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The level of social support at baseline was assessed using the Brief Inventory of Social Support and Integration (BISSI). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI) at baseline and four times during a 3-year follow-up. Patients with a high level of social support before treatment benefitted more from long-term than short-term therapy at the 3-year follow-up, whereas patients with a low level of social support experienced no such benefit. Pretreatment social support seems to predict differentially short- and long-term psychotherapy and thus needs to be acknowledged when evaluating patient's resources and treatment options. More research is needed to verify these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  18. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  19. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success.

    PubMed

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  20. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    PubMed Central

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128

  1. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The effects of prolonged administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus, and on tests of spatial and object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Walling, Susan G; Milway, J Stephen; Ingram, Matthew; Lau, Catherine; Morrison, Gillian; Martin, Gerard M

    2016-02-01

    Phasic norepinephrine (NE) release events are involved in arousal, novelty detection and in plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in mammalian systems. Although the effects of phasic NE release events on plasticity and memory are prevalently documented, it is less understood what effects chronic NE reuptake inhibition and sustained increases in noradrenergic tone, might have on plasticity and cognitive processes in rodent models of learning and memory. This study investigates the effects of chronic NE reuptake inhibition on hippocampal plasticity and memory in rats. Rats were administered NE reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) desipramine (DMI; 0, 3, or 7.5mg/kg/day) or nortriptyline (NTP; 0, 10 or 20mg/kg/day) in drinking water. Long-term potentiation (LTP; 200 Hz) of the perforant path-dentate gyrus evoked potential was examined in urethane anesthetized rats after 30-32 days of DMI treatment. Short- (4-h) and long-term (24-h) spatial memory was tested in separate rats administered 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI (25-30 days) using a two-trial spatial memory test. Additionally, the effects of chronically administered DMI and NTP were tested in rats using a two-trial, Object Recognition Test (ORT) at 2- and 24-h after 45 and 60 days of drug administration. Rats administered 3 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI had attenuated LTP of the EPSP slope but not the population spike at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse. Short- and long-term memory for objects is differentially disrupted in rats after prolonged administration of DMI and NTP. Rats that were administered 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed decreased memory for a two-trial spatial task when tested at 4-h. In the novel ORT, rats receiving 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed a preference for the arm containing a Novel object when tested at both 2- and 24-h demonstrating both short- and long-term memory retention of the Familiar object. Rats that received either dose of NTP or 3mg/kg/day DMI showed impaired memory at 2-h, however this

  3. A spatially supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Katherine R.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4- to 6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time. PMID:24639660

  4. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence. Are associations modified by occupational grade?

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, Peter; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Aust, Birgit; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii) whether the association of WSC with sickness absence was modified by occupational grade. Methods: We measured WSC by self-report in a cohort of 3075 employees and linked responses to a national register of sickness absence. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of onset of LTSA (≥21 days), adjusted for covariates. We stratified analyses by occupational grade and examined if there was an interaction effect of WSC and occupational grade. Results: A one standard deviation higher WSC score predicted a reduced risk of sickness absence after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, prevalent health problems and health behaviours (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99). The HR was attenuated and lost statistical significance after further adjustment for occupational grade (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78–1.04). When stratified by occupational grade, high WSC predicted a decreased risk of sickness absence among higher grade workers (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44–0.84) but not among lower grade workers (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.83–1.15). The interaction effect of WSC and occupational grade was statistically significant (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.99). Conclusion: High WSC might reduce risk of LTSA. However, the protective effect appears to be limited to workers of higher occupational grade. PMID:26823442

  5. Hippocampal Overexpression of Mutant CREB Blocks Long-Term, but Not Short-Term Memory for a Socially Transmitted Food Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Countryman, Renee A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.; Smith, Clayton A.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser133 is implicated in the establishment of long-term memory for hippocampus-dependent tasks, including spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning. We reported previously that training on a hippocampus-dependent social transmission of food preference (STFP) task increases CREB…

  6. Hippocampal Overexpression of Mutant CREB Blocks Long-Term, but Not Short-Term Memory for a Socially Transmitted Food Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Countryman, Renee A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.; Smith, Clayton A.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser133 is implicated in the establishment of long-term memory for hippocampus-dependent tasks, including spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning. We reported previously that training on a hippocampus-dependent social transmission of food preference (STFP) task increases CREB…

  7. Quality of life, social challenges, and psychosocial support for long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Norkin, Maxim; Hsu, Jack W; Wingard, John R

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades quality of life (QoL) and the social challenges of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) survivors have been emerging as subjects of extensive research and are now considered as very important aspects in the pretransplant evaluation and management of allo-HSCT recipients. Recognition of QoL challenges in allo-HSCT survivors allows timely interventions leading to improvement of post-transplant outcomes. It needs to be recognized that long-lasting life changes associated with survivorship after allo-HSCT also significantly affect QoL of partners of allo-HSCT survivors. Currently, resources should be focused on how research findings can be used by patients, their partners, and physicians to optimize QoL and psychosocial adjustment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hippocampal overexpression of mutant creb blocks long-term, but not short-term memory for a socially transmitted food preference.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, Jennifer J; Smith, Clayton A; Countryman, Renee A; Neve, Rachael L; Colombo, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB on Ser133 is implicated in the establishment of long-term memory for hippocampus-dependent tasks, including spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning. We reported previously that training on a hippocampus-dependent social transmission of food preference (STFP) task increases CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus of trained rats in comparisons with controls. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that CREB function is necessary for long-term memory for STFP using herpes simplex viral (HSV) vector-mediated gene transfer. Rats received intrahippocampal infusions of HSV-mCREB (a mutant form of CREB, in which Ser133 has been replaced with Ala), HSV-LacZ, or saline, and were trained 3 d later. Rats were tested for food preference (demonstrated vs. novel foods) immediately (short-term test) and 11 d (long-term test) after training. Rats in all treatment groups showed a significant preference for the demonstrated food at the short-term memory test. At the long-term memory test, however, the percentage of demonstrated food eaten by mCREB-treated rats was significantly less than that eaten by the LacZ- or saline-treated rats. Quantitative Western blotting confirmed that mCREB-infused rats had significantly more hippocampal CREB protein than controls during training. The present results show that hippocampal CREB function is necessary for long-term, but not short-term memory for STFP.

  9. The Long-Term Effects of College Diversity Experiences: Well-Being and Social Concerns 13 Years after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Brandenberger, Jay W.; Hill, Patrick L.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Many college administrators and researchers assert that diversity interactions are critical for preparing young adults for a diverse society, but very little research has examined the long-term impact of these experiences. This study examines a longitudinal sample of college students (n = 416) who were followed into their mid-30s. Structural…

  10. A Primary Nursing Model in Long-Term Care Facilities: Evaluation of Impact on Affect, Behavior, and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Implemented and evaluated primary care model of delivery of nursing aide care in small, rural nursing home and large, urban facility. Findings suggest that primary care nursing as applied to nursing attendants in long-term care was beneficial to residents in terms of decreasing disturbed behavior and improved affect. (Author/NB)

  11. Trajectories of Peer Social Influences as Long-Term Predictors of Drug Use from Early through Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Lei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed the long-term effects of perceived friend use and perceived peer use on adolescents' own cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as a series of parallel growth curves that were estimated in two developmental pieces, representing middle and high school (N = 1,040). Data were drawn from a large drug abuse prevention trial,…

  12. Health incentive research and social justice: does the risk of long term harms to systematically disadvantaged groups bear consideration?

    PubMed

    Wild, Verina; Pratt, Bridget

    2017-03-01

    The ethics of health incentive research-a form of public health research-are not well developed, and concerns of justice have been least examined. In this paper, we explore what potential long term harms in relation to justice may occur as a result of such research and whether they should be considered as part of its ethical evaluation. 'Long term harms' are defined as harms that contribute to existing systematic patterns of disadvantage for groups. Their effects are experienced on a long term basis, persisting even once an incentive research project ends. We will first establish that three categories of such harms potentially arise as a result of health incentive interventions. We then argue that the risk of these harms also constitutes a morally relevant consideration for health incentive research and suggest who may be responsible for assessing and mitigating these risks. We propose that responsibility should be assigned on the basis of who initiates health incentive research projects. Finally, we briefly describe possible strategies to prevent or mitigate the risk of long term harms to members of disadvantaged groups, which can be employed during the design, conduct and dissemination of research projects.

  13. A Primary Nursing Model in Long-Term Care Facilities: Evaluation of Impact on Affect, Behavior, and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Implemented and evaluated primary care model of delivery of nursing aide care in small, rural nursing home and large, urban facility. Findings suggest that primary care nursing as applied to nursing attendants in long-term care was beneficial to residents in terms of decreasing disturbed behavior and improved affect. (Author/NB)

  14. Trajectories of Peer Social Influences as Long-Term Predictors of Drug Use from Early through Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Lei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed the long-term effects of perceived friend use and perceived peer use on adolescents' own cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as a series of parallel growth curves that were estimated in two developmental pieces, representing middle and high school (N = 1,040). Data were drawn from a large drug abuse prevention trial,…

  15. Long-Term Nutrition: A Clinician's Guide to Successful Long-Term Enteral Access in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-09-22

    Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.

  16. A therapeutic workplace for the long-term treatment of drug addiction and unemployment: eight-year outcomes of a social business intervention.

    PubMed

    Aklin, Will M; Wong, Conrad J; Hampton, Jacqueline; Svikis, Dace S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a therapeutic workplace social business on drug abstinence and employment. Pregnant and postpartum women (N = 40) enrolled in methadone treatment were randomly assigned to a therapeutic workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic workplace participants could work weekdays in training and then as employees of a social business, but were required to provide drug-free urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Three-year outcomes were reported previously. This paper reports 4- to 8-year outcomes. During year 4 when the business was open, therapeutic workplace participants provided significantly more cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples than controls; reported more days employed, higher employment income, and less money spent on drugs. During the 3 years after the business closed, therapeutic workplace participants only reported higher income than controls. A therapeutic workplace social business can maintain long-term abstinence and employment, but additional intervention may be required to sustain effects.

  17. Long-term effects of early diazepam exposure on social differentiation in adult male rats subjected to the diving-for-food situation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H; Toniolo, A M; Nehlig, A; Desor, D

    1998-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the consequences of a chronic diazepam (DZ) exposure (10 mg/kg/day) during the first 3 weeks of life on social behavior of adult male rats measured in a situation of restricted access to food, the diving-for-food model. The treatment had no long-term effects on the acquisition of social roles related to feeding. However, DZ-exposed rats were less efficient than controls in carrying food from the feeder to the cage during the 1st session but were able to adapt and improve their performances during the 2nd one. In the home cage, DZ-exposed rats were more aggressive toward conspecifics than controls and compensated for their deficit of food by stealing it from the others. These results suggest that an early DZ exposure has long-term consequences on social behavior of rats, possibly reflecting a reduction of the level of emotionality.

  18. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne-Sophie K; Madsen, Ida E H; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Melkevik, Ole; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Andersen, Ingelise; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-08-01

    Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a decreased risk of individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Danish private sector employees. A sample of 2043 employees (aged 18-64 years, 38.5% women) from 260 Danish private-sector companies filled in a questionnaire on workplace social capital and covariates. WASC was calculated by assigning the company-averaged social capital score to all employees of each company. We derived LTSA, defined as sickness absence of more than three weeks, from a national register. We examined if WASC predicted employee LTSA using multilevel survival analyses, while excluding participants with LTSA in the three months preceding baseline. We found no statistically significant association in any of the analyses. The hazard ratio for LTSA in the fully adjusted model was 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.13) per one standard deviation increase in WASC. When using WASC as a categorical exposure we found a statistically non-significant tendency towards a decreased risk of LTSA in employees with medium WASC (fully adjusted model: HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27)). Post hoc analyses with workplace social capital as a resource of the individual showed similar results. WASC did not predict LTSA in this sample of Danish private-sector employees.

  19. Why Health and Social Care Support for People with Long-Term Conditions Should be Oriented Towards Enabling Them to Live Well.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, Vikki A; Cribb, Alan; Owens, John

    2016-11-28

    There are various reasons why efforts to promote "support for self-management" have rarely delivered the kinds of sustainable improvements in healthcare experiences, health and wellbeing that policy leaders internationally have hoped for. This paper explains how the basis of failure is in some respects built into the ideas that underpin many of these efforts. When (the promotion of) support for self-management is narrowly oriented towards educating and motivating patients to adopt the behaviours recommended for disease control, it implicitly reflects and perpetuates limited and somewhat instrumental views of patients. It tends to: restrict the pursuit of respectful and enabling 'partnership working'; run the risk of undermining patients' self-evaluative attitudes (and then of failing to notice that as harmful); limit recognition of the supportive value of clinician-patient relationships; and obscure the practical and ethical tensions that clinicians face in the delivery of support for self-management. We suggest that a focus on enabling people to live (and die) well with their long-term conditions is a promising starting point for a more adequate conception of support for self-management. We then outline the theoretical advantages that a capabilities approach to thinking about living well can bring to the development of an account of support for self-management, explaining, for example, how it can accommodate the range of what matters to people (both generally and more specifically) for living well, help keep the importance of disease control in perspective, recognize social influences on people's values, behaviours and wellbeing, and illuminate more of the rich potential and practical and ethical challenges of supporting self-management in practice.

  20. Long-term effects of PECS on social-communicative skills of children with autism spectrum disorders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Massagli, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular augmentative communication system frequently used with 'nonverbal' children with autism. Several studies suggested that PECS could represent an effective tool for promoting improvement of several social-communicative skills. Only sparse evidence is instead available on the long-term effectiveness of this treatment system. To test the long-term effects of PECS, for which a follow-up study was conducted by assessing social-communicative skills in nonverbal preschool children with autism after 12 months from treatment completion. Two groups of children (N = 14) were assessed; one group had completed the PECS training and the other conventional language therapy (CLT). At follow-up all children received the same pre- and post-treatment assessment. Outcome measures were the following: Communication and Social domains of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS); Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. The PECS group showed significant improvements compared with the CLT group on ADOS severity scores (Communication, Social and Total), on GMDS Social domain and on VABS Communication and Social domains. PECS-related gains on the VABS Social domain and on specific social-communicative measures coded during free-play, i.e. frequency of joint attention and initiation, and duration of cooperative play, were stable after 1-year follow-up. Cooperative play continued to improve on follow-up with respect to both post- and pre-treatment assessment. These findings demonstrated that PECS training can promote long-term enhancement of specific socio-communicative skills in children with autism. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. Social networks, work and network-based resources for the management of long-term conditions: a framework and study protocol for developing self-care support.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Susan; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Kennedy, Anne; Protheroe, Joanne; Bower, Peter; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David; Kapadia, Dharmi; Brooks, Helen; Fullwood, Catherine; Richardson, Gerry

    2011-05-29

    Increasing the effective targeting and promotion of self-care support for long-term conditions requires more of a focus on patient contexts and networks. The aim of this paper is to describe how within a programme of research and implementation, social networks are viewed as being centrally involved in the mobilisation and deployment of resources in the management of a chronic condition. This forms the basis of a novel approach to understanding, designing, and implementing new forms of self-management support. Drawing on evidence syntheses about social networks and capital and the role of information in self-management, we build on four conceptual approaches to inform the design of our research on the implementation of self-care support for people with long-term conditions. Our approach takes into consideration the form and content of social networks, notions of chronic illness work, normalisation process theory (NPT), and the whole systems informing self-management engagement (WISE) approach to self-care support. The translation and implementation of a self-care agenda in contemporary health and social context needs to acknowledge and incorporate the resources and networks operating in patients' domestic and social environments and everyday lives. The latter compliments the focus on healthcare settings for developing and delivering self-care support by viewing communities and networks, as well as people suffering from long-term conditions, as a key means of support for managing long-term conditions. By focusing on patient work and social-network provision, our aim is to open up a second frontier in implementation research, to translate knowledge into better chronic illness management, and to shift the emphasis towards support that takes place outside formal health services.

  2. Can videoconferencing affect older people's engagement and perception of their social support in long-term conditions management: a social network analysis from the Telehealth Literacy Project.

    PubMed

    Banbury, Annie; Chamberlain, Daniel; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Len; Parkinson, Lynne

    2017-05-01

    Social support is a key component in managing long-term conditions. As people age in their homes, there is a greater risk of social isolation, which can be ameliorated by informal support networks. This study examined the relationship between changes in social support networks for older people living in a regional area following weekly videoconference groups delivered to the home. Between February and June 2014, we delivered 44 weekly group meetings via videoconference to participants in a regional town in Australia. The meetings provided participants with education and an opportunity to discuss health issues and connect with others in similar circumstances. An uncontrolled, pre-post-test methodology was employed. A social network tool was completed by 45 (87%) participants either pre- or post-intervention, of which 24 (46%) participants completed the tool pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 14 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups were conducted. Following the intervention, participants identified increased membership of their social networks, although they did not identify individuals from the weekly videoconference groups. The most important social support networks remained the same pre- and post-intervention namely, health professionals, close family and partners. However, post-intervention participants identified friends and wider family as more important to managing their chronic condition compared to pre-intervention. Participants derived social support, in particular, companionship, emotional and informational support as well as feeling more engaged with life, from the weekly videoconference meetings. Videoconference education groups delivered into the home can provide social support and enhance self-management for older people with chronic conditions. They provide the opportunity to develop a virtual social support network containing new and diverse social connections.

  3. Importance of social capital at the workplace for return to work among women with a history of long-term sick leave: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rydström, Ingela; Dalheim Englund, Lotta; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The workplace is an essential source of social capital for many people; it provides mutual support and gives meaning to life. However, few prospective studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social capital in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between aspects of social capital (social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership) at the workplace, and work ability, working degree, and vitality among women with a history of long-term sick leave from human service organizations. A longitudinal cohort study was performed among women with a history of long-term sick leave. The study started in 2005, and the women were followed up at 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years using self-reported questionnaires (baseline n = 283). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of prospective degree of work ability, working degree, and vitality. Analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership and time. Social capital in terms of quality of leadership (being good at solving conflicts and giving high priority to job satisfaction), sense of community (co-operation between colleagues) and social support (help and support from immediate superiors and colleagues) increased the women's work ability score (WAS) as well as working degree over time. Additionally, social capital in terms of quality of leadership increased the women's vitality score over time. A sustainable return-to-work process among individuals with a history of long-term sick leave, going in and out of work participation, could be supported with social support, good quality of leadership, and a sense of community at the workplace. The responsibility for the rehabilitation process can not be reduced to an individual problem, but ought to include all stakeholders involved in the process, such as managers

  4. [Testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac after a long-term period of stable social hierarchy].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Gutorova, N V; Kleshchev, M A

    2014-04-01

    Social dominance can alter testicular testosterone production, although there is pronounced variability in the relationship between social status and pattern of the testosterone response. The study designed to investigate how a long-term period of stable social hierarchy effects on testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac. Paired males of different genotypes were housed together for 32 days beginning 38 day of age. Dyadic interactions of males generated dominance-subordination relationships during the first day after a social group has been produced and the social rank of each opponent was assessed by asymmetry in agonistic behaviour. Serum level of testosterone and its testicular content were evaluated in male mice of both inbred strains at 70 day of age after pair housing. Control animals were age- and genotype-matched single males that were housed in conventional cages. After a long-term period of pair housing, the serum testosterone level and its testicular content in males of both PT and CBA/Lac strains were not significantly different from the control. There were no significant differences in androgenic parameters between social ranks in male mice of both strains. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of testicular testosterone response to social hierarchy determined by a social situation, for example, a stability of social interactions, when the importance of aggressive competition for rank is minimal.

  5. The availability and affordability of long-term care for disabled older people in China: The issues related to inequalities in social security benefits.

    PubMed

    Lei, Peng; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Zhuochun

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing increasing pressure from issues relating to an ageing population. The rationality of different eligibility criteria of the benefits within the social security system has been widely challenged; however, to date, no previous study has explored its association with the availability and affordability of long-term care (LTC). This study evaluates the availability and affordability of Long-Term Care (LTC) services for disabled older people (aged 65 and above) in China, with special attention to the differences among groups in receipt of specific social security benefits. The data of availability and affordability of LTC services for disabled older people is from a nationally representative sample Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Three different social security benefits were identified and their effects on the long-term care services for disabled older people were explored. The overall proportions of disabled older people who have only limited or no available or affordable LTC services were remarkably high, especially for those who have moderate or no social security benefits. Compared to those who are entitled to generous social security benefits, older people who have no social security benefits are 18.45 times more likely to be unable to afford health care expenses. The findings imply that policy makers in China could focus on the LTC needs for the social security and socioeconomically disadvantaged (who have limited or no social security benefits and in low household income) disabled older people which could reduce the gap between them and those who are entitled to generous social security benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social phobia: individual response patterns and the long-term effects of behavioral and cognitive interventions. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mersch, P P; Emmelkamp, P M; Lips, C

    1991-01-01

    In this study the long-term effectiveness of Social Skills Training (SST) and Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), on social phobia was studied, as well as the differential influence of patient characteristics on treatment effectiveness. Fifty-seven patients were assessed 14 months after the post-test. Results showed that long-term effectiveness was independent of the response-pattern of the patients. Comparisons between methods, irrespective of the response-pattern of the patients, showed no differences in effectiveness in favor of either SST or RET. Explorative analysis indicated the potential predictive power for treatment-outcome of confederate ratings of overt behavior on the SSIT. Patients who needed additional treatment appeared to perform significantly worse on this measure at the pretest. No factors could be traced that predict relapse after a relatively successful treatment.

  7. Long-term ill health and the social embeddedness of work: a study in a post-industrial, multi-ethnic locality in the UK.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Kaveri; Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-09-01

    Against the background of an increasingly individualising welfare-to-work regime, sociological studies of incapacity and health-related worklessness have called for an appreciation of the role of history and context in patterning individual experience. This article responds to that call by exploring the work experiences of long-term sick people in East London, a post-industrial, multi-ethnic locality. It demonstrates how the individual experiences of long-term sickness and work are embedded in social relations of class, generation, ethnicity and gender, which shape people's formal and informal routes to work protection, work-seeking practices and responses to worklessness. We argue that this social embeddedness requires greater attention in welfare-to-work policy.

  8. Psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: long-term effectiveness of resource-oriented cognitive-behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Willutzki, Ulrike; Teismann, Tobias; Schulte, Dietmar

    2012-06-01

    Resource-oriented cognitive-behavioral therapy (ROCBT) and cognitive therapy (CT) have been shown to be effective treatments for social anxiety disorder. However, so far few studies have examined the long-term effectiveness of these treatments. Thus, there is little information available about the durability of change in treated patients with social anxiety disorder. This study examined the effectiveness of both treatments at 2-year and 10-year follow-up assessments. Patients who received ROCBT or CT were re-contacted after 2 (n = 51), and 10 years (n = 27), respectively, and completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Treatment gains were maintained over the 2-year follow-up on all measures. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement on 2 social anxiety measures between posttreatment and the 10-year follow-up. ROCBT and CT did not differ in overall effectiveness. The results suggest that both treatments are effective and durable approaches in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The contribution of social networks to the health and self-management of patients with long-term conditions: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n = 300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and

  10. Do managerial efficiency and social responsibility drive long-term financial performance of not-for-profit hospitals before acquisition?

    PubMed

    Phillips, J F

    1999-01-01

    Due to steep declines in charitable support and reduced demand for traditional hospital services, economic goals are increasingly important to not-for-profit hospitals. Effects of efficient management and effective pursuit of not-for-profit status (for example, levels of Medicare, indigent patients, and unprofitable services) on financial viability are explored. While previous research compared hospitals of different ownership status, not-for-profit hospital operations before acquisition by for-profit hospital chains are investigated--"neutral ground" relative to ownership. Results suggest minor links between efficiency and long-term profitability despite effectiveness in pursuit of non taxable status.

  11. Increased uptake of social security benefits among long-term survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a Norwegian population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, S; Engeland, A; Moster, D; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Wesenberg, F; Bjørge, T

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases, their health and welfare have come into focus. Thus, long-term medical consequences of cancer at a young age (<25 years), obtained from social security benefit records, were studied. Methods: Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of long-term medical consequences for 5-year cancer survivors, born during 1965–1985, were explored by linking population-based registries in Norway. Results: Among the 5-year cancer survivors (4031 individuals), 29.7% received social security benefits. The survivors had an overall 4.4 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.1–4.6) higher risk of social security benefit uptake than the cancer-free population. Survivors of malignancies of bone and connective tissues (SIR: 10.8; 95% CI: 9.1–12.9), CNS tumours (SIR: 7.7; 95% CI: 6.9–8.6) and malignancies of the haematopoietic system (SIR: 6.1; 95% CI: 5.3–7.0) had the highest risks of social security benefits uptake. The most notified causes of social security benefit uptake were diseases of the nervous system, and injury and poisoning. Conclusion: The uptake of social security benefits among 5-year cancer survivors increased substantially and it may represent a solid outcome measure for the burden of the most severe late effects, especially in countries with comparable social welfare systems. PMID:23481179

  12. Increased uptake of social security benefits among long-term survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a Norwegian population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, S; Engeland, A; Moster, D; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Wesenberg, F; Bjørge, T

    2013-04-16

    As the number of cancer survivors increases, their health and welfare have come into focus. Thus, long-term medical consequences of cancer at a young age (<25 years), obtained from social security benefit records, were studied. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of long-term medical consequences for 5-year cancer survivors, born during 1965-1985, were explored by linking population-based registries in Norway. Among the 5-year cancer survivors (4031 individuals), 29.7% received social security benefits. The survivors had an overall 4.4 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.1-4.6) higher risk of social security benefit uptake than the cancer-free population. Survivors of malignancies of bone and connective tissues (SIR: 10.8; 95% CI: 9.1-12.9), CNS tumours (SIR: 7.7; 95% CI: 6.9-8.6) and malignancies of the haematopoietic system (SIR: 6.1; 95% CI: 5.3-7.0) had the highest risks of social security benefits uptake. The most notified causes of social security benefit uptake were diseases of the nervous system, and injury and poisoning. The uptake of social security benefits among 5-year cancer survivors increased substantially and it may represent a solid outcome measure for the burden of the most severe late effects, especially in countries with comparable social welfare systems.

  13. Social phobia among long-term internally displaced persons: An epidemiological study of adults in two internally displaced person settlements in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Salah, Tarig Taha Mohamed; Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Hauff, Edvard

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high worldwide prevalence and association with other mental disorders and disability, only few studies are available on social phobia in low-income countries. This study aims to assess the prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and comorbidity of social phobia and its association with disability among long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in one urban and one rural area in Central Sudan. This cross-sectional study was implemented in two IDP areas in Central Sudan. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to determine psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 1,876 adults were enrolled from both study areas. The overall lifetime prevalence of social phobia was 14.2%, with higher rates among IDPs in the rural area and among those who were less educated. Social phobia was associated with other mental disorders in both study areas. Disability and prolonged displacement increased the risk of having social phobia in the rural area. Further work needs to be done to improve our understanding and to establish proper interventions in dealing with social phobia, other common mental disorders and disability among long-term IDPs in these impoverished areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Cognitive Performance and Long-Term Social Functioning in Psychotic Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Claudia J. P.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies have linked cognitive functioning to everyday social functioning in psychotic disorders, but the nature of the relationships between cognition, social cognition, symptoms, and social functioning remains unestablished. Modelling the contributions of non-social and social cognitive ability in the prediction of social functioning may help in more clearly defining therapeutic targets to improve functioning. Method In a sample of 745 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder, the associations between cognition and social cognition at baseline on the one hand, and self-reported social functioning three years later on the other, were analysed. First, case-control comparisons were conducted; associations were subsequently further explored in patients, investigating the potential mediating role of symptoms. Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 233 patients with recent-onset psychosis. Results Information processing speed and immediate verbal memory were stronger associated with social functioning in patients than in healthy controls. Most cognition variables significantly predicted social functioning at follow-up, whereas social cognition was not associated with social functioning. Symptoms were robustly associated with follow-up social functioning, with negative symptoms fully mediating most associations between cognition and follow-up social functioning. Illness duration did not moderate the strength of the association between cognitive functioning and follow-up social functioning. No associations were found between (social) cognition and follow-up social functioning in patients with recent-onset psychosis. Conclusions Although cognitive functioning is associated with later social functioning in psychotic disorder, its role in explaining social functioning outcome above negative symptoms appears only modest. In recent-onset psychosis, cognition may have a negligible role in predicting later social functioning. Moreover, social cognition tasks

  15. Beta-adrenergic receptors link NO/sGC/PKG signaling to BDNF expression during the consolidation of object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Furini, Cristiane R; Rossato, Janine I; Bitencourt, Lucas L; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2010-05-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway is important for memory processing, but the identity of its downstream effectors as well as its actual participation in the consolidation of nonaversive declarative long-term memory (LTM) remain unknown. Here, we show that training rats in an object recognition (OR) learning task rapidly increased nitrites/nitrates (NOx) content in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus while posttraining intra-CA1 microinfusion of the neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor L-NN hindered OR LTM retention without affecting memory retrieval or other behavioral variables. The amnesic effect of L-NN was not state dependent, was mimicked by the sGC inhibitor LY83583 and the PKG inhibitor KT-5823, and reversed by coinfusion of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and the PKG activator 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cGMP). SNAP did not affect the amnesic effect of LY83583 and KT-5823. Conversely, 8Br-cGMP overturned the amnesia induced by LY83583 but not that caused by KT-5823. Intra-CA1 infusion of the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker timolol right after training hindered OR LTM and, although coadministration of noradrenaline reversed the amnesia caused by L-NN, LY83583, and KT5823, the amnesic effect of timolol was unaffected by coinfusion of 8Br-cGMP or SNAP, indicating that hippocampal beta-adrenergic receptors act downstream NO/sGC/PKG signaling. We also found that posttraining intra-CA1 infusion of function-blocking anti-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) antibodies hampered OR LTM retention, whereas OR training increased CA1 BDNF levels in a nNOS- and beta-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO/sGC/PKG signaling in the hippocampus is essential for OR memory consolidation and suggest that beta-adrenergic receptors link the activation of this pathway to BDNF expression during the consolidation of declarative

  16. The Role of Social Trust in Reducing Long-Term Truancy and Forming Human Capital in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how social trust influences human capital formation using prefectural level data in Japan. To this end, I constructed a proxy for social trust, based on the Japanese General Social Surveys. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, I found that social trust plays an important role in reducing the rate of long-term…

  17. Avoidant coping and self-efficacy mediate relationships between perceived social constraints and symptoms among long-term breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rebecca N; Mosher, Catherine E; Cohee, Andrea A; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; Sledge, George W; Cella, David; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-07-01

    Many breast cancer survivors feel constrained in discussing their cancer experience with others. Limited evidence suggests that social constraints (e.g., avoidance and criticism) from loved ones may negatively impact breast cancer survivors' global health, but research has yet to examine relationships between social constraints and common physical symptoms. Informed by social cognitive processing theory, this study examined whether perceived social constraints from partners and healthcare providers (HCPs) were associated with fatigue, sleep disturbance, and attentional functioning among long-term breast cancer survivors (N = 1052). In addition, avoidant coping and self-efficacy for symptom management were examined as potential mediators of these relationships. Long-term breast cancer survivors (mean years since diagnosis = 6) completed questionnaires assessing social constraints from partners and HCPs, avoidant coping, self-efficacy for symptom management, and symptoms (i.e., fatigue, sleep disturbance, and attentional functioning). Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the hypothesized relationships among variables in two models: one focused on social constraints from partners and one focused on social constraints from HCPs. Both models demonstrated good fit. Consistent with theory and prior research, greater social constraints from both partners and HCPs were associated with greater symptom burden (i.e., greater fatigue and sleep disturbance, poorer attentional functioning). In addition, all relationships were mediated by avoidant coping and self-efficacy for symptom management. Findings are consistent with social cognitive processing theory and suggest that symptom management interventions may be enhanced by addressing the impact of social constraints from survivors' partners and HCPs on their coping and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Long Term Prognosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... TERM PROGNOSIS The long-term outlook of pediatric cardiomyopathy continues to be unpredictable because it occurs with ... a child also depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and the stage the disease is first diagnosed. ...

  19. Social support outside work and return to work among women on long-term sick leave working within human service organizations.

    PubMed

    Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Rydström, Ingela; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationships between return to work and social support outside work among women on long-term sick leave from human service organizations. Work is an important part of life and is, in general, considered to be supportive of health and wellbeing. Few studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social support outside work for return to work. A cohort of women on long-term sick leave was followed with questionnaires from 2005 to 2012. The availability of social attachment increased the women's work ability, return to work, and vitality significantly more over time. There were positive relationships between return to work and seeking support in terms of emotional support and comfort and expressing unpleasant feelings. Important resources to increase return to work can be found in factors outside work, such as close social relationships and support seeking. Thus, it is important to take the woman's whole life situation into account and not focus solely on aspects related to the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.

  1. Long-term effects of adolescent stress on neophobic behaviors in zebra finches are modulated by social context when in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Michael G; Spencer, Karen A

    2017-02-03

    Experiencing stress during adolescence can increase neophobic behaviors in adulthood, but most tests have been conducted in the absence of conspecifics. Conspecifics can modulate responses to stressors, for example by acting as 'social buffers' to attenuate the aversive appraisal of stressors. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of adolescent stress on the behavioral responses to novel stimuli (a mild stressor) across social contexts in an affiliative passerine bird, the zebra finch. During early (days 40-60) or late (days 65-85) adolescence the birds (n=66) were dosed with either saline or the hormone corticosterone (CORT). CORT was given in order to mimic a physiological stress response and saline was given as a control. In adulthood, the birds' behavioral responses to a novel environment were recorded in both the presence and absence of conspecifics. An acute CORT response was also quantified in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings show clear evidence of social context mediating any long-term effects of adolescent stress. In the presence of familiar conspecifics no treatment effects were detected. Individually, birds dosed with CORT in early adolescence were slower to enter a novel environment, spent more time perching in the same novel environment, and, if female, engaged in more risk assessment. Birds dosed in late adolescence were unaffected. No treatment effects were detected on CORT, but adolescents had a higher CORT concentration than adults. Our results are the first to suggest that familiar conspecifics in adulthood can buffer the long-term effects of stress that occurred during early adolescence.

  2. Metacognition-oriented social skills training for individuals with long-term schizophrenia: methodology and clinical illustration.

    PubMed

    Ottavi, Paolo; D'Alia, Daria; Lysaker, Paul; Kent, Jerillyn; Popolo, Raffaele; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    There is much evidence indicating the presence of social deficits in schizophrenia and the detrimental effect of these deficits on global functioning in this population. As a result, social skills training (SST) has emerged as a legitimate psychosocial treatment, although effectiveness research has revealed small effect sizes and limited generalizability regarding the benefits of this treatment. In light of the strong evidence of metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia and the importance of metacognition to successful social functioning, we propose a novel therapeutic intervention wherein metacognitive remediation is integrated into SST: metacognition-oriented social skills training (MOSST). In the current paper, we present MOSST, an adapted SST programme wherein clients are also encouraged to have mindful contact with their own thoughts and to better consider and understand the mental states of others as well as the connection between mental states and behaviour. We present a case wherein an individual with schizophrenia successfully completed the MOSST programme. We outline directions for future research, starting with the logical next step of empirically testing the efficacy of MOSST. Currently social skills training is considered to be the elected psychosocial treatment for people affected by schizophrenia, although evidence indicates limited benefits. People with schizophrenia have metacognitive deficits, which interfere with proper social functioning. A metacognitive-oriented social skills training (MOSST) intervention has been developed by the authors.A treatment such as MOSST, which integrates social skills training and metacognitive training, promises to improve social skills through improving the metacognition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n = 300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of

  4. A Therapeutic Workplace for the Long-Term Treatment of Drug Addiction and Unemployment: Eight-Year Outcomes of a Social Business Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Aklin, Will M.; Wong, Conrad J.; Hampton, Jacqueline; Svikis, Dace S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a Therapeutic Workplace social business on drug abstinence and employment. Pregnant and postpartum women (N=40) enrolled in methadone treatment were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or Usual Care Control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants could work weekdays in training and then as employees of a social business, but were required to provide drug-free urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Three-year outcomes were reported previously. This paper reports 4- to 8- year outcomes. During year 4 when the business was open, Therapeutic Workplace participants provided significantly more cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples than controls; reported more days employed, higher employment income, and less money spent on drugs. During the 3 years after the business closed, Therapeutic Workplace participants only reported higher income than controls. A Therapeutic Workplace social business can maintain long-term abstinence and employment, but additional intervention may be required to sustain effects. PMID:25124257

  5. Long-term care policy for the elderly in the Zaporozhye region of Ukraine: a case study of social development following the collapse of Communism.

    PubMed

    Palley, Howard A; Romanenkova, Lyudmyla A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we review the status of social policy for the elderly in Ukraine since the fall of Communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union. We specifically address the problem of "rebuilding" an income and services policy for the at-risk elderly after the unraveling of the system that existed prior to the fall of Communism. Also, we address some existing problems faced by the elderly in the health care system. Within this context, we present a case study of the current status of long-term care policy for the elderly in one province of Ukraine, the eastern province of Zaporozhye, encompassing the industrial city of Zaporozhye on the Dnieper River. This case study particularly pays attention to current attempts to promote a social development process of long-term care services for the elderly. It examines recent developments with respect to public sector organizations and voluntary sector organizations that are trying to provide necessary services to the needy elderly. With respect to the voluntary sector, the paper pays particular attention to the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) model of a largely externally funded NGO that provides comprehensive and integrated social supports, while emphasizing local empowerment and the use of volunteers, for the needy Jewish population in the province of Zaporozhye. Based on our findings, we make some proposals regarding the improvement of income and services policy with respect to the elderly in Zaporozhye and Ukraine.

  6. Long-term voluntary exercise prevents post-weaning social isolation-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Nilsel; Belviranlı, Muaz

    2017-09-30

    This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on locomotion, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory in socially isolated post-weaning rats, as well as the correlation between exercise and the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group; the social isolation group; the social isolation plus exercise (SIE) group. Social isolation conditions, with or without exercise were maintained for 90d, and then multiple behavioral tests, including the open-field test, elevated plus maze test, and Morris water maze (MWM) test were administered. Following behavioral assessment, hippocampal tissue samples were obtained for measurement of BDNF and NGF. There wasn't a significant difference in locomotor activity between the groups (P>0.05). Anxiety scores were higher in the socially isolated group (P<0.05) than in the SIE group (P<0.05). According to the probe trial session of the MWM test results, exercise training improved platform crossings' number in the socially isolated rats (P<0.05). Exercise training ameliorated social isolation-induced reduction in hippocampal BDNF and NGF content (P<0.05). These findings suggest that exercise training improves cognitive functions via increasing hippocampal BDNF and NGF concentrations in socially isolated post-weaning rats. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Long-Term Intervention on Social and Emotional Learning in Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli; Belfield, Clive; Bowden, Brooks; Levin, Henry; Shand, Robert; Zander, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social and emotional skills can be taught to students in school and teaching these skills can have a positive effect on later outcomes, such as better mental health and less drug use. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of a longitudinal social and emotional learning intervention in Sweden, using data for 663…

  8. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  9. Chronic social defeat induces long-term behavioral depression of aggressive motivation in an invertebrate model system.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jacqueline; Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Losing a fight against a conspecific male (social defeat) induces a period of suppressed aggressiveness and general behaviour, often with symptoms common to human psychiatric disorders. Agonistic experience is also discussed as a potential cause of consistent, behavioral differences between individuals (animal "personality"). In non-mammals, however, the impact of single agonistic encounters typically last only hours, but then again studies of repeated intermittent defeat (chronic social defeat) are seldom. We report the effect of chronic social defeat in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), for which all known behavioral effects of defeat last only 3 h. Firstly, after 48 h social isolation, crickets that experienced 5 defeats at 24 h intervals against the same, weight-matched opponent exhibited suppressed aggressiveness lasting >24 h, which was still evident when the animals were matched against an unfamiliar opponent at the last trial. Secondly, this longer-term depression of aggression also occurred in 48 h isolated crickets that lost 6 fights at 1 h intervals against unfamiliar opponents at each trial. Thirdly, crickets isolated as larvae until adult maturity (>16 days) were significantly more aggressive, and less variable in their aggressiveness at their very first fight than 48 h isolates, and also significantly more resilient to the effects of chronic social defeat. We conclude that losing an aggressive encounter in crickets has a residual effect, lasting at least 24 h, that accumulates when repeated defeats are experienced, and leads to a prolonged depression of aggressive motivation in subordinates. Furthermore, our data indicate that social interactions between young adults and possibly larvae can have even longer, possibly lifelong influences on subsequent behavior. Social subjugation is thus likely to be a prime determinant of inter-individual behavioral differences in crickets. Our work also opens new avenues for investigating proximate

  10. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of the impact of telemonitoring in patients with long-term conditions and social care needs: protocol for the whole systems demonstrator cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is expected that increased demands on services will result from expanding numbers of older people with long-term conditions and social care needs. There is significant interest in the potential for technology to reduce utilisation of health services in these patient populations, including telecare (the remote, automatic and passive monitoring of changes in an individual's condition or lifestyle) and telehealth (the remote exchange of data between a patient and health care professional). The potential of telehealth and telecare technology to improve care and reduce costs is limited by a lack of rigorous evidence of actual impact. Methods/Design We are conducting a large scale, multi-site study of the implementation, impact and acceptability of these new technologies. A major part of the evaluation is a cluster-randomised controlled trial of telehealth and telecare versus usual care in patients with long-term conditions or social care needs. The trial involves a number of outcomes, including health care utilisation and quality of life. We describe the broad evaluation and the methods of the cluster randomised trial Discussion If telehealth and telecare technology proves effective, it will provide additional options for health services worldwide to deliver care for populations with high levels of need. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43002091 PMID:21819569

  12. Neuropeptide Y in the amygdala induces long-term resilience to stress-induced reductions in social responses but not hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis activity or hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Sajdyk, Tammy J; Johnson, Philip L; Leitermann, Randy J; Fitz, Stephanie D; Dietrich, Amy; Morin, Michelle; Gehlert, Donald R; Urban, Janice H; Shekhar, Anantha

    2008-01-23

    Resilience to mental and physical stress is a key determinant for the survival and functioning of mammals. Although the importance of stress resilience has been recognized, the underlying neural mediators have not yet been identified. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide known for its anti-anxiety-like effects mediated via the amygdala. The results of our current study demonstrate, for the first time that repeated administration of NPY directly into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) produces selective stress-resilient behavioral responses to an acute restraint challenge as measured in the social interaction test, but has no effect on hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis activity or stress-induced hyperthermia. More importantly, the resilient behaviors observed in the NPY-treated animals were present for up to 8 weeks. Antagonizing the activity of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase involved in neuronal remodeling and present in NPY receptor containing neurons within the BLA, blocked the development of long-term, but not the acute increases in social interaction responses induced by NPY administration. This suggests that the NPY-induced long-term behavioral resilience to restraint stress may occur via mechanisms involving neuronal plasticity. These studies suggest one putative physiologic mechanism underlying stress resilience and could identify novel targets for development of therapies that can augment the ability to cope with stress.

  13. Homeodomain protein Otp affects developmental neuropeptide switching in oxytocin neurons associated with a long-term effect on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wircer, Einav; Blechman, Janna; Borodovsky, Nataliya; Tsoory, Michael; Nunes, Ana Rita; Oliveira, Rui F; Levkowitz, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Single-cell analysis revealed that these neurons project mostly to the hindbrain and spinal cord. Ablation of this neuronal subset specifically reduced adult social preference without affecting stress behavior, thereby uncoupling the contribution of a specific OXT cluster to social behavior from the general otpa−/− deficits. Our findings reveal a new role for Otp in controlling developmental neuropeptide balance in a discrete OXT circuit whose disrupted development affects social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22170.001 PMID:28094761

  14. Independent and social play among profoundly mentally retarded adults: training, maintenance, generalization, and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, N N; Millichamp, C J

    1987-01-01

    Play skills were taught to eight profoundly mentally retarded adults in two interrelated experiments. In Experiment 1, a multiple baseline across subjects design was used to assess the efficacy of verbal and physical prompts on independent play. In Experiment 2, the same subjects and experimental procedures were used to develop social play. Verbal prompting and graduated physical guidance procedures were found to be effective in substantially increasing independent play in Experiment 1 and social play in Experiment 2. Positive changes were also observed in collateral behaviors. Inappropriate play decreased slightly and stereotypy decreased to very low levels. Social interaction increased substantially in Experiment 2 when social play was targeted but little change was observed in Experiment 1 when only independent play was targeted. Treatment gains were maintained for 26 weeks in Experiment 1 and 10 weeks in Experiment 2. In addition, the treatment gains were generalized across subjects and settings in Experiment 2. Finally, regular follow-up checks showed that independent and social play remained in the repertoire of the subjects for 12 months following the termination of programmed maintenance. PMID:3583963

  15. Social-Professional Networks in Long-Term Care Settings With People With Dementia: An Approach to Better Care? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Janet I; Long, Janet C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Dementia is a syndrome associated with stigma and social isolation. Forty-two percent of people with dementia in the United States and almost 40% in the United Kingdom live in assisted living and residential care facilities. Up to 90% of residents with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Currently psychotropic drugs are often used to manage BPSD, despite the drugs' limited efficacy and adverse effects. Even though psychosocial approaches are as effective as medical ones without side effects, their uptake has been slow. Social networks that investigate the structure of relationships among residents and staff may represent an important resource to increase the uptake of psychosocial approaches and facilitate improvements in care. To conduct a systematic review of social network studies set in long-term care (LTC), including residents with dementia, and identify network factors influencing the care available to residents. Peer-reviewed articles across CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from January 1994 to December 2014 inclusive, using PRISMA guidelines. Studies included those examining social networks of residents or staff in LTC. Nine articles from studies in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia met search criteria. Resident networks had few social connections. One study proposed that residents with high centrality be encouraged to welcome new residents and disseminate information. The high density in 2 staff network studies was associated with the cooperation needed to provide care to residents with dementia. Staff's boundary-spanning led to higher-status nurses becoming more involved in decision-making and problem-solving in one study. In another, the outcome was staff treating residents with more respect and actively caring for them. These studies suggest interventions using a network approach may improve care services in LTC. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  16. Beyond Bushfires: Community, Resilience and Recovery - a longitudinal mixed method study of the medium to long term impacts of bushfires on mental health and social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Bryant, Richard A; Pattison, Philippa; Lusher, Dean; Harms, Louise; Richardson, John; MacDougall, Colin; Block, Karen; Snowdon, Elyse; Gallagher, Hugh Colin; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Forbes, David

    2013-11-04

    Natural disasters represent an increasing threat both in terms of incidence and severity as a result of climate change. Although much is known about individual responses to disasters, much less is known about the social and contextual response and how this interacts with individual trajectories in terms of mental health, wellbeing and social connectedness. The 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia caused much loss of life, property destruction, and community disturbance. In order to progress future preparedness, response and recovery, it is crucial to measure and understand the impact of disasters at both individual and community levels. This study aims to profile the range of mental health, wellbeing and social impacts of the Victorian 2009 bushfires over time using multiple methodologies and involving multiple community partners. A diversity of communities including bushfire affected and unaffected will be involved in the study and will include current and former residents (at the time of the Feb 2009 fires). Participants will be surveyed in 2012, 2014 and, funding permitting, in 2016 to map the predictors and outcomes of mental health, wellbeing and social functioning. Ongoing community visits, as well as interviews and focus group discussions in 2013 and 2014, will provide both contextual information and evidence of changing individual and community experiences in the medium to long term post disaster. The study will include adults, adolescents and children over the age of 5. Conducting the study over five years and focussing on the role of social networks will provide new insights into the interplay between individual and community factors and their influence on recovery from natural disaster over time. The study findings will thereby expand understanding of long term disaster recovery needs for individuals and communities.

  17. [Relationships between volunteerism and social-physical health and QOL with community-dwelling elderly participating in a long-term care prevention programme].

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, Hideki; Honda, Haruhiko; Ito, Tsunehisa; Kasai, Toshiyuki; Takato, Jinro; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Inuzuka, Go; Ito, Yuzuki; Arayama, Naoko; Ueki, Shouzoh; Haga, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of volunteerism as part of a long-term care prevention program on social and physical health indicators and QOL, as compared with non-participation among elderly people. The baseline survey was conducted in 2003 among elderly people (age, 70-84 years) living in a rural community in Miyagi Prefecture. We recruited elderly volunteer leaders for long-term care prevention from among the 1,503 elderly people participating in the baseline survey. Of these, 77 individuals were registered as volunteer leaders. One year later, we conducted a follow-up survey to clarify the influence of volunteerism. Finally, we analyzed data for 69 volunteer leaders and 1,207 non-leaders, focusing on influences of volunteerism on social and physical health and QOL using a logistic regression model. State of volunteer activity was treated as a dependent variable, and social and physical health indicators and QOL indices as independent variables. Non-participating individuals had significant declines in Intellectual Activity (OR: 4.51, 95% CI: 1.60-12.74), Social Role (OR: 2.85, 95%CI: 1.11-7.21), Self-efficacy for ADL (OR: 4.58, 95%CI: 1.11-18.88), Satisfaction with Economic State (OR: 2.83, 95%CI: 1.11-7.21), and Contact with Neighbors (OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.29-10.16), as compared with volunteers. These results suggest that volunteerism prevents lowering of higher-level functional capacity and social networking among community-dwelling elderly individuals.

  18. Beyond Bushfires: Community, Resilience and Recovery - a longitudinal mixed method study of the medium to long term impacts of bushfires on mental health and social connectedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural disasters represent an increasing threat both in terms of incidence and severity as a result of climate change. Although much is known about individual responses to disasters, much less is known about the social and contextual response and how this interacts with individual trajectories in terms of mental health, wellbeing and social connectedness. The 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia caused much loss of life, property destruction, and community disturbance. In order to progress future preparedness, response and recovery, it is crucial to measure and understand the impact of disasters at both individual and community levels. Methods/design This study aims to profile the range of mental health, wellbeing and social impacts of the Victorian 2009 bushfires over time using multiple methodologies and involving multiple community partners. A diversity of communities including bushfire affected and unaffected will be involved in the study and will include current and former residents (at the time of the Feb 2009 fires). Participants will be surveyed in 2012, 2014 and, funding permitting, in 2016 to map the predictors and outcomes of mental health, wellbeing and social functioning. Ongoing community visits, as well as interviews and focus group discussions in 2013 and 2014, will provide both contextual information and evidence of changing individual and community experiences in the medium to long term post disaster. The study will include adults, adolescents and children over the age of 5. Discussion Conducting the study over five years and focussing on the role of social networks will provide new insights into the interplay between individual and community factors and their influence on recovery from natural disaster over time. The study findings will thereby expand understanding of long term disaster recovery needs for individuals and communities. PMID:24180339

  19. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  20. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  1. Exploring the Use of a Social Network to Facilitate and Integrate Long-Term Interprofessional Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing interprofessional education to students from six health professional programs through use of an online social networking platform. Specifically, three pedagogical models (Minimally Structured, Facilitated, Highly Structured) were evaluated for impact on…

  2. Exploring the Use of a Social Network to Facilitate and Integrate Long-Term Interprofessional Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing interprofessional education to students from six health professional programs through use of an online social networking platform. Specifically, three pedagogical models (Minimally Structured, Facilitated, Highly Structured) were evaluated for impact on…

  3. Socialization Goals and Mother-Child Interaction: Strategies for Long-Term and Short-Term Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczynski, Leon

    1984-01-01

    Investigates situational socialization goals as determinants of parental choice of disciplinary techniques. Sixty-four mothers were asked to influence their four-year-old children to perform a monotonous task under long- or short-term goal conditions. Amount of reasoning was related to goal conditions, and power assertion was related to child's…

  4. Effects of dog-appeasing pheromones on anxiety and fear in puppies during training and on long-term socialization.

    PubMed

    Denenberg, Sagi; Landsberg, Gary M

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) in reducing fear and anxiety in puppies and its effects on training and socialization. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS-45 puppies between 12 to 15 weeks of age at the time of inclusion. Puppies enrolled in puppy classes were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups: 2 large-breed groups (1 DAP and 1 placebo group) and 2 small-breed groups (1 DAP and 1 placebo group). The investigator, trainers, and owners were unaware of treatment allocation throughout the study. Classes lasted 8 weeks, and owners were asked to complete a questionnaire before the first lesson and at the end of each lesson thereafter. Data collected included amount of learning and degrees of fear and anxiety for each puppy. Follow-up telephone surveys of owners to obtain information on subsequent socialization of puppies were performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the classes ended. Dogs in DAP and placebo groups were significantly different with respect to degrees of fear and anxiety; longer and more positive interactions between puppies, including play, were evident in dogs in the DAP groups. Data from follow-up telephone surveys indicated that puppies in the DAP groups were better socialized and adapted faster in new situations and environments, compared with puppies in the placebo groups. When compared with a placebo treatment, DAP was useful in reducing anxiety and fear in puppies during puppy classes and resulted in improved socialization.

  5. What positive encounters with healthcare and social insurance staff promotes ability to return to work of long-term sickness absentees?

    PubMed

    Olsson, Daniel; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bottai, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that positive encounters with healthcare and social insurance staff may be important in promoting return to work among long-term sickness absentees. This study aimed to identify more specifically what positive encounters are important for promoting ability to return to work. A questionnaire about different types of encounters was sent to 10,042 people in Sweden on sick leave for 6-8 months (58% responded). For each positive encounter, we estimated the marginal probability difference (PD) of return to work, adjusting for age, sex, education, sick-leave diagnosis, and the sum score of all other encounters. Adjusting for the other encounters is important since of the observed variables these were the strongest confounders. The positive encounters with both healthcare and social insurance staff significantly associated with promoting ability to return to work after adjusting for the other positive encounters were "Believed in my work capacity" PD=16.9 (95% CI: 12.0, 21.9) and 12.0 (6.3, 17.7), respectively; "Supported my suggestions for solutions": 9.5 (3.1, 15.9) and 11.6 (5.7, 17.4); "Was supportive and encouraging": 10.1 (3.6, 16.7) and 7.3 (1.7, 12.8). Additionally, the encounter with healthcare staff most strongly associated with promoting return to work was "Let me take responsibility" 14.8 (7.2, 22.3); and with social security staff: "Showed that she/he liked me" 10.4 (5.4, 15.4). Healthcare and social security staff being supportive, encouraging, and believing in the sickness absentee's work capacity may be very important for increasing the probability for long-term sickness absentees' ability to return to work. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Subchronic MK-801 treatment and post-weaning social isolation in rats: differential effects on locomotor activity and hippocampal long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Donovan M; Habib, Diala; Dringenberg, Hans C; Reynolds, James N; Beninger, Richard J

    2010-09-01

    Subchronic NMDA receptor antagonist treatment and post-weaning social isolation are two animal models of schizophrenia symptoms. However, behavioral and physiological changes following a combination of these two procedures have not been investigated. Thus, we examined effects of a novel, "double hit" model combining these two treatments, comparing them to standard models involving only NMDA antagonist treatment or social isolation. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were either group-housed or maintained in social isolation (starting at postnatal day [PD] 21 and continuing throughout the study). Each housing condition was further subdivided into two groups, receiving either subchronic treatment with either saline or MK-801 (0.5mg/kg, i.p., 2xday for seven days starting at PD 56). Post-weaning social isolation increased locomotor activity (assessed at PD 70) in response to a novel environment and an acute amphetamine injection, while subchronic MK-801 increased only amphetamine induced locomotor activity. Subsequent electrophysiological experiments (under urethane anesthesia) assessing changes in plasticity of hippocampal synapses showed that subchronic MK-801 treatment resulted in an increase in long-term potentiation in area CA1 in response to high frequency stimulation of the contralateral CA3 area, while housing condition had no effect. No other changes in hippocampal electrophysiology (input-output curves, paired-pulse facilitation) were observed. These data are the first to demonstrate an enhancement in hippocampal long-term plasticity in vivo following subchronic MK-801 administration, an effect that may be related to the well-characterized changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic systems seen after subchronic NMDA receptor blockade. That lack of additive or synergistic effects in the "double hit model" suggests that combining isolation and subchronic MK-801 treatment does not necessarily produce greater behavioral or physiological dysfunction than that seen with either

  7. The decline of cooperation, the rise of competition: developmental effects of long-term social change in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Camilo; Rivera, Natanael; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2015-02-01

    Using Greenfield's theory of sociocultural change and human development as a point of departure, we carried out two experimental studies exploring the implications of decades of globalised social change in Mexico for children's development of cooperation and competition. In rural San Vicente, Baja California, the baseline was 1970 and the historical comparison took place 40 years later. In Veracruz, the baseline was 1985 and the historical comparison took place 20 years later. In Veracruz, children were tested in both rural and urban settings. We hypothesized that cooperative behavior would decrease in all three settings as a result of the sociocultural transformations of the past decades in Mexico. The Madsen Marble Pull Game was used to assess cooperative and competitive behavior. As predicted by Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, the Marble Pull procedure revealed a striking decrease over time in levels of cooperative behavior, with a corresponding rise in competitive behavior, in all three settings.

  8. Comparisons of social interaction and activities of daily living between long-term care facility and community-dwelling stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Ae; Park, Se-Gwan; Roh, Hyo-Lyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to compare the correlation between social interaction and activities of daily living (ADL) between community-dwelling and long-term care facility stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Subjects were 65 chronic stroke patients (32 facility-residing, 33 community-dwelling). The Evaluation Social Interaction (ESI) tool was used to evaluate social interaction and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) measure was used to evaluate ADL. [Results] Both social interaction and ADL were higher in community-dwelling than facility-residing stroke patients. There was a correlation between ESI and ADL for both motor and process skills among facility-residing patients, while only ADL process skills and ESI correlated among community-dwelling patients. In a partial correlation analysis using ADL motor and process skills as control variables, only process skills correlated with ESI. [Conclusion] For rehabilitation of stroke patients, an extended treatment process that combines ADL and social activities is likely to be required. Furthermore, treatment programs and institutional systems that can improve social interaction and promote health maintenance for community-dwelling and facility-residing chronic stroke patients are needed throughout the rehabilitation process. PMID:26644659

  9. Comparisons of social interaction and activities of daily living between long-term care facility and community-dwelling stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Ae; Park, Se-Gwan; Roh, Hyo-Lyun

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to compare the correlation between social interaction and activities of daily living (ADL) between community-dwelling and long-term care facility stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Subjects were 65 chronic stroke patients (32 facility-residing, 33 community-dwelling). The Evaluation Social Interaction (ESI) tool was used to evaluate social interaction and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) measure was used to evaluate ADL. [Results] Both social interaction and ADL were higher in community-dwelling than facility-residing stroke patients. There was a correlation between ESI and ADL for both motor and process skills among facility-residing patients, while only ADL process skills and ESI correlated among community-dwelling patients. In a partial correlation analysis using ADL motor and process skills as control variables, only process skills correlated with ESI. [Conclusion] For rehabilitation of stroke patients, an extended treatment process that combines ADL and social activities is likely to be required. Furthermore, treatment programs and institutional systems that can improve social interaction and promote health maintenance for community-dwelling and facility-residing chronic stroke patients are needed throughout the rehabilitation process.

  10. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Vicky M; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment.

  11. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  12. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Parotte, C.

    2013-07-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the role of

  13. Positioning for capitation in long-term care: a profile of vertical integration strategies in health and social service organizations.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A M

    1998-01-01

    During the next decade, the population over age 65 is expected to increase by 11% while the population over age 85 is expected to increase by 42%. These projections suggest that many organizations which currently provide services to the aged will be required to design a range of new products and services for this diverse population. Vertically integrated services provide a viable opportunity to competitively position an organization to respond to the diverse needs of an aged market. Since vertical integration will be essential in negotiating capitate contracts for the aged in the future, this study examined the extent of vertical integration in 116 health and social service organizations in an urban market with an expanding geriatric population.

  14. Breaking bonds in male prairie vole: Long-term effects on emotional and social behavior, physiology, and neurochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, P; Smith, AS; Lei, K; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are essential for many fundamental aspects of life while bond disruption can be detrimental to mental and physical health. Male prairie voles form enduring social bonds with their female partners, allowing the evaluation of partner loss on behavior, physiology, and neurochemistry. Males were evaluated for partner preference formation induced by 24 h of mating, and half were separated from their partner for 4 wk. In Experiment 1, partner loss significantly increased anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests and marginally increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. In addition, while intruder-directed aggression is common in pair bonded prairie voles, separated males were affiliative and lacked aggression toward an unfamiliar female and an intruding male conspecific. Partner loss increased the density of oxytocin-immunoreactivity (-ir), vasopressin-ir, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-ir cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and oxytocin-ir cells in the supraoptic nucleus. Tyrosine hydroxylase-ir was not affected. In Experiment 2, partner preference was observed after 2 wk of partner loss but eliminated after 4 wk partner loss. Body weight gain and plasma corticosterone concentrations were elevated throughout the 4 wk. No effects were observed for plasma oxytocin or vasopressin. Together, partner loss elicits anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, disrupts bond-related behaviors, and alters neuropeptide systems that regulate such behaviors. Thus, partner loss in male prairie voles may provide a model to better understand the behavior, pathology, and neurobiology underlying partner loss and grief. PMID:24561258

  15. Breaking bonds in male prairie vole: long-term effects on emotional and social behavior, physiology, and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Smith, A S; Lei, K; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2014-05-15

    Social relationships are essential for many fundamental aspects of life while bond disruption can be detrimental to mental and physical health. Male prairie voles form enduring social bonds with their female partners, allowing the evaluation of partner loss on behavior, physiology, and neurochemistry. Males were evaluated for partner preference formation induced by 24h of mating, and half were separated from their partner for 4 wk. In Experiment 1, partner loss significantly increased anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests and marginally increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. In addition, while intruder-directed aggression is common in pair bonded prairie voles, separated males were affiliative and lacked aggression toward an unfamiliar female and an intruding male conspecific. Partner loss increased the density of oxytocin-immunoreactivity (-ir), vasopressin-ir, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-ir cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and oxytocin-ir cells in the supraoptic nucleus. Tyrosine hydroxylase-ir was not affected. In Experiment 2, partner preference was observed after 2 wk of partner loss but eliminated after 4 wk partner loss. Body weight gain and plasma corticosterone concentrations were elevated throughout the 4 wk. No effects were observed for plasma oxytocin or vasopressin. Together, partner loss elicits anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, disrupts bond-related behaviors, and alters neuropeptide systems that regulate such behaviors. Thus, partner loss in male prairie voles may provide a model to better understand the behavior, pathology, and neurobiology underlying partner loss and grief. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Keep going in adversity – using a resilience perspective to understand the narratives of long-term social assistance recipients in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Sweden, means-tested social assistance serves as a temporary, last resort safety net. However, increasing numbers of people are receiving it for longer periods and about a third has assistance for more than a year. The aim of this study was to explore the ways social assistance recipients manage long lasting adversity and their roles as active, rather than passive, agents in this process, using a resilience perspective. Method The study is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with long-term social assistance recipients from diverse areas in Stockholm County. The interviews were guided by narrative inquiry to interpret and construct stories of experiences and are part of a larger qualitative study exploring experiences of living on social assistance in Sweden. Results Experiences of cumulative adversity during many years compounded recipients’ difficulties in finding ways out of hardship. They had different strategies to deal with adversities, and many had underlying “core problems”, including mental health problems, which had not been properly resolved. Recipients’ showed resistance in adverse situations. Some made attempts to find ways out of hardship, whereas others struggled mainly to achieve a sense of mastering life. They received important support from individual professionals in different authorities, but mostly the help from the welfare system was fragmented. Conclusions Social assistance recipients in this study demonstrated agency in ways of managing long lasting difficulties, sometimes caused by “core problems”, which were often accumulated into complex difficulties. Resilience was about keeping going and resisting these difficulties. To find ways out of social assistance required help from different welfare agencies and professionals and was hindered by the fragmentation of services. This study shows that there is a need for more long-term personalised, comprehensive support, including interventions both to increase

  17. The co-occurrence of chronic pain and psychological distress and its associations with salient socio-demographic characteristics among long-term social assistance recipients in Norway.

    PubMed

    Løyland, Borghild

    2016-04-01

    While lower socioeconomic status increases individual's risk for chronic conditions, little is known about how long-term social assistance recipients (LTRs) with multiple chronic health problems experience chronic pain and/or psychological distress. Social assistance is the last safety net in the Norwegian welfare system and individuals have a legal right to economic assistance if they are unable to support themselves or are entitled to other types of benefits. The purposes of this study were to determine the co-occurrence of both chronic pain and psychological distress and to evaluate for differences in demographic and social characteristics, as well as health-related quality of life, among LTRs. This descriptive, cross-sectional study surveyed people receiving long-term social assistance in Norway about their health and social functioning from January-November 2005. The social welfare authority offices in each of 14 municipalities in Norway were responsible to locate the LTRs who met the study's inclusion criteria. The selected municipalities provided geographic variability including both rural and urban municipalities in different parts of the country. LTRs were included in this study if they: had received social assistance as their main source of income for at least 6 of the last 12 months; were between 18 and 60 years of age; and were able to complete the study questionnaire. In this study, 405 LTRs were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of chronic pain and/or psychological distress. (1) Neither chronic pain nor psychological distress (32%, n=119), (2) only chronic pain (12%, n=44), (3) only psychological distress and (24%, n=87), (4) both chronic pain and psychological distress (32%, n=119). Except for age and marital status, no differences were found between groups in demographic characteristics. Significant differences were found among the four groups on all of the items related to childhood difficulties before the age of 16, except

  18. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression. PMID:28393871

  19. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-04-10

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression.

  20. KINET: a social marketing programme of treated nets and net treatment for malaria control in Tanzania, with evaluation of child health and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, J R; Abdulla, S; Minja, H; Nathan, R; Mukasa, O; Marchant, T; Mponda, H; Kikumbih, N; Lyimo, E; Manchester, T; Tanner, M; Lengeler, C

    1999-01-01

    We present a large-scale social marketing programme of insecticide-treated nets in 2 rural districts in southwestern Tanzania (population 350,000) and describe how the long-term child health and survival impact will be assessed. Formative and market research were conducted in order to understand community perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practice with respect to the products to be socially marketed. We identified Zuia Mbu (Kiswahili for 'prevent mosquitoes') as a suitable brand name for both treated nets and single-dose insecticide treatment sachets. A mix of public and private sales outlets is used for distribution. In the first stage of a stepped introduction 31 net agents were appointed and trained in 18 villages: 15 were shop owners, 14 were village leaders, 1 was a parish priest and 1 a health worker. For net treatment 37 young people were appointed in the same villages and trained as agents. Further institutions in both districts such as hospitals, development projects and employers were also involved in distribution. Promotion for both products was intense and used a variety of channels. A total of 22,410 nets and 8072 treatments were sold during the first year: 18 months after launching, 46% of 312 families with children aged under 5 years reported that their children were sleeping under treated nets. A strong evaluation component in over 50,000 people allows assessment of the long-term effects of insecticide-treated nets on child health and survival, anaemia in pregnancy, and the costs of the intervention. This evaluation is based on cross-sectional surveys, and case-control and cohort studies.

  1. Acute ethanol exposure during late mouse neurodevelopment results in long-term deficits in memory retrieval, but not in social responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Houlé, Katherine; Abdi, Myshake; Clabough, Erin B D

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in neurological changes in affected individuals and may result in the emergence of a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The effects of ethanol exposure during development are both time and dose dependent. Although many animal models of FASD use more chronic ethanol exposure, acute developmental alcohol exposure may also cause long-lasting neuronal changes. Our research employed behavioral measures to assess the effects of a single early postnatal ethanol intoxication event in mice. Mice were dosed at postnatal day 6 (a 2.5 g/kg dose of ethanol or a saline control administered twice, 2 hr apart) as a model of third trimester binge drinking in humans. This exposure was followed by behavioral assessment in male mice at 1 month (1M) and at 4 months of age (4M), using the Barnes maze (for learning/memory retrieval), exploratory behavior, and a social responsiveness task. Ethanol-exposed mice appeared to be less motivated to complete the Barnes maze at 1M, but were able to successfully learn the maze. However, deficits in long-term spatial memory retrieval were observed in ethanol-exposed mice when the Barnes maze recall was measured at 4M. No significant differences were found in open field behavior or social responsiveness at 1M or 4M of age. Acute ethanol exposure at P6 in mice leads to mild but long-lasting deficits in long-term spatial memory. Results suggest that even brief acute exposure to high ethanol levels during the third trimester equivalent of human pregnancy may have a permanent negative impact on the neurological functioning of the offspring.

  2. Role of dopamine neurotransmission in the long-term effects of repeated social defeat on the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Montagud-Romero, S; Reguilon, M D; Roger-Sanchez, C; Pascual, M; Aguilar, M A; Guerri, C; Miñarro, J; Rodríguez-Arias, M

    2016-11-03

    Numerous studies report that social defeat stress alters dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in several areas of the brain. Alterations of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway are believed to be responsible for the increased vulnerability to drug use observed as a result of social stress. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of DA receptors on the long-term effect of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the conditioned rewarding and reinstating effects of cocaine. For this purpose, the D1R antagonist SCH 23390 and the D1R antagonist raclopride were administered 30min before each social defeat and a cocaine-induced CPP procedure was initiated three weeks later. The expression of the D1R and D2R was also measured in the cortex and hippocampus throughout the entire procedure. Mice exposed to RSD showed an increase in the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine that was blocked by both DA receptors antagonists when a subthreshold dose of cocaine was employed. However, while the vulnerability to reinstatement of the preference induced by 25mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP was abolished by the D1R antagonist, it was practically unaffected by raclopride. Increases in D2R receptor levels were observed in the cortex of defeated animals after the first and fourth social defeats and in the hippocampus 3weeks later. Nevertheless, D1R receptor levels in the hippocampus decreased only after the last social defeat. Our results confirm that RSD enhances the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine and that both DA receptors are involved in this enduring effect of social stress.

  3. Long-term relationships between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Knatten, Charlotte Kristensen; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Hem, Camilla; Heir, Trond

    2016-09-15

    After traumatic events, social support and posttraumatic stress are interrelated, but little is known about the underlying dynamics behind this association. Levels of social support and posttraumatic stress may change and affect each other over time, but there are also stable time-invariant individual differences in both constructs. The present study aimed to determine the amount of variance explained by stable individual differences in levels of social support and posttraumatic stress across three years, and to determine whether and to what extent social support and posttraumatic stress may affect one another when these stable individual differences are controlled for. We used data from ministerial employees present in the Governmental district during the 2011 Oslo bombing attack (N=255). Data was collected ten months, two years, and three years after the terror attack. Using a random intercept cross lagged panel model (RI-CLPM), we tested the possible directional effects between social support and posttraumatic stress within persons when variance between persons was taken into account. The intraclass correlations of the three measures of posttraumatic stress and social support were.83 and.74, respectively. The remaining variation within persons could not be explained by change in either of these constructs. We have no information on the processes that might have occurred before 10 months after the incident. Our findings indicate that the long-term longitudinal linkage between social support and posttraumatic stress may be best explained by stable individual differences rather than causal processes operating within persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluvoxamine CR in the long-term treatment of social anxiety disorder: the 12- to 24-week extension phase of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Westenberg, Herman G M; Yang, Haichen; Li, David; Barbato, Luigi M

    2003-12-01

    signs, electrocardiagrams, or laboratory investigations. These data support the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fluvoxamine CR in the treatment of GSAD. Given the prevalence, persistence, and disability associated with GSAD, and the relative paucity of long-term treatment studies of SAD, the current dataset provides empirical support for the current clinical consensus that pharmacotherapy of this disorder should be continued beyond the acute phase.

  5. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  6. Estrogenic involvement in social learning, social recognition and pathogen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Valsecchi, Paola; Kavaliers, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is also essential. We review here various studies primarily from the rodent literature supporting estrogenic involvement in the regulation of social recognition, social learning (socially acquired food preferences and mate choice copying) and the recognition and avoidance of infected and potentially infected individuals. We consider both genomic and rapid estrogenic effects involving estrogen receptors α and β, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1, along with their interactions with neuropeptide systems in the processing of social stimuli and the regulation and expression of these various socially relevant behaviors.

  7. A staff intervention targeting resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in long-term care increased staff knowledge, recognition and reporting: results from a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie; Silver, Stephanie; Boratgis, Gabriel; Kong, Jian; Eimicke, Joseph P; Pillemer, Karl; Lachs, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Elder abuse in long-term care has received considerable attention; however, resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) has not been well researched. Preliminary findings from studies of R-REM suggest that it is sufficiently widespread to merit concern, and is likely to have serious detrimental outcomes for residents. However, no evidence-based training, intervention and implementation strategies exist that address this issue. The objective was to evaluate the impact of a newly developed R-REM training intervention for nursing staff on knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. The design was a prospective cluster randomized trial with randomization at the unit level. A sample of 1405 residents (685 in the control and 720 in the intervention group) from 47 New York City nursing home units (23 experimental and 24 control) in 5 nursing homes was assessed. Data were collected at three waves: baseline, 6 and 12 months. Staff on the experimental units received the training and implementation protocols, while those on the comparison units did not. Evaluation of outcomes was conducted on an intent-to-treat basis using mixed (random and fixed effects) models for continuous knowledge variables and Poisson regressions for longitudinal count data measuring recognition and reporting. There was a significant increase in knowledge post-training, controlling for pre-training levels for the intervention group (p<0.001), significantly increased recognition of R-REM (p<0.001), and longitudinal reporting in the intervention as contrasted with the control group (p=0.0058). A longitudinal evaluation demonstrated that the training intervention was effective in enhancing knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. It is recommended that this training program be implemented in long-term care facilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A staff intervention targeting resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in long-term care increased staff knowledge, recognition and reporting: Results from a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie; Silver, Stephanie; Boratgis, Gabriel; Kong, Jian; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Lachs, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elder abuse in long term care has received considerable attention; however, resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) has not been well researched. Preliminary findings from studies of R-REM suggest that it is sufficiently widespread to merit concern, and is likely to have serious detrimental outcomes for residents. However, no evidence-based training, intervention and implementation strategies exist that address this issue. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the impact of a newly developed R-REM training intervention for nursing staff on knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. Design The design was a prospective cluster randomized trial with randomization at the unit level. Methods A sample of 1405 residents (685 in the control and 720 in the intervention group) from 47 New York City nursing home units (23 experimental and 24 control) in 5 nursing homes was assessed. Data were collected at three waves: baseline, 6 and 12 months. Staff on the experimental units received the training and implementation protocols, while those on the comparison units did not. Evaluation of outcomes was conducted on an intent-to-treat basis using mixed (random and fixed effects) models for continuous knowledge variables and Poisson regressions for longitudinal count data measuring recognition and reporting. Results There was a significant increase in knowledge post-training, controlling for pre-training levels for the intervention group (p<0.001), significantly increased recognition of R-REM (p<0.001), and longitudinal reporting in the intervention as contrasted with the control group (p=0.0058). Conclusions A longitudinal evaluation demonstrated that the training intervention was effective in enhancing knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. It is recommended that this training program be implemented in long term care facilities. PMID:23159018

  9. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    parameters evaluated, despite having modified some oxidative parameters. This study showed for the first time that a short post-weaning social isolation was able to induce long-term changes in the striatal dopaminergic system and increased the response to psychostimulants. These results emphasize the importance of stressful experiences during a short period of development on programming susceptibility to psychostimulants later in life. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between chronic pain and health-related quality of life in long-term social assistance recipients in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Miaskowski, Christine; Paul, Steven M.; Dahl, Espen; Rustøen, Tone

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of long-term social assistance recipients (LTRs) with and without chronic pain and determine the effect of select demographic, social, pain, alcohol, and illicit drug use characteristics on the physical and mental components of their HRQOL. Methods In this cross-sectional study, which is part of a larger study that evaluated the health and functional abilities of LTRs in Norway, 405 LTRs of which 178 had chronic pain were recruited from 14 of 433 municipalities. Results LTRs with chronic pain were older (P < .001), more often married (P = .002), feeling more lonely, (P = .048), and had more problems with alcohol (P = .035). The final regression model explained 41.2% (P < .001) of the variance in PCS scores and 32.2% (P < .001) of the variance in MCS scores. Being in chronic pain (29.7%), being older (4.7%), and never married (2%) predicted worse PCS scores. Feeling lonely (11.9%), having problems with illicit drug use (5.9%), and being in chronic pain (2.9%) predicted worse MCS scores. Conclusion LTRs with chronic pain rated both the physical and mental components of HRQOL lower than LTRs without chronic pain. The MCS score in both groups was negatively effected. PMID:20652418

  11. Social correlates of the dominance rank and long-term cortisol levels in adolescent and adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Wu, Xujun; Morrill, Ryan J.; Li, Zhifei; Li, Chunlu; Yang, Shangchuan; Li, Zhaoxia; Cui, Ding; Lv, Longbao; Hu, Zhengfei; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Yong; Guo, Liyun; Qin, Dongdong; Hu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in dominance hierarchies is that some ranks result in higher levels of psychosocial stress than others. Such stress can lead to negative health outcomes, possibly through altered levels of stress hormones. The dominance rank-stress physiology relationship is known to vary between species; sometimes dominants show higher levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones, whereas in other cases subordinates show higher levels. It is less clear how this relationship varies between groups of different ages or cultures. In this study, we used long-term cortisol measurement methods to compare the effect of rank on cortisol levels in adult and adolescent male rhesus macaques. In the adult groups, subordinates had significantly higher cortisol levels. In the adolescents, no significant correlation between cortisol and status was found. Further analysis demonstrated that the adult hierarchy was stricter than that of the adolescents. Adult subordinates received extreme aggression more frequently than dominants, and this class of behavior was positively correlated with cortisol; by contrast, adolescents showed neither trend. Together, these findings provide evidence for a cortisol-rank relationship determined by social factors, namely, despotism of the group, and highlight the importance of group-specific social analysis when comparing or combining results obtained from different groups of animals. PMID:27145729

  12. Ability of palatable food consumption to buffer against the short- and long-term behavioral consequences of social defeat exposure during juvenility in rats.

    PubMed

    MacKay, J C; Kent, P; James, J S; Cayer, C; Merali, Z

    2017-08-01

    In adult rats, access to a palatable diet can buffer against the effects of stressors. Approximately 10% of all adolescents are repeatedly victimized by their peers raising the possibility that palatable food consumption may be relevant to this developmental window. This study assessed the long-term impact of juvenile social defeat exposure on anxiety and depressive-like behavior and whether daily limited access to a palatable diet moderated these behavioral consequences. We also investigated the impact of the palatable diet on behavior during the defeat sessions. Juvenile rats were exposed to either a different adult resident rat (Stress) or handling (Control) from postnatal day (PD) 28-34. All rats had ad libitum access to either chow alone or both chow and limited access (4h/day) to palatable food commencing on PD 21. Results showed that during the defeat sessions, juvenile rats with access to the palatable diet spent less time in submissive postures and displayed significantly longer latencies to submit to the resident. In adulthood, previous exposure to juvenile social defeat resulted in a mild anxiogenic profile in the open field among rats with access to Chow only. Furthermore, defeated rats, regardless of diet, displayed reduced locomotor activity and increased social interaction as adults. These findings suggested only minimal enduring negative consequences from juvenile social defeat exposure which made it challenging to assess potential stress-buffering effects of the palatable diet. This was not the case during the defeat sessions where previous exposure to palatable food appeared protective against the acute stressor effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mu-opioid blockade reduces ethanol effects on intake and behavior of the infant rat during short-term but not long-term social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrey P.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Kramskaya, Tatiana. A.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous findings in adult and infant rats have shown that the endogenous opioid system is involved in control of ethanol consumption and its reinforcing effects. Opioid systems are also involved in reactivity to social isolation with several factors (age, duration, and type of isolation) affecting this modulation. The present study investigated the effects of a selective mu – opioid antagonist CTOP (0, 0.1, 0.5 mg/kg), ethanol (0, 0.5 g/kg), and the interaction of the two drugs on the behavioral consequences of two types of social isolation given to preweanling rats: 1) short–term social isolation from littermates (STSI, duration 8 minutes) and 2) relatively long-term (5 hours) isolation (LTSI) from the dam and littermates. Voluntary intake of saccharin, locomotion, rearing activity, paw licking, and grooming were assessed during an 8 – min. intake test. Thermal nociceptive reactivity was also measured before and after the testing session with normalized differences in pre- and post-test latencies of paw withdrawal from a hot plate (49 °C) used as an index of isolation-induced analgesia (IIA). The results indicate that pharmacological blockade of mu-opioid receptors by CTOP substantially attenuated ethanol’s anxiolytic effects on the developing rat’s reactions to social isolation. Some of these stress-attenuating effects of CTOP were observed only in animals exposed to short-term isolation (STSI) but not in pups isolated for 5 hours (LTSI). Ethanol selectively increased saccharin intake during STSI in females and CTOP blocked this effect. Ethanol decreased the magnitude of analgesia associated with STSI but had no effect on pain reactivity during LTSI. CTOP by itself did not affect IIA or saccharin intake in sober animals. The findings of the present experiments indicate that the anxiolytic effects of 0.5 g/kg ethanol on pups exposed to STSI are modulated by endogenous opioid activity. PMID:23182856

  14. Long-term effects of peer victimization on social outcomes through the fourth decade of life in individuals born at normal or extremely low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity is known to have deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan and across a range of domains. Here, we tested a cumulative risk hypothesis of adult social functioning and health outcomes in the fourth decade of life, using the oldest known longitudinally followed cohort of survivors of extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1,000 g). We investigated the additional impact of peer victimization in youth on social outcomes at age 29-36 years in ELBW survivors and matched normal birthweight (NBW; >2,500 g) participants. In the combined sample, peer victimization was associated with lower likelihood of having children and household income, poorer family functioning and self-esteem, more loneliness and chronic health conditions, less social support, and increased likelihood for contact with police. Moderation analyses indicated that among ELBW survivors, compared to their NBW counterparts, victimization was more strongly associated with being convicted of a crime and with having chronic health conditions. These findings highlight the negative long-term impact of peer victimization on all children and that some outcomes may be differentially affected by prenatal and early post-natal environments. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Exposure to early adversity has deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan. Extremely premature children have higher rates of exposure to adversities, including peer victimization. Peer victimization is associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood in those born at term. What does this study add? Victimization negatively impacts the social outcomes of those born extremely premature and at term into adulthood. Associations appear to be affected by individual differences in prenatal and early post-natal environments. Intervention is crucial when peer victimization occurs in children at risk, as well as those typically developing. © 2016 The

  15. μ-Opioid blockade reduces ethanol effects on intake and behavior of the infant rat during short-term but not long-term social isolation.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Kramskaya, Tatiana A; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2013-02-01

    Numerous findings in adult and infant rats have shown that the endogenous opioid system is involved in control of ethanol consumption and its reinforcing effects. Opioid systems are also involved in reactivity to social isolation with several factors (age, duration, and type of isolation) affecting this modulation. The present study investigated the effects of a selective mu-opioid antagonist CTOP (0, 0.1, 0.5mg/kg), ethanol (0, 0.5 g/kg), and the interaction of the two drugs on the behavioral consequences of two types of social isolation given to preweanling rats: 1) short-term social isolation from littermates (STSI, duration 8 min) and 2) relatively long-term (5h) isolation (LTSI) from the dam and littermates. Voluntary intake of saccharin, locomotion, rearing activity, paw licking, and grooming were assessed during an 8-min. intake test. Thermal nociceptive reactivity was also measured before and after the testing session with normalized differences in pre- and post-test latencies of paw withdrawal from a hot plate (49°C) used as an index of isolation-induced analgesia (IIA). The results indicate that pharmacological blockade of mu-opioid receptors by CTOP substantially attenuated ethanol's anxiolytic effects on the developing rat's reactions to social isolation. Some of these stress-attenuating effects of CTOP were observed only in animals exposed to short-term isolation (STSI) but not in pups isolated for 5h (LTSI). Ethanol selectively increased saccharin intake during STSI in females and CTOP blocked this effect. Ethanol decreased the magnitude of analgesia associated with STSI but had no effect on pain reactivity during LTSI. CTOP by itself did not affect IIA or saccharin intake in sober animals. The findings of the present experiments indicate that the anxiolytic effects of 0.5 g/kg ethanol on pups exposed to STSI are modulated by endogenous opioid activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Indian Long-term Non-Progressors Show Broad ADCC Responses with Preferential Recognition of V3 Region of Envelope and a Region from Tat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Archana; Kurle, Swarali; Shete, Ashwini; Ghate, Manisha; Godbole, Sheela; Madhavi, Vijaya; Kent, Stephen J.; Paranjape, Ramesh; Thakar, Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    HIV-specific antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) is likely to be important in governing protection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and slowing disease progression. Little is known about the ADCC responses to HIV-1 subtype C. We characterized ADCC responses in HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian subjects with slow disease progression and identified the dominant antigenic regions recognized by these antibodies. ADCC responses were measured in plasma from 34 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), who were asymptomatic and maintained CD4 count above 500 cells/mm3 for the last 7 years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 58 ART naïve progressors with CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 against overlapping HIV-1 peptides using a flow cytometry-based antibody-dependent natural killer (NK) cell activation assay. The assay measured CD107a expression on NK cells as a marker of antibody-dependent NK cell activation and IFN-γ secretion by NK cells upon activation. The ADCC epitopes were mapped using the matrix of overlapping peptides. Indian LTNPs showed higher and broader ADCC responses compared to the progressors. The Env-C and Tat-specific ADCC responses were associated with lower plasma viral load, whereas the Env-C responses were also associated with higher CD4 counts. Five of 10 LTNP responders targeted epitopes in the V3 region (amino acids 288–330) of Env-C. Additionally, three Tat regions were targeted by ADCC antibodies from LTNPs. ADCC responses were associated with slow HIV progression in Indian subtype C-infected cohort. The frequently recognized peptides from the V3 loop of Env and the novel epitopes from Tat by the LTNPs warrants further study to understand the role of ADCC responses to these regions in control and prevention of HIV-1 infection. PMID:28154562

  17. Finding a place to connect: A qualitative study exploring the influences of the physical and social environments on spouses' opportunities to maintain relationships when visiting a partner with dementia living in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Førsund, Linn Hege; Ytrehus, Siri

    2016-06-17

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how physical and social environments influence spouses' opportunities to maintain relationships when visiting a partner with dementia living in long-term care. Interviews with 15 spouses whose partners lived in long-term care facilities for persons with dementia, observations of physical environments and participant observations were conducted. The results showed how finding a place for spouses to connect in the long-term care facility was important in maintaining relationships. Access to individual rooms was an important feature that enabled connections throughout the phases of dementia, whereas common areas appeared more difficult to use because small spaces limited private interactions. Health personnel were important in sustaining spouses' abilities to maintain their relationships in long-term care facilities for persons with dementia.

  18. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it—at least partially—reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  19. Parent-mediated social communication therapy for young children with autism (PACT): long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Andrew; Le Couteur, Ann; Leadbitter, Kathy; Salomone, Erica; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Tobin, Hannah; Gammer, Isobel; Lowry, Jessica; Vamvakas, George; Byford, Sarah; Aldred, Catherine; Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen; Howlin, Patricia; Parr, Jeremy R; Charman, Tony; Green, Jonathan

    2016-11-19

    It is not known whether early intervention can improve long-term autism symptom outcomes. We aimed to follow-up the Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT), to investigate whether the PACT intervention had a long-term effect on autism symptoms and continued effects on parent and child social interaction. PACT was a randomised controlled trial of a parent-mediated social communication intervention for children aged 2-4 years with core autism. Follow-up ascertainment was done at three specialised clinical services centres in the UK (London, Manchester, and Newcastle) at a median of 5·75 years (IQR 5·42-5·92) from the original trial endpoint. The main blinded outcomes were the comparative severity score (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Dyadic Communication Assessment Measure (DCMA) of the proportion of child initiatiations when interacting with the parent, and an expressive-receptive language composite. All analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. PACT is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN58133827. 121 (80%) of the 152 trial participants (59 [77%] of 77 assigned to PACT intervention vs 62 [83%] of 75 assigned to treatment as usual) were traced and consented to be assessed between July, 2013, and September, 2014. Mean age at follow-up was 10·5 years (SD 0·8). Group difference in favour of the PACT intervention based on ADOS CSS of log-odds effect size (ES) was 0·64 (95% CI 0·07 to 1·20) at treatment endpoint and ES 0·70 (95% CI -0·05 to 1·47) at follow-up, giving an overall reduction in symptom severity over the course of the whole trial and follow-up period (ES 0·55, 95% CI 0·14 to 0·91, p=0·004). Group difference in DCMA child initiations at follow-up showed a Cohen's d ES of 0·29 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.57) and was significant over the course of the study (ES 0·33, 95% CI 0·11 to 0·57, p=0·004). There were no group differences in the language composite at follow-up (ES 0·15, 95% CI -0

  20. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  1. Attenuation of cadmium-induced decline in spatial, habituation and recognition memory by long-term administration of almond and walnut supplementation: Role of cholinergic function.

    PubMed

    Batool, Zehra; Agha, Faiza; Ahmad, Saara; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Anis, Lubna; Sajid, Irfan; Emad, Shaista; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2017-01-01

    Excessive exposure of cadmium which is regarded as a neurotoxin can stimulate aging process by inducing abnormality in neuronal function. It has been reported that supplementation of almond and walnut attenuate age-related memory loss. Present study was designed to investigate the weekly administration of cadmium for one month on learning and memory function with relation to cholinergic activity. Cadmium was administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/week. Whereas, almond and walnut was supplemented at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day along with cadmium administration to separate set of rats. At the end of experiment, memory function was assessed by Morris water maze, open field test and novel object recognition test. Results of the present study showed that cadmium administration significantly reduced memory retention. Reduced acetylcholine levels and elevated acetyl cholinesterase activity were also observed in frontal cortex and hippocampus of cadmium treated rats. Malondialdehyde levels were also significantly increased following the administration of cadmium. Daily supplementation of almond and walnut for 28 days significantly attenuated cadmium-induced memory impairment in rats. Results of the present study are discussed in term of cholinergic activity in cadmium-induced memory loss and its attenuation by nuts supplementation in rats.

  2. [Medical and medico-social case management of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Specific implementation of long-term antiepileptic treatment in the adult].

    PubMed

    Chassagnon, S

    2004-06-01

    Medical treatment of refractory localisation-related epilepsies in adults should always be considered with regard to surgical possibilities. When long-term therapy with antiepileptic drugs is necessary, the treatment tries to achieve maximal efficacy with the lowest unavoidable toxicity. Until an evidence-based choice can be made, the management is currently based on empirical knowledge. In this article, the available literature on effectiveness and monitoring of long term antiepileptic therapy is reviewed.

  3. Implementing a social network intervention designed to enhance and diversify support for people with long-term conditions. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; James, Elizabeth; Rogers, Anne

    2016-02-29

    For people with long-term conditions, social networks provide a potentially central means of mobilising, mediating and accessing support for health and well-being. Few interventions address the implementation of improving engagement with and through social networks. This paper describes the development and implementation of a web-based tool which comprises: network mapping, user-centred preference elicitation and need assessment and facilitated engagement with resources. The study aimed to determine whether the intervention was acceptable, implementable and acted to enhance support and to add to theory concerning social networks and engagement with resources and activities. A longitudinal design with 15 case studies used ethnographic methods comprising video, non-participant observation of intervention delivery and qualitative interviews (baseline, 6 and 12 months). Participants were people with type 2 diabetes living in a marginalised island community. Facilitators were local health trainers and care navigators. Analysis applied concepts concerning implementation of technology for self-management support to explain how new practices of work were operationalised and how the technology impacted on relationships fit with everyday life and allowed for visual feedback. Most participants reported identifying and taking up new activities as a result of using the tool. Thematic analysis suggested that workability of the tool was predicated on disruption and reconstruction of networks, challenging/supportive facilitation and change and reflection over time concerning network support. Visualisation of the network enabled people to mobilise support and engage in new activities. The tool aligned synergistically with the facilitators' role of linking people to local resources. The social network tool works through a process of initiating positive disruption of established self-management practice through mapping and reflection on personal network membership and support. This

  4. Self-face recognition in social context.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain.

  5. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  6. Effects of a gerotranscendence educational program on gerotranscendence recognition, attitude towards aging and behavioral intention towards the elderly in long-term care facilities: A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Wang, Chi-Jane; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers in long-term care (LTC) facilities have to uphold a positive attitude toward the elderly, so they will be more willing to provide the elderly with care of higher quality. Theory of Gerotranscendence is a theory which can assist the elderly in developing more mature and intellectual state of mind. It is hoped that the caregivers who receive gerotranscendence education may apply its concept to the care for the elderly. To evaluate the effects of the gerotranscendence educational program on caregivers' gerotranscendence recognition, attitude towards aging, and behavioral intention towards caring for the elderly. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was conducted. A total of 41 caregivers in LTC facilities participated and completed the study. Participants were invited to participate in a 2-day gerotranscendence educational program, and measurement took place at baseline, the end of the program (post-test) and three months after the program (follow-up test). The research tools included Gerotranscendence Recognition Scale-Chinese version, Aging Attitude scale, and Caregivers' Behavioral Intention Scale. This study used GLM repeated measures to perform analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in three repeated measures of participants' gerotranscendence recognition and behavior intention toward caring for the elderly (p=.002, .002, respectively) but not in the aging attitude score (p=.21). The post hoc comparison showed that the scores of these two outcomes in the post-test were significantly higher than those in the pre-test (p=.000; .024). However, the scores in the follow-up test were almost the same as those in the pre-test. The gerotranscendence educational program had timely effects on caregivers' gerotranscendence recognition and behavioral intention towards aging, and so caregivers working in LTC facilities may require ongoing training in the gerotranscendence educational program to ensure that these positive effects

  7. The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-05-01

    Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project. The study analyzed a final sample of 1937 students (50.7% female). Each layer of social structure was associated with a particular form of social capital. Students whose parents were married and living together had higher family social capital. After controlling for background variables, the social structure variable of friends who smoke was significantly associated with changes in smoking status. Students reporting more school attachment were less likely to start smoking. Students with higher parental supervision was associated with less chance of being a consistent smoker, whereas participation of social organization outside of school was associated with continued smoking. Attending school club was associated with higher probability of smoking cessation. Smoking prevention and intervention strategies aimed at junior high school students should be tailored to the particular form of social capital important for each type of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  9. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  10. Social recognition in wild fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley J.W; Webster, Michael M; Hart, Paul J.B

    2007-01-01

    The ability of animals to gather information about their social and physical environment is essential for their ecological function. Odour cues are an important component of this information gathering across taxa. Recent laboratory studies have revealed the importance of flexible chemical cues in facilitating social recognition of fishes. These cues are known to be mediated by recent habitat experience and fishes are attracted to individuals that smell like themselves. However, to be relevant to wild populations, where animals may move and forage freely, these cues would have to be temporally flexible and allow spatial resolution. Here, we present data from a study of social recognition in wild populations of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Focal fish preferentially associated with conspecifics from the same habitat as themselves. These preferences were changed and updated following translocation of the focal fish to a different site. Further investigation revealed that association preferences changed after 3 h of exposure to different habitat cues. In addition to temporal flexibility, the cues also allowed a high degree of spatial resolution: fish taken from sites 200 m apart produced cues that were sufficiently different to enable the focal fish to discriminate and associate with fish captured near their own home site. The adaptive benefits of this social recognition mechanism remain unclear, though they may allow fish to orient within their social environment and gain current local information. PMID:17284411

  11. Differential requirements of hippocampal de novo protein and mRNA synthesis in two long-term spatial memory tests: Spontaneous place recognition and delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal de novo mRNA and protein synthesis has been suggested to be critical for long-term spatial memory. However, its requirement in each memory process (i.e. encoding, consolidation and retrieval) and the differences in the roles of de novo mRNA and protein synthesis in different situations where spatial memory is tested have not been thoroughly investigated. To address these questions, we examined the effects of hippocampal administration of the protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin (ANI) and emetine (EME), as well as that of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB), on rat performance in two long-term spatial memory tests. In a spontaneous place recognition test with a 6 h delay, ANI, administered either before or immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, eliminated the exploratory preference for the object in a novel place. This amnesic effect was replicated by both EME and DRB. In a 6 h delay-interposed radial maze task, however, administering ANI before the first-half and before the second-half, but not immediately or 2 h after the first-half, impaired performance in the second-half. This disruptive effect of ANI was successfully replicated by EME. However, DRB administered before the first-half performance did not impair the second-half performance, while it did impair it if injected before the second-half. None of these drugs caused amnesic effects during the short (5 min)/non-delayed conditions in either tests. These results suggest that 1) hippocampal protein synthesis is required for the consolidation of spatial memory, while mRNA synthesis is not necessarily required, and 2) hippocampal mRNA and protein synthesis requirement for spatial memory retrieval depends on the types of memory tested, probably because their demands are different.

  12. Differential requirements of hippocampal de novo protein and mRNA synthesis in two long-term spatial memory tests: Spontaneous place recognition and delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal de novo mRNA and protein synthesis has been suggested to be critical for long-term spatial memory. However, its requirement in each memory process (i.e. encoding, consolidation and retrieval) and the differences in the roles of de novo mRNA and protein synthesis in different situations where spatial memory is tested have not been thoroughly investigated. To address these questions, we examined the effects of hippocampal administration of the protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin (ANI) and emetine (EME), as well as that of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB), on rat performance in two long-term spatial memory tests. In a spontaneous place recognition test with a 6 h delay, ANI, administered either before or immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, eliminated the exploratory preference for the object in a novel place. This amnesic effect was replicated by both EME and DRB. In a 6 h delay-interposed radial maze task, however, administering ANI before the first-half and before the second-half, but not immediately or 2 h after the first-half, impaired performance in the second-half. This disruptive effect of ANI was successfully replicated by EME. However, DRB administered before the first-half performance did not impair the second-half performance, while it did impair it if injected before the second-half. None of these drugs caused amnesic effects during the short (5 min)/non-delayed conditions in either tests. These results suggest that 1) hippocampal protein synthesis is required for the consolidation of spatial memory, while mRNA synthesis is not necessarily required, and 2) hippocampal mRNA and protein synthesis requirement for spatial memory retrieval depends on the types of memory tested, probably because their demands are different. PMID:28178292

  13. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Brooke A; Madden, Gregory J; Wengreen, Heidi J; Fargo, Jamison D; Aguilar, Sheryl S

    2016-04-01

    -related increases in F/V consumption decreased after the intervention, underscoring the need to develop low-cost, long-term interventions to maintain and make habitual consumption of recommended levels of F/V. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing social acoustic memory in rats: effects of stimulus configuration and long-term memory on the induction of social approach behavior by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2012-09-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble-play, high-frequency 50-kHz USVs occur, whereas low-frequency 22-kHz USVs can be observed in aversive situations, such as social defeat. USVs serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While aversive 22-kHz USVs serve as alarm calls and induce behavioral inhibition, appetitive 50-kHz USVs have a pro-social communicative function and elicit social approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls to (re)establish or maintain contact among conspecifics. The aim of the present study was to use the rat's ability to communicate in the ultrasonic range via high-frequency 50-kHz USVs in order to develop a test for social acoustic memory in rats with relevance for human verbal memory. Verbal learning and memory is among the seven cognitive domains identified as commonly deficient in human schizophrenia patients, but particularly difficult to model. We therefore tested whether the induction of social approach behavior by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USVs is dependent on (1) acoustic stimulus configuration and (2) social long-term memory, and whether (3) social long-term memory effects can be blocked by the administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist producing amnesia. Results show that social approach behavior in response to playback of natural 50-kHz USVs depends on acoustic stimulus configuration and occurs only when sound energy is concentrated to a critical frequency band in the ultrasonic range. Social approach behavior was detected during the first exposure to playback of 50-kHz USVs, whereas no such response was observed during the second exposure 1week later, indicating a stable memory trace. In contrast, when memory formation was blocked by i.p. administration of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg or

  16. Deafblindness, ontological security, and social recognition.

    PubMed

    Danermark, Berth D; Möller, Kerstin

    2008-11-01

    Trust, ontological security, and social recognition are discussed in relation to self-identity among people with acquired deafblindness. To date the phenomenon has not been elaborated in the context of deafblindness. When a person with deafblindness interacts with the social and material environment, the reliability, constancy, and predictability of his or her relations is crucial for maintaining or achieving ontological security or a general and fairly persistent feeling of well-being. When these relations fundamentally change, the impact on ontological security will be very negative. The construction of social recognition through the interaction between the self and others is embodied across three dimensions: at the individual level, at the legal systems level, and at the normative or value level. The relationship between trust and ontological security on the one hand and social recognition on the other hand is discussed. It is argued that these basic processes affecting personality development have to be identified and acknowledged in the interactions people with deafblindness experience. Some implications for the rehabilitation of people with acquired deafblindness are presented and illustrated.

  17. A comparison between the impact of noise from aircraft, road traffic and trains on long-term recall and recognition of a text in children aged 12-14 years.

    PubMed

    Hygge, S

    1993-01-01

    A total of 417 students in the seventh grade, 12-14 old, took part in three 15 min learning sessions in their ordinary class-rooms. Their task was to read a text, and they were tested one week later with difficult recall questions and less difficult recognition items on the text. The first session was a pretest for their learning abilities. This session was run in ambient noise conditions and all the students read the very same text. The scores from this session were employed to split the pupils along the median into two groups of learning ability. Sessions two and three were counterbalanced as a noise condition or an ambient noise condition. In these sessions two other texts were employed, and they appeared equally often under the noise and ambient conditions, as well as under the two different presentation orders. Three subgroups of the pupils were exposed to aircraft noise, train noise and road-traffic noise. The noise types were of the same equivalent level (66 dB(A) Leq) in all subgroups. The design of the study permitted two different analyses of long-term learning. First, in a within subject analysis, the difference scores between the noise and ambient noise conditions in session 2 and 3 were calculated, and crossed with learning ability (high and low) and type of noise. In a second between subject analysis, the difference scores in session 1 and 2 were crossed with the group factor whether they had noise or ambient conditions in session 2, and the ability and noise type factors. Both analyses yielded the same results. Noise impaired long-term recall of the difficult items. Degree of impairment on the recall items did not interact with noise source or learning ability. The average impairment due to aircraft and road traffic noise was around 23% of the scores. Train noise had no effect. For the easy recognition items there were no effects of noise exposure, nor of its interaction with noise source and learning ability. Since the number of pages read did not

  18. Recognition of Social Identity in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Nick; d’Ettorre, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend of hydrocarbons present on the cuticle of every individual (the “label”). Recognition occurs when an ant encounters another individual, and compares the label it perceives to an internal representation of its own colony odor (the “template”). A mismatch between label and template leads to rejection of the encountered individual. Although advances have been made in our understanding of how the label is produced and acquired, contradictory evidence exists about information processing of recognition cues. Here, we review the literature on template acquisition in ants and address how and when the template is formed, where in the nervous system it is localized, and the possible role of learning. We combine seemingly contradictory evidence in to a novel, parsimonious theory for the information processing of nestmate recognition cues. PMID:22461777

  19. Social context influences recognition of bodily expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska Esther

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is influenced by the affective information provided by the surrounding scene. The goal of this study was to investigate whether similar effects could be obtained for bodily expressions. Images of emotional body postures were briefly presented as part of social scenes showing either neutral or emotional group actions. In Experiment 1, fearful and happy bodies were presented in fearful, happy, neutral and scrambled contexts. In Experiment 2, we compared happy with angry body expressions. In Experiment 3 and 4, we blurred the facial expressions of all people in the scene. This way, we were able to ascribe possible scene effects to the presence of body expressions visible in the scene and we were able to measure the contribution of facial expressions to the body expression recognition. In all experiments, we observed an effect of social scene context. Bodily expressions were better recognized when the actions in the scenes expressed an emotion congruent with the bodily expression of the target figure. The specific influence of facial expressions in the scene was dependent on the emotional expression but did not necessarily increase the congruency effect. Taken together, the results show that the social context influences our recognition of a person’s bodily expression. PMID:20401473

  20. Case managers speak out: responding to depression in community long-term care.

    PubMed

    Munson, Michelle; Proctor, Enola; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Ware, Norma

    2007-08-01

    This study sought to understand how case managers in one publicly funded health and social service system, community long-term care, understand and address depression among their clients. Four focus groups with a total of 18 case managers were conducted. Case managers were asked a series of questions about their perspectives on the recognition and treatment of depression, including subthreshold depression, in community long-term care. Case managers perceived addressing depression as complex because of competing demands. Furthermore, case managers perceived conflict between their current role and what it would take to expand their role to include addressing depression. Case managers suggested that in order to successfully improve the detection and treatment of depression in community long-term care, systemic changes, such as increased support and training, may be necessary, along with a shift in the professional role of case managers.

  1. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. PMID:26776300

  2. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    PubMed

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term disability in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2016-07-19

    This longitudinal study aims to investigate differences in long-term disability between social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA), panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and multiple anxiety disorders (multiple AD), focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour). Data were used from participants with no psychiatric diagnosis (healthy controls, n = 647) or with a current anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 191; PDA, n = 90; PD, n = 84; GAD, n = 110; multiple AD, n = 480). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability. Long-term disability was most prevalent in participants with SAD and multiple AD, and lowest in PDA and PD. GAD had an intermediate position. Anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour were associated with more long-term disability in anxiety disorders than course trajectories. Various anxiety disorders have different disability levels over 4 years of time, therefore diagnostic distinction is important for treatment focus. Anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are major predictors for long-term disability in anxiety disorders.

  4. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  5. Social approach and emotion recognition in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracey A; Porter, Melanie A; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-03-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to chronological age- (CA-) and mental age- (MA-) matched controls, the FXS group performed significantly more poorly on the emotion recognition tasks, and displayed a bias towards detecting negative emotions. Moreover, after controlling for emotion recognition deficits, the FXS group displayed significantly reduced ratings of social approachability. These findings suggest that a social anxiety pattern, rather than poor socioemotional processing, may best explain the social avoidance observed in FXS.

  6. Long-term prophylaxis in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Goodwin, Guy M

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a major cause of disability, and the prevention of relapse is a key management goal. Pharmacological interventions, effectively delivered through enhanced clinical care, are central to long-term management. This article summarises the available evidence for a range of pharmacological options, and provides guidance on common issues in clinical management in line with current practice guidelines. The use of medications for long-term prophylaxis should be considered in all patients meeting criteria for bipolar I disorder. Increasing high-quality evidence from randomised trials informs management decisions relating to both novel agents, such as lamotrigine and olanzapine, and longer-established therapies, such as lithium and valproate, in monotherapy. Medications taken long-term in bipolar disorder differ in the extent to which they protect against manic and depressive relapse. Consequently, the emerging challenge is to understand how combination treatments can enhance efficacy and effectiveness based on data from controlled trials rather than random polypharmacy. Clinical care can be enhanced with effective education about the illness, and the use of strategies to improve treatment adherence and the recognition and management of stressors or prodromal symptoms. Where available, a range of specific psychological interventions can be effective as an adjunct to medication. When discontinuation of prophylaxis is necessary, gradual tapering of dose over weeks or months is recommended.

  7. Workshop on long-term contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The National Population Council Secretariat (NPCS) of Ghana held a three-day workshop on long-term contraceptives in 1996 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Association of Voluntary Surgical Contraception, and the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services. The session was funded by USAID. The executive director of NPCS, Dr. Richard Turkson, said that the slow rate of contraceptive acceptance was an obstacle to population control despite political concern that rapid population growth exerted an adverse impact on the economy. Only 10% of married women were using long-term or permanent methods of contraception. The hope was voiced that the participants would devise practical and cost-effective education, information, and communication (IEC) strategies to boost the demand for long-term contraceptive methods among sexually active people in Ghana. It was essential that these strategies and activities were based on a realist assessment of the demographic and social situation of the country. The examination of case studies in cultures similar to Ghana would also offer valuable lessons. The factors that hinder the acceptance of long-term methods include misconceptions, myths, and false rumors rooted in a general lack of knowledge among the people. Participants were urged to come up with strategies to counter these problems, and service providers were encouraged to improve their knowledge about contraceptive methods and counseling skills. Male involvement in contraception was also advocated. Statistics show that most Ghanians practicing contraception were using short-term methods such as foaming tablets, pills, and condoms. However, it is necessary to shift to long-term methods such as injectables, implants, and sterilization in order to achieve significant reductions in fertility.

  8. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  9. Social justice and the politics of recognition.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Comments on the original article, "Psychology and social justice: Why we do what we do" by M. J. T. Vasquez (see record 2012-18676-002). Vasquez pointed to numerous initiatives and task forces that the American Psychological Association (APA) has established to address the marginalization and subordination of various groups. There is little doubt that the concerns addressed by these initiatives and task forces are important and play a central role in the development of a just society. Although Vasquez noted that "social realities are important determinants of distress" she failed to appreciate the extent to which our social relations emerge against the background of specific political and economic structures. The cost of this oversight is the perpetuation of a politics of recognition that does little to address the economic inequalities that are a defining feature of unjust societies. Were APA to restrict its attention to psychological distress or access to resources, it would place APA in the service of maintaining rather than transforming the existing structure of society. APA should consider developing initiatives and task forces to investigate the role that capitalism plays in the perpetuation of inequality and exploitation. It may also be time to reflect on why an institution that claims to be dedicated to social justice has had so little to say about one of the dominant features of modern society.

  10. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  11. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G

    2013-11-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal's territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context.

  12. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  13. Long-Term Treatment Outcomes for Parent-Assisted Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelberg, Josh; Laugeson, Elizabeth Ann; Cunningham, Tina D.; Ellingsen, Ruth; Bates, Shannon; Frankel, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Social deficits are a hallmark characteristic among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet few evidence-based interventions exist aimed at improving social skills for this population, and none have examined the maintenance of treatment gains years after the intervention has ended. This study examines the durability of the Program…

  14. Long-term use of stimulants in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: safety, efficacy, and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, Lily; Greenfield, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize existing data on the long-term safety and efficacy of stimulant treatment, and how long-term stimulant treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects their outcome. Existing controlled studies of children with ADHD treated and untreated with stimulants, as well as long-term prospective follow-up studies, are reviewed. Children with ADHD treated with stimulants for as long as 2 years continue to benefit from the treatment, with improvements observed in ADHD symptoms, comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, and academic and social functioning, with no significant problems of tolerance or adverse effects. Long-term, prospective follow-up studies into adulthood show that stimulant treatment in childhood has slight benefits regarding social skills and self-esteem. Long-term adverse effects from stimulant treatment in childhood regarding adult height or future substance abuse have not been supported by existing studies.

  15. The contribution of pre- and postdisaster social support to short- and long-term mental health after Hurricanes Katrina: A longitudinal study of low-income survivors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Lowe, Sarah R; Weber, Elyssa; Rhodes, Jean E

    2015-08-01

    A previous study of Hurricane Katrina survivors found that higher levels of predisaster social support were associated with lower psychological distress one year after the storm, and that this pathway was mediated by lower exposure to hurricane-related stressors. As a follow-up, we examined the impact of pre- and postdisaster social support on longer-term of mental health-both psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. In this three-wave longitudinal study, 492 residents in the region affected by Hurricane Katrina reported levels of perceived social support and symptoms of psychological distress prior to the storm (Wave 1). Subsequently, one year after Hurricane Katrina (Wave 2), they reported levels of exposure, perceived social support, and symptoms of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. The latter three variables were assessed again four years after the hurricane (Wave 3). Results of mediation analysis indicated that levels of exposure to hurricane-related stressors mediated the relationship between Wave 1 perceived social support and Wave 3 psychological distress as well as postdisaster posttraumatic stress. Results of regression analyses indicated that, controlling for Wave 1 psychological distress and disaster exposure, Wave 2 perceived social support was associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 psychological distress but not posttraumatic stress. Our results confirmed the social causation processes of social support and suggest that posttraumatic stress might not stem directly from the lack of social support. Rather, preexisting deficits in social resources might indirectly affect longer-term posttraumatic stress and general psychological distress by increasing risk for disaster-related stressors.

  16. Long term therapy of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2004-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common (lifetime prevalence: 5.1%), recurrent condition, which often heralds other psychiatric disorders, notably depression. As by definition it is a disorder progressing over months, treatment should be designed on a long term basis. And yet, few studies have been conducted beyond the classical 6-8 weeks characterizing the acute treatment phase. This is especially true of anxiolytics, but also of antidepressants, with the exception of paroxetine and venlafaxine, which are the only drugs approved in this indication in Western countries. The efficacy of psychotherapy, notably relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy, is established in the treatment of GAD, but its preferred indications and possible combination with antidepressants are still to be specified. Long term, not to say very long term studies of GAD, as well as depression, will still be required in the future to improve its management and specify therapeutic modalities (combination treatment, optimal duration, continuous or intermittent therapy, choice of psychotherapeutic techniques or agents, em leader ). Early and adequately prolonged treatment should not only result in more numerous remission periods, but also in decreased frequency of co-morbidities whether depressive, addictive, or of another nature, and should also reduce the social impact of GAD.

  17. Mammalian social odours: attraction and individual recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Peter A; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    learning and recognition of chemosensory individuality have evolved, often associated with major life events, such as mating, parturition or neonatal development. These forms of learning share common features, such as increased noradrenaline evoked by somatosensory stimulation, which results in neural changes at the level of the olfactory bulb. In the main olfactory bulb, these changes are likely to refine the pattern of activity in response to the learned odour, enhancing its discrimination from those of similar odours. In the accessory olfactory bulb, memory formation is hypothesized to involve a selective inhibition, which disrupts the transmission of the learned chemosignal from the mating male. Information from the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems is integrated at the level of the corticomedial amygdala, which forms the most important pathway by which social odours mediate their behavioural and physiological effects. Recent evidence suggests that this region may also play an important role in the learning and recognition of social chemosignals. PMID:17118924

  18. Prevention and treatment of long-term social disability amongst young people with emerging severe mental illness with social recovery therapy (The PRODIGY Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; French, Paul; Banerjee, Robin; Barton, Garry; Berry, Clio; Byrne, Rory; Clarke, Timothy; Fraser, Rick; Gee, Brioney; Greenwood, Kathryn; Notley, Caitlin; Parker, Sophie; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Jon; Yung, Alison R; Hodgekins, Joanne

    2017-07-11

    Young people who have social disability associated with severe and complex mental health problems are an important group in need of early intervention. Their problems often date back to childhood and become chronic at an early age. Without intervention, the long-term prognosis is often poor and the economic costs very large. There is a major gap in the provision of evidence-based interventions for this group, and therefore new approaches to detection and intervention are needed. This trial provides a definitive evaluation of a new approach to early intervention with young people with social disability and severe and complex mental health problems using social recovery therapy (SRT) over a period of 9 months to improve mental health and social recovery outcomes. This is a pragmatic, multi-centre, single blind, superiority randomised controlled trial. It is conducted in three sites in the UK: Sussex, Manchester and East Anglia. Participants are aged 16 to 25 and have both persistent and severe social disability (defined as engaged in less than 30 hours per week of structured activity) and severe and complex mental health problems. The target sample size is 270 participants, providing 135 participants in each trial arm. Participants are randomised 1:1 using a web-based randomisation system and allocated to either SRT plus optimised treatment as usual (enhanced standard care) or enhanced standard care alone. The primary outcome is time use, namely hours spent in structured activity per week at 15 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes assess typical mental health problems of the group, including subthreshold psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms, depression and anxiety. Time use, secondary outcomes and health economic measures are assessed at 9, 15 and 24 months post-randomisation. This definitive trial will be the first to evaluate a novel psychological treatment for social disability and mental health problems in young people presenting with social

  19. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  20. Dissociation of short- and long-term face memory: evidence from long-term recency effects in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bengner, T; Malina, T

    2007-07-01

    We tested whether memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are better described by a single- or dual-store memory model. To this aim, we analyzed the influence of TLE and proactive interference (PI) on immediate and 24-h long-term recency effects during face recognition in 16 healthy participants and 18 right and 21 left non-surgical TLE patients. PI in healthy participants or TLE erased the long-term recency effect, but left the immediate recency effect unaffected. Although the immediate recency effect was still visible in right TLE patients, the number of detected recency items during immediate recognition was decreased in right TLE compared to left TLE. Right TLE was also related to decreased detection of pre-recency items during delayed recognition compared to left TLE, and decreased detection of pre-recency items during immediate recognition under PI. The results show that the temporal lobes are necessary for the long-term recency effect, but not for the immediate recency effect, and thus speak for a dissociation of short- and long-term memory for faces. Right TLE is related to more severe long-term memory deficits than left TLE and is also related to additional short-term memory deficits for faces.

  1. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  2. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

  3. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

  4. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  5. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  6. A perspective on long-term care for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care represents a significant burden to the approximately 7 million elderly in need, their families, and the Medicaid program. Concerns exist about access, quality, cost, and the distribution of the burden of care. In this article each area is discussed, highlighting the principal issues, identifying the unique aspects that pertain to long-term care, and exploring the implications for research and policy development. Future trends, especially the growth of the elderly population, are expected to affect significantly the provision of long-term care. The considerable uncertainty about how these trends may impact on long-term care is described, and the critical role social choice will play in shaping the future long-term care system is emphasized. PMID:10312975

  7. [Long-term care insurance in taiwan: theory and challenges].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Lung, Chi-Hsuan; Liu, Li-Fan

    2010-08-01

    Long-term care insurance, now being intensively discussed as part of the formal governmental agenda, is widely expected to be inaugurated by 2011. As all entitled citizens will be enrolled compulsorily in accordance with social insurance rules, tight scrutiny in the planning process is strongly advised. Equity of financial mechanisms and the efficiency of the delivery system for long-term care should also be carefully considered and maximized. This study explores major empirical suggestions for Taiwan's long-term care insurance scheme from a primarily theoretical point of view. The three relevant issues deliberated in this paper include risk sharing and financial equity in long-term care insurance and long-term care system delivery efficiency. Content focuses on concepts that may be easily misunderstood or misinterpreted by medical professionals.

  8. Long-term Consequences of Childhood Bullying in Adults who Stutter: Social Anxiety, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Self-esteem, and Satisfaction with Life.

    PubMed

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M

    2016-12-01

    Psychosocial disorders have been reported in adults who stutter, especially social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety has been linked to childhood victimization. It is possible that recalled childhood victimization could be linked to psychosocial problems reported in some adults who stutter. Participants were 36 adults who stutter and 36 adults who do not stutter (mean age=21.9 years). The Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire was completed for primary school, secondary school and university environments for physical, verbal, relational and cyber bullying. Participants were categorized into one of five groups (bully, victim, bully-victim, bystander and uninvolved) based ontheir responses. Participants completed four psychosocial scales: social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, self-esteem and satisfaction with life scales. The two groups differed with adults who stutter having higher social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation and satisfaction with life. Analyses of variance revealed that victims had the highest scores among both groups on all four scales. Adults who recalled being victimized during childhood were more likely, regardless of whether they stutter or did not stutter, to have poorer psychosocial scale scores. These results show the lingering effects of childhood victimization, common in some children who stutter, may contribute to the reported psychosocial problems in adulthood. The need for early intervention for children who are bullied and future research with larger samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Micro-Social Geography of Children's Interactions in Preschool: A Long-Term Observational Study and Analysis Using Geographic Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Paul M.; Griffin, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an observational and analytic methodology for recording and interpreting dynamic microprocesses that occur during social interaction, making use of space--time data collection techniques, spatial-statistical analysis, and visualization. The scheme has three investigative foci: Structure, Activity Composition, and Clustering.…

  10. Long-Term Effects of PECS on Social-Communicative Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Massagli, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular augmentative communication system frequently used with "nonverbal" children with autism. Several studies suggested that PECS could represent an effective tool for promoting improvement of several social-communicative skills. Only sparse evidence is instead…

  11. Long-Term Effects of PECS on Social-Communicative Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Massagli, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular augmentative communication system frequently used with "nonverbal" children with autism. Several studies suggested that PECS could represent an effective tool for promoting improvement of several social-communicative skills. Only sparse evidence is instead…

  12. Hearing aid use and long-term health outcomes: hearing handicap, mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, physical health and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To clarify the impact of hearing aids on mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, and physical health outcomes in older adults with hearing impairment. Design We assessed hearing handicap (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly; HHIE-S), cognition (Mini Mental State Exam, Trail Making, Auditory Verbal Learning, Digit-Symbol Substitution, Verbal Fluency, incidence of cognitive impairment), physical health (SF-12 physical component, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, mortality), social engagement (hours per week spent in solitary activities) and mental health (SF-12 mental component) at baseline, 5 years prior to baseline, and 5 and 11 years after baseline. Study sample Community-dwelling older adults with hearing impairment (N=666) from the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Results There were no significant differences between hearing aid users and non-users in cognitive, social engagement or mental health outcomes at any time point. Aided HHIE-S was significantly better than unaided HHIE-S. At 11 years hearing aid users had significantly better SF-12 physical health scores (46.2 versus 41.2; p=0.03). There was no difference in incidence of cognitive impairment or mortality. Conclusion There was no evidence that hearing aids promote cognitive function, mental health, or social engagement. Hearing aids may reduce hearing handicap and promote better physical health. PMID:26140300

  13. Exploring the Micro-Social Geography of Children's Interactions in Preschool: A Long-Term Observational Study and Analysis Using Geographic Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Paul M.; Griffin, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an observational and analytic methodology for recording and interpreting dynamic microprocesses that occur during social interaction, making use of space--time data collection techniques, spatial-statistical analysis, and visualization. The scheme has three investigative foci: Structure, Activity Composition, and Clustering.…

  14. Multi-natural disasters in Gonaïves Haiti: long-term outcomes among child and adolescents and social support.

    PubMed

    Derivois, Daniel; Cénat, Jude-mary; Mérisier, Georges Gaston

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we posit the hypothesis that the January 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince reawakened a number of traumas linked to the natural disasters that struck Gonaives in 2004 and 2008. The study set out to evaluate the PTSD and social support in the affected areas in Gonaives seven years after the disasters. The study covered a sample of 917 participants, of whom 534 (58.23%) were females, aged between 10 and 23 with an average age of 16.03 (SD = 2.65). A variety of scales were used: the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-1); the Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale (TESS); the PTSD Check-List Civilian version (PCL-C); the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) and the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ). The results reveal a higher rate of PTSD among the oldest participants, a similarly higher rate of social support among Catholics than among Protestants, a more severe rate of PTSD among school going children and a positive correlation between social support and PTSD.

  15. Social origin, schooling and individual change in intelligence during childhood influence long-term mortality: a 68-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lager, Anton C J; Modin, Bitte E; De Stavola, Bianca L; Vågerö, Denny H

    2012-04-01

    Intelligence at a single time-point has been linked to health outcomes. An individual's IQ increases with longer schooling, but the validity of such increase is unclear. In this study, we assess the hypothesis that individual change in the performance on IQ tests between ages 10 and 20 years is associated with mortality later in life. The analyses are based on a cohort of Swedish boys born in 1928 (n = 610) for whom social background data were collected in 1937, IQ tests were carried out in 1938 and 1948 and own education and mortality were recorded up to 2006. Structural equation models were used to estimate the extent to which two latent intelligence scores, at ages 10 and 20 years, manifested by results on the IQ tests, are related to paternal and own education, and how all these variables are linked to all-cause mortality. Intelligence at the age of 20 years was associated with lower mortality in adulthood, after controlling for intelligence at the age of 10 years. The increases in intelligence partly mediated the link between longer schooling and lower mortality. Social background differences in adult intelligence (and consequently in mortality) were partly explained by the tendency for sons of more educated fathers to receive longer schooling, even when initial intelligence levels had been accounted for. The results are consistent with a causal link from change in intelligence to mortality, and further, that schooling-induced changes in IQ scores are true and bring about lasting changes in intelligence. In addition, if both these interpretations are correct, social differences in access to longer schooling have consequences for social differences in both adult intelligence and adult health.

  16. Social origin, schooling and individual change in intelligence during childhood influence long-term mortality: a 68-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lager, Anton CJ; Modin, Bitte E; De Stavola, Bianca L; Vågerö, Denny H

    2012-01-01

    Background Intelligence at a single time-point has been linked to health outcomes. An individual's IQ increases with longer schooling, but the validity of such increase is unclear. In this study, we assess the hypothesis that individual change in the performance on IQ tests between ages 10 and 20 years is associated with mortality later in life. Methods The analyses are based on a cohort of Swedish boys born in 1928 (n = 610) for whom social background data were collected in 1937, IQ tests were carried out in 1938 and 1948 and own education and mortality were recorded up to 2006. Structural equation models were used to estimate the extent to which two latent intelligence scores, at ages 10 and 20 years, manifested by results on the IQ tests, are related to paternal and own education, and how all these variables are linked to all-cause mortality. Results Intelligence at the age of 20 years was associated with lower mortality in adulthood, after controlling for intelligence at the age of 10 years. The increases in intelligence partly mediated the link between longer schooling and lower mortality. Social background differences in adult intelligence (and consequently in mortality) were partly explained by the tendency for sons of more educated fathers to receive longer schooling, even when initial intelligence levels had been accounted for. Conclusions The results are consistent with a causal link from change in intelligence to mortality, and further, that schooling-induced changes in IQ scores are true and bring about lasting changes in intelligence. In addition, if both these interpretations are correct, social differences in access to longer schooling have consequences for social differences in both adult intelligence and adult health. PMID:22493324

  17. Virtual grand rounds: a new educational approach in social work that benefits long-term care providers and patients in rural Idaho.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B J; Vande Merwe, R

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide, rural USA is experiencing a shortage of social workers. In rural Idaho, three state-wide non-profit organizations worked together to develop Virtual Grand Rounds (VGRs), a new approach to delivering continuing education to social workers and residential care coordinators, in order to promote their retention in the workforce. This study examined participant satisfaction and the potential for the delivery system to be replicated in other states. Between July 2002 and December 2006, 740 person-hours (359 attendees x 2.06 hours) of continuing education were delivered to resident care coordinators and social workers in 9 sessions of VGRs. In total, 287 evaluation forms (79% return rate) were collected on the quality of the presentation, the presenter's expertise and delivery, the relevance and value of the presentation to the attendee, and the quality of the technology. The questionnaire consisted of 10 questions that aimed to measure participant satisfaction level, using a five-point Likert scale with a comments section. Programs and presenters received positive scores. Participants approved of the delivery method and the overall satisfaction rating was 4.1. As to whether the information presented would lead to changes in practice, participants responded positively with a score of 3.25. The Telehealth Idaho program contributed to a thorough training for new healthcare employees and for those in rural Idaho unable to attend the annual conference for essential training. Initial successes led to an expansion of the program to include other facility staff, and other topics which provided a new training system and infrastructure. This represents one unique contribution to addressing the rural social workers shortage.

  18. Long-Term Effects of Prematurity, Cumulative Medical Risk, and Proximal and Distal Social Forces on Individual Differences in Diurnal Cortisol at Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy B; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Bryce, Crystal I; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prematurity, cumulative medical risk, and proximal and distal social forces on individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in young adulthood. A prospective sample of 149 infants born healthy preterm (PT; n = 22), sick PT ( n = 93, medical illness, neurological illness, small for gestational age), and full term ( n = 34) was recruited from a Level III neonatal intensive care unit in southern New England between 1985 and 1989 and followed to age 23 years. Cumulative medical risk was indexed across seven assessment waves (spanning 17 years) using medical and neurological health status at birth, toddlerhood (ages 18 and 30 months), childhood (ages 4 and 8 years), and adolescence (ages 12 and 17 years). Distal risk included socioeconomic status (SES) at birth. Proximal social factors were indexed from assessments of the home environment and measures of child vulnerability and maternal self-esteem, involvement, and control style from birth, 4 years, 8 years, and 12 years. At age 23 years, five saliva samples were collected upon awakening, 45 min after waking, 4 hr after waking, 8 hr after waking, and bedtime (later assayed for cortisol). Results reveal effects of cumulative medical risk on the diurnal pattern of HPA axis activity, with moderating effects of SES and proximal social factors. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for contemporary theories related to developmental sensitivity and susceptibility to context and the developmental origins of health and disease theory.

  19. Recognition in a social symbiosis: chemical phenotypes and nestmate recognition behaviors of neotropical parabiotic ants.

    PubMed

    Emery, Virginia J; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2013-01-01

    Social organisms rank among the most abundant and ecologically dominant species on Earth, in part due to exclusive recognition systems that allow cooperators to be distinguished from exploiters. Exploiters, such as social parasites, manipulate their hosts' recognition systems, whereas cooperators are expected to minimize interference with their partner's recognition abilities. Despite our wealth of knowledge about recognition in single-species social nests, less is known of the recognition systems in multi-species nests, particularly involving cooperators. One uncommon type of nesting symbiosis, called parabiosis, involves two species of ants sharing a nest and foraging trails in ostensible cooperation. Here, we investigated recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons) and recognition behaviors in the parabiotic mixed-species ant nests of Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior in North-Eastern Amazonia. We found two sympatric, cryptic Cr. levior chemotypes in the population, with one type in each parabiotic colony. Although they share a nest, very few hydrocarbons were shared between Ca. femoratus and either Cr. levior chemotype. The Ca. femoratus hydrocarbons were also unusually long-chained branched alkenes and dienes, compounds not commonly found amongst ants. Despite minimal overlap in hydrocarbon profile, there was evidence of potential interspecific nestmate recognition -Cr. levior ants were more aggressive toward Ca. femoratus non-nestmates than Ca. femoratus nestmates. In contrast to the prediction that sharing a nest could weaken conspecific recognition, each parabiotic species also maintains its own aggressive recognition behaviors to exclude conspecific non-nestmates. This suggests that, despite cohabitation, parabiotic ants maintain their own species-specific colony odors and recognition mechanisms. It is possible that such social symbioses are enabled by the two species each using their own separate recognition cues, and that interspecific nestmate

  20. Recognition in a Social Symbiosis: Chemical Phenotypes and Nestmate Recognition Behaviors of Neotropical Parabiotic Ants

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Virginia J.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Social organisms rank among the most abundant and ecologically dominant species on Earth, in part due to exclusive recognition systems that allow cooperators to be distinguished from exploiters. Exploiters, such as social parasites, manipulate their hosts’ recognition systems, whereas cooperators are expected to minimize interference with their partner’s recognition abilities. Despite our wealth of knowledge about recognition in single-species social nests, less is known of the recognition systems in multi-species nests, particularly involving cooperators. One uncommon type of nesting symbiosis, called parabiosis, involves two species of ants sharing a nest and foraging trails in ostensible cooperation. Here, we investigated recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons) and recognition behaviors in the parabiotic mixed-species ant nests of Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior in North-Eastern Amazonia. We found two sympatric, cryptic Cr. levior chemotypes in the population, with one type in each parabiotic colony. Although they share a nest, very few hydrocarbons were shared between Ca. femoratus and either Cr. levior chemotype. The Ca. femoratus hydrocarbons were also unusually long–chained branched alkenes and dienes, compounds not commonly found amongst ants. Despite minimal overlap in hydrocarbon profile, there was evidence of potential interspecific nestmate recognition –Cr. levior ants were more aggressive toward Ca. femoratus non-nestmates than Ca. femoratus nestmates. In contrast to the prediction that sharing a nest could weaken conspecific recognition, each parabiotic species also maintains its own aggressive recognition behaviors to exclude conspecific non-nestmates. This suggests that, despite cohabitation, parabiotic ants maintain their own species-specific colony odors and recognition mechanisms. It is possible that such social symbioses are enabled by the two species each using their own separate recognition cues, and that interspecific

  1. Long-term oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Kent L; Porte, Phillip

    2011-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the status of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). In the United States, payment cutbacks are occurring as a result of congressionally mandated competitive bidding and capped rental programs. These Medicare programs are discussed. These legislative and regulatory changes may result in reduced patient access to appropriate oxygen-delivery systems that meet medical needs, including optimal ambulation. Prescribing LTOT is addressed in this article, as is the need for adequate patient education. The importance of appropriate monitoring and reassessment is presented. The use of an LTOT collaborative care model is discussed. Although the new intermittent flow oxygen-delivery systems have potential benefits, there is consensus that each patient should be tested on the specific device because of variability in delivery and patient response. Feasible locations for patient education and monitoring are identified.

  2. Activation of Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons by Secretin Facilitates Social Recognition.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2017-02-01

    Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  4. Australian men's long term experiences following prostatectomy: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter 'kevin'; Laws, Tom A

    The experiences of men in the immediate postoperative period following surgery for primary prostate cancer are well reported in the literature. Recognition of the unresolved morbidity encountered by men in the medium term suggests that a more complete understanding of how men cope in the long term is needed. Health professionals are deserving of a more complete literature for the purpose of providing holistic care for this group of men, providing informed advocacy and better support for men living with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Emerging literature reveals that men's knowledge of the long term problems associated with prostatectomy was inadequate at the time they consented to treatment; the likely outcomes at all phases of recovery should be taken into account when deciding on choice of treatment or no treatment. This qualitative study aims to describe men's long term recovery following prostatectomy for the purpose identifying the effects of unresolved post surgical morbidity. The content analysis of focus group interviews revealed that incontinence and impotence were a major source of emotional tension affecting the men's social interactions and sense of self-worth. The men expressed great regret over the lack of information accessible to them for evaluating the risk and nature of long term problems. The thick description provided in this study identifies the need for empathetic assessment of men with ongoing post surgical issues and alerts the reader to the inadequacies of information provided prior to consent to prostatectomy.

  5. Dissociation of Short- and Long-Term Face Memory: Evidence from Long-Term Recency Effects in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengner, T.; Malina, T.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are better described by a single- or dual-store memory model. To this aim, we analyzed the influence of TLE and proactive interference (PI) on immediate and 24-h long-term recency effects during face recognition in 16 healthy participants and 18 right and 21 left non-surgical TLE…

  6. Dissociation of Short- and Long-Term Face Memory: Evidence from Long-Term Recency Effects in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengner, T.; Malina, T.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are better described by a single- or dual-store memory model. To this aim, we analyzed the influence of TLE and proactive interference (PI) on immediate and 24-h long-term recency effects during face recognition in 16 healthy participants and 18 right and 21 left non-surgical TLE…

  7. Graded Effects of Social Conformity on Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E.; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure. PMID:20174641

  8. Graded effects of social conformity on recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2010-02-17

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure.

  9. A family-oriented therapy program for youths with substance abuse: long-term outcomes related to relapse and academic or social status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Tsai, Tung-ning; Chen, Ching; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The abuse of illegal substances by youths in Taiwan has become a major public health issue. This study explores the outcomes (relapse rate and academic or social status) of a family-oriented therapy program conducted for substance-using youths who were referred by a judge to participate in it. Methods The present study includes 121 participants categorized into three groups: 36 youths underwent a weekly ten-session outpatient motivational enhancement psychotherapy (MEP) group program; 41 youths participated in a program that combined the aforementioned MEP program with an additional weekly ten-session parenting skill training (PST) program for their guardians (MEP + PST group); and 44 adolescents who received standard supervision by the court served as the control group. All participants were followed-up for a maximum of 2 years. Results Of the 121 participants (mean age: 16.1±1.1 years), 33.1% relapsed into substance use during the follow-up period. The probability of relapse did not differ significantly between the MEP group (36.1%) and the control group (40.9%), but the youths in the MEP + PST group (22.0%) were at a lower risk of relapse than the control group participants (adjusted hazard ratio =0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.21–1.09). By the end of the study follow-up period, participants in both the MEP group and the MEP + PST group were more likely to be attending school (MEP group: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =6.61, 95% CI =1.60–27.35; MEP + PST group: aOR =8.57, 95% CI =1.94–37.82) or employed (MEP group: aOR =7.75, 95% CI =1.95–30.75; MEP + PST group: aOR =7.27, 95% CI =1.76–29.97), when compared to the control group. Conclusion This study revealed that a family-oriented treatment approach may be a more effective option for preventing youths’ relapsing into substance abuse. In comparison to individuals who received standard supervision by the court, those who received MEP experienced a better school attendance or social

  10. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  11. Consumer Direction in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Generations, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Issue includes 17 theme articles on long-term care, covering legal issues, federal role, state programs, demonstration programs, family caregivers, home health care, home care workers, culturally appropriate long-term care, financial support, and cognitive impairments. (SK)

  12. Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sariaslan, Amir; Sharp, David J.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes. Methods and Findings In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1%) up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268) using patient registers. We subsequently assessed these individuals for the following outcomes using multiple national registries: disability pension, specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation, premature mortality (before age 41 y), low educational attainment (not having achieved secondary school qualifications), and receiving means-tested welfare benefits. We used logistic and Cox regression models to quantify the association between TBI and specified adverse outcomes on the individual level. We further estimated population attributable fractions (PAF) for each outcome measure. We also compared differentially exposed siblings to account for unobserved genetic and environmental confounding. In addition to relative risk estimates, we examined absolute risks by calculating prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates. In complementary analyses, we tested whether the findings were moderated by injury severity, recurrence, and age at first injury (ages 0–4, 5–9, 6–10, 15–19, and 20–24 y). TBI exposure was associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning across all outcome measures. After a median follow-up period of 8 y from age 26 y, we found that TBI contributed to absolute risks of over 10% for specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and low educational attainment, approximately 5% for disability pension, and 2% for premature mortality. The highest relative risks, adjusted for sex, birth year, and

  13. Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sariaslan, Amir; Sharp, David J; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes. In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1%) up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268) using patient registers. We subsequently assessed these individuals for the following outcomes using multiple national registries: disability pension, specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation, premature mortality (before age 41 y), low educational attainment (not having achieved secondary school qualifications), and receiving means-tested welfare benefits. We used logistic and Cox regression models to quantify the association between TBI and specified adverse outcomes on the individual level. We further estimated population attributable fractions (PAF) for each outcome measure. We also compared differentially exposed siblings to account for unobserved genetic and environmental confounding. In addition to relative risk estimates, we examined absolute risks by calculating prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates. In complementary analyses, we tested whether the findings were moderated by injury severity, recurrence, and age at first injury (ages 0-4, 5-9, 6-10, 15-19, and 20-24 y). TBI exposure was associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning across all outcome measures. After a median follow-up period of 8 y from age 26 y, we found that TBI contributed to absolute risks of over 10% for specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and low educational attainment, approximately 5% for disability pension, and 2% for premature mortality. The highest relative risks, adjusted for sex, birth year, and birth order, were found for psychiatric

  14. Long-Term Memory for Affiliates in Ravens

    PubMed Central

    Boeckle, Markus; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Complex social life requires individuals to recognize and remember group members [1] and, within those, to distinguish affiliates from nonaffiliates. Whereas long-term individual recognition has been demonstrated in some nonhuman animals [2–5], memory for the relationship valence to former group members has received little attention. Here we show that adult, pair-housed ravens not only respond differently to the playback of calls from previous group members and unfamiliar conspecifics but also discriminate between familiar birds according to the relationship valence they had to those subjects up to three years ago as subadult nonbreeders. The birds' distinction between familiar and unfamiliar individuals is reflected mainly in the number of calls, whereas their differentiation according to relationship valence is reflected in call modulation only. As compared to their response to affiliates, ravens responded to nonaffiliates by increasing chaotic parts of the vocalization and lowering formant spacing, potentially exaggerating the perceived impression of body size. Our findings indicate that ravens remember relationship qualities to former group members even after long periods of separation, confirming that their sophisticated social knowledge as nonbreeders is maintained into the territorial breeding stage. PMID:22521788

  15. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  16. AB055. Long term NIV

    PubMed Central

    Siopi, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation has evolved into one of the most evidence-based areas of respiratory medicine, with many indications in acute or chronic respiratory failure. From the first application of negative pressure models during poliomyelitis epidemics to the new sophisticated positive pressure models, and the development of the “intelligent ventilators”, there has been a long time course. Undoubtedly the spur was given by better understanding of respiratory physiology during sleep and the shift of healthcare towards a chronic base. Novel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) established the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to exacerbations of COPD, as well as acute pulmonary edema and weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. Long-term NIV has been used in neuromuscular diseases for many decades, first in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and then spreading to other disorders of this category, increasing survival in inherited neuromuscular diseases. NIV should be initiated early in the course of the disease, when symptomatic nocturnal hypoventilation is detected. Combined with cough augmentation (physiotherapy, insufflation-exsufflation devices) and percutaneous gastrostomy feeding, it can delay tracheostomy and invasive ventilation. In ALS patients NIV improves the quality of life and increases survival, especially when there is no bulbar involvement. The right time to initiate ventilation in this group of patients is not well established since it is difficult to detect signs and symptom of respiratory impairment. Patients seem to benefit from an early application of NIV, and their personal decisions should always be considered before any intervention. In patients with chest wall disorders NIV—despite the fact that RCTs are lacking—has proved its value in many uncontrolled trials and numerous reports. It seems to improve the work of breathing, sleep architecture, nocturnal and daytime arterial blood gases. The

  17. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response.

  18. Long-term corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-05-29

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application.

  19. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  20. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-30

    A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Radiation Budget Project A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Readiation Budget Dataset Using Merged CERES, ... and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent and calibrated data product (TOA irradiances ...

  1. Long-Term Neurocognitive Functioning and Social Attainment in Adult Survivors of Pediatric CNS Tumors: Results From the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Liu, Wei; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Ojha, Rohit P.; Sadighi, Zsila S.; Gupta, Pankaj; Kimberg, Cara; Srivastava, Deokumar; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    impairment is greater than expected in the general population, even in the absence of CRT, and is associated with disrupted attainment of adult social milestones. PMID:26834063

  2. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  3. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  4. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  5. Clinical and social characteristics associated with reduced visual acuity at presentation in Australian patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from a long term observational dataset. The Fight Retinal Blindness Project.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vuong; Daien, Vincent; Guymer, Robyn H; McAllister, Ian L; Morlet, Nigel; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C

    2017-08-25

    Identifying variables that influence presenting visual acuity (VA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is important because it is a strong predictor of long-term outcomes. To assess the clinical and social characteristics associated with low presenting VA in nAMD patients. Cross-sectional analysis from a prospective, observational database. We identified 3242 treatment-naïve patients from 54 Australian practices in the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry. Age, gender, ethnicity and VA were recorded at the baseline visit. Socio-economic status was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics socio-economic indexes for areas. Association between clinical and socio-economic characteristics with presenting VA. Poor VA (≤35 letters) in the presenting eye was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.33 for patients ≥80 years vs. <80 years [95%CI 1.04-1.71]), treatment at a public practice (AOR 1.91 for public vs. private practices [95%CI 1.46-2.50]) and intermediate (36-69 letters) VA in the fellow eye (AOR 0.67 [95%CI 0.47-0.95] and 0.64 [95%CI 0.48-0.85] for poor [≤35 letters] and good [≥70 letters] VA vs. intermediate VA in fellow eye). Gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status were not independently associated with VA at presentation. Poor presenting vision is detrimental to the long-term outcomes of nAMD. Poor presentation of nAMD in Australia may not be related to socio-economic circumstances, but due to systems of care. Further research is warranted to determine why patients at public practices present with worse vision compared with private practices in Australia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term care: The public role and private initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    The ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to identify private financing mechanisms that can effectively assist the rapidly growing population of older persons in paying for long-term care expenses is discussed in this article. The focus on private strategies stems from the recognition that Federal and State sectors already pay almost one-half of all long-term care expenses, the proclivity of liberalized financing structures to raise total costs, and the tendency of public financing to dampen choice, flexibility, and access to care. In view of the improved economic situation of most older persons in our Nation today, the potential for market development of private financing options is thought to be excellent, particularly the market for long-term care insurance. PMID:10312961

  7. The regulation of social recognition, social communication and aggression: vasopressin in the social behavior neural network.

    PubMed

    Albers, H Elliott

    2012-03-01

    Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  8. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  9. Hippocampal focal knockout of CBP affects specific histone modifications, long-term potentiation, and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-07-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories.

  10. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  11. Validity and test-retest reliability of the self-completion adult social care outcomes toolkit (ASCOT-SCT4) with adults with long-term physical, sensory and mental health conditions in England.

    PubMed

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette; Towers, Ann-Marie; Netten, Ann; Forder, Julien

    2017-08-18

    The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT-SCT4) is a multi-attribute utility index designed for the evaluation of long-term social care services. The measure comprises eight attributes that capture aspects of social care-related quality of life. The instrument has previously been validated with a sample of older adults who used home care services in England. This paper aims to demonstrate the instrument's test-retest reliability and provide evidence for its validity in a diverse sample of adults who use publicly-funded, community-based social care in England. A survey of 770 social care service users was conducted in England. A subsample of 100 services users participated in a follow-up interview between 7 and 21 days after baseline. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the ASCOT-SCT4 index score and the EQ-5D-3 L, the ICECAP-A or ICECAP-O and overall quality of life were used to assess convergent validity. Data on variables hypothesised to be related to the ASCOT-SCT4 index score, as well as rating of individual attributes, were also collected. Hypothesised relationships were tested using one-way ANOVA or Fisher's exact test. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient for the ASCOT-SCT4 index score at baseline and follow-up. There were moderate to strong correlations between the ASCOT-SCT4 index and EQ-5D-3 L, the ICECAP-A or ICECAP-O, and overall quality of life (all correlations ≥ 0.3). The construct validity was further supported by statistically significant hypothesised relationships between the ASCOT-SCT4 index and individual characteristics in univariate and multivariate analysis. There was also further evidence for the construct validity for the revised Food and drink and Dignity items. The test-retest reliability was considered to be good (ICC = 0.783; 95% CI: 0.678-0.857). The ASCOT-SCT4 index has good test-retest reliability for adults with physical or sensory disabilities who use social care

  12. Gender, Living Arrangements, and Social Circumstances as Determinants of Entry into and Exit from Long-Term Institutional Care at Older Ages: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study of Older Finns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martikainen, Pekka; Moustgaard, Heta; Murphy, Michael; Einio, Elina K.; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Noro, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Due to population aging, the need for long-term institutional care is increasing. We study the potentially modifiable sociodemographic factors that affect the rate of entry into and exit from long-term care. Design and Methods: A 40% sample from the population registration data of Finns aged 65 and older living in private households at…

  13. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  14. Altered anxiety-like behavior and long-term potentiation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in adult mice exposed to chronic social isolation, unpredictable stress, and ethanol beginning in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kelly L; Winder, Danny G

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol and chronic stress exposure, especially during adolescence, can lead to an increased risk in adulthood of developing alcohol use disorders. To date, however, no study has assessed the potential long-term effects of chronic intermittent and unpredictable ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice chronically stressed beginning in adolescence on brain function and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. In particular, alterations in function of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region heavily implicated in anxiety-related behaviors and altered plasticity following EtOH exposure, may play a key role in the pathological responses to chronic stress and EtOH. In the present study, adolescent and adult C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to a regimen of chronic social isolation and unpredictable stressors and EtOH (or air [sham]; CSI-CUS-EtOH and CSI-CUS-Sham, respectively) for 8-10 weeks. In adulthood, mice were tested for altered anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze [EPM] and modified social interaction [SI] test). Following behavioral testing, mice were reexposed to CSI-CUS-EtOH (and CSI-CUS-Sham for controls) for an additional 3 days. Four to six hours following the final EtOH (or air) exposure, field potential recordings of the dorsal-lateral (dl)BNST were performed. Mice first exposed during adolescence to CSI-CUS-EtOH displayed lower levels of anxiety-like behavior on the EPM compared with mice first exposed to CSI-CUS-EtOH during adulthood and control mice only exposed to CSI-CUS-Sham, regardless of age of first exposure. However, mice first exposed to CSI-CUS-EtOH during adulthood displayed lower levels of anxiety-like behavior on the SI test compared with mice first exposed during adolescence and control CSI-CUS-Sham mice. CSI-CUS-EtOH exposure, regardless of age, produced blunted expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dlBNST compared with CSI-CUS-Sham mice. This study demonstrates age-dependent effects of chronic unpredictable ethanol

  15. Thirty-year Perspective of the Long-term Survival, CD4 Percentage and Social Achievements of Perinatally HIV-infected Children as a Function of Their Birth Era.

    PubMed

    Vuppula, Sharon; Tyungu, Donna; Kaul, Aditya; Chandwani, Sulachni; Rigaud, Mona; Borkowsky, William

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric HIV has evolved from a pre-antiretroviral (ART) era (pre-1989 or pre-ART) to an ART era (1989 to 1996) and to a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (post-1996). As we have passed the third decade following these individuals, we thought it useful to review clinical, laboratory and social outcomes. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of 399 children infected perinatally. They were divided into pre-ART, ART and HAART groups. A Kaplan-Meier plot was constructed. One hundred seventy-nine have been lost to follow-up at an average of 7.6 (0.3-27.6) years. Approximately 40%, 80% and 90% of individuals in the pre-ART, ART and HAART groups have long-term survival. One hundred twenty-one died at an average of 5.1 (0-26.1) years. Pre-ART, ART and HAART groups had mean most recent CD4% values (±SEM) of 16.74 (1.09), 22.97 (0.96) and 33.07 (2.09), respectively (P < 0.001). Pre-ART RNA is limited in that era and present if they survived to another era. In this group, the median RNA values in those who died (311,300, n = 16) was greater than in survivors (19,402, n = 45). Forty-three percent of the individuals in the ART group and 77% of individuals in the HAART group had most recent HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. Eighteen individuals >18 years of age have only a grade school or no education. Fifty-five have graduated high school or received an equivalency diploma. Twenty-three more have completed college. Nadir and recent CD4% of those who did and did not complete high school was equivalent to college graduates. Sixteen survivors (1/2 male) have had 18 uninfected children. This first long-term follow-up study demonstrates remarkable survival and social skills of our patients.

  16. [Perspectives in long-term care insurance].

    PubMed

    Pick, P

    2007-03-01

    Twelve years after its introduction, long-term care insurance is back on the agenda and up for political reform. This paper shows why long-term care insurance needs to be reformed. The two central aspects on which reform projects focus are addressed: firstly, the structural improvement of nursing care and long-term care insurance and, secondly, the creation of a sustained financing. The principal conclusion is that, while there is a broad consensus about the structural improvement of long-term care insurance, opinions differ widely in the matter of its sustained financing. As a consequence, a coherent financing concept has yet to emerge.

  17. Japan useful medication program for schizophrenia (JUMPs)-long-term study on discontinuation rate, resolution and remission, and improvement in social functioning rate associated with atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is desirable to establish evidence for the selection of antipsychotics from the viewpoint of recovery of social activity in individual patient with schizophrenia receiving medication. From this perspective, awareness of the importance of studies about drug effectiveness on treatment discontinuation rate, remission rate, and improvement in QOL has grown recently. In Western countries, numerous reports are available in effectiveness studies, which are related to olanzapine and risperidone primarily, whereas evidence for other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is poor. In Japan, no effectiveness study has been reported: thus, it is desirable to collect data that will serve as evidence for selection of the 3 SGAs approved after olanzapine. Methods The present study was a long-term effectiveness study under healthcare setting in Japan. It was designed as an open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study involving 104-week oral treatment with 1 of the 3 drugs (aripiprazole, blonanserin, and paliperidone) in patients with schizophrenia aged 20 years or over who required antipsychotic medication or switching of the current medication to others for reasons such as lack of efficacy and intolerability. The primary endpoint is treatment discontinuation rate for any causes. The secondary endpoints include remission rate, improvement of social activity, alleviation, aggravation or recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, and safety. The target number of subjects was set at 300. Discussion Because this study is expected to yield evidence regarding the selection of antipsychotics for facilitating the recovery of social activity in patients with schizophrenia, it is considered highly valuable to perform this effectiveness study under ordinary healthcare setting in Japan. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000007942 PMID:24090047

  18. Antipsychotic medication and social cue recognition in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David Leland; Penn, David Lewis; Corrigan, Patrick; Lipkovich, Ilya; Kinon, Bruce; Black, Ryan Andrew

    2010-06-30

    Social cognition has received increased attention in schizophrenia research because it is associated with functional outcomes. Psychosocial interventions are being developed to enhance social cognition, however less attention has been paid to the association between antipsychotic medication use and social cognition. This study evaluated whether individuals treated with olanzapine (n=117) or quetiapine (n=106) achieved improvements in social cognition. Participants were drawn from a larger 6-month, multi-site, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Social cognition was assessed using signal detection analysis of performance on the Social Cue Recognition Test. Social functioning was measured with an interpersonal functioning index and a broader quality of life measure. Results revealed that participants in both medication groups improved significantly but modestly on three out of four social cognition subscales. The small observed effect in this trial is generally consistent with previous studies, and supports the need for ongoing research into the biological mechanisms of social cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  19. Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning.

    PubMed

    Donhoffner, Mary E; Al Saleh, Samar; Schink, Olivia; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-09-24

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (p<0.05), while bromocriptine blocked this preference. oPRL did not increase preference. To measure social approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (p<0.05). In non-defeated rats, oPRL or 3mg/kg bromocriptine had no effect. To determine if PRL increases social learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recognition in Ants: Social Origin Matters

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Joël; Delémont, Olivier; Lucas, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The ability of group members to discriminate against foreigners is a keystone in the evolution of sociality. In social insects, colony social structure (number of queens) is generally thought to influence abilities of resident workers to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. However, whether social origin of introduced individuals has an effect on their acceptance in conspecific colonies remains poorly explored. Using egg-acceptance bioassays, we tested the influence of social origin of queen-laid eggs on their acceptance by foreign workers in the ant Formica selysi. We showed that workers from both single- and multiple-queen colonies discriminated against foreign eggs from single-queen colonies, whereas they surprisingly accepted foreign eggs from multiple-queen colonies. Chemical analyses then demonstrated that social origins of eggs and workers could be discriminated on the basis of their chemical profiles, a signal generally involved in nestmate discrimination. These findings provide the first evidence in social insects that social origins of eggs interfere with nestmate discrimination and are encoded by chemical signatures. PMID:21573235

  1. [Neural basis of self-face recognition: social aspects].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2012-07-01

    Considering the importance of the face in social survival and evidence from evolutionary psychology of visual self-recognition, it is reasonable that we expect neural mechanisms for higher social-cognitive processes to underlie self-face recognition. A decade of neuroimaging studies so far has, however, not provided an encouraging finding in this respect. Self-face specific activation has typically been reported in the areas for sensory-motor integration in the right lateral cortices. This observation appears to reflect the physical nature of the self-face which representation is developed via the detection of contingency between one's own action and sensory feedback. We have recently revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in socially nuanced self-referential process, is activated during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for reference. The posterior cingulate cortex has also exhibited this activation modulation, and in the separate experiment showed a response to attractively manipulated self-face suggesting its relevance to positive self-value. Furthermore, the regions in the right lateral cortices typically showing self-face-specific activation have responded also to the face of one's close friend under the rich social context. This observation is potentially explained by the fact that the contingency detection for physical self-recognition also plays a role in physical social interaction, which characterizes the representation of personally familiar people. These findings demonstrate that neuroscientific exploration reveals multiple facets of the relationship between self-face recognition and social-cognitive process, and that technically the manipulation of social context is key to its success.

  2. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Teresa; Faísca, Luis; Esteves, Francisco; Simão, Cláudia; Justo, Mariline Gomes; Muresan, Angélica; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions. PMID:25767483

  3. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  4. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  5. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  6. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  7. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  8. Patients in long-term maintenance therapy for drug use in Italy: analysis of some parameters of social integration and serological status for infectious diseases in a cohort of 1091 patients

    PubMed Central

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Lugoboni, Fabio; Pattaro, Cristian; GICS; Montanari, Linda; Lechi, Alessandro; Mezzelani, Paolo; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2006-01-01

    Background Heroin addiction often severely disrupts normal social functioning. The aims of this multi-centre study of heroin users in long-term replacement treatment were: i) to provide information on aspects of social condition such as employment, educational background, living status, partner status and any history of drug addiction for partners, comparing these data with that of the general population; ii) to assess the prevalence of hepatitis, syphilis and HIV, because serological status could be a reflection of the social conditions of patients undergoing replacement treatment for drug addiction; iii) to analyse possible relationships between social conditions and serological status. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in sixteen National Health Service Drug Addiction Units in northern Italy. The data were collected from February 1, 2002 to August 31, 2002. Recruitment eligibility was: maintenance treatment with methadone or buprenorphine, treatment for the previous six months, and at least 18 years of age. In the centres involved in the study no specific criteria or regulations were established concerning the duration of replacement therapy. Participants underwent a face-to-face interview. Results The conditions of 1091 drug treatment patients were evaluated. The mean duration of drug use was 14.5 years. Duration was shorter in females, in subjects with a higher educational background, and in stable relationships. Most (68%) had completed middle school (11–14 years of age). Seventy-nine percent were employed and 16% were unemployed. Fifty percent lived with their parents, 34% with a partner and 14% alone. Males lived more frequently with their parents (55%), and females more frequently with a partner (60%). Sixty-seven percent of male patients with a stable relationship had a partner who had never used heroin. HCV prevalence was 72%, HBV antibodies were detected in 42% of patients, while 30% had been vaccinated; 12.5% of subjects were HIV

  9. Assessing the market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Rice, J A; Taylor, S

    1984-02-01

    Traditionally, long-term care services have been used by a diverse marketplace. The chronically ill, developmentally disabled, mentally ill and aging population has looked to long-term care support services as a means of physical and emotional support. Much of the time these services were housed together for the sake of efficiency. The enormous burden these services are creating on the economy, and the growing aging population, have forced the recognition that long-term care service delivery systems must change. Alternate programming for long-term care services that reach out into the community and into individual homes is becoming an attractive approach to meeting the growing demands of the marketplace. Home health, specialized housing and creative funding mechanisms such as HMOs, are examples of initiatives undertaken by healthcare organizations that view diversification as a vehicle for survival. Market research techniques that have been used in other industries are being adapted to the healthcare industry to ensure the proper mix of services that are demanded by older, more knowledgeable consumers. The programs of the future will be market driven, with the ability of the individual to pay for such services playing a significant role. The healthcare provider of today is in a position to serve the community in new ways. By becoming an integral link in the long-term care system and by developing new programs, the organization can serve as a catalyst for change. It is up to the governing bodies and managers of these facilities to become visionaries and to accept responsibility for assessing the market for long-term care services and to guide their organization into the future.

  10. Elder rights and the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program.

    PubMed

    Netting, F E; Huber, R; Paton, R N; Kautz, J R

    1995-05-01

    Since 1975 the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program has grown and developed under the Older Americans Act (OAA) of 1965. With the passage of the Older Americans Act Amendments of 1992, this program was combined with other advocacy functions and placed in Title VII--Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection Activities. This article provides a historical overview of the policy, programmatic, and research issues that surround OAA and explains the activities of ombudsmen in their local communities and the roles many social workers perform under the auspices of long-term care ombudsman programs.

  11. Investigating the long-term effect of subchronic phencyclidine-treatment on novel object recognition and the association between the gut microbiota and behavior in the animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pyndt Jørgensen, B; Krych, L; Pedersen, T B; Plath, N; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, A K; Nielsen, D S; Pedersen, C S; Larsen, C; Sørensen, D B

    2015-03-15

    Subchronic phencyclidine (subPCP) treatment induces schizophrenic-like behavior in rodents, including cognitive deficits and increased locomotor sensitivity towards acute administration of PCP. Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiota (GM) influences behavior through modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, and hence, part of the variation within this animal model may derive from variation in the GM. The aims of this study was to investigate first, the duration of subPCP-induced cognitive impairment in the novel object recognition test, and second, the possible effect of subchronic PCP-treatment on the GM, and the association between the GM and the behavioral parameters. The association was further investigated by antibiotic reduction of the GM. Male Lister Hooded rats were dosed twice daily i.p. with either 5mg/kg PCP or sterile isotonic saline for seven days followed by a seven-day washout period. Rats were tested in the novel object recognition and the locomotor activity assays immediately after, three weeks after, or six weeks after washout, and the fecal GM was analyzed by high throughput sequencing. Antibiotic- and control-treated rats were tested in the same manner following washout. In conclusion, subPCP-treatment impaired novel object recognition up to three weeks after washout, whereas locomotor sensitivity was increased for at least six weeks after washout. Differences in the core gut microbiome immediately after washout suggested subPCP treatment to alter the GM. GM profiles correlated to memory performance. Administration of ampicillin abolished the subPCP-induced memory deficit. It thus seems reasonable to speculate that the GM influences memory performance, contributing to variation within the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  13. Effect of combining anesthetics in neonates on long-term cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bradley H.; Hazarika, Obhi D.; Quitoriano, Gabe R.; Lin, Nan; Leong, Jason; Brosnan, Heather; Chan, John T.; May, Laura D. V.; Yu, Damon; Alkhamisi, Ashkan; Stratmann, Greg; Sall, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Background With growing evidence that anesthesia exposure in infancy affects cognitive development, it is important to understand how distinct anesthetic agents and combinations can alter long-term memory. Investigations of neuronal death suggest that combining anesthetic agents increases the extent of neuronal injury. However, it is unclear how the use of simultaneously combined anesthetics affects cognitive outcome relative to the use of a single agent. Methods Postnatal day (P)7 male rats were administered either sevoflurane as a single agent or the combined delivery of sevoflurane with nitrous oxide at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Behavior was assessed in adulthood using the forced alternating T-maze, social recognition, and context-specific object recognition tasks. Results Animals exposed to either anesthetic were unimpaired in the forced alternating T-maze test and had intact social recognition. Subjects treated with the combined anesthetic displayed a deficit, however, in the object recognition task, while those treated with sevoflurane alone were unaffected. Conclusion A combined sevoflurane and nitrous oxide anesthetic led to a distinct behavioral outcome compared with sevoflurane alone, suggesting that the simultaneous use of multiple agents may uniquely influence early neural and cognitive development and potentially impacts associative memory. PMID:25003987

  14. Circadian phase and intertrial interval interfere with social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Moura, Paula J; Gimenes-Júnior, João A; Valentinuzzi, Verónica S; Xavier, Gilberto F

    2009-01-08

    A modified version of the social habituation/dis-habituation paradigm was employed to examine social recognition memory in Wistar rats during two opposing (active and inactive) circadian phases, using different intertrial intervals (30 and 60 min). Wheel-running activity was monitored continuously to identify circadian phase. To avoid possible masking effects of the light-dark cycle, the rats were synchronized to a skeleton photoperiod, which allowed testing during different circadian phases under identical lighting conditions. In each trial, an infantile intruder was introduced into an adult's home-cage for a 5-minute interaction session, and social behaviors were registered. Rats were exposed to 5 trials per day for 4 consecutive days: on days 1 and 2, each resident was exposed to the same intruder; on days 3 and 4, each resident was exposed to a different intruder in each trial. The resident's social investigatory behavior was more intense when different intruders were presented compared to repeated presentation of the same intruder, suggesting social recognition memory. This effect was stronger when the rats were tested during the inactive phase and when the intertrial interval was 60 min. These findings suggest that social recognition memory, as evaluated in this modified habituation/dis-habituation paradigm, is influenced by the circadian rhythm phase during which testing is performed, and by intertrial interval.

  15. Hospital diversification into long-term care.

    PubMed

    Shah, A; Fennell, M; Mor, V

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990s, acute care hospitals in the United States encountered an unstable operating environment created by a series of transformations in the health care delivery system and long-term-care market. Confronted with an array of economic pressures and demographic changes, hospitals were motivated to engage in long-term-care diversification, such as establishing a long-term-care unit or providing home health services, as a means of entering new markets and ensuring financial stability. This article examines the organizational, market, and community factors associated with this strategic activity among a national sample of urban and rural hospitals.

  16. What Three-Year-Olds Remember from Their Past: Long-Term Memory for Persons, Objects, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirte, Monika; Graf, Frauke; Kim, Ziyon; Knopf, Monika

    2017-01-01

    From birth on, infants show long-term recognition memory for persons. Furthermore, infants from six months onwards are able to store and retrieve demonstrated actions over long-term intervals in deferred imitation tasks. Thus, information about the model demonstrating the object-related actions is stored and recognition memory for the objects as…

  17. Long-term effects of maternal separation coupled with social isolation on reward seeking and changes in dopamine D1 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens via DNA methylation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Takayo; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Okuda, Akinori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Azuma, Cho; Nishi, Mayumi

    2017-02-22

    Early-life stress has long-lasting effects on the stress response, emotions, and behavior throughout an individual's life. Clinical reports have demonstrated that child abuse victims exhibit impairments in reward-associated behavior; yet, the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Maternal separation (MS) or MS coupled with social isolation (SI) (MS+SI) is widely used as a model for early-life stress in rodent studies. We employed mice subjected to MS+SI to clarify the long-term effect of early-life stress on reward-seeking involving palatable foods by a conditioned place-preference (CPP) paradigm. Prior MS+SI experience decreased exploration time in a chocolate-paired compartment in adult female mice, but not in male mice. We then focused on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway associated with reward-seeking behavior and measured both mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). MS+SI female mice had significantly lower D1 receptor mRNA and protein levels than controls, whereas the expression of TH and the D2 receptor was similar in the 2 groups. All mRNA and protein levels were unchanged in MS+SI male mice. When attempting to elucidate the mechanism underlying downregulation of the D1 receptor in the NAc of MS+SI females, we found hypermethylation of the Drd1a promoter region. These results suggest that early-life stress affects reward-seeking behavior in female mice, which may be associated with the downregulation of D1 receptor in the NAc via epigenetic modification of its promoter region.

  18. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  19. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  20. Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells ...

  1. Long-term-care legal update.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-04-01

    As more nurses move from the acute care setting to long-term-care and home health care, different practice issues arise. To maximize liability protection, nurses must understand the legal issues unique to each delivery system.

  2. Evidence-based long term care design.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Margaret P

    2009-01-01

    Research on the impact of the built environment in long-term care settings continues to grow. This article focuses on work conducted and published since 2000, when an earlier review on research on dementia and design was published. The vast majority of research that addressed neurological conditions in residents in long-term care settings (assisted living and nursing homes) relates to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

  3. The stigma of being a long-term foster carer.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Stacy L; Jackson, Debra; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Wilkes, Lesley

    2012-05-01

    Stigma is a powerful social phenomenon with insidious health implications. Understanding stigma as it applies to various populations is imperative for nurses as it enables nurses to enhance individual patient care and nurses are well positioned to influence both social and health care policies which may exacerbate the experience of stigma. This article is a report of a study to explore the experiences of women who provide long-term foster care. Interviews were conducted with 20 women who provided long-term foster care in Australia. Data were coded according to the components of stigma described by Link and Phelan (2001). Findings reveal participants rejected the label of foster carer to avoid the negative stereotype. When unable to conceal their foster carer label, participants experienced social isolation and status loss. Moreover, participants felt marginalized and disempowered within the governing systems.

  4. Anxiety Disorders in Long-Term Survivors of Adult Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Joseph A.; Solis, Jessica M.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Lennes, Inga T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Pirl, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety disorders among long-term survivors of adult cancers. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we compared rates of anxiety disorders between long-term cancer survivors and individuals without a history of cancer. Methods A nationally representative sample of 9,282 adults participated in a household survey to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, a subset of whom also answered questions about medical comorbidities, including cancer. Long-term survivors were defined as those who received an adult cancer diagnosis at least five years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between cancer history and anxiety disorders in the past year. Results The NCS-R sample consisted of 225 long-term cancer survivors and 5,337 people without a history of cancer. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, long-term cancer survivors were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.13), including specific phobia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44) and medical phobia (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.15-10.0), during the past 12 months compared to those without cancer histories. Rates for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Long-term survivors of adult cancers were more likely to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis, namely specific phobia, in the past 12 months compared with the general public. Further longitudinal study is needed to clarify the timing and course of anxiety relative to the cancer diagnosis. PMID:21907059

  5. Anxiety disorders in long-term survivors of adult cancers.

    PubMed

    Greer, Joseph A; Solis, Jessica M; Temel, Jennifer S; Lennes, Inga T; Prigerson, Holly G; Maciejewski, Paul K; Pirl, William F

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety disorders among long-term survivors of adult cancers. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), we compared rates of anxiety disorders between long-term cancer survivors and individuals without a history of cancer. A nationally representative sample of 9282 adults participated in a household survey to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, a subset of whom also answered questions about medical comorbidities, including cancer. Long-term survivors were defined as those who received an adult cancer diagnosis at least 5 years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between cancer history and anxiety disorders in the past year. The NCS-R sample consisted of 225 long-term cancer survivors and 5337 people without a history of cancer. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, long-term cancer survivors were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.13), including specific phobia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44) and medical phobia (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.15-10.0), during the past 12 months compared with those without cancer histories. Rates for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia were not significantly different between groups. Long-term survivors of adult cancers were more likely to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis, namely specific phobia, in the past 12 months compared with the general public. Further longitudinal study is needed to clarify the timing and course of anxiety relative to the cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Learned kin recognition cues in a social bird.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Stuart P; McGowan, Andrew; Wood, Matthew J; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2005-04-28

    In many cooperatively breeding birds, kin selection has an important role in the evolution and maintenance of social behaviour, and 'helpers' can maximize indirect fitness gains by preferentially allocating care to close relatives. Although there is evidence for kin-biased helping behaviour in several species, the mechanism of kin recognition underlying this behaviour is poorly understood. Vocalizations are the most commonly used cues in avian recognition systems, but the effectiveness of vocal signals as reliable recognition cues must depend on how they are acquired. However, there have been no experimental studies of the development of vocal recognition cues in cooperative birds; indeed, the ontogeny of all bird vocalizations other than song is poorly known in any species. Here, we show that cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus) can discriminate between kin and non-kin according to the individual-specific characteristics of contact calls, and show experimentally that individuals learn these calls from provisioning adults during the nestling period. Finally, we show that the pattern of cooperative behaviour in this species is consistent with the use of recognition cues learned through association.

  7. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty.

  8. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  9. Association Between Long-term Alcohol Consumption and Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has focused on enhancing knowldge about the association between alcohol consumption and health, such as early detection of alcohol abuse, the appropriate actions to be taken after detection, and prevention of teenage drinking. They believe that it is necessary to develop and improve the methods for early detection of alcohol-related problems in an easy and effective way. Given this context, we hypothsized that simultaneous determination of osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin ucOC), bone metabolic markers, would facilitate research on the effects of alcohol drinking. We divided volunteers into a group of long-term drinkers (heavy drinking for 20 years or more) and a group of social drinkers (moderate and controlled drinkers), and determined blood DC, ucOC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRACP-5b) levels, as bone metabolic markers, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), mitochondrial GOT (m-GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels, as biochemical markers. In addition, we determined the levels of free and bound ethanol and methanol in urine as markers of alcohol abuse and dependence. The group of long-term drinkers showed significantly higher levels of OC and ucOC than the group of social drinkers (p < 0.01). Long-term drinkers also showed a significantly higher level of m-GOT than the social drinkers in the biochemical examinations (p < 0.01). Long-term drinkers showed a tendency to have increased free/bound ethanol and methanol levels in urine compared to social drinkers, but the differences were not statistically significant. The above results suggest that determination of the levels of OC and ucOC can provide useful information for the early detection of heavy drinkers, indicating that OC and ucOC may be used as markers for preventing alcohol dependence.

  10. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  11. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    PubMed Central

    Barnham, J. J.; Roper-Hall, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary. Images PMID:6860613

  12. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  13. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    PubMed

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  14. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely

  15. Developing public-private long term care insurance partnerships.

    PubMed

    Meiners, M R; McKay, H L

    1989-01-01

    Recognition of long term care as an insurable risk has provided a framework for reexamining how we finance and deliver nursing home, home health, and community care to our elderly citizens. Insurance options are beginning to be marketed that provide consumers the opportunity to pay for their long term care needs in a more reasonable way than the situation in which individuals have to first self-insure and then rely on Medicaid when their resources are inadequate. The emergency of long term care insurance has stimulated public policy interest in supporting market development. Government payers will benefit if private insurance can reduce the role of Medicaid as a source of payment for middle-income elderly by delaying or avoiding the need to spend-down their resources. States, in particular, have taken the lead in seeking ways to help make the available products appealing and affordable so that the market can be broadened to include those at risk of needing Medicaid assistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  17. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  18. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  19. Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David James

    2010-01-01

    The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

  20. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  1. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  2. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  3. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  4. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  5. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship…

  6. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  7. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  8. Urethroplasty for hypospadias: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Glassman, C N; Machlus, B J; Kelalis, P P

    1980-06-01

    A retrospective study of patients who had undergone multi-staged hypospadias repair at the Mayo Clinic was undertaken to identify long-term problems associated with this surgery. Patients were queried concerning their satisfaction with quality of urinary stream; penile erection and ejaculation; sexual function and fertility; and cosmetic appearance.

  9. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  10. Very Long Term Memory for Tacit Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rhianon; Reber, Arthur S.

    1980-01-01

    Very long-term memory for abstract materials was examined for subjects who had served in a synthetic grammar learning experiment two years earlier. Knowledge of these grammars was retained. The form and structure of knowledge and the manner in which it is put to use remained similar to the original. (Author/RD)

  11. Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger

    2011-09-06

    In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment.

  12. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  13. Long-term function after restorative proctocolectomy.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J M D; Banerjee, A; Ahuja, N; Jewell, D P; Mortensen, N J McC

    2005-05-01

    Early functional outcome after restorative proctocolectomy and formation of an ileoanal pouch is known to be good, but there are minimal data on the long-term function of the pouch. The aim of this study was to look at the long-term functional outcome in patients who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy and formation of an ileoanal pouch. A total of 151 consecutive patients (96 males, 55 females) who underwent ileoanal pouch surgery between April 1983 and May 1993 were identified. Functional outcomes from the previous 12 months were appraised by a standardized questionnaire. The median age at surgery was 31 years (range, 6-63 years), with a median follow-up of 142 months (range, 100-221 months). Eighteen patients have had their pouches excised, with another patient being defunctioned. Therefore 19 patients (13 percent) had suffered pouch failure. Altogether, 115 patients were available for follow-up, and 98 patients (85 percent) returned questionnaires. The median pouch-emptying frequency was five times (range, 1-17) during the day and one time (range, 0-6) at night. A total of 74 percent of patients had perfect continence during the day. Most of the patients had no life-style restrictions related to the pouch, and 98 percent of patients would recommend a pouch to others. Long-term functional outcome after ileoanal pouch surgery is good in most patients. For patients requiring proctocolectomy, ileoanal pouch surgery can now be recommended as an excellent long-term option.

  14. Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David James

    2010-01-01

    The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

  15. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  16. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  17. Long-Term Care Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding how long-term care (LTC) research contributes to policy, develops a typology of research contributions to policy with examples of each type, and suggests ways to ensure that contributions continue in the future. The article draws on in-depth interviews with LTC experts working at the interface…

  18. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  19. Globalization, women's migration, and the long-term-care workforce.

    PubMed

    Browne, Colette V; Braun, Kathryn L

    2008-02-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends-population aging, globalization, and women's migration-on the supply and demand for DLTC workers in the United States. Following an overview of these trends, we identify three areas with embedded social justice issues that are shaping the DLTC workforce in the United States, with a specific focus on immigrant workers in these settings. These include world poverty and economic inequalities, the feminization and colorization of labor (especially in long-term care), and empowerment and women's rights. We conclude with a discussion of the contradictory effects that both population aging and globalization have on immigrant women, source countries, and the long-term-care workforce in the United States. We raise a number of policy, practice, and research implications and questions. For policy makers and long-term-care administrators in receiver nations such as the United States, the meeting of DLTC worker needs with immigrants may result in greater access to needed employees but also in the continued devaluation of eldercare as a profession. Source (supply) nations must balance the real and potential economic benefits of remittances from women who migrate for labor with the negative consequences of disrupting family care traditions and draining the long-term-care workforce of those countries.

  20. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight.

  1. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p < 0.001; 2-tailed), as well as average long-term PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.950, p < 0.001; 2-tailed). The OOPS index makes it possible to accurately prognosticate hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  2. Automatic integration of social information in emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the automaticity of the influence of social inference on emotion recognition. Participants were asked to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear or anger in Experiment 1 and blends of fear and surprise or of anger and disgust in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a subliminal contextual face appearing in the periphery expressed an emotion (fear or anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that recognition of the target emotion of fear was improved when a subliminal angry contextual face gazed toward-rather than away from-the fearful face. We replicated this effect in Experiment 2, in which facial expression blends of fear and surprise were more often and more rapidly categorized as expressing fear when the subliminal contextual face expressed anger and gazed toward-rather than away from-the target face. With the contextual face appearing for 30 ms in total, including only 10 ms of emotion expression, and being immediately masked, our data provide the first evidence that social influence on emotion recognition can occur automatically.

  3. HDAC inhibition modulates hippocampus-dependent long-term memory for object location in a CBP-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Mu