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Sample records for long-term tc immobilization

  1. Long-Term Immobilization of Technetium via Bioremediation with Slow-Release Substrates.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Laura; Cleary, Adrian; Morris, Katherine; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-02-07

    Radionuclides are present in groundwater at contaminated nuclear facilities with technetium-99, one of the most mobile radionuclides encountered. In situ bioremediation via the generation of microbially reducing conditions has the potential to remove aqueous and mobile Tc(VII) from groundwater as insoluble Tc(IV). However, questions remain regarding the optimal methods of biostimulation and the stability of reduced Tc(IV) phases under oxic conditions. Here, we selected a range of slow-release electron donor/chemical reduction based substrates available for contaminated land treatment, and assessed their potential to stimulate the formation of recalcitrant Tc(IV) biominerals under conditions relevant to radioactively contaminated land. These included a slow-release polylactate substrate (HRC), a similar substrate with an additional organosulfur ester (MRC) and a substrate containing zerovalent iron and plant matter (EHC). Results showed that Tc was removed from solution in the form of poorly soluble hydrous Tc(IV)-oxides or Tc(IV)-sulfides during the development of reducing conditions. Reoxidation experiments showed that these phases were largely resistant to oxidative remobilization and were more resistant than Tc(IV) produced via biostimulation with an acetate/lactate electron donor mix in the sediments tested. The implications of the targeted formation of recalcitrant Tc(IV) phases using these proprietorial substrates in situ is discussed in the context of the long-term management of technetium at legacy nuclear sites.

  2. Can heparin immobilized surfaces maintain nonthrombogenic activity during in vivo long-term implantation?

    PubMed

    Nojiri, C; Kido, T; Sugiyama, T; Horiuchi, K; Kijima, T; Hagiwara, K; Kuribayashi, E; Nogawa, A; Ogiwara, K; Akutsu, T

    1996-01-01

    The authors previously demonstrated that heparin immobilized surfaces showed excellent nonthrombogenic properties for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation experiments as long as 168 hr. The characteristics of the heparin immobilized surfaces include high heparin bioactivity and prevention of platelet adhesion and complement activation. However, it is not known whether the heparin immobilized surfaces would be effective for in vivo long-term implantation. Heparin bioactivity may be lost because of complete degradation or blocking of binding sites on heparin by adsorbed proteins. This study attempted to elucidate the in vivo long-term fate of heparin immobilized surfaces. The blood contacting surfaces of the ventricular assist device (VAD) made from polyurethane was modified with heparin immobilization and evaluated in a long-term sheep left VAD (LVAD) model for as long as 3 months. After removal of the VAD, heparin bioactivity was measured by Factor Xa assay. The blood contacting surfaces were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, and the adsorbed proteins on the surfaces of the diaphragm were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The thickness of adsorbed proteins on the surfaces also was measured by a confocal laser microscope. For the control ventricular assist devices, thrombus formation was observed within 1 month, whereas heparin immobilized VADs were able to operate thrombus free for periods as long as 3 months. The control surfaces demonstrated a thick adsorbed protein layer on thin surfaces, whereas heparin immobilized surfaces maintained thinner adsorbed proteins on thin surfaces. Anti Factor Xa activity of the heparinized surfaces disappeared after 15 days, but the surfaces remained nonthrombogenic even after heparin bioactivity was completely lost. The protein composition analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed an albumin dominant pattern on the heparinized surfaces. The band of 110 kD corresponding to C3b was detected only on the control surfaces, which

  3. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  4. Long Term Recordings with Immobile Silicon Probes in the Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michael; Lak, Armin; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    A key experimental approach in neuroscience involves measuring neuronal activity in behaving animals with extracellular chronic recordings. Such chronic recordings were initially made with single electrodes and tetrodes, and are now increasingly performed with high-density, high-count silicon probes. A common way to achieve long-term chronic recording is to attach the probes to microdrives that progressively advance them into the brain. Here we report, however, that such microdrives are not strictly necessary. Indeed, we obtained high-quality recordings in both head-fixed and freely moving mice for several months following the implantation of immobile chronic probes. Probes implanted into the primary visual cortex yielded well-isolated single units whose spike waveform and orientation tuning were highly reproducible over time. Although electrode drift was not completely absent, stable waveforms occurred in at least 70% of the neurons tested across consecutive days. Thus, immobile silicon probes represent a straightforward and reliable technique to obtain stable, long-term population recordings in mice, and to follow the activity of populations of well-isolated neurons over multiple days. PMID:26959638

  5. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jessica H; Wiseman, Frances K; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Harwood, John L; Good, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the short-term recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory.

  6. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica H.; Wiseman, Frances K.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Harwood, John L.; Good, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30 sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the shortterm recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory. PMID:26868479

  7. Long-term phosphorus immobilization by a drinking water treatment residual.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, Sampson; O'Connor, George A; Jacobs, Lee W; Makris, Konstantinos C; Brinton, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    Excessive soluble P in runoff is a common cause of eutrophication in fresh waters. Evidence indicates that drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can reduce soluble P concentrations in P-impacted soils in the short term (days to weeks). The long-term (years) stability of WTR-immobilized P has been inferred, but validating field data are scarce. This research was undertaken at two Michigan field sites with a history of heavy manure applications to study the longevity of alum-based WTR (Al-WTR) effects on P solubility over time (7.5 yr). At both sites, amendment with Al-WTR reduced water-soluble P (WSP) concentration by >or=60% as compared to the control plots, and the Al-WTR-immobilized P (WTR-P) remained stable 7.5 yr after Al-WTR application. Rainfall simulation techniques were utilized to investigate P losses in runoff and leachate from surface soils of the field sites at 7.5 yr after Al-WTR application. At both sites, amendment with Al-WTR reduced dissolved P and bioavailable P (BAP) by >50% as compared to the control plots, showing that WTR-immobilized P remained nonlabile even 7.5 yr after Al-WTR amendment. Thus, WTR-immobilized P would not be expected to dissolve into runoff and leachate to contaminate surface waters or groundwater. Even if WTR-P is lost via erosion to surface waters, the bioavailability of the immobilized P should be minimal and should have negligible effects on water quality. However, if the WTR particles are destroyed by extreme conditions, P loss to water could pose a eutrophication risk.

  8. Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell therapy elicit long-term tumor immunity by contrasting mechanisms that result in complementary endogenous type 1 antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Dobrzanski, Mark J; Reome, Joyce B; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Dutton, Richard W

    2004-02-01

    Cytolytic CD8(+) effector cells fall into two subpopulations based on cytokine secretion. Type 1 CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) secrete IFN-gamma, whereas type 2 CD8(+) T cells (Tc2) secrete IL-4 and IL-5. Both effector cell subpopulations display predominantly perforin-dependent cytolysis in vitro. Using an OVA-transfected B16 lung metastases model, we show that adoptively transferred OVA-specific Tc1 and Tc2 cells induce considerable suppression, but not cure, of pulmonary metastases. However, long-term tumor immunity prolonged survival times indefinitely and was evident by resistance to lethal tumor rechallenge. At early stages after therapy, protection by Tc2 and Tc1 effector cells were dependent in part on effector cell-derived IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma, respectively. Whereas effector cell-derived perforin was not necessary. Over time the numbers of both donor cells diminished to low, yet still detectable, levels. Concomitantly, Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell therapies potentiated endogenous recipient-derived antitumor responses by inducing 1) local T cell-derived chemokines associated with type 1-like immune responses; 2) elevated levels of recipient-derived OVA tetramer-positive CD8 memory T cells that were CD44(high), CD122(+), and Ly6C(high) that predominantly produced IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha; and 3) heightened numbers of activated recipient-derived Th1 and Tc1 T cell subpopulations expressing CD25(+), CD69(+), and CD95(+) cell surface activation markers. Moreover, both Tc2 and Tc1 effector cell therapies were dependent in part on recipient-derived IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha for long-term survival and protection. Collectively, Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell immunotherapy mediate long-term tumor immunity by different mechanisms that subsequently potentiate endogenous recipient-derived type 1 antitumor responses.

  9. Effect of Surface Aluminizing on Long-Term High-Temperature Thermal Stability of TC4 Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jingjie; Zhu, Jiyun; Zhuang, Lei; Li, Shouying

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum (Al)-rich titanium (Ti)-Al alloyed coating was fabricated on the surface of TC4 Ti alloy to improve the high-temperature stability of TC4 Ti alloy by means of arc-added glow discharge plasma technology. Microstructure, room-temperature properties and long-term high-temperature oxidation behavior of the alloyed sample were investigated. The results show that a uniform and compact Ti-Al alloyed coating with about 30μm thickness formed on the surface of TC4 Ti alloy. Microhardness and room-temperature wear resistance of the alloyed sample improved significantly. Long-term oxidation behaviors of the samples in air at 800∘C for 1000h show that the mass gain of the alloyed sample was 0.3686mg/cm2, while that of the substrate was 18.2095mg/cm2. Arc-added glow discharge plasma aluminizing improved high-temperature oxidation resistance of TC4 Ti alloy significantly.

  10. Immobilized contrast-enhanced MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR contrast enhancement of the vein graft vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T; Campagna, Christina M; Karp, Jeffrey M; Mulkern, Robert V; Ozaki, C Keith; Rybicki, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance postsurgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small-vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent "labeling" of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium(3+) dihydrogen complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3 T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period.

  11. Morphological changes in neurons of the hind limb reflex arc during long term immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachenko, Z. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve adult rabbits were immobilized for 9 to 31 days, followed by histological study of the nerve processes of lumbar vertebra 7 and sacral vertebra 1, the sciatic nerve and the motor endings of the thigh muscles. In the spinal ganglia, dystrophic changes of increasing severity with immobilization time were found, including pericellular edema, vacuolized neuroplasm, pycnotic changes, cytolysis and destruction. Chromatophilic matter decreased and was partly bleached, and amitotic division occurred. A portion of the sciatic nerve fibers were argentophilic, and some fragmentary decomposition occurred. Considerable dystrophic changes occurred in the motor nerve endings.

  12. A homeostatic, chip-based platform for zebrafish larvae immobilization and long-term imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Timo; Zhu, Feng; Wlodkowic, Donald; Kaslin, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Zebrafish larvae are ideal for toxicology and drug screens due to their transparency, small size and similarity to humans on the genetic level. Using modern imaging techniques, cells and tissues can be dynamically visualised and followed over days in multiple zebrafish. Yet continued imaging experiments require specialized conditions such as: moisture and heat control to maintain specimen homeostasis. Chambers that control the environment are generally very expensive and are not always available for all imaging platforms. A highly customizable mounting configuration with built-in means of controlling temperature and media flow would therefore be a valuable tool for long term imaging experiments. Rapid prototyping using 3D printing is particularly suitable as a production method as it offers high flexibility in design, is widely available and allows a high degree of customizing. We study neural regeneration in zebrafish. Regeneration is limited in humans, but zebrafish recover from neural damage within days. Yet, the underlying regenerative mechanisms remain unclear. We developed an agarose based mounting system that holds the embryos in defined positions along removable strips. Homeostasis and temperature control is ensured by channels circulating buffer and heated water. This allows to image up to 120 larvae simultaneously for more than two days. Its flexibility and the low-volume, high larvae ratio will allow screening of small compound libraries. Taken together, we offer a low cost, highly adaptable solution for long term in-vivo imaging.

  13. Short- and Long-Term Hindlimb Immobilization and Reloading: Profile of Epigenetic Events in Gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization. Compared to non-immobilized controls, muscle weight, limb strength, microRNAs, especially miR-486, SIRT1 levels, and slow- and fast-twitch cross-sectional areas were decreased in mice of I groups, whereas Pax7 and acetylated FoxO1 and FoxO3 levels were increased. Muscle reloading following splint removal improved muscle mass loss, strength, and fiber atrophy, by increasing microRNAs, particularly miR-486, and SIRT1 content, while decreasing acetylated FoxO1 and FoxO3 levels. In this mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy, muscle-enriched microRNAs, especially miR-486, through Pax7 regulation delayed muscle cell differentiation following unloading of gastrocnemius muscle. Acetylation of FoxO1 and 3 seemed to drive muscle mass loss and atrophy, while deacetylation of these factors through SIRT1 would enable the muscle fibers to regenerate. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1415-1427, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Repeated batch fermentation of immobilized E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin for long-term use.

    PubMed

    Sar, Taner; Seker, Gamze; Erman, Ayse Gokce; Stark, Benjamin C; Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem

    2017-04-10

    This study describes an efficient and reusable process for ethanol production from medium containing whey powder, using alginate immobilized ethanologenic E. coli strains either expressing (TS3) or not expressing (FBR5) Vitreoscilla hemoglobin. Reuseabilities of the FBR5 and TS3 strains were investigated regarding their ethanol production capacities over the course of 15 successive 96-h batch fermentations. The ethanol production was fairly stable over the entire duration of the experiment, with strain TS3 maintaining a substantial advantage over strain FBR5. Storage of both strains in 2 different solutions for up to 60 d resulted in only a modest loss of ethanol production, with strain TS3 consistently outperforming strain FBR5 by a substantial amount. Strains stored for 15 or 30 d maintained their abilities to produce ethanol without dimunition over the course of 8 successive batch fermentations; again strain TS3 maintained a substantial advantage over strain FBR5 throughout the entire experiment. Thus, immobilization is a useful strategy to maintain the advantage in ethanol productivity afforded by expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin over long periods of time and large numbers of repeated batch fermentations, including, as in this case, using media with food processing wastes as the carbon source.

  15. Preservation of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity despite short-term impairments in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C; Cooke, Sam F; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Bliss, Timothy V P

    2008-07-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in Tc1 mice. Here we show that Tc1 mice have impaired spatial working memory (WM) but spared long-term spatial reference memory (RM) in the Morris watermaze. Similarly, Tc1 mice are selectively impaired in short-term memory (STM) but have intact long-term memory (LTM) in the novel object recognition task. The pattern of impaired STM and normal LTM is paralleled by a corresponding phenotype in long-term potentiation (LTP). Freely-moving Tc1 mice exhibit reduced LTP 1 h after induction but normal maintenance over days in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Biochemical analysis revealed a reduction in membrane surface expression of the AMPAR (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-propionic acid receptor) subunit GluR1 in the hippocampus of Tc1 mice, suggesting a potential mechanism for the impairment in early LTP. Our observations also provide further evidence that STM and LTM for hippocampus-dependent tasks are subserved by parallel processing streams.

  16. Urease immobilized polymer hydrogel: Long-term stability and enhancement of enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kutcherlapati, S N Raju; Yeole, Niranjan; Jana, Tushar

    2016-02-01

    A method has been developed in which an enzyme namely urease was immobilized inside hydrogel matrix to study the stability and enzymatic activity in room temperature (∼27-30°C). This urease coupled hydrogel (UCG) was obtained by amine-acid coupling reaction and this procedure is such that it ensured the wider opening of mobile flap of enzyme active site. A systematic comparison of urea-urease assay and the detailed kinetic data clearly revealed that the urease shows activity for more than a month when stored at ∼27-30°C in case of UCG whereas it becomes inactive in case of free urease (enzyme in buffer solution). The aqueous microenvironment inside the hydrogel, unusual morphological features and thermal behaviour were believed to be the reasons for unexpected behaviour. UCG displayed enzyme activity at basic pH and up to 60°C. UCG showed significant enhancement in activity against thermal degradation compared to free urease. In summary, this method is a suitable process to stabilize the biomacromolecules in standard room temperature for many practical uses.

  17. Dynamic Recovery in Silicate-Apatite Structures Under Irradiation and Implications for Long-Term Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Wang, Lumin M.

    2011-11-14

    The irradiation responses of Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} and Sr{sub 2}Nd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} with the apatite structure are investigated to predict their long-term behaviour as host phases for immobilization of actinide elements from the nuclear fuel cycle. Different ions and energies are used to study the effects of dose, temperature, atomic displacement rate and ionization rate on irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization. The dose for amorphization increases with temperature in two stages, below and above 150 K. In the high temperature stage relevant to actinide immobilization, the increase of amorphization dose with temperature exhibits a strong dependence on the ratio of ionization rate to displacement rate for the different ions. Data analysis using a dynamic model for amorphization reveals that ionization-induced processes, with activation energy of 0.15 {+-} 0.02 eV, dominate dynamic recovery for ions from Ne through Xe. For heavier Au ions or for alpha-recoil nuclei emitted in alpha decay of actinides, ionization becomes less dominant and dynamic recovery is controlled primarily by thermally-driven processes. In post-irradiation annealing studies of amorphous samples, epitaxial thermal recrystallization is observed at 1123 K, and irradiation-enhanced nucleation of nanocrystallites is observed under irradiation with heavier ions. The recrystallization temperature under irradiation decreases with increasing ion mass to a value of {approx} 823 K, which also defines the thermally-driven critical temperature for amorphization under irradiation with heavy ions. Some partial recovery due to alpha particle irradiation at 300 K is observed that suggests a self-healing mechanism in apatite phases containing actinides. Based on the results and dynamic model, the temperature and time dependences of amorphization in silicate-apatite host phases for actinide immobilization are predicted.

  18. Dynamic recovery in silicate-apatite structures under irradiation and implications for long-term immobilization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J; Zhang, Yanwen; Xiao, Haiyan; Wang, Prof. Lumin

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation responses of Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 and Sr2Nd8(SiO4)6O2 with the apatite structure are investigated to predict their long-term behaviour as host phases for immobilization of actinide elements from the nuclear fuel cycle. Different ions and energies are used to study the effects of dose, temperature, atomic displacement rate and ionization rate on irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization. The dose for amorphization increases with temperature in two stages, below and above 150 K. In the high temperature stage relevant to actinide immobilization, the increase of amorphization dose with temperature exhibits a strong dependence on the ratio of ionization rate to displacement rate for the different ions. Data analysis using a dynamic model for amorphization reveals that ionization-induced processes, with activation energy of 0.15 0.02 eV, dominate dynamic recovery for ions from Ne through Xe. For heavier Au ions or for alpha-recoil nuclei emitted in alpha decay of actinides, ionization becomes less dominant and dynamic recovery is controlled primarily by thermally-driven processes. In post-irradiation annealing studies of amorphous samples, epitaxial thermal recrystallization is observed at 1123 K, and irradiation-enhanced nucleation of nanocrystallites is observed under irradiation with heavier ions. The recrystallization temperature under irradiation decreases with increasing ion mass to a value of ~ 823 K, which also defines the thermally-driven critical temperature for amorphization under irradiation with heavy ions. Some partial recovery due to alpha particle irradiation at 300 K is observed that suggests a self-healing mechanism in apatite phases containing actinides. Based on the results and dynamic model, the temperature and time dependences of amorphization in silicate-apatite host phases for actinide immobilization are predicted.

  19. Iron phosphate glass for immobilization of 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel R.; Um, Wooyong; Heo, Jong

    2013-06-15

    Technetium-99 (99Tc) can bring serious environmental threats because of its long half-life (t1/2 = ~2.1 x 105 years), high fission yield (~6%), and high solubility and mobility in the ground water. The high volatility makes it difficult to immobilize 99Tc in continuous melters vitrifying 99Tc-containing nuclear wastes in borosilicate glasses. This work explores a possibility of incorporating a high concentration of 99Tc, surrogated by the non-radioactive Re, in an iron phosphate glass by melting mixtures of iron phosphate glass frits with 1.5-6 mass% KReO4 at ~1000 C. The retention of Re achieved was ~1.1 mass%. The normalized Re release by the 7-day Product Consistency Test was <10*2 g/m2. Surprisingly, the Re escaped from the melt within a short time of heating, especially when the temperature was increased. Therefore, 99Tc volatilization would still be a challenging task for its immobilization in iron phosphate glasses.

  20. [Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Urolithiasis formation during space flight and long-term bed rest].

    PubMed

    Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro; Okada, Atsushi

    2012-12-01

    Prior to human spaceflight the potential problems related to reduced gravitational forces on the musculoskeletal system were recognized, the extent and significance of the changes, however, were not known. Loss of bone mineral density has been a consistent finding after long-duration space flight and long-term bed rest. The main pathogenesis of calcium-urolithiasis is Western diet. Approximate 10% of urolithiasis is produced by bone mineral loss. We recently developed new treatment of bisphosphonate administration to preuent urolithiasis formation in both astronauts and recurrent urolithiasis patients with osteoporosis.This paper shows the results and basic research works.

  1. Enhancement of catalytic, reusability, and long-term stability features of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 laccase immobilized on different polymers.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Noreen, Sadia; Bilal, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, different bio-polymers such as agar-agar, polyacrylamide and gelatin were utilized as bolster materials for the immobilization of a fungal laccase through entrapment approach. Among the polymers, agar-agar matrix most firmly encapsulated the enzyme yielding significant laccase immobilization (79.65±2.55%). Immobilization prolonged the reaction time of laccase and agar-agar, polyacrylamide and gelatin entrapped laccases displayed maximum catalytic activities after 10.0, 15.0 and 10.0min of reaction, respectively, as compared to free counterpart (5.0min). It also increased the optimal temperature by 5.0-10°C and provided an alkaline shift of the pH optima to agar-agar and gelatin entrapped laccase, while, in case of polyacrylamide, optimum pH was displaced to acidic region. Kinetic data revealed that Km(app) values were slightly increased while Vmax values were decreased as compared to free counterpart. Polymers encapsulation led to significant improvement in activity against thermal denaturation. After 180min at 60°C, the enzymes preserved 28.1±0.9, 48.6±1.3 and 32.5±1.8% residual activities, respectively, whereas, the free enzyme was completely inactive. Immobilization enabled the enzymes to resist a number of different effectors including metal ions, inhibitors/denaturants and chelating agents. Moreover, the resulted modified laccases displayed good recycling capability for substrate-oxidation reactions in several successive batches. In summary, the tremendously improved attributes of polymers-encapsulated enzymes display a high potential for various applications in different industrial sectors.

  2. Immobilization of Cd(II) in acid soil amended with different biochars with a long term of incubation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Xin; Hu, Xinjiang; Sun, Zhichao; Yang, Zhongzhu

    2015-08-01

    Biochars derived from bamboo, coconut shell, pine wood shavings, and sugarcane bagasse were applied into Ultisol to investigate their effects on Cd(II) immobilization. After 360 days of incubation, the physical/chemical properties of the Ultisol were improved by the addition of different biochars. As a result, the maximum adsorption capacities of soil for Cd(II) were increased from 8.02 to 9.07-11.51 mmol/kg, and bamboo biochar showed the highest effect on Cd(II) immobilization. The Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.983) fitted the data better than the Freundlich model (R (2) were 0.902-0.937). Column leaching experiments suggested that biochar can also increase the immobilization of Cd(II) under leaching conditions. Biochar mainly increased the weak/unstable binding force of Cd(II) by soil, such as ion exchange, electrostatic attraction, physical adsorption, and carbonate precipitation. In addition, a significant enhancement of surface complexation was also observed.

  3. Long-term production of bioethanol in repeated-batch fermentation of microalgal biomass using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    El-Dalatony, Marwa M; Kurade, Mayur B; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kim, Hoo; Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-11-01

    Separate hydrolysis fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) processes were studied for bioethanol production from microalgal biomass. SSF was selected as an efficient process to enhance the bioethanol yield through repeated-batches using immobilized yeast cells. Combined sonication and enzymatic hydrolysis of Chlamydomonas mexicana generated 10.5 and 8.48g/L of ethanol in SSF and SHF, respectively. Yeast utilized maximum portion of total reducing sugar (TRS) reaching a consumption efficiency of 91-98%. A bioethanol yield of 0.5g/g (88.2% of theoretical yield) and volumetric productivity of 0.22g/L/h was obtained after 48h of SSF. Immobilized yeast cells enabled repetitive production of ethanol for 7 cycles displaying a fermentation efficiency up to 79% for five consecutive cycles. The maximum ethanol production was 9.7g/L in 2nd-4th cycles. A total energy recovery of 85.81% was achieved from microalgal biomass in the form of bioethanol. Repeated-batch SSF demonstrated the possibility of cost-effective bioethanol production.

  4. Marked dissociation between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation and long-term behavioral effects in rats exposed to immobilization or cat odor.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Abellán, C; Andero, R; Nadal, R; Armario, A

    2008-09-01

    Exposure of rodents to cats or certain cat odors results in long-term behavioral effects reminiscent of enhanced anxiety that have been considered to model post-traumatic stress disorder. However, other severe stressors such as tail-shock or immobilization in wooden boards (IMO) appear to induce shorter lasting changes in anxiety. In addition, there are controversial results regarding the effects of urine/feces odors. In the present work, we studied in two experiments the relationship between the degree of stress experienced by the animals during exposure to IMO, urine odors or fur odors (as assessed by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation and plasma glucose) and the short- and long-term behavioral consequences. In the first experiment, rats were individually exposed for 15 min to a novel environment (white large cages) containing either clean cat litter (controls) or litter soiled by cats (urine odors). Half of the rats in each condition were left to freely explore the environment whereas the others were subjected to immobilization (IMO) within the cages. Although ACTH, corticosterone and glucose responses to IMO were much stronger than those to the white cages with clean litter or urine odors (which did not differ from each other), no effect of treatments on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) were found one week later. However, previous IMO exposure did cause sensitization of the ACTH response to the EPM. In the second experiment, the response to white large cages containing either no odor (controls), litter soiled by cats (urine odor) or a cloth impregnated with cat odor (fur odor) was compared. Urine and fur odors elicited similar ACTH and corticosterone responses that were higher than those of controls, but plasma glucose levels were slightly higher in rats exposed to fur odor. When compared to controls, activity was only diminished in the novel cages containing fur odor. Similarly, fur odor-exposed rats, but not those exposed to urine

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report--In-Situ Generation of Iron-Chromium Precipitates for Long Term Immobilization of Chromium at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Elizabeth C.; Krumholz, Lee R.; Madden, Andrew S.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2013-12-13

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a toxic ground water contaminant widespread at the Hanford site and many other industrial facilities. A common remediation method for Cr(VI) is in situ reduction/immobilization, in which soluble Cr(VI) is reduced to the less soluble trivalent Cr (Cr(III)). If iron (Fe) minerals are present during the process, Cr(III) precipitates as a mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) (Fe-Cr) solid. The objective of this exploratory research was to obtain preliminary evidence about the relationships among the method of Cr(VI) reduction (i.e., abiotic or microbial), the properties of the resulting Fe-Cr precipitates, and their tendencies to release soluble Cr(VI) in the presence of the common manganese oxide birnessite. The results of this exploratory research project show that the conditions of Cr(VI) reduction—specifically the ratio of Cr to Fe, and/or whether the Cr(VI) reductant is a mineral or a microorganism—can significantly affect the tendency of the resulting Fe-Cr precipitate to release Cr(VI) to the environment in the presence of birnessite. These results suggest the chosen remediation conditions have the potential to strongly influence not only the initial success of in situ Cr(VI) reduction/immobilization, but also the potential for successful long term sequestration of Cr in the form of stable soil precipitates.

  6. HIPed Tailored Ceramic Waste Forms for the Immobilization of Cs, Sr and Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Melody L. Carter; Martin W. A. Stewart; Eric R. Vance; Bruce D. Begg; Sam Moricca; Julia Tripp

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing advanced technologies to allow for the safe and economical disposal of waste from nuclear reactors. An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides . One of the systems being developed to separate key radionuclides is the UREX+1 process. The Tc and Cs/Sr solutions from UREX+1 process will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. This paper illustrates the benefits of HIPed tailored ceramic waste forms, to provide for the immobilization of separated Cs, Sr and Tc. Experimental data are presented for a Cs and Sr-bearing hollandite-rich tailored ceramic prepared with 12 wt% waste (on an oxide basis). Normalized MCC-1 type leach testing at 90oC for 28 days revealed extremely low Cs and Sr release rates of 0.003 and 0.004 g/m2/day respectively. Experimental data on the immobilization of Tc in titanate ceramics containing up to 40wt% TcO2 are also be presented.

  7. Preservation of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Despite Short-Term Impairments in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C.; Cooke, Sam F.; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Bliss, Timothy V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a…

  8. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  9. [The effect of long-term preservation of microbial cells immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel on their viability and biosynthesis of target metabolites].

    PubMed

    Efremenko, E N; Tatarinova, N Iu

    2007-01-01

    The effect of cell storage at -18 degrees C for 18-24 months on reproductive capacity was investigated for various microorganisms (gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi) immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel. To examine the viability of immobilized cells after defrosting, the bioluminescent method of intracellular ATP determination was used. A high level of metabolic activity of immobilized cells after various periods of storage was recorded for Streptomyces anulatus, Rhizopus orvzae, and Escherichia coli, which are producers of the antibiotic aurantin, L(+)-lactic acid, and the recombinant enzyme organophosphate hydrolase, respectively. It was shown that the initial concentration of immobilized cells in cryogel granules plays an important role in the survival of Str. anulatus and Pseudomonas putida after 1.5 years of storage. It was found that, after slow defrosting in the storage medium at 50C for 18 h of immobilized cells of the yeast Saccharomvces cerevisiae that had been stored for nine months, the number of reproductive cells increased due to the formation of ascospores.

  10. [Influence of immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite on the immediate and long-term results of treatment of the patients with diffuse peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Sukovatykh, B S; Blinkov, Iu Iu; Makienko, K G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of complex examination and results of treatment was made in 290 patients with diffuse peritonitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to way of sanation of the abdominal cavity. The sanation with 0.03% aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite was used for the first group of 155 patients. The immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite in carboxymethyl cellulose gel were applied in the second group. The rate of postoperative complications was decreased on 15.4%, the lethality--on 8.2% in the case of application of the immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite. The developed technology allowed increasing of physical component of life quality of the patients in 1.3 times, though it didn't influence on psychical component.

  11. Impact of Mobile-Immobile Water Domains on the Retention of Technetium (Tc-99) in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansik, D. P.; Wellman, D. M.; Cordova, E.; Wildenschild, D.

    2009-12-01

    The transport of technetium (Tc-99), like many other radionuclides, is of interest due to the potential for human exposure and impact on ecosystems. Technetium has been released to the environment through nuclear weapons testing, nuclear power production, and nuclear fuel reprocessing; as a result, further spreading of Tc-99 is a concern at DOE sites across the US. Specifically, technetium is a contaminant of concern at Hanford, Savannah River, Idaho, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The current body of work conducted on Tc-99 has provided a wealth of information regarding the redox relationship and stability of the mineral phases, however little work has been conducted on the physical transport of the highly soluble pertechnetate oxyanion, in the subsurface. Current conceptual models do not explain the presence and persistence of the anion in deep vadose zone environments such as the Hanford site. In an oxic reducing environment with low organic content, the residence time of technetium in the soil would be expected to be near zero, due to its low sorption. Surprisingly, nearly 50 years after the release of contamination at the site, much of the element has persisted in the subsurface in its most mobile form. As new in situ remediation technologies are developed and remediation continues, it is necessary to understand implications for Tc-99 transport and mobilization in unsaturated systems. Specifically, foam and gas phase remediation could potentially alter established flow regimes by changing moisture content and surface reactivity of sediments; therefore, it is imperative to understand fundamental transport properties of Tc-99 in the context of physical and chemical constraints. Using an Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) we have conducted a series of experiments to examine the impact of mobile-immobile domains on the transport of Tc-99. By varying sand/silt ratios and saturations we examined how changes in pore morphology and moisture content impact the

  12. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    SciTech Connect

    Asmussen, R. Matthew; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.

    2016-11-01

    Technetium-99 is a radioactive contaminant of high concern at many nuclear waste storage sites. At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, 99Tc is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste, which are highly caustic, high ionic strength and have high concentrations of chromate. Removal of 99Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of 99Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant using two solid sorbents, tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl2 through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization. Sn-A showed higher levels of removal of Tc from both DIW and LAW simulant compared with the SnCl2. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) of Sn-A following batch experiments in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface with no incorporation into the lattice structure of Sn-A. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI) over Tc(VII).

  13. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmussen, R. Matthew; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.

    2016-11-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Tc-99 is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste and removal of Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization using tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl2. Sn-A showed higher levels of Tc removal from both DIW and LAW simulant. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of reacted Sn-A in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI).

  14. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  15. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  16. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  17. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  18. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-18

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation” to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (α-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.

  19. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  20. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  1. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  2. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  3. AB055. Long term NIV

    PubMed Central

    Siopi, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation has evolved into one of the most evidence-based areas of respiratory medicine, with many indications in acute or chronic respiratory failure. From the first application of negative pressure models during poliomyelitis epidemics to the new sophisticated positive pressure models, and the development of the “intelligent ventilators”, there has been a long time course. Undoubtedly the spur was given by better understanding of respiratory physiology during sleep and the shift of healthcare towards a chronic base. Novel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) established the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to exacerbations of COPD, as well as acute pulmonary edema and weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. Long-term NIV has been used in neuromuscular diseases for many decades, first in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and then spreading to other disorders of this category, increasing survival in inherited neuromuscular diseases. NIV should be initiated early in the course of the disease, when symptomatic nocturnal hypoventilation is detected. Combined with cough augmentation (physiotherapy, insufflation-exsufflation devices) and percutaneous gastrostomy feeding, it can delay tracheostomy and invasive ventilation. In ALS patients NIV improves the quality of life and increases survival, especially when there is no bulbar involvement. The right time to initiate ventilation in this group of patients is not well established since it is difficult to detect signs and symptom of respiratory impairment. Patients seem to benefit from an early application of NIV, and their personal decisions should always be considered before any intervention. In patients with chest wall disorders NIV—despite the fact that RCTs are lacking—has proved its value in many uncontrolled trials and numerous reports. It seems to improve the work of breathing, sleep architecture, nocturnal and daytime arterial blood gases. The

  4. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  5. Long Term TOA - M Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-30

    A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Radiation Budget Project A Long-Term TOA and Constrained Surface Readiation Budget Dataset Using Merged CERES, ... and apply the knowledge to existing data to develop long-term (nearly 30 years) consistent and calibrated data product (TOA irradiances ...

  6. Iron Oxide Waste Form for Stabilizing 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2012-06-09

    Crystals of goethite were synthesized with reduced technetium [{sup 99}Tc(IV)] incorporated within the solid lattice. The presence of {sup 99}Tc(IV) as a substituting cation in the matrix and 'armoring' by an additional layer of precipitated goethite isolated the reduced {sup 99}Tc(IV) from oxidizing agents. These products were used to make monolithic pellets to quantify an effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 99}Tc from goethite waste form contacted with a synthetic Hanford IDF (integrated disposal facility) pore water solution (pH = 7.2, I = 0.05 M) at room temperature for up to 120 days in static reactors. XANES analysis of the goethite solids recovered post-run demonstrated that the {sup 99}Tc in the goethite crystals remains in the reduced {sup 99}Tc(IV) state. The slow release of pertechnetate concentration with time in the static experiments with the monolith followed a square root of time dependence, consistent with diffusion control for {sup 99}Tc release. An apparent diffusion coefficient of 6.15 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s was calculated for the {sup 99}Tc-goethite pellet sample and the corresponding leaching index (LI) was 10.2. The results of this study indicate that technetium can be immobilized in a stable, low-cost Fe oxide matrix that is easy to fabricate and these findings can be useful in designing long-term solutions for nuclear waste disposal.

  7. Iron oxide waste form for stabilizing 99Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyunshik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Jeffrey Serne, R.; Qafoku, Nik; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2012-10-01

    Crystals of goethite were synthesized with reduced technetium [99Tc(IV)] incorporated within the solid lattice. The presence of 99Tc(IV) as a substituting cation in the matrix and "armoring" by an additional layer of precipitated goethite isolated the reduced 99Tc(IV) from oxidizing agents. These products were used to make monolithic pellets to quantify an effective diffusion coefficient for 99Tc from goethite waste form contacted with a synthetic Hanford IDF (Integrated Disposal Facility) pore water solution (pH = 7.2 and I = 0.05 M) at room temperature for up to 120 days in static reactors. XANES analysis of the goethite solids recovered post-run demonstrated that the 99Tc in the goethite crystals remains in the reduced 99Tc(IV) state. The slow release of pertechnetate concentration with time in the static experiments with the monolith followed a square root of time dependence, consistent with diffusion control for 99Tc release. An apparent diffusion coefficient of 6.15 × 10-11 cm2/s was calculated for the 99Tc-goethite pellet sample and the corresponding leaching index (LI) was 10.2. The results of this study indicate that technetium can be immobilized in a stable, low-cost Fe oxide matrix that is easy to fabricate and these findings can be useful in designing long-term solutions for nuclear waste disposal.

  8. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  9. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  10. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  11. Long-Term Nutrition: A Clinician's Guide to Successful Long-Term Enteral Access in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-09-22

    Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.

  12. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  13. [Transformation of free radicals of gamma-irradiated enzymes during long-term storage].

    PubMed

    Ryl'tsev, V V; Virnik, R B; Dovbiĭ, E V; Filatov, V N

    1988-01-01

    The ESR method was used to study free radical processes occurring in gamma-irradiated enzymes upon their long-term storage (up to 4 years) both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Simultaneously, studied was the biological activity of gamma-irradiated enzymes subjected to a long-term storage. The immobilization of enzymes on dialdehyde cellulose or polycaproamine was shown to preserve their biological activity during the postirradiation storage.

  14. Roadmap to Long-Term Monitoring Optimization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This roadmap focuses on optimization of established long-term monitoring programs for groundwater. Tools and techniques discussed concentrate on methods for optimizing the monitoring frequency and spatial (three-dimensional) distribution of wells ...

  15. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  16. Long-term-care legal update.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-04-01

    As more nurses move from the acute care setting to long-term-care and home health care, different practice issues arise. To maximize liability protection, nurses must understand the legal issues unique to each delivery system.

  17. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Provided to Persons Living in Long-Term Care Facilities Program data for FY 2013 indicate that long- ... least quarterly Conducted 5,417 training sessions in facilities on such topics as residents’ rights Provided 129, ...

  18. The 2014 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    Treasury from the Federal Reserve System, customs duties, estate and gift taxes, and miscellaneous fees and fines. Actual Extended Baseline...Office’s (CBO’s) most recent analysis of the outlook for the federal budget over the long term. My statement today summarizes The 2014 Long-Term Budget...Outlook, which was released yesterday.1 Between 2009 and 2012, the federal government recorded the largest budget deficits relative to the size of

  19. Evidence-based long term care design.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Margaret P

    2009-01-01

    Research on the impact of the built environment in long-term care settings continues to grow. This article focuses on work conducted and published since 2000, when an earlier review on research on dementia and design was published. The vast majority of research that addressed neurological conditions in residents in long-term care settings (assisted living and nursing homes) relates to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

  20. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  1. Uranium and technetium bio-immobilization in intermediate-scale physical models of an in situ bio-barrier.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; Goodman, Bernard A; Kelly, Shelly D; Kemner, Kenneth M; McKinley, James P; Stucki, Joseph W; Istok, Jonathan D

    2006-11-15

    We investigated the long-term effects of ethanol addition on U and Tc mobility in groundwater flowing through intermediate-scale columns packed with uncontaminated sediments. The columns were operated above-ground at a contaminated field site to serve as physical models of an in situ bio-barrierfor U and Tc removal from groundwater. Groundwater containing 4 microM U and 520 pM Tc was pumped through the columns for 20 months. One column received additions of ethanol to stimulate activity of indigenous microorganisms; a second column received no ethanol and served as a control. U(VI) and Tc(VII) removal was sustained for 20 months (approximately 189 pore volumes) in the stimulated column under sulfate- and Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Less apparent microbial activity and only minor removal of U(VI) and Tc(VII) were observed in the control. Sequential sediment extractions and XANES spectra confirmed that U(IV) was present in the stimulated column, although U(IV) was also detected in the control; extremely low concentrations precluded detection of Tc(IV) in any sample. These results provide additional evidence that bio-immobilization may be effective for removing U and Tc from groundwater. However, long-term effectiveness of bio-immobilization may be limited by hydraulic conductivity reductions or depletion of bioavailable Fe(III).

  2. LONG-TERM TECHNETIUM INTERACTIONS WITH REDUCING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Lilley, M.; Almond, P.; Powell, B.

    2011-03-15

    Technetium is among the key risk drivers at the Saltstone Facility. The way that it is immobilized in this cementitious waste form is by converting its highly mobile Tc(VII) form to a much less mobile Tc(IV) form through reduction by the cement's blast furnace slag. This report includes a review of published data and experimental results dealing with Tc leaching from Portland cement waste forms. The objectives for the literature study were to document previous reports of Tc interactions with slag-containing cementitious materials. The objectives for the laboratory study were to measure Tc-saltstone Kd values under reducing conditions. From the literature it was concluded: (1) Spectroscopic evidence showed that when Tc(IV) in a slag-cement was exposed to an oxidizing environment, it will convert to the more mobile Tc(VII) species within a short time frame, 2.5 years. (2) SRS saltstone will reduce Tc(VII) in the absence of NaS or sodium dithionite in a reducing atmosphere. (3) Only trace concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (30 to 60 ppm O{sub 2}; Eh 120 mV) at the high pH levels of cementitious systems is required to maintain Tc as Tc(VII). (4) Experimental conditions must be responsible for wide variability of measured K{sub d} values, such that they are either very low, {approx}1 mL/g, or they are very high {approx}1000 mL/g, suggesting that Tc(VII) or Tc(IV) dominate the systems. Much of this variability appears to be the result of experimental conditions, especially direct controls of oxygen contact with the sample. (5) A field study conducted at SRS in the 1980s indicated that a slag-saltstone immobilized Tc for 2.5 years. Below background concentrations of Tc leached out of the slag-containing saltstone, whereas Tc leached out of the slag-free saltstone at the rate of nitrate loss. One possible explanation for the immobilization of Tc in this study was that the slag-saltstone maintained reducing conditions within the core of the 55-gallon sample, whereas in

  3. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10/sup -12//year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration.

  4. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty.

  5. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  6. [Pathophysiology of immobilization osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori

    Enhancement of bone resorption and suppression of bone formation in response to reduced mechanical stress cause rapid bone loss. pharmacotherapy for immobilization osteoporosis in motor paralysis and long-term bedrest is effective therapy. Early intervention for rapid bone loss is important for immobilization osteoporosis.

  7. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  8. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    PubMed Central

    Barnham, J. J.; Roper-Hall, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary. Images PMID:6860613

  9. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely

  10. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    PubMed

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  11. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  12. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  13. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  14. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  15. Long-Term Impacts of Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David James

    2010-01-01

    The school accountability movement has led to a marked increase in the use of standardized test scores to measure school and teacher productivity, yet little is known about the correlation between test score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the impact of a school choice policy in…

  16. Long-Term Stability of Tutor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the extent to which tutor ratings remained stable in the long term by evaluating 291 ratings of 140 tutors at Maastricht University in the Netherlands between 1992 and 1995. The results indicated that, if the aggregated score and overall judgement are used to interpret the precision of individual scores, four and two occasions,…

  17. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  18. Long-term opioid therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Von Korff, Michael; Kolodny, Andrew; Deyo, Richard A; Chou, Roger

    2011-09-06

    In the past 20 years, primary care physicians have greatly increased prescribing of long-term opioid therapy. However, the rise in opioid prescribing has outpaced the evidence regarding this practice. Increased opioid availability has been accompanied by an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. The rate of opioid addiction among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy remains unclear, but research suggests that opioid misuse is not rare. Recent studies report increased risks for serious adverse events, including fractures, cardiovascular events, and bowel obstruction, although further research on medical risks is needed. New data indicate that opioid-related risks may increase with dose. From a societal perspective, higher-dose regimens account for the majority of opioids dispensed, so cautious dosing may reduce both diversion potential and patient risks for adverse effects. Limiting long-term opioid therapy to patients for whom it provides decisive benefits could also reduce risks. Given the warning signs and knowledge gaps, greater caution and selectivity are needed in prescribing long-term opioid therapy. Until stronger evidence becomes available, clinicians should err on the side of caution when considering this treatment.

  19. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  20. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  1. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship…

  2. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  3. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  4. Long-Term Care Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding how long-term care (LTC) research contributes to policy, develops a typology of research contributions to policy with examples of each type, and suggests ways to ensure that contributions continue in the future. The article draws on in-depth interviews with LTC experts working at the interface…

  5. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  6. Workshop on long-term contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The National Population Council Secretariat (NPCS) of Ghana held a three-day workshop on long-term contraceptives in 1996 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Association of Voluntary Surgical Contraception, and the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services. The session was funded by USAID. The executive director of NPCS, Dr. Richard Turkson, said that the slow rate of contraceptive acceptance was an obstacle to population control despite political concern that rapid population growth exerted an adverse impact on the economy. Only 10% of married women were using long-term or permanent methods of contraception. The hope was voiced that the participants would devise practical and cost-effective education, information, and communication (IEC) strategies to boost the demand for long-term contraceptive methods among sexually active people in Ghana. It was essential that these strategies and activities were based on a realist assessment of the demographic and social situation of the country. The examination of case studies in cultures similar to Ghana would also offer valuable lessons. The factors that hinder the acceptance of long-term methods include misconceptions, myths, and false rumors rooted in a general lack of knowledge among the people. Participants were urged to come up with strategies to counter these problems, and service providers were encouraged to improve their knowledge about contraceptive methods and counseling skills. Male involvement in contraception was also advocated. Statistics show that most Ghanians practicing contraception were using short-term methods such as foaming tablets, pills, and condoms. However, it is necessary to shift to long-term methods such as injectables, implants, and sterilization in order to achieve significant reductions in fertility.

  7. Long-term biological investigations in space.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Fuchs, H; Bertsche, U

    1975-01-01

    Missions in space within the next two decades will be of longer duration than those carried out up to the present time, and the effects of such long-term flights on biological organisms are unknown. Results of biological experiments that have been performed to date cannot be extrapolated to results in future flights because of the unknown influence of adaptation over a long period of time. Prior experiments with Axolotl, fishes, and vertebrates by our research team (in part with sounding rockets) showed that these specimens did not appear to be suitable for long-term missions on which minimization of expense, technique, and energy is required. Subsequent investigations have shown the suitability of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which consumes blood of mammals up to ten times its own weight (1 g) and can live more than 2 years without further food supply. Emphasis in the experiments with Hirudo medicinalis is placed on metabolic rhythm and motility. Resorption and diffusion in tissue, development, and growth under long-term effects of cosmic proton radiation and zero-gravity are other focal points. The constancy of cellular life in the mature animals is a point in favor of these specimens. We have also taken into account the synergistic effects of the space environment on the problems just mentioned. The life-support system constructed for the leech has been tested successfully in four sounding rocket flights and, on that basis, has been prepared for a long-term mission. Long-term investigations out of the terrestrial biosphere will provide us with information concerning the degree of adaptation of certain physiological and biochemical functions and as to what extent biological readjustment or repair processes can occur under the specific stress conditions of space flight.

  8. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder.

  9. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  10. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  11. Breakthroughs in long term care design.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, L

    1991-01-01

    In summary, here is what design is trying to accomplish in long term care facilities: Functional access; Privacy as entitlement; Sensory optimization to improve vision and hearing; Reduced walking and wheeling distances that still allow people to be mobile; Effective or functional placement of space and equipment; The option of smaller scale, so neither residents nor staff feel like they are hanging out with a unit full of, perhaps 68, people all the time; Flexibility and adaptability

  12. Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

  13. Long term therapy of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2004-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common (lifetime prevalence: 5.1%), recurrent condition, which often heralds other psychiatric disorders, notably depression. As by definition it is a disorder progressing over months, treatment should be designed on a long term basis. And yet, few studies have been conducted beyond the classical 6-8 weeks characterizing the acute treatment phase. This is especially true of anxiolytics, but also of antidepressants, with the exception of paroxetine and venlafaxine, which are the only drugs approved in this indication in Western countries. The efficacy of psychotherapy, notably relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy, is established in the treatment of GAD, but its preferred indications and possible combination with antidepressants are still to be specified. Long term, not to say very long term studies of GAD, as well as depression, will still be required in the future to improve its management and specify therapeutic modalities (combination treatment, optimal duration, continuous or intermittent therapy, choice of psychotherapeutic techniques or agents, em leader ). Early and adequately prolonged treatment should not only result in more numerous remission periods, but also in decreased frequency of co-morbidities whether depressive, addictive, or of another nature, and should also reduce the social impact of GAD.

  14. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  15. Infective endocarditis: determinants of long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, R O M; Altwegg, S C; Zollinger, E; Täuber, M; Carrel, T; Seiler, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate predictors of long term prognosis in infective endocarditis. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care centre. Patients: 212 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis between 1980 and 1995 Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; event-free survival; and the following events: recurrence, need for late valve surgery, bleeding and embolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, congestive heart failure. Results: During a mean follow up period of 89 months (range 1–244 months), 56% of patients died. In 180 hospital survivors, overall and cardiac mortality amounted to 45% and 24%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, early surgical treatment, infection by streptococci, age < 55 years, absence of congestive heart failure, and > 6 symptoms or signs of endocarditis during active infection were predictive of improved overall long term survival. Independent determinants of event-free survival were infection by streptococci and age < 55 years. Event-free survival was 17% at the end of follow up both in medically–surgically treated patients and in medically treated patients. Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis. PMID:12067947

  16. Influence of competitive electron acceptors during reduction and effective immobilization of technetium by reduced nontronite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaisi, D. P.; Dong, H.; Heald, S. M.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Plymale, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    The reduction and immobilization of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) in nontronite (NAu-2) was studied in the presence of iron and manganese oxides and nitrate, the coexisting competitive terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) in several DOE subsurface contamination sites, to understand how these TEAs might inhibit Tc(VII) reduction or promote reoxidation of reduced Tc. Manganese oxides (birnessite and manganite) and iron oxides (goethite and hematite) were synthesized and their mineralogical, morphological and surface properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, and BET surface and pore area measurements, respectively. Batch Tc(VII) reduction experiments were performed at different concentrations of Tc and Fe(II) and competing electron acceptors were added at different times. Separate experiments performed with NAu-2 and a TEA only (in the absence of Tc) showed that that the electron transfer from Fe(II) in NAu-2 to manganese oxides was very fast, but the transfer from Fe(II) to nitrate was almost absent. The Tc(VII) reduction was enhanced when iron oxides (goethite and hematite) was added, irrespective of time, however the enhancement was low at later phases of Tc reduction. The addition of manganese oxides during Tc reduction stopped any additional Tc(VII) reduction, but reoxidation of already reduced Tc was not observed at low Tc concentration. In general, the extent of reoxidation of reduced Tc (by manganese oxide) in old samples was slow suggesting that the higher rate of particle aggregation in reduced NAu-2 inhibited the reoxidation of reduced Tc. However, Tc(IV) reoxidation was not observed in the presence of nitrate. The preliminary EXAFS analysis showed that a fraction of reduced Tc occurred as Tc-Fe complex in a ferrihydrite-like solid, in addition to separate TcO2.nH2O particles, which might have promoted additional NAu-2 particle aggregation and thereby incorporation of reduced Tc into NAu-2 aggregates. These results are promising for long-term in-situ immobilization of

  17. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  18. Transverse dimension and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Vanarsdall, R L

    1999-09-01

    This article emphasizes the critical importance of the skeletal differential between the width of the maxilla and the width of the mandible. Undiagnosed transverse discrepancy leads to adverse periodontal response, unstable dental camouflage, and less than optimal dentofacial esthetics. Hundreds of adult retreatment patients corrected for significant maxillary transverse deficiency using surgically assisted maxillary expansion (similar to osseous distraction) has produced excellent stability. Eliciting tooth movement for children (orthopedics, lip bumper, Cetlin plate) in all three planes of space by muscles, eruption, and growth, develops the broader arch form (without the mechanical forces of fixed or removable appliances) and has also demonstrated impressive long term stability.

  19. Long-term management of prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Schlechte, Janet A

    2007-08-01

    Prolactinomas are a frequent cause of gonadal dysfunction and infertility, especially in young women. The regulation of prolactin secretion and the efficacy of dopamine agonists in the therapy of prolactinomas are well established. The current challenges in management of prolactinomas are related to follow-up after successful therapy. Issues and questions to be addressed in this approach to long-term management of prolactinomas include the frequency of radiographic monitoring, effect of pregnancy and menopause, safety of estrogen in women taking oral contraceptives, and the potential for discontinuation of dopamine agonist therapy.

  20. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  1. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  2. Long term efficacy of a pen injector.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, S F; Cronin, C C; O'Sullivan, D J

    1991-09-01

    We assessed the long term efficacy of Novopen as a form of insulin administration. Records were obtained on 48 patients who were treated with Novopen between January '86 and October '88. Six patients were excluded due to insufficient data. The study group of 42 patients comprised 22 females and 20 males of average age 33 years (range 17-66). Mean Hb.A1 rose from 10.6% to 12.1% after Novopen therapy, a rise of 14.1%. This rise is both clinically and statistically significant (p less than 0.001; 99% confidence limits 0.59-2.78). Increases in weight and insulin dose were also noted, but did not reach statistical significance. The majority of patients felt Novopen was superior to twice daily insulin in terms of ease of administration (81%) and flexibility of lifestyle (95%), and all who were using Novopen wished to continue with it. More than 50% of patients admitted to altering their dietary habits while using Novopen. Despite continuing patient satisfaction with this form of insulin administration, its long-term use may be associated with sub-optimal metabolic control.

  3. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  4. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  5. Climate Predictability and Long Term Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Liu, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The benefit of climate Long Term Memory (LTM) for long term prediction is assessed using data from a millennium control simulation with the atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM. The forecast skills are evaluated for surface temperature time series at individual grid points. LTM is characterised by the Hurst exponent in the power-law scaling of the fluctuation function which is determined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). LTM with a Hurst exponent close to 0.9 occurs mainly in high latitude oceans, which are also characterized by high potential predictability. Climate predictability is diagnosed in terms of potentially predictable variance fractions. Explicit prediction experiments for various time steps are conducted on a grid point basis using an auto-correlation (AR1) predictor: in regions with LTM, prediction skills are beyond that expected from red noise persistence; exceptions occur in some areas in the southern oceans and over the northern hemisphere continents. Extending the predictability analysis to the fully forced simulation shows large improvement in prediction skills.

  6. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  7. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers.

  8. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  9. Long-term experience with indapamide.

    PubMed

    Beling, S; Vukovich, R A; Neiss, E S; Zisblatt, M; Webb, E; Losi, M

    1983-07-01

    Indapamide, 2.5 mg administered once daily for periods up to 36 months, was found to be safe and effective for the long-term control of mild to moderate hypertension. The effects of hydrochlorothiazide, 50 mg, and indapamide, 2.5 mg, were studied in two randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials. Data from the two multicenter trials (20 study sites) were pooled for purposes of comparison. Significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with patients in both supine and standing positions, occurred in both groups within the first 8 weeks of treatment. This effect was maintained throughout the active treatment period. Success, as determined by the therapeutic success rate (percentage of patients with decreases of standing phase V diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg or to below 90 mm Hg), occurred in 53% of the patients given hydrochlorothiazide and in 56% of the indapamide-treated patients. During the study period, the nature, frequency, and severity of adverse reactions were similar for both groups. There was no clinically significant difference between the treatment groups for the laboratory assessments. Patients who completed the multicenter trials were eligible for participation in an ongoing long-term extension study of the safety of indapamide. Data are available for periods up to 36 months and demonstrate neither augmentation of clinical or laboratory adverse effects nor any potentially harmful indicators that could be attributed to prolonged treatment.

  10. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

  11. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  12. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  13. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n = 5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  14. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  15. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

    1988-04-01

    We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

  16. Technology for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices.

  17. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  18. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  19. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  20. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  1. [Childhood liver transplantation. Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Jara, Paloma; Hierro, Loreto

    2010-05-01

    Liver transplantation allows long-term survival (10 years or more) in 75% of children receiving transplants before 2000. The risk of mortality after the first year is 4-10% in the next 10-20 years. Chronic rejection affects 6%. The need for late retransplantation is 3-5%. However, the follow-up of these patients involves the management of diverse problems in the graft (immunological, biliary, vascular) and others related to the use of immunosuppressants (renal dysfunction, lymphoproliferative syndrome). The transition from pediatric to adult care generates special needs. Adolescence and young adulthood are associated with a lack of compliance. Adult specialists should be aware of the special features of the original diagnosis and the surgical techniques used in childhood transplantation. Final quality of life is good overall but is lower than that in healthy young persons.

  2. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  3. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].

    PubMed

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  4. Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Long-term monitoring for closed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Neurotoxicity testing during long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Ivens, I

    1990-01-01

    Several tests and methods for the investigation of neurotoxicity were performed with female Wistar rats for up to 187 days. The methods were validated by testing 10 rats treated with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) and 10 control rats. Cage side observation of the animals revealed signs of altered behavior and motor dysfunction of the IDPN-treated rats. Results of a neuromuscular screen indicated changes in gait, righting reflex, grip strength and performance of the negative geotropism test. Investigation of the animals in activity monitors and on the accelerating rotarod showed changes of several parameters. The motor nerve conduction velocity, measured 6 months after the first treatment, was reduced by 6.7 meters per second in the IDPN group compared to controls. From the results of the tests it can be concluded that the methods chosen can be used during long-term studies but may be most useful for animals not older than 12 months.

  7. Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

  8. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  9. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Caione, Paolo; Nappo, Simona Gerocarni

    2011-10-01

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence, and fertility/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical interview, creatinine clearance, uroflowmetry with ultrasound post-void urine residue, and self-administered questionnaire were recorded. Out of 45 identified records, 24 patients (53.3%) accepted to be enrolled (age 18-34 years, mean 23 years). The mean follow-up was 19.5 years (16-30 years). Out of the 21 excluded patients, 20 did not reply to the clinical interview and 1 died at age of 6 years. All the 24 patients had early endoscopic section of PUV; nine also received transient ureterocutaneostomy or vesicostomy. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in five patients and ureterocystoplasty with unilateral nephrectomy in two. At follow-up chronic renal failure was detected in 13 patients (54.1%) and 9 (37.5%) had arterial hypertension. End-stage renal disease developed in five patients (20.8%): three had successful renal transplantation and two were in dialysis. Lower urinary tract symptoms were present in seven patients (29.1%). No significant fertility deficit and sexual dysfunction were observed in 23 patients, while 1 patient was azoospermic. No paternity was reported so far. Long-term outcome of patients with previously treated PUV is mandatory. Kidney, bladder, and sexual functions should be monitored till adulthood to verify any modified behaviour.

  10. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  11. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY OF PLUTONIUM RELEVANT TO LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP OF DOE SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    Pu is generally considered to be relatively immobile in the terrestrial environment, with the exception of transport via airborne and erosion mechanisms. More recently the transport of colloidal forms of Pu is being studied as a mobilization pathway from subsurface contaminated soils and sediments. The overall objective of this research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for retardation of Pu transport.

  12. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY OF PLUTONIUM RELEVANT TO LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP OF DOE SITES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.; GILLOW, J.P.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    Pu is generally considered to be relatively immobile in the terrestrial environment, with the exception of transport via airborne and erosion mechanisms. More recently the transport of colloidal forms of Pu is being studied as a mobilization pathway from subsurface contaminated soils and sediments. The overall objective of this research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for retardation of Pu transport.

  13. Long-term criticality concerns associated with disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a very brief description of criticality concerns resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons. Two plutonium disposal options, and associated criticality considerations, are described: (1) irradiating it into reactor-grade spent fuel, and (2) immobilization and burial, either in a geologic repository or in deep, sealed boreholes. Mixed oxide spent fuel could contain 3 to 4 wt% of reactor-grade plutonium. For the immobilization and the deep borehole options to be economically viable, a plutonium content of 3 to 7 wt% would be required. A study is proposed to evaluate the long-term criticality safety concerns for disposition of fissionable material in a geologic setting. 2 refs.

  14. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  15. Long-term Changes in Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S.; Lefohn, A.; Galbally, I.; Scheel, E.; Bodeker, G.; Brunke, E.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D.; Simmonds, P.; Anlauf, K.; Schmidlin, F.; Akagi, K.; Redondas, A.

    2006-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone measurements from a selected network of surface and ozonesonde sites are used to give a broad geographic picture of long-term variations. The picture of long-term tropospheric ozone changes is a varied one in terms of both the sign and magnitude of trends and in the possible causes for the changes. At mid latitudes of the S.H. three time series of ~20 years in length agree in showing increases that are strongest in the austral spring (August-October). Profile measurements show this increase extending through the mid troposphere but not into the highest levels of the troposphere. In the N.H. in the Arctic a period of declining ozone in the troposphere through the 1980s into the mid 1990s has reversed and the overall change is small. The decadal-scale variations in the troposphere in this region are related in part to changes in the lowermost stratosphere. At mid latitudes in the N.H., continental Europe and Japan showed significant increases in the 1970s and 1980s. Over North America rises in the 1970s are less than those seen in Europe and Japan, suggesting significant regional differences. In all three of these mid latitude, continental regions tropospheric ozone amounts appear to have leveled off or in some cases declined in the more recent decades. Over the North Atlantic three widely separated sites show significant increases since the late 1990s that may have peaked in recent years. In the N.H. tropics both the surface record and the ozonesondes in Hawaii show a significant increase in the autumn months in the most recent decade compared to earlier periods that drives the overall increase seen in the 30 year record. This appears to be related to a shift in the transport pattern during this season with more frequent flow from higher latitudes in the latest decade. The pattern of change, with the largest increases in the N.H. coming prior to the mid 1980s, suggests that increased positive radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone was felt

  16. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  17. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  18. Evaluating Long-Term Care Through the Humanbecoming Lens.

    PubMed

    Hart, Judith D

    2015-10-01

    The author describes evaluating long-term care from the humanbecoming perspective. Three core ideas are presented related to dignity and living quality, and how the humanbecoming perspective can be incorporated into long-term care evaluations that make a difference to the residents, caregivers, management, and to the outcomes of long-term care. This approach from the humanbecoming perspective can enrich evaluative information, influence long-term care outcomes, and ensure human dignity for all concerned.

  19. Long-term data storage in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  20. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  1. Long-term potentiation: peeling the onion.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

    2013-11-01

    Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'.

  2. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  3. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of the central nervous system’s (CNS’s) sensory connectivity is driven by modality-specific sensory input in early life. For the somatosensory system, this input is the physical, tactile interaction with the environment. Nociceptive circuitry is functioning at the time of birth; however, there is still considerable organization and refinement of this circuitry that occurs postnatally, before full discrimination of tactile and noxious input is possible. This fine-tuning involves separation of tactile and nociceptive afferent input to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn and the maturation of local and descending inhibitory circuitry. Disruption of that input in early postnatal life (for example, by tissue injury or other noxious stimulus), can have a profound influence on subsequent development, and consequently the mature functioning of pain systems. In this review, the impact of neonatal surgical incision on nociceptive circuitry is discussed in terms of the underlying developmental neurobiology. The changes are complex, occurring at multiple anatomical sites within the CNS, and including both neuronal and glial cell populations. The altered sensory input from neonatal injury selectively modulates neuronal excitability within the spinal cord, disrupts inhibitory control, and primes the immune system, all of which contribute to the adverse long-term consequences of early pain exposure. PMID:26174217

  5. [Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Al Yami, E A; van 't Hof, M A

    2000-04-01

    Aim of this study was to assess long-term stability of orthodontic treatment in a sample of 1016 patients until 10 years postretention. Treatment outcome was measured with the PAR-index at 6 different stages. The mean age of the patients was 12.0 +/- 3.1 year at the start of treatment to 26.3 +/- 2.9 year 10 years postretention. The results show that 67% of the orthodontic treatment result, as measured with the PAR-index, was maintained 10 years postretention. The PAR-scores for the midline and the open bite remained about the same over the years. However, the scores for the lateral occlusion, overjet, reversed overjet, overbite, and contact point displacement of the upper and lower front teeth increased gradually over time. Nearly 50% of the total relapse took place the first two years after retention. The largest change was found for the position of the lower incisors. Ten years postretention their position was even worse than at the start of treatment.

  6. Long-term in vivo pineal microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing; Liu, Tiecheng; Deng, Jie; Borjigin, Jimo

    2003-09-01

    This study describes the development of a new technique for long-term measurement of daily 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats. The technique features a number of novel improvements over previous protocols. It allows visualization of the pineal gland for accurate targeting of the guide cannula, which minimizes bleeding; incurs no direct injury to the surrounding brain tissues; and causes no interference with the sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglia. Robust releases of melatonin and indole precursors were continuously monitored quantitatively and reproducibly for more than 2 wk in the same animal. In addition, effects of pharmacological agents on in vivo pineal circadian rhythms can be studied reproducibly over time, and gene expression profiles can be correlated with physiological consequences in single animals. Using these approaches, it is found that beta-adrenergic activation leads to decreased release of 5-HT, and that increased cAMP signaling in vivo results in activation of N-acetyltransferase gene induction and melatonin production. These studies will enhance the understanding of signaling pathways that regulate pineal 5-HT and melatonin synthesis and secretion.

  7. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  8. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  9. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  10. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    PubMed

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV(-) optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV(-) ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV(-) ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  11. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  12. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study.

  13. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  14. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  15. The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

  16. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  17. Modeling maintenance of long-term potentiation in clustered synapses: long-term memory without bistability.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the "clustered plasticity hypothesis" which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory.

  18. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  19. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  20. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  1. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  2. Pulmonary complications after long term amiodarone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Roca, J; Heras, M; Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Magriñà, J; Xaubet, A; Sanz, G

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amiodarone hydrochloride is an antiarrhythmic agent useful in arrhythmias refractory to standard therapy. Although interstitial pneumonitis is known to be its most serious side effect, several aspects of amiodarone lung toxicity are still controversial. METHODS: Pulmonary side effects were examined in a sample of 61 symptomless patients (mean (SD) age 55 (7) years) who had had long term treatment with amiodarone (daily maintenance dose 400 mg), selected from 482 men attending the University of Barcelona myocardial infarction project. To allow for the confounding effects of coronary artery disease and tobacco history on lung function, 46 patients who had taken amiodarone for more than one year were matched with a control group from the same population. Subjects underwent measurement of lung volumes, arterial blood gas analysis and an incremental bicycle exercise test. RESULTS: Most lung function values were close to predicted values, though there was a small increase in resting alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (A-aDO2) at rest (4.8 (1.4) kPa in both groups). There were no differences in the results of forced spirometry or static lung volumes between the two groups, or in the fall in A-aDO2 from rest to exercise. There was a small difference between the amiodarone and the control group in transfer factor for carbon monoxide corrected for lung volume (KCO 1.67 (0.3) and 1.83 (0.3) mmol min-1 kPa-1 l-1 respectively) and in exercise capacity (140 (25) and 120 (30)w). Only three patients showed lung function impairment consistent with pneumonitis. No relation between lung function measures and cumulative doses of amiodarone or desethylamiodarone was found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of clinically evident pulmonary side effects was 4.9%, which is lower than that reported in studies in which higher daily maintenance doses of amiodarone were given. The slightly lower KCO values and lower work load achieved by the patients taking amiodarone suggest a

  3. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  4. Summary of U.S. EPA research on solidified/stabilized waste form long-term durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Successful performance of solidification and stabilization treatment technologies largely depends on the ability of the treated waste to endure long term exposure to physical and chemical stresses. The available test methods to assess durability of treated wastes rely on results from laboratory tests; these procedures rely on freeze/thaw cycles, elevated temperature, and exposure to various solutions to simulate the stresses exerted on a solidified/stabilized (S/S) waste form over time. Unfortunately, none of the methods has been verified as replicating field behavior. In addition, the speciation of contaminants is a critical factor in determining long-term immobilization. Research is needed to cover areas which will address the issues associated with long-term performance of S/S waste forms. This paper discusses technical issues associated with long-term behavior of S/S waste forms and U.S. EPA research addressing these issues.

  5. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  6. Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Artola, A; Singer, W

    1993-11-01

    In many brain areas, including the cerebellar cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, striatum and nucleus accumbens, brief activation of an excitatory pathway can produce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. In most preparations, induction of LTD has been shown to require a minimum level of postsynaptic depolarization and a rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in the postsynaptic neurone. Thus, induction conditions resemble those described for the initiation of associative long-term potentiation (LTP). However, data from structures susceptible to both LTD and LTP suggest that a stronger depolarization and a greater increase in [Ca2+]i are required to induce LTP than to initiate LTD. The source of Ca2+ appears to be less critical for the differential induction of LTP and LTD than the amplitude of the Ca2+ surge, since the activation of voltage- and ligand-gated Ca2+ conductances as well as the release from intracellular stores have all been shown to contribute to both LTD and LTP induction. LTD is induceable even at inactive synapses if [Ca2+]i is raised to the appropriate level by antidromic or heterosynaptic activation, or by raising the extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]o. These conditions suggest a rule (called here the ABS rule) for activity-dependent synaptic modifications that differs from the classical Hebb rule and that can account for both homosynaptic LTD and LTP as well as for heterosynaptic competition and associativity.

  7. Removal of TcO 4 from Representative Nuclear Waste Streams with Layered Potassium Metal Sulfide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Asmussen, R. Matthew; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Sarma, Debajit; Riley, Brian J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.

    2016-06-14

    Many efforts have focused on the sequestration and immobilization of 99Tc because the radionuclide is highly mobile in oxidizing environments and presents serious health risks due to its radiotoxicity and long half-life (t1/2 = 213 000 a). One of the more common methods for Tc removal from solution and immobilization in solids is based on reducing Tc from highly soluble Tc(VII) to sparingly soluble Tc(IV). In order to remove solution Tc through this reduction process, the Tc-sequestering solid must contain a reducing agent and, ideally, the Tc-sequestering material would function in a large range of chemical environments. For long-term stability, the reduced Tc would preferentially be incorporated into the resulting mineral structure instead of simply being sorbed onto the mineral surface. Here, we report results obtained from batch sorption experiments performed in anoxic and oxic conditions with two sulfide-containing potassium metal sulfide (KMS) materials, known as KMS-2 and KMS-2-SS. In deionized water in anoxic conditions after 15 d of contact, KMS-2 is capable of removing ~45% of Tc and KMS-2-SS is capable of removing ~90% of Tc. The improved performance of KMS-2-SS compared to KMS-2 in deionized water in anoxic conditions appears to be linked both to a higher pH resulting from the batch sorption experiments performed with KMS-2-SS and a higher overall purity of KMS-2-SS. Both materials perform even better in highly caustic (pH~13.5), high ionic strength (8.0 M) simulated Hanford low-activity waste solutions, removing more than 90% Tc after 15 d of contact in anoxic conditions. Post-reaction solids analysis indicate that Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(IV) and that Tc(IV) is bonded to S atoms in the resulting KMS-2 structure in a Tc2S7 form. In contrast to previous ion exchange experiments with other KMS materials, the batch sorption experiments examining Tc removal cause the initially crystalline KMS materials to lose much of their initial long-range order.

  8. Consider long-term care as service alternative.

    PubMed

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share.

  9. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  10. Improved Long-Term Imaging of Embryos with Genetically Encoded α-Bungarotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, Ian A.; Mosaliganti, Kishore R.; Green, Amelia A.; Megason, Sean G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in microscopy and genetic labeling strategies have created new opportunities for time-lapse imaging of embryonic development. However, methods for immobilizing embryos for long periods while maintaining normal development have changed little. In zebrafish, current immobilization techniques rely on the anesthetic tricaine. Unfortunately, prolonged tricaine treatment at concentrations high enough to immobilize the embryo produces undesirable side effects on development. We evaluate three alternative immobilization strategies: combinatorial soaking in tricaine and isoeugenol, injection of α-bungarotoxin protein, and injection of α-bungarotoxin mRNA. We find evidence for co-operation between tricaine and isoeugenol to give immobility with improved health. However, even in combination these anesthetics negatively affect long-term development. α-bungarotoxin is a small protein from snake venom that irreversibly binds and inactivates acetylcholine receptors. We find that α-bungarotoxin either as purified protein from snakes or endogenously expressed in zebrafish from a codon-optimized synthetic gene can immobilize embryos for extended periods of time with few health effects or developmental delays. Using α-bungarotoxin mRNA injection we obtain complete movies of zebrafish embryogenesis from the 1-cell stage to 3 days post fertilization, with normal health and no twitching. These results demonstrate that endogenously expressed α-bungarotoxin provides unprecedented immobility and health for time-lapse microscopy. PMID:26244658

  11. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society.

  12. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  13. Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalic, Sharon Wofford; Elliott, Delbert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the short- and long-term consequences of working during adolescence. Responses from 1,725 adolescents reveal that the negative short-term effects are in the domains of school, family and friend bonding, beliefs, and substance use. The long-term beneficial effect is that the duration of early work helps employability in adulthood. (GR)

  14. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  15. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  16. Prediction of Long Term Degradation of Insulating Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Physical changes .......................................................................................................... 20 4.2 Thermal performance ...to address the enduring challenge of developing and evaluating the long-term performance of a thermal insula- tion for shelter systems that provides...properties of selected insulation ma- terials based on the differences in thermal conductivity and R-values. 3. Predict the long-term performance of selected

  17. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  18. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... base-level of Long Term Support for 1998, the Administrator shall calculate the difference between the.... (2) To calculate Long Term Support for calendar year 1998, the Administrator shall adjust the base...; and (4) The line port costs in excess of basic analog service pursuant to § 69.130 of this...

  19. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... base-level of Long Term Support for 1998, the Administrator shall calculate the difference between the.... (2) To calculate Long Term Support for calendar year 1998, the Administrator shall adjust the base...; and (4) The line port costs in excess of basic analog service pursuant to § 69.130 of this...

  20. Perceptions of control and long-term recovery from rape.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Cadell, S; Jansen, K

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between perceptions of control and symptoms of both long-term depression and post-traumatic stress was examined. Enduring beliefs of personal competence and control were found to be associated with lower rates of depression and stress and to be stronger predictors of long-term recovery than were rape-specific attributions. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  1. A new image for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  2. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to...

  3. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to...

  4. The Effect of Modality on Long-Term Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of visual and auditory modes of input on long-term memory were examined in two experiments, each with 40 and 80 undergraduates, respectively. In both experiments, visual stimulus attributes were a more salient dimension than were auditory features in the long-term encoding and retrieval process. (SLD)

  5. Pediatric Facial Fractures and Potential Long-Term Growth Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jonathan; Phillips, John

    2011-01-01

    Fractures of the pediatric craniofacial skeleton can be challenging to manage. The initial injury and subsequent treatment can cause long-term growth disturbances yielding problematic secondary deformities. This review considers the normal growth of the craniofacial skeleton and typical facial fracture presentations in children and discusses the potential long-term sequelae from these injuries and their management. PMID:22379506

  6. Short- and long-term responses to molybdenum-99 shortages in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, J R

    2010-11-01

    Most nuclear medicine studies use (99)Tc(m), which is the decay product of (99)Mo. The world supply of (99)Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities. In the long-term, stability of (99)Mo supply will rely on a combination of replacing conventional reactors and developing new technologies.

  7. A perspective on long-term care for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care represents a significant burden to the approximately 7 million elderly in need, their families, and the Medicaid program. Concerns exist about access, quality, cost, and the distribution of the burden of care. In this article each area is discussed, highlighting the principal issues, identifying the unique aspects that pertain to long-term care, and exploring the implications for research and policy development. Future trends, especially the growth of the elderly population, are expected to affect significantly the provision of long-term care. The considerable uncertainty about how these trends may impact on long-term care is described, and the critical role social choice will play in shaping the future long-term care system is emphasized. PMID:10312975

  8. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  9. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  10. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gin, Stephane; Criscenti, Louise J.; Ebert, W. L.; Ferrand, Karine; Geisler, Thorsten; Harrison, Mike T.; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Mueller, Karl T.; Marra, James C.; Pantano, Carlo G.; Pierce, Eric M.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Schofield, James M.; Steefel, Carl I.; Vienna, John D.

    2013-06-01

    Nations producing borosilicate glass as an immobilization material for radioactive wastes resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing have reinforced scientific collaboration to obtain consensus on mechanisms controlling the long-term dissolution rate of glass. This goal is deemed to be crucial for the development of reliable performance assessment models for geological disposal. The collaborating laboratories all conduct fundamental and/or applied research with modern materials science techniques. The paper briefly reviews the radioactive waste vitrification programmes of the six participant nations and summarizes the state-of-the-art of glass corrosion science, emphasizing common scientific needs and justifications for on-going initiatives.

  11. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gin, S.; Abdelouas, A.; Criscenti, L. J.; Ebert, W. L.; Ferrand, K.; Geisler, T.; Harrison, M. T.; Inagaki, Y.; Mitsui, S.; Mueller, K. T.; Marra, J. C.; Pantano, C. G.; Pierce, E. M.; Ryan, J. V.; Schofield, J. M.; Steefel, C. I.; Vienna, J. D.

    2013-08-07

    Nations using borosilicate glass as an immobilization material for radioactive waste have reinforced the importance of scientific collaboration to obtain a consensus on the mechanisms controlling the long-term dissolution rate of glass. This goal is deemed to be crucial for the development of reliable performance assessment models for geological disposal. The collaborating laboratories all conduct fundamental and/or applied research using modern materials science techniques. This paper briefly reviews the radioactive waste vitrification programs of the six participant nations and summarizes the current state of glass corrosion science, emphasizing the common scientific needs and justifications for on-going initiatives.

  12. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  13. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Santschi, Peter H.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  14. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Honeyman, Bruce D.; Francis, A.J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Chin-Chang Hung; Diaz, Angelique; Tinnacher, Ruth; Roberts, Kimberly; Schwehr, Kathy

    2006-04-05

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation and immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this work is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  15. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2005-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  16. Long-term Fate of Arsenic under the Oxidation of Ferrous Iron by Nitrate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Prommer, H.; Siade, A. J.; Chillrud, S. N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Bostick, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    In situ precipitation of iron (Fe) minerals can be an effective means of remediating groundwater arsenic (As) contamination. Among different Fe minerals, magnetite is promising as a host-mineral for As in situ immobilization in that it is stable under a wide range of geochemical conditions, including Fe(III) reducing conditions under which As are often mobilized. Our previous laboratory studies suggest that the formation of nanoparticulate magnetite can be achieved by the oxidation of ferrous Fe with nitrate. Magnetite can incorporate As into its structure during formation, in which case desorption and As(V) reduction are less likely. Nanoparticulate magnetite, once formed, can also immobilize As by surface adsorption, and thus serve as a reactive filter when contaminated groundwater migrates through the treatment zone. In this study, a reactive transport model is develop for the magnetite based As immobilization strategy. The initial numerical model development was guided by experimental data and hypothesized processes from the laboratory one-dimensional column studies. Our modeling results suggest that the ratio between Fe(II) and nitrate in the injectant regulates the extent and distribution of magnetite and ferrihydrite formation, and thus regulates the long-term potential of As immobilization. Based on these results, two-dimensional field-scale model scenarios were developed to predict and compare the impact of chemical and operational parameters on the efficiency of the remediation technology. The modeling results, which suggest that long-term groundwater As removal is feasible, favor scenarios that rely on the chromatographic mixing of Fe(II) and nitrate after injection. This study highlights the importance of combining laboratory studies and reactive transport modeling for elucidating the complex hydro-biogeochemical processes that control the fate of As and for up-scaling of the technology.

  17. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  18. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  19. Medical care evaluation studies in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, J G

    1979-02-01

    This report describes the selection, design, conduct, analysis, and application of medical care evaluation studies in long-term care facilities (skilled nursing homes) in a regional program in the Rochester region of upstate New York. Eight examples are presented to highlight methodologic approaches and problems. They are classified under four general headings: Administration Audits, Diagnosis-specific Studies, Care Modality-specific Studies, and General Outcome Indicators. The implementation of results and recommendations from the studies is discussed and an application of "tracer" methodology for assessing the components of care activities in long-term facilities is described. Problems and challenges in long-term quality care are outlined.

  20. Long-Term Safe Storage and Disposal of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Borehole Type Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Sobolev, I. A.

    2003-02-26

    Russian Federation has the leading experience in applying borehole storage/disposal method for SRS. A new immobilization technology for sources being disposed of in underground repositories was mastered by 1986 and since then it is used in the country. This method uses all advantages of borehole type repositories supplementing them with metal encapsulation of sources. Sources being uniformly allocated in the volume of underground vessel are fixed in the metal block hence ensuring long-term safety. The dissipation of radiogenic heat from SRS is considerably improved, radiation fields are reduced, and direct contact of sources to an environment is completely eliminated. The capacity of a typical borehole storage/disposal facility is increased almost 6 times applying metal immobilization. That has made new technology extremely favourable economically. The metal immobilization of SRS is considered as an option in Belarus and Ukraine as well as Bulgaria. Immobilization of sources in metal matrices can be a real solution for retrieval of SRS from inadequate repositories.

  1. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  2. Long-term storage of bionanodevices by freezing and lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja; Wada, Yuuko; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Hess, Henry; Satir, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Successful long-term storage of a "smart dust" device integrating biomolecular motors and complex protein assemblies has been demonstrated using freezing or lyophilization, which implies that fabrication and application can be separated even for complex bionanodevices.

  3. Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntoon, Jacqueline E.; Ridky, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a web-based, inquiry-oriented activity that enables students to examine long-term global climate change. Supports instruction in other topics such as population growth. (Contains 34 references.) (DDR)

  4. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  5. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  6. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  7. Long-term pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahe, V; Balogh, A

    2000-03-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and has a poor prognosis, although it is often thought to be a minor complaint. This disorder has a chronic course of 5-15 years and longer. Long-term treatment with the commonly used benzodiazepines is controversial because of concerns over tolerance and dependence. We performed a thorough search of the literature for clinical trials of a duration of over 2 months conducted in patients with generalized anxiety disorder in order to identify any successful long-term treatment of this disorder. Only eight long-term reports of studies conducted in well-defined homogeneous groups of patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder were found with the methodology of these studies presenting a number of limiting factors. The results are inconclusive and no reference drug could be identified. In addition, an adequate evaluation of the long-term treatment of GAD has not yet been performed.

  8. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  9. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  10. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  11. Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Carbon emissions from the Arctic tundra could increase drastically as global warming thaws permafrost. Clues now obtained about the long-term effects of such thawing on carbon dioxide emissions highlight the need for more data.

  12. Lead and Copper Rule Long-Term Revisions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal for the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) Long-Term Revisions is to improve public health protection provided by the by making substantive changes based on topics that were identified in the 2004 National Review.

  13. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data.

  14. Finance issue brief: long-term care insurance.

    PubMed

    Mintz, E

    1999-08-03

    States are turning their attention to long-term care insurance, spurred by a 1996 federal law and an increasingly urgent need for more options to finance the care of their rapidly growing elderly populations.

  15. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al. 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths (containing radioactive 99Tc and stable 127I spikes and for original Westsik et al. 2013 fabricated monoliths, 238U), it was suggested that physical changes to the waste forms and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. These novel investigations, in both length of leaching time and application of solid state techniques, provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long- term leached Cast Stone monolith samples.

  16. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-Ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate.

  17. Long-term moderate exercise accelerates the recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Lung; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Jen, Chauying J; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term exercise on stress-evoked cardiovascular responses and to emphasize post-stress recovery effects. Male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of moderate treadmill training, with cardiovascular responses, autonomic nervous system activities and local Fos reactivity changes in the cardiovascular regulation center were monitored before, during and after immobilization stress. A spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters was used to examine autonomic nervous activities. We found that long-term exercise (i) lowered resting BP, HR and sympathetic activity, but increased resting parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); (ii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular and sympathetic responses along with increased BRS and (iii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked neuron activations in the paraventricular nucleus, but delayed it in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. We conclude that, in rats, long-term exercise accelerated recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses differentially altering hypothalamic and medullar neuron activities.

  18. Superior long-term stability of a glucose biosensor based on inserted barrel plating gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Hsiao, Hung-Chan; Fang, Mei-Yen; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-10-15

    Disposable one shot usage blood glucose strips are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus and their performance can vary greatly. In this paper we critically evaluated the long-term stability of glucose strips made of barrel plating gold electrodes. Compared to other glucose biosensing platforms of vapor deposited palladium and screen printed carbon electrodes, the proposed glucose biosensor was found to show the best stability among the three biosensing platforms in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C for 6 months with an average bias of 3.4% at glucose concentrations of 5-20 mM. The precision test of this barrel plating gold glucose biosensor also showed the best performance (coefficients of variation in the range of 1.4-2.4%) in thermal acceleration experiments at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C for 27 days. Error grid analysis revealed that all measurements fell in zone A and zone B. Regression analysis showed no significant difference between the proposed biosensor and the reference method at 99% confidence level. The amperometric glucose biosensor fabricated by inserting two barrel plating gold electrodes onto an injection-molding plastic base followed by immobilizing with a bio-reagent layer and membrane was very impressive with a long-term stability up to 2.5 years at 25 degrees C. Overall, these results indicated that the glucose oxidase/barrel plating gold biosensing platform is ideal for long-term accurate glycemic control.

  19. Long-term geochemical evolution of acidic mine wastes under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenzhou; Lin, Chuxia; Ma, Yingqun

    2013-08-01

    A nearly 5-year anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted to observe the geochemical evolution of an acidic mine waste. Long-term storage of the mine waste under strict anaerobic conditions caused marked increase in aqueous sulfur, while aqueous iron showed no remarkable change. Co-existing oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur appeared to play a central role in controlling the evolutionary trends of aqueous sulfur and iron. Addition of organic matter increased the aqueous Fe concentration, possibly due to enhanced iron mobilization by microbial iron reduction and increased iron solubility by forming organically complexed Fe species. Further addition of CaCO3 resulted in immobilization of aqueous iron and sulfur due to elevated pH and gypsum formation. The chemical behaviors of environmentally significant metals were markedly affected by the added organic matter; Al, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn tended to be immobilized probably due to elevated pH and complexation with insoluble organic molecules, while As and Pb tended to be mobilized. Jarosite exhibited high stability after nearly 5 years of anaerobic incubation and even under circumneutral pH conditions. Long-term weathering of aluminosilicate through acid attack raised pH, while continuous reaction between the added CaCO3 and mine waste-borne stored acid decreased pH.

  20. Long-term care: a substantive factor in financial planning.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 percent of women will enter a nursing home at some point in their lives. About one-third of men living to age 65 will also need nursing home care. Planning for long-term care is even more important since Medicare covers very little of the cost of such care. The Indiana Partnership Plan is one program designed to help fund the long-term care costs while allowing individuals protect other financial assets.

  1. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  2. The Long-Term Behavior of Known & Suspected Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, A.

    2017-03-01

    The long-term evolution of classical novae is poorly understood. I discuss here an in-progress project designed to better understand the post-eruption behavior of novae and test the Hibernation theory of nova evolution. The project has two main parts: (1) a modern survey of Galactic nova magnitudes, and (2) construction of long-term light curves using primarily archival photographic plates.

  3. Long-term Morphological Modeling at Coastal Inlets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    The CMS consists of an integrated numerical modeling system for simulating wave, current, water levels, sediment transport and morphology change ...In order to quantify the physical effects of long-term, regional climactic changes in the environment, numerical morphodynamic models must be able...components of long-term, regional climactic changes in the environment. Numerical morphodynamic models must be able to reproduce the known generic

  4. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  5. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours.

  6. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents.

  7. Motivating the paraprofessional in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Vance, A; Davidhizar, R

    1997-06-01

    Motivating the paraprofessional employee in the long-term care setting is one of the biggest challenges facing health care supervisors. Unlike their counterparts in industry, whose work may produce tangible results and rewards, long-term care professionals often must face patients who show little or no change over time. Supervisors must have understanding and knowledge of motivational techniques that will involve and challenge paraprofessionals.

  8. Planning long-term vegetation studies at landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term ecological research is receiving more attention now than ever before. Two recent books, Long-term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives, edited by Gene Likens (1989), and Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective, edited by Paul Risser (1991), prompt the question, “Why are these books so thin?” Except for data from paleoecological, retrospective studies (see below), there are exceptionally few long-term data sets in terrestrial ecology (Strayer et al. 1986; Tilman 1989; this volume). In a sample of 749 papers published in Ecology, Tilman (1989) found that only 1.7% of the studies lasted at least five field seasons. Only one chapter in each of the review books dealt specifically with expanding both the temporal and the spatial scales of ecological research (Berkowitz et al. 1989; Magnuson et al. 1991). Judging by the growing number of landscape-scale long-term studies, however, such as the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (Callahan 1991), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP; Palmer et al. 1991), the U.S. Army’s Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program (Diersing et al. 1992), and various agencies’ global change research programs (CEES 1993), there is a growing interest to expand ecological research both temporally and spatially.

  9. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  10. Long-term recovery of normal sexual function in testicular cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Ferrari, Matteo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; La Croce, Giovanni; Capitanio, Umberto; Briganti, Alberto; Damiano, Rocco; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common solid cancer in men between the third and fourth decade of life. Due to successful treatment approaches, TC survivors (TCSs) have long life expectancy, but with numerous potential long-term sequelae, including sexual dysfunction. We investigated predictors of long-term normal sexual function (SF) recovery in TCSs. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychometric data were analyzed in 143 Caucasian-European TCSs, who underwent orchiectomy at a single institution. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Statistical models tested the association between predictors (including age at surgery, body mass index, CCI, and adjuvant therapy: radiotherapy [RT], chemotherapy [CT], CT followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection [RPLND] and RPLND alone) and the long-term recovery of normal SF (defined as IIEF-erectile function [EF] ≥26, and sexual desire [SD], intercourse satisfaction [IS] orgasmic function [OF], and overall satisfaction [OS] domain scores in the upper tertiles). At a mean follow-up of 86 months, 35 (25.5%) TCSs had erectile dysfunction (ED), with 16 (11.2%) experiencing severe ED. Median time of EF recovery was 60, 60, and 70 months after CT, RT, and RPLND, respectively. Only adjuvant RT emerged as an independent predictor of nonrecovery of normal EF (HR: 0.55, P= 0.01). Neither adjuvant CT nor CT plus RPLND or RPLND alone significantly impaired the recovery of normal erections. Adjuvant therapy was not associated with impaired recovery of normal sexuality as a whole, considering the IIEF-SD, -OF, -IS, and OS domains. PMID:26112476

  11. Long-term treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin in phenylketonuria: treatment strategies and prediction of long-term responders.

    PubMed

    Hennermann, Julia B; Roloff, Sylvia; Gebauer, Christine; Vetter, Barbara; von Arnim-Baas, Annabel; Mönch, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsive phenylketonuria has been described more than 10 years ago. However, criteria for the identification of long-term BH4 responsive patients are not yet established. 116 patients with phenylketonuria, aged 4-18 years, were screened for potential long-term BH4 responsiveness by at least two of the following criteria: positive neonatal BH4 loading test, putative BH4 responsive genotype, and/or milder phenotype. Patients had to be on permanent dietary treatment. 23 patients fulfilled these criteria and were tested for long-term BH4 responsiveness: 18/23 were long-term BH4 responsive, 5/23 were not. On long-term BH4 treatment over a period of 48 ± 27 months in a dose of 14.9 ± 3.3mg/kg/day phenylalanine tolerance was increased from 452 ± 201 mg/day to 1593 ± 647 mg/day, corresponding to a mean increase of 1141 ± 528 mg/day. Dietary phenylalanine intake was increased stepwise according to a clear defined protocol. In 8/18 patients, diet was completely liberalized; 10/18 patients still received phenylalanine-free amino acid formula with 0.63 ± 0.23 g/kg/day. The most predictive value for long-term BH4 responsiveness was the combination of pretreatment phenylalanine of < 1200 μmol/L, pretreatment phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio of <15, phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio of <15 on treatment, phenylalanine tolerance of >20mg/kg/day at age 3 years, positive neonatal BH4 loading, and at least one putative BH4 responsive mutation (p = 0.00024). Our data show that long-term BH4 responsiveness may be predicted already during neonatal period by determining maximum pretreatment phenylalanine and phenylalanine/tyrosine concentrations, neonatal BH4 loading and PAH genotype. A clear defined protocol is necessary to install long-term BH4 treatment.

  12. Long-term treatment of major depressive disorder with paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Duboff, E A

    1993-12-01

    Recurrent unipolar depression is a common, but undertreated disorder. Many patients require long-term maintenance therapy, and full doses of antidepressant agents may be preferred for the prevention of relapse. We report results of a 1-year, multicenter, open-label study of paroxetine (10 to 50 mg/day) in 433 patients with major depressive disorder, with additional data from 110 patients who entered a long-term extension of the study. The primary measures of efficacy were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) total and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity of illness scores. During the first 6 weeks of therapy, the mean HAM-D total declined approximately 50% (from 27.9 to 13.5), with continued improvement, at an attenuated rate, throughout the first year. At the end of 1 year, the mean HAM-D total was 6.9. Similarly, the CGI severity of illness score declined from 4.6 at baseline to 2.8 at week 6 and to 1.7 at the end of 1 year. Remission was maintained in the population that entered the long-term extension, with mean HAM-D total and CGI severity of illness scores of 6.4 and 1.8, respectively, after 2.5 years, and 4.2 and 1.3 after 4 years. The most common adverse events reported during long-term treatment with paroxetine were somnolence, nausea, headache, and sweating. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no clear correlation between the concentrations of paroxetine in plasma and either clinical efficacy or tolerability. There was no increased drug accumulation during long-term treatment. Side effects tended to occur early during therapy; and no new side effects emerged during the long-term extension. These results suggest that paroxetine is effective and well tolerated in the long-term treatment of depression.

  13. Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

    2011-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil

  14. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse.

  15. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  16. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  17. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  18. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  19. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia.

  20. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; ...

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  1. An Exotic Long-Term Pattern in Stock Price Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Background To accurately predict the movement of stock prices is always of both academic importance and practical value. So far, a lot of research has been reported to help understand the behavior of stock prices. However, some of the existing theories tend to render us the belief that the time series of stock prices are unpredictable on a long-term timescale. The question arises whether the long-term predictability exists in stock price dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we analyze the price reversals in the US stock market and the Chinese stock market on the basis of a renormalization method. The price reversals are divided into two types: retracements (the downward trends after upward trends) and rebounds (the upward trends after downward trends), of which the intensities are described by dimensionless quantities, and , respectively. We reveal that for both mature and emerging markets, the distribution of either retracements or rebounds shows two characteristic values, 0.335 and 0.665, both of which are robust over the long term. Conclusions/Significance The methodology presented here provides a way to quantify the stock price reversals. Our findings strongly support the existence of the long-term predictability in stock price dynamics, and may offer a hint on how to predict the long-term movement of stock prices. PMID:23284734

  2. Long-term management of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weightman, Cherie

    2006-07-01

    This article explores the challenges of long-term case management for patients who have multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently there is scant research into district nursing input into long-term management of patients who have MS. Until now the role of the community nurses has been confined to palliation or terminal care, focusing on the more physical manifestations of MS. The contemporary role of district nurse is going to evolve to include proactive approaches. Governmental initiatives demand proactive services, and place emphasis on self-care for patients with MS. Themes that emerge from this article relate to the pre-existing skills--such as managing patients with complex needs and the advanced assessment skills--that will be required to achieve this. What is clear is that community nurses already possess many of the prerequisite skills needed for long-term management, and they should not be daunted by this prospect.

  3. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding of the mechanisms of RNA decay will be crucial for developing expectations on its long-term survival. PMID:23618361

  4. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  5. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  6. Documenting Long-term Earth System Evolution With Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, J. A.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Cramer, B.; Karl, T.; Privette, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite observations play a critical role in documenting earth system evolution, both in terms of characterizing prior and current evolution of the Earth and providing a baseline against which future measurements can be compared. Given that the construction of the necessary long-term data sets requires the use of multiple instruments on multiple platforms, each of which may have their own characteristics, drifts, and degradation, this represents a significant challenge to the scientific community. Over the last 30-or so years, going back to the launch of the Nimbus 7 in 1978, earth scientists learned significant lessons about how to create accurate and stable long-term data records. Sponsoring agencies have tried to capture the lessons and use them as a basis for planning for future systems. This presentation will examine and present future approaches to maximize the quality of the long-term data records produced from earth satellites.

  7. Long-term effects of nanoparticles on nutrition and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Wang, Hui; Huang, Qing; Li, Jiang; Yan, Juan; He, Dannong; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2014-09-24

    Nanoparticles have shown great potential in biological and biomedical applications due to their distinct physical and chemical properties. In the meanwhile, the biosafety of nanoparticles has also raised intense concerns worldwide. To address such concerns, great efforts have been made to examine short-term effects of nanoparticles on cell survival and proliferation. More recently, exploration of long-term effects of nanomaterials, particularly those with promising biomedical applications in vivo, has aroused significant interest. For example, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are generally considered non-toxic to cell growth, whereas recent studies suggest that AuNPs might have long-term effects on cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. In this Review, recent advances in this direction are summarized. Further, possible mechanisms under which nanoparticles regulate metabolic signaling pathways, potential long-term effects on cellular anabolic or catabolic processes, and their implications in human health and metabolic disorders are discussed.

  8. [Renal side effects of long-term lithium therapy].

    PubMed

    Ibbeken, C; Becker, J U; Baumgärtel, M W

    2012-01-01

    Lithium is widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Long-term administration of lithium often leads to side effects concerning the subjects: nephrology, endocrinology and surgery. This review emphasizes nephrotoxicity.Lithium treatment may disturb responsiveness to antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Furthermore long-term lithium therapy may trigger hyperparathyreoidism with hypercalcemia and chronic interstitial nephritis with development of microcysts. Long-term patients have an increased risk to develop impaired renal function. Lithium-induced endstage renal disease is rare. Termination of lithium treatment may decrease the risk of progression.To ensure security of lithium treatment regular controls of urine osmolarity, lithium-, creatinine- , thyroid stimulating hormone- and calcium-levels are essential. Patients with decreased renal function should be referred to a specialist early.

  9. Long-term visual tracking based on correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Quanlu; Lao, Songyang; Bai, Liang

    2017-03-01

    In order to accomplish the long term visual tracking task in complex scenes, solve problems of scale variation, appearance variation and tracking failure, a long term tracking algorithm is given based on the framework of collaborative correlation tracking. Firstly, we integrate several powerful features to boost the represent ability based on the kernel correlation filter, and extend the filter by embedding a scale factor into the kernelized matrix to handle the scale variation. Then, we use the Peak-Sidelobe Ratio to decide whether the object is tracked successfully, and a CUR filter for re-detection the object in case of tracking failure is learnt with random sampling. Corresponding experiment is performed on 17 challenging benchmark video sequences. Compared with the 8 existing state-of-the-art algorithms based on discriminative learning method, the results show that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance on several indexes, and is robust to complex scenes for long term visual tracking.

  10. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  11. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  12. Viability of long-term gene therapy in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Patrick J; Wise, Andrew K; Flynn, Brianna O; Nayagam, Bryony A; Richardson, Rachael T

    2014-04-22

    Gene therapy has been investigated as a way to introduce a variety of genes to treat neurological disorders. An important clinical consideration is its long-term effectiveness. This research aims to study the long-term expression and effectiveness of gene therapy in promoting spiral ganglion neuron survival after deafness. Adenoviral vectors modified to express brain derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3 were unilaterally injected into the guinea pig cochlea one week post ototoxic deafening. After six months, persistence of gene expression and significantly greater neuronal survival in neurotrophin-treated cochleae compared to the contralateral cochleae were observed. The long-term gene expression observed indicates that gene therapy is potentially viable; however the degeneration of the transduced cells as a result of the original ototoxic insult may limit clinical effectiveness. With further research aimed at transducing stable cochlear cells, gene therapy may be an efficacious way to introduce neurotrophins to promote neuronal survival after hearing loss.

  13. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  14. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2011-07-01

    extent and initial rate of bioreduction were positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series (i.e., layer expandability). Fe(II) in the bioreduced clay minerals subsequently was used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) in PIPES buffer. Similar to the trend of bioreduction, in the S-I series, reduced smectite showed the highest reactivity toward Tc(VII), and reduced illite exhibited the least. The initial rate of Tc(VII) reduction, after normalization to clay and Fe(II) concentrations, was positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series. Fe(II) in chlorite and palygorskite was also reactive toward Tc(VII) reduction. These data demonstrate that crystal chemical parameters (layer expandability, Fe and Fe(II) contents, and surface area etc.) play important roles in controlling the extent and rate of bioreduction and the reactivity toward Tc(VII) reduction. Reduced Tc(IV) resides within clay mineral matrix, and this association could minimize any potential of reoxidation over long term.

  15. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  16. Assessing the market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Rice, J A; Taylor, S

    1984-02-01

    Traditionally, long-term care services have been used by a diverse marketplace. The chronically ill, developmentally disabled, mentally ill and aging population has looked to long-term care support services as a means of physical and emotional support. Much of the time these services were housed together for the sake of efficiency. The enormous burden these services are creating on the economy, and the growing aging population, have forced the recognition that long-term care service delivery systems must change. Alternate programming for long-term care services that reach out into the community and into individual homes is becoming an attractive approach to meeting the growing demands of the marketplace. Home health, specialized housing and creative funding mechanisms such as HMOs, are examples of initiatives undertaken by healthcare organizations that view diversification as a vehicle for survival. Market research techniques that have been used in other industries are being adapted to the healthcare industry to ensure the proper mix of services that are demanded by older, more knowledgeable consumers. The programs of the future will be market driven, with the ability of the individual to pay for such services playing a significant role. The healthcare provider of today is in a position to serve the community in new ways. By becoming an integral link in the long-term care system and by developing new programs, the organization can serve as a catalyst for change. It is up to the governing bodies and managers of these facilities to become visionaries and to accept responsibility for assessing the market for long-term care services and to guide their organization into the future.

  17. Morphodynamic length scale and long term river meandering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.

    2009-12-01

    The fully nonlinear simulation of the lateral migration of meandering channels, combined with an analytical description of the linearized flow field, gives a powerful and yet computationally accessible tool to investigate short and long term evolution of alluvial rivers. In the present contribution we focus on the long term behavior of meandering rivers. This class of dynamical systems is driven by the coexistence of various intrinsically nonlinear mechanisms which determine the possible occurrence of two different morphodynamic regimes: the sub-resonant and the super-resonant regime. Investigating the full range of morphodynamic conditions, we end up with a new morphodynamic length scale associated with spatially oscillating disturbances, accounting for both curvature-forced variations in velocity and depth and alternate bars. Once normalized with this length scale, the relevant morphologic features of the simulated long term patterns (i.e. the probability density function of the local channel curvature and the geometric characteristics of the oxbow lakes) tend to collapse on two distinct behaviors, depending on the dominant morphologic regime. The long term river meandering dynamics is then investigated. The occurrence of cutoff events is a key mechanism in the dynamics of these systems. They introduce a strong source of nonlinearity in the evolution of river meandering, which strongly contributes to the formation of the complex planform patterns usually observed in nature. To detect the possible signatures of a chaotic behavior or a self-organized criticality state triggered in river meandering dynamics by the repeated occurrence of cutoffs, some robust nonlinear methodologies have been applied to both the spatial series of local curvatures and the time series of long term channel sinuosity. The temporal distribution of cutoff inter-arrivals is also investigated. The results are consistent and show that, at least from a modelling point of view, no evidence of

  18. The Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselmann, K.; Latif, M.; Hooss, G.; Azar, C.; Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C. C.; Johannessen, O. M.; Kemfert, C.; Welp, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial time scale of climate change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important first step, to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market-based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short-term targets and long-term goals.

  19. Storability Investigations of Water Long-Term Storage Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    previously for the other tankage and then descaled in a pickling solution of 33.2% HN03 , 1.6% HF, and 65.2% water at 140°F for 3 minutes. The titanium...AD/A-004 462 STORABILITY INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER LONG-TERM STORAGE EVALUATION E. M. Vander Wall, et al I Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company Prc pared for...Investigations of Water , Long-Term ,Annual Storage Evaluation 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU THOR(s) 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMPEIR(.) Vander Wall, E. M

  20. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, R. P.; Biswas, S.; Das, S.; Ghosal, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Mondal, A.; Nag, D.; Nayak, T. K.; Patra, R. N.; Prasad, S. K.; Raha, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S.; Swain, S.

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long-term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  1. Metabolic bone diseases during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Acca, M; Ragno, A; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E

    2007-01-01

    Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a procedure commonly applied to patients with advanced forms of intestinal malabsorption. Among TPN complications, bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia, are a common finding. Initially considered to be a manifestation of aluminium toxicity which followed massive contamination with the element of the solutions used in TPN, metabolic osteopathy during TPN is currently considered a multiform syndrome, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, which may manifest itself with vague or clear clinical pictures. In this review, we analyse clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of the most common bone metabolic diseases in patients undergoing long-term TPN.

  2. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  3. Long-term Outcomes in Youths with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    White, Neil H

    2015-08-01

    In this article, the author reviews the long-term outcomes and their precursors of type 1 diabetes starting in youth. The author also contrasts the changing incidence of these long-term complications as we have moved from the pre-Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) to the post-DCCT standard of care and reviews the emerging data related to complications in youths with type 2 diabetes. Finally, the author reviews the recent understanding related to the effects of diabetes on the brain and cognition.

  4. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  5. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  6. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  7. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  8. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  9. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  10. Technetium Incorporation in Glass for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    . Long-term corrosion of glass waste forms is an area of current interest to the DOE, but attention to the release of Tc from glass has been little explored. It is expected that the release of Tc from glass should be highly dependent on the local glass structure as well as the chemistry of the surrounding environment, including groundwater pH. Though the speciation of Tc in glass has been previously studied, and the Tc species present in waste glass have been previously reported, environmental Tc release mechanisms are poorly understood. The recent advances in Tc chemistry that have given rise to an understanding of incorporation in the glass giving rise to significantly higher single-pass retention during vitrification are presented. Additionally, possible changes to the baseline flowsheet that allow for relatively minor volumes of Tc reporting to secondary waste treatment will be discussed.

  11. Interference Effects in Young Children's Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of interference on young children's long-term memory using paired-association recall and free recall. The results indicated that children were susceptible to interference, the locus of interference effects was at storage, and that both younger (preschool) and older (kindergarten) children experienced similar…

  12. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ensure stability of employment and development of job skills for persons who are blind or have...

  13. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  14. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  15. The Aging Network and Managed Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer…

  16. The aging network and managed long-term care.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer cost-effective community programs while operating within fixed, capped budgets. They have also been able to identify and maintain roles for informal caregivers, draw on community resources through donations and the use of volunteers, and create substantial political support. In this article we argue that the aging network should draw on these strengths to develop integrated long-term-care systems designed to shift the balance of state long-term-care systems from institutional to home- and community-based services. We also argue that the nonprofit aging network, because it is made up of area agencies on aging and service providers, provides a potentially more effective framework for the integration of long-term-care resources than do proprietary managed care organizations.

  17. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  19. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of an Urban Farming Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonti, Nancy Falxa; Campbell, Lindsay K.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Daftary-Steel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Long-term impacts of an urban farming youth internship were evaluated in Brooklyn, New York. Alumni surveyed 1 to 9 years after program completion were enrolled in college or graduate school at higher rates than their peers and reported connections to the environment and healthy eating. Participants reported learning job skills through the…

  1. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  2. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  3. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  4. Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends--population…

  5. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development.

  6. Annotated Bibliography of Intramural Research on Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    As components of the National Center for Health Services Research Division of Intramural Research, the Long-Term Care Studies Program and the Aging Studies Program were established to define the problems of caring for the chronically ill and the elderly and to study the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services to these…

  7. Long-Term English Learners Writing Their Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    High school teacher C. Lynn Jacobs noted that the long-term English language learners in her class had improved in reading comprehension but still lacked writing skills. Inspired by a state humanities project, she worked with the students to publish a collection of stories and poems. Writing about their lives provided the motivation, and writing…

  8. Long term management practices influenced soil aggregation and carbon dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation protects soil organic C (SOC) against rapid decomposition, improves soil quality, and reduces soil erosion potential. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of long-term (21 yrs.) management practices on SOC, water stable aggregate (WSA), and aggregate-associated ...

  9. Noise-Making amongst the Elderly in Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David Patrick; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Nurses in long-term care facilities indicated that about 30 percent of residents presented noise-making behavior. From descriptions, typology of noise-making was identified: purposeless and perseverative noise-making, noise-making in response to environment, noise-making to elicit response from environment, "chatterbox" noise-making,…

  10. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  11. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  12. Rhinovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Longtin, Jean; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne Luise; Patel, Samir; Eshaghi, Alireza; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2010-09-01

    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities. Using surveillance data, we found that rhinovirus caused 59% (174/297) of respiratory outbreaks in these facilities during 6 months in 2009. Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza.

  13. Rhinovirus Outbreaks in Long-term Care Facilities, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne-Luise; Patel, Samir; Eshaghi, Alireza; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities. Using surveillance data, we found that rhinovirus caused 59% (174/297) of respiratory outbreaks in these facilities during 6 months in 2009. Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza. PMID:20735934

  14. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  15. Long Term Effects of Drug Use on General Mental Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Charles C.

    A private corporation conducted a study for the United States Air Force in 1973, investigating the long term effects of drug use on general mental ability. The air force personnel selected for participation in the study were 3741 known drug users and 6772 controls. Subjects received requests to sign a form allowing their high schools to release…

  16. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    PubMed

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities.

  17. Descriptive Characteristics of Long-Term Private Practice Psychotherapy Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    Data from public and private sectors reveal that few persons stay in psychotherapy long enough to be classified as "long-term" clients. Those who do remain in psychotherapy for a long time are rarely studied because attention has generally been focused on terminators. Demographic, treatment, and psychometric characteristics of 64 long-term…

  18. Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

  19. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies.

  20. Security basics for long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The need for Long-Term Care (LTC) facilities is growing, the author reports, and along with it the need for programs to address the major security concerns of such facilities. In this article he explains how to apply the IAHSS Healthcare Security Industry Guidelines and the Design Guidelines to achieve a safer LTC facility.

  1. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... customer has title to, control over, or bears the risk of loss from, the property manufactured or... under a long-term contract will subject all other items in that contract to section 460. (2) Hybrid... construction activities (hybrid contract) generally must be classified as two contracts, a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... customer has title to, control over, or bears the risk of loss from, the property manufactured or... under a long-term contract will subject all other items in that contract to section 460. (2) Hybrid... construction activities (hybrid contract) generally must be classified as two contracts, a...

  4. Case report: Long-term cognitive sequelae of sarin exposure.

    PubMed

    Loh, Yince; Swanberg, Margaret M; Ingram, M Victoria; Newmark, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    The long-term sequelae of acute sarin exposure are not well understood. The largest clinical cohort resulted from the 1994 and 1995 attacks in Japan. Observers noted mostly psychiatric sequelae, with a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We describe neurocognitive findings that may represent sequelae of low-level sarin exposure in Iraq.

  5. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  6. Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberski, Julian; Brodie, Iain D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The value and difficulties of long-term ecological monitoring studies undertaken in schools and colleges are reviewed. Rookeries, stream ecology, sand dune succession, fish population, and seed production and survival are presented as examples of successful studies. This is followed by a discussion of points to consider when setting up a long-term…

  7. Gender Relations, Family Relations and Long-Term Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard; Hutson, Susan

    The relationship between long-term youth unemployment and family relationships and that between youth unemployment and courtship and marriage patterns were examined in a study conducted in two towns in South Wales. Thirty-seven young men and 26 young women between the ages of 18 and 25 who had been unemployed for 6 months or longer were…

  8. Long Term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis With earlier cancer diagnosis among older cancer patients, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have long lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose and properly manage the long term toxicities of cancer treatment, in order to maintain quality of life of older cancer survivors PMID:26614861

  9. PLUME-SCALER-EVALUATING LONG-TERM MONITORING WELL NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is developing a new computer application called PLUME-SCALER to evaluate long term monitoring well networks using typically available historical site water level data. PLUME-SCALER can be used to determine if there are enough ...

  10. Mathematics Learning Development: The Role of Long-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.; Caterino, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between long-term memory retrieval and mathematics calculation and mathematics problem solving achievement among elementary, middle, and high school students in nationally representative sample of US students, when controlling for fluid and crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, and processing speed. As…

  11. Suicidal Behavior in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…

  12. Dilution as a Model of Long-Term Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdale, Mark; Baguley, Thom

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a model of long term forgetting based on 3 ideas: (a) Memory for a stimulus can be described by a population of accessible traces; (b) probability of retrieval after a delay is predicted by the proportion of traces in this population that will be defined as correct if sampled; and (c) this population is diluted over time by…

  13. [Psychosocial issues of long-term cancer survivors].

    PubMed

    Weis, J; Faller, H

    2012-04-01

    Although cancer incidence rates are increasing, recent statistical studies suggest that cancer patients are showing higher cure rates as well as improved overall survival rates for most cancer locations. These advances are explained by improved strategies in early diagnoses as well as improved cancer therapies. Therefore, the number of long-term cancer survivors has also increased, but only few studies, especially within the last years, have focused on psychosocial issues of this subgroup. Some studies show that overall quality of life of long-term cancer survivors is quite high and comparable to that of the normal population. Nevertheless, a substantial percentage of former patients shows reduced quality of life and suffers from various sequelae of cancer and its treatment. This review focuses on the most common psychosocial issue of long-term survivors such as reduced psychological wellbeing, neuropsychological deficits and cancer-related fatigue syndrome. Finally, recommendations for problem-oriented interventions as well as improvement of psychosocial care of long-term survivors are given.

  14. Perceptions of Abuse in the Long-Term Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, D.; And Others

    Although elder abuse has received much attention in recent years, little is known about long-term care staff perceptions of active and passive abuse. Health care professionals (N=72) responsible for direct care of patients within a 275-bed skilled nursing facility completed questionnaires on elder abuse. Responses were from physicians (N=6),…

  15. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... earned on any hypothetical overpayment of tax, attributable to accounting for the long-term contract... taxpayer may determine the income from an exempt construction contract using any accounting method... of accounting), regardless of a taxpayer's overall method of accounting. See § 1.461-4(d)(2)(ii)...

  16. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  17. Air Force Research Laboratory’s Focused Long Term Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) mission is to provide support to the Air Force (AF) and the warfighters with... Air Force Research Laboratory’s Focused Long Term Challenges Leo J Rose Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory , 101 W Eglin Blvd...This technology vision, which was born in our Air Force Research Laboratory , builds on the Air Force’s traditional kill

  18. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  19. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  20. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  1. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  3. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... care providers and detect any problems early. What Causes Late Effects Some cancer treatments damage healthy cells. The damage ... cells grow. Radiation therapy has a more direct effect on long-term growth ... surgery is performed, it may cause changes in the growth or function of an ...

  4. Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Remedial Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightbill, Mary

    The long-term effects (after 3 to 5 years) of remedial reading instruction were examined. Comparison was made on reading achievement scores and on achievement ratios between a group of 16 former remedial reading clinic students, aged 12 to 20, and a matched group which did not receive remedial instruction. In addition, 45 former remedial readers…

  6. Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils' Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Bianco, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that a teacher has a substantial impact on how much pupils learn. However, research on the long-term effects of teachers is scarce, and the results obtained so far are inconsistent. Some studies have concluded that teacher effects are relatively permanent, while others claim that they fade away more or less rapidly…

  7. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  8. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  9. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  10. Recommendations for Long Term Care in an Elderly Medicaid Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Shirley S.; McAuley, William J.

    The State of Virginia has had a statewide nursing home preadmission screening program since 1977 and has made efforts to ensure appropriate placement of individuals in long term care settings. In a major effort to divert certain individuals from institutionalization, a personal care option has been provided. Using data from the Preadmission…

  11. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  12. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  13. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  14. Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of…

  15. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  16. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  17. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  18. Effective Counseling Strategies for Supporting Long-Term Suspended Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janet L.; Sparks, Eric; Lewis, Rita G.; Niedrich, Kris; Hall, Mary; Johnson, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Long-term suspended (LTS) students are barred from the school system for lengthy periods, leaving them at risk of academic failure and vulnerable from lack of services. A program in a North Carolina public school system provided counselors to work with each LTS student. Outcome data were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of counseling…

  19. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    .... Functions and Responsibilities of the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman G. State Agency Responsibilities... for Aging in areas related to: 1. The roles, responsibilities and relationship of the State agency on... the individual roles and responsibilities of the Ombudsman (or representatives of the Office)...

  20. Arkansas Long Term Care Facility Nursing Assistant Training Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock.

    This curriculum is designed for use in developing training programs for nursing assistants who provide nursing or nursing-related services to residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Implementation provisions provide a general overview of the basic requirements found in Arkansas' Nursing Assistant Training Program "Rules and Regulations." The…

  1. Relating Granger causality to long-term causal effects.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Dmitry A; Mokhov, Igor I

    2015-10-01

    In estimation of causal couplings between observed processes, it is important to characterize coupling roles at various time scales. The widely used Granger causality reflects short-term effects: it shows how strongly perturbations of a current state of one process affect near future states of another process, and it quantifies that via prediction improvement (PI) in autoregressive models. However, it is often more important to evaluate the effects of coupling on long-term statistics, e.g., to find out how strongly the presence of coupling changes the variance of a driven process as compared to an uncoupled case. No general relationships between Granger causality and such long-term effects are known. Here, we pose the problem of relating these two types of coupling characteristics, and we solve it for a class of stochastic systems. Namely, for overdamped linear oscillators, we rigorously derive that the above long-term effect is proportional to the short-term effects, with the proportionality coefficient depending on the prediction interval and relaxation times. We reveal that this coefficient is typically considerably greater than unity so that small normalized PI values may well correspond to quite large long-term effects of coupling. The applicability of the derived relationship to wider classes of systems, its limitations, and its value for further research are discussed. To give a real-world example, we analyze couplings between large-scale climatic processes related to sea surface temperature variations in equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic regions.

  2. Relating Granger causality to long-term causal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Dmitry A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2015-10-01

    In estimation of causal couplings between observed processes, it is important to characterize coupling roles at various time scales. The widely used Granger causality reflects short-term effects: it shows how strongly perturbations of a current state of one process affect near future states of another process, and it quantifies that via prediction improvement (PI) in autoregressive models. However, it is often more important to evaluate the effects of coupling on long-term statistics, e.g., to find out how strongly the presence of coupling changes the variance of a driven process as compared to an uncoupled case. No general relationships between Granger causality and such long-term effects are known. Here, we pose the problem of relating these two types of coupling characteristics, and we solve it for a class of stochastic systems. Namely, for overdamped linear oscillators, we rigorously derive that the above long-term effect is proportional to the short-term effects, with the proportionality coefficient depending on the prediction interval and relaxation times. We reveal that this coefficient is typically considerably greater than unity so that small normalized PI values may well correspond to quite large long-term effects of coupling. The applicability of the derived relationship to wider classes of systems, its limitations, and its value for further research are discussed. To give a real-world example, we analyze couplings between large-scale climatic processes related to sea surface temperature variations in equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic regions.

  3. Long-Term Care: Common Issues and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine; Miake, Naoko; Farag, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    All industrialized countries are grappling with a common problem--how to provide assistance of various kinds to their rapidly aging populations. The problem for countries searching for models of efficient and high-quality long-term care (LTC) policies is that fewer than a dozen countries have government-organized, formal LTC policies. Relatively…

  4. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  5. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  6. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  7. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  8. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors.

  9. Crystalline Concepts in Long-Term Mathematical Invention and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of "crystalline concept" as a focal idea in long-term mathematical thinking, bringing together the geometric development of Van Hiele, process-object encapsulation, and formal axiomatic systems. Each of these is a strand in the framework of "three worlds of mathematics" with its own special characteristics, but all…

  10. Long Term Synaptic Plasticity and Learning in Neuronal Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-14

    2312/Al Al -p 1. TITLE (Include Security Classification) ’a LONG TERM SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY AND LEARNING IN NEURONAL NETWORKS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Analysis of Simple Neuronal Networks " (2nd Annual Symposium on Networks in Brain and Computer Architecture, North Texas State University, Denton, TX

  11. Long-term results after robotically assisted coronary bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramahi, Jehad; Hasan, Faisal; Edris, Ahmad; Bartel, Thomas; Nair, Ravi; Tuzcu, Murat; Suri, Rakesh; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Background Robotically-assisted coronary bypass grafting (CABG) was introduced in 1998 and dedicated centers have continuously applied and developed this minimally invasive method of coronary bypass surgery. While short-term results are relatively well published, data on long-term outcome are limited. In this literature review, we assessed the outcomes after robotic CABG following the first postoperative year. Methods We searched PubMed for articles containing the terms “robotic” or “robotically assisted” and “coronary bypass”. A total of 11 papers contained long-term results. We specifically investigated survival, graft patency, freedom from angina and re-intervention, as well as freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results Five-year survival after robotic CABG was consistently consistently greater than 90% and graft patency between 3 and 5 years was reported to be above 90%. Fifteen percent to 26% of patients re-experienced angina at 3 to 5 years postoperatively. Long-term freedom from re-intervention reached the range and the 5-year freedom from MACCE rate was approximately 75%. Conclusions According to data in the literature, long-term results after CABG carried out with the assistance of a surgical robot appear to be in line with results achieved after conventional CABG. PMID:27942487

  12. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  13. Does Head Start Yield Long-Term Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aughinbaugh, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Using 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data (n=7,787), the relationship between Head Start and school suspensions, grade repetition, and math achievement was examined. Estimates indicate that Head Start does not have long-term benefits, a finding compatible with studies showing that compensatory preschool programs need to be long in…

  14. Elders' Use of Informal Long-Term Care Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Laurence G.; Jette, Alan M.

    1983-01-01

    Over 80 percent of a sample of community-living elderly were self-sufficient in performing basic activities of daily living (ADL); only 18 percent were self-sufficient in performing instrumental ADL. Most elders who use long-term care assistance relied solely on the informal support network in both instrumental (86 percent) and basic (50 percent)…

  15. Sex Differences among the Long-Term Mentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Chamberlain, Philip

    1986-01-01

    Describes the experientially determined problems of long-term mentally disabled women. Reviews of 320 hospital records of patients in hospitals throughout Michigan showed significant sex differences for client age, marital status, living arrangement, diagnosis, functioning level, voluntary/involuntary status, admission information, medications,…

  16. Long-term efficacy and toxicity of abacavir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to the most prescribed ARV regimens before 2013 in a French Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, Paul; Dramé, Moustapha; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cotte, Laurent; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Delobel, Pierre; Huleux, Thomas; Rey, David; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2016-09-01

    Data on the long-term efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) are scarce. This combination has the advantage of simplifying treatment and improving long-term tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of any discontinuation of antiretroviral (ARV) regimen because of virologic failure (VF), and/or adverse drug reaction (ADR) among patients receiving stable ARV regimens for at least 6 months.ABC/3TC/NVP was compared to ABC/3TC with either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), unboosted ATV, or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with either one of the following: ATV/r, unboosted ATV, DRV/r, efavirenz (EFV), or NVP, in the French prospective multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort.The study enrolled 16,511 patients treated with following ARV regimens: ABC/3TC/NVP (n = 1089), TDF/FTC/NVP (n = 1542), ABC/3TC/DRV/r (n = 1065), ABC/3TC/ATV/r (n = 1847), ABC/3TC/ATV (n = 563), TDF/FTC/ATV/r (n = 3519), TDF/FTC/DRV/r (n = 2767), TDF/FTC/ATV (n = 419), and TDF/FTC/EFV (n = 3700). Mean follow-up was 36 ± 24 months. Patients treated with ABC/3TC/NVP received this regimen as a switch regimen in 97% of cases. By multivariable analysis, the risk of treatment discontinuation due to VF was similar between ABC/3TC/NVP and other ARV regimens, except for TDF/FTC/ATV and ABC/3TC/ATV, which were associated with a higher risk of treatment interruption due to VF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-3.06 and HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.51-3.18, respectively). Treatment discontinuation due to ADR was lowest with the ABC/3TC/NVP regimen. Other ARV regimens were associated with a 1.80- to 3.19-fold increase in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to ADR (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).ABC/3TC/NVP as a simplification regimen is a long-term effective regimen with lower discontinuation due to long-term toxicity compared with other standard ARV regimens.

  17. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term

  18. Globalization, women's migration, and the long-term-care workforce.

    PubMed

    Browne, Colette V; Braun, Kathryn L

    2008-02-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends-population aging, globalization, and women's migration-on the supply and demand for DLTC workers in the United States. Following an overview of these trends, we identify three areas with embedded social justice issues that are shaping the DLTC workforce in the United States, with a specific focus on immigrant workers in these settings. These include world poverty and economic inequalities, the feminization and colorization of labor (especially in long-term care), and empowerment and women's rights. We conclude with a discussion of the contradictory effects that both population aging and globalization have on immigrant women, source countries, and the long-term-care workforce in the United States. We raise a number of policy, practice, and research implications and questions. For policy makers and long-term-care administrators in receiver nations such as the United States, the meeting of DLTC worker needs with immigrants may result in greater access to needed employees but also in the continued devaluation of eldercare as a profession. Source (supply) nations must balance the real and potential economic benefits of remittances from women who migrate for labor with the negative consequences of disrupting family care traditions and draining the long-term-care workforce of those countries.

  19. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    SciTech Connect

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  20. Long-term control of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, T; Oliver, R C

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between long-term control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis. A total of 75 diabetics (Type I or II) aged 20-70 years with long-term records of their diabetic control were selected for the study. The following periodontal variables were recorded in a randomized half-mouth examination: plaque, calculus (+/-), probing depth (pd) and attachment loss (al). The mean of glycosylated hemoglobin measurements (HbAlc) over the past 2-5 years was used to indicate the long-term control of DM. The study participants were divided into well-, moderately- and poorly-controlled diabetics. An increase in the prevalence, severity and extent of periodontitis with poorer control of diabetes was observed. The extent of calculus also increased with poorer control. In a multiple regression analysis, calculus and long-term control of diabetes were significant variables when pd > or = 4 mm was used as the dependent variable. Age was a significant predictor for al > or = 3 mm but not for pd > or = 4 mm. Sex, duration and type of DM were not significant variables in the regression models. Less than 2% of sites with no calculus demonstrated pd > or = 4 mm. When calculus was present, the frequency of pd > or = 4 mm increased from 6% in the well-controlled diabetics to 16% in the poorly-controlled ones. We conclude that periodontitis in diabetics is associated with long-term metabolic control and presence of calculus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available.

  2. Long-term high-level waste technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornman, W. R.

    1980-07-01

    This series of reports summarizes research and development studies on the immobilization of high level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels. Immobilization of the wastes (defense and commercial) consists of placing them in a high integrity form with a very low potential for radionuclide release. Immobilization of commercial wastes is being considered on a contingency basis in the event that reprocessing is resumed. The basic plan for meeting the goal of immobilization of the DOE high level wastes is: (1) to develop technology to support a realistic choice of waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites; (2) to develop product and processing technology with sufficient scaleup to provide design data for full scale facilities; and (3) to construct and operate the facilities.

  3. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

  4. Dissociation of Short- and Long-Term Face Memory: Evidence from Long-Term Recency Effects in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengner, T.; Malina, T.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are better described by a single- or dual-store memory model. To this aim, we analyzed the influence of TLE and proactive interference (PI) on immediate and 24-h long-term recency effects during face recognition in 16 healthy participants and 18 right and 21 left non-surgical TLE…

  5. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14846.001 PMID:27187150

  6. Long-Term Outcome of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation in Obstructive Gastrointestinal Crohn's Disease: A Prospective Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Tsuda, Sumio; Yao, Kenshi; Sou, Suketo; Satoh, Shigeru; Hatakeyama, Sadamune; Matake, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yao, Tsuneyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Background The short- and long-term results of balloon dilation therapy in Crohn's patients with non-anastomotic obstructive gastrointestinal lesions are investigated. Materials and methods Fifty-five patients with Crohn's disease who had obstructive gastrointestinal lesions were treated prospectively by endoscopic balloon dilation. Short-term results Eight of the initial dilations were unsuccessful giving no symptomatic relief (14.5%). Long-term results The subjects of the long-term prognosis were 40 cases followed up for more than 6 months (average 37 months) and their strictures were non-anastomotic in more than half (59%). Avoidance of surgery, was possible in 31 of 40 patients (78%). Surgery was avoided in 92%, 81% and 77% of patients after one, two, and three years, respectively (Kaplan–Meier's method). There was no difference in long-term outcome between anastomotic strictures and strictures in the absence of prior surgery. Conclusion Our results suggest that, (1) strictures in the absence of prior surgery might be treated in this way as well as anastomotic strictures; (2) if followed for a prolonged time period, more than 70% of patients, who have undergone balloon dilation for obstructive gastrointestinal Crohn's disease, may be able to avoid surgery. PMID:18493528

  7. An automated microfluidic platform for C. elegans embryo arraying, phenotyping, and long-term live imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Marette, Alexis; Narasimhan, Shreya; Lehnert, Thomas; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the real-time dynamics of embryonic development require a gentle embryo handling method, the possibility of long-term live imaging during the complete embryogenesis, as well as of parallelization providing a population’s statistics, while keeping single embryo resolution. We describe an automated approach that fully accomplishes these requirements for embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most employed model organisms in biomedical research. We developed a microfluidic platform which makes use of pure passive hydrodynamics to run on-chip worm cultures, from which we obtain synchronized embryo populations, and to immobilize these embryos in incubator microarrays for long-term high-resolution optical imaging. We successfully employ our platform to investigate morphogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis during the full embryonic development and elucidate the role of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) within C. elegans embryogenesis. Our method can be generally used for protein expression and developmental studies at the embryonic level, but can also provide clues to understand the aging process and age-related diseases in particular. PMID:25950235

  8. An automated microfluidic platform for C. elegans embryo arraying, phenotyping, and long-term live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Marette, Alexis; Narasimhan, Shreya; Lehnert, Thomas; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Auwerx, Johan; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2015-05-01

    Studies of the real-time dynamics of embryonic development require a gentle embryo handling method, the possibility of long-term live imaging during the complete embryogenesis, as well as of parallelization providing a population’s statistics, while keeping single embryo resolution. We describe an automated approach that fully accomplishes these requirements for embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most employed model organisms in biomedical research. We developed a microfluidic platform which makes use of pure passive hydrodynamics to run on-chip worm cultures, from which we obtain synchronized embryo populations, and to immobilize these embryos in incubator microarrays for long-term high-resolution optical imaging. We successfully employ our platform to investigate morphogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis during the full embryonic development and elucidate the role of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) within C. elegans embryogenesis. Our method can be generally used for protein expression and developmental studies at the embryonic level, but can also provide clues to understand the aging process and age-related diseases in particular.

  9. National long-term high-level waste-technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, P. L.

    The national program for long-term management of high level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuels reprocessing is discussed. This covers only DOE defense wastes. Current emphasis is on solidification of waste into a form that, along with additional barriers, may be permanently stored in a repository. An integrated national plan incorporates all the elements of such an overall HLW disposal system. Interim storage is in near-surface tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. At the Idaho site, waste is stored in bins after being calcined. Some Idaho waste is liquid and is also stored in tanks before calcination. Retrieval and immobilization of HLW into a solid, low-release form represent the major elements for which our long-term program has responsibility. Once solidified, the waste will temporarily remain onsite until the final disposal site is prepared for receipt of waste. Currently, a geologic repository is favored for ultimate disposal, although other possibilities such as seabed, icecap, space, and near-surface disposal are also being considered.

  10. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  11. 78 FR 66344 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program--Vocational... Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long- Term Training... Program: The Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program provides financial assistance for-- (1)...

  12. 76 FR 22084 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training AGENCY: Office of... Information: Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long- Term Training notice inviting applications for new... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program (Training...

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms linking early nutrition to long term health.

    PubMed

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally it has been widely accepted that our genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine our risk of developing non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and obesity in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that the pre and early postnatal environment plays a key role in determining our susceptible to such diseases in later life. Moreover the mechanism by which the environment can alter long term disease risk may involve epigenetic processes. Epigenetic processes play a central role in regulating tissue specific gene expression and hence alterations in these processes can induce long-term changes in gene expression and metabolism which persist throughout the lifecourse. This review will focus on how nutritional cues in early life can alter the epigenome, producing different phenotypes and altered disease susceptibilities.

  14. The Developmental Environment, Epigenetic Biomarkers and Long-Term Health

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Keith M; Costello, Paula M; Lillycrop, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies has shown that the prenatal and early postnatal environments influence susceptibility to chronic disease in later life and suggests that epigenetic processes are an important mechanism by which the environment alters long-term disease risk. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, play a central role in regulating gene expression. The epigenome is highly sensitive to environmental factors in early life, such as nutrition, stress, endocrine disruption and pollution, and changes in the epigenome can induce long-term changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this review we focus on how the early life nutritional environment can alter the epigenome leading to an altered susceptibility to disease in later life. PMID:26017068

  15. Pneumonia in nursing homes and long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Mark B

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of pneumonia in residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of pneumonia in residents of nursing homes and LTCFs. Factors suggestive of aspiration are the most important risk factors for pneumonia in this population. The clinical presentation of pneumonia among long-term care facility residents is challenging; residents tend to be older and more debilitated than their elderly community-dwelling counterparts. Data on optimal antimicrobial therapy in this setting is sparse. Functional status is an important predictor of outcome in this population. There are key management issues, such as site of care, which remain unresolved. Immunization with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines remains the mainstay of prevention.

  16. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  17. Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

    2005-06-30

    The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

  18. On long-term ozone trends at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claude, H.; Vandersee, W.; Wege, K.

    1994-01-01

    More than 2000 ozone soundings and a large number of Dobson observations have been performed since 1967 in a unique procedure. The achieved very homogeneous data sets were used to evaluate significant long-term trends both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The trend amounts to about plus 2 percent per year in the troposphere and to about minus 0.5 percent per year in the stratosphere. Extremely low ozone records obtained during winter 1991/92 are discussed in the light of the long term series. The winter mean of the ozone column is the lowest one of the series. The ozone deficit occurred mainly in the lower stratosphere. One cause may be the Pinatubo cloud. Even compared with the extreme winter mean following the El Chichon eruption the ozone content was lower. Additionally ozone was reduced by dynamical effects due to unusual weather situations.

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Spohr, H.L.; Willms, J. . Dept. of Pediatrics); Steinhausen, H.C. . Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

    1993-04-10

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of congenital mental retardation but little is known about the long-term development and adolescent outcome of children with FAS. In a 10-year follow-up study of 60 patients diagnosed as having FAS in infancy and childhood, the authors investigated the long-term sequelae of intrauterine alcohol exposure. The authors found that the characteristic craniofacial malformations of FAS diminish with time, but microcephaly and, to a lesser degree, short stature and underweight (in boys) persist; in female adolescents body weight normalizes. Persistent mental retardation is the major sequela of intrauterine alcohol exposure in many cases, and environmental and educational factors do not have strong compensatory effects on the intellectual development of affected children.

  20. [Long-term course of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma with ocular involvement].

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Landthaler, M; Hohenleutner, S

    2006-02-01

    The clinical features of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NX) have been presented in a series of case reports, but there are hardly any reports on the clinical long-term course of this rare and usually chronic entity. Therapeutic recommendations are mostly based on individual observations, lacking general therapeutic guidelines. To illustrate a typical chronic and progressive course of NX, we report the case of a 64-year-old woman with periorbital NX, ocular involvement and IgG paraproteinemia. Diagnosed with NX for the first time in 1993, the patient was already presented in this journal in 1995. Since then a series of therapeutic options including medication with dapsone, chlorambucil, interferon-alpha, clofazimine, melphalan, fumaric acid esters, surgical treatment and other physical therapies such as radiation, plasmapheresis, and photodynamic therapy have been applied. None of these therapeutic approaches, however, showed a satisfying long-term effect. At present the patient is undergoing cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone pulse therapy.

  1. Long-term maternal morbidity associated with repeat cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin A S; Silver, Robert M

    2011-12-01

    Concern regarding the association between cesarean delivery and long-term maternal morbidity is growing as the rate of cesarean delivery continues to increase. Observational evidence suggests that the risk of morbidity increases with increasing number of cesarean deliveries. The dominant maternal risk in subsequent pregnancies is placenta accreta spectrum disorder and its associated complications. A history of multiple cesarean deliveries is the major risk factor for this condition. Pregnancies following cesarean delivery also have increased risk for other types of abnormal placentation, reduced fetal growth, preterm birth, and possibly stillbirth. Chronic maternal morbidities associated with cesarean delivery include pelvic pain and adhesions. Adverse reproductive effects may include decreased fertility and increased risk of spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the long-term risks associated with cesarean delivery so that they can be considered when determining the method of delivery for first and subsequent births.

  2. Long-term planetary integration with individual time steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Prasenjit; Tremaine, Scott

    1994-11-01

    We describe an algorithm for long-term planetary orbit integrations, including the dominant post-Newtonian effects, that employs individual time steps for each planet. The algorithm is symplectic and exhibits short-term errors that are O(epsilon(Omega2)(tau 2) where tau is the time step, Omega is a typical orbital frequency, and epsilon much less than 1 is a typical planetary mass in solar units. By a special starting procedure long-term errors over an integration interval T can be reduced to O(epsilon2(Omega3)(tau2)T. A sample 0.8 Myr integration of the nine planets illustrates that Pluto can have a time step more than 100 times Mercury's, without dominating the positional error. Our algorithm is applicable to other N-body systems.

  3. Long-term storage of surface-adsorbed protein machines.

    PubMed

    Albet-Torres, Nuria; Månsson, Alf

    2011-06-07

    The effective and simple long-term storage of complex functional proteins is critical in achieving commercially viable biosensors. This issue is particularly challenging in recently proposed types of nanobiosensors, where molecular-motor-driven transportation substitutes microfluidics and forms the basis for novel detection schemes. Importantly, therefore, we here describe that delicate heavy meromyosin (HMM)-based nanodevices (HMM motor fragments adsorbed to silanized surfaces and actin bound to HMM) fully maintain their function when stored at -20 °C for more than a month. The mechanisms for the excellent preservation of acto-HMM motor function upon repeated freeze-thaw cycles are discussed. The results are important to the future commercial implementation of motor-based nanodevices and are of more general value to the long-term storage of any protein-based bionanodevice.

  4. The developmental environment, epigenetic biomarkers and long-term health.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, K M; Costello, P M; Lillycrop, K A

    2015-10-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies has shown that the prenatal and early postnatal environments influence susceptibility to chronic disease in later life and suggests that epigenetic processes are an important mechanism by which the environment alters long-term disease risk. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, play a central role in regulating gene expression. The epigenome is highly sensitive to environmental factors in early life, such as nutrition, stress, endocrine disruption and pollution, and changes in the epigenome can induce long-term changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this review we focus on how the early life nutritional environment can alter the epigenome leading to an altered susceptibility to disease in later life.

  5. Long-term variability of dMe stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. J.; Hartmann, L.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic B magnitudes of the four spot stars BY Dra (dM0e), CC Eri (K7 Ve), AU Mic (dM2.5e), and YZ CMi (dM4.5e) are reported which considerably extend the time baseline of the photoelectric data on these stars. The long-term variation of the stars in yearly mean light is investigated. It is found that both BY Dra and CC Eri exhibit long-term B-magnitude variations with amplitudes of about 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude and times between maximum and minimum light near 30 yr. No apparent variability is observed for AU Mic and YZ CMi. The possibility is discussed that the variability of BY Dra and CC Eri is connected with a starspot cycle, for which the period would be around 60 yr.

  6. Natural patterns of activity and long-term synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Ole; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is traditionally elicited by massively synchronous, high-frequency inputs, which rarely occur naturally. Recent in vitro experiments have revealed that both LTP and long-term depression (LTD) can arise by appropriately pairing weak synaptic inputs with action potentials in the postsynaptic cell. This discovery has generated new insights into the conditions under which synaptic modification may occur in pyramidal neurons in vivo. First, it has been shown that the temporal order of the synaptic input and the postsynaptic spike within a narrow temporal window determines whether LTP or LTD is elicited, according to a temporally asymmetric Hebbian learning rule. Second, backpropagating action potentials are able to serve as a global signal for synaptic plasticity in a neuron compared with local associative interactions between synaptic inputs on dendrites. Third, a specific temporal pattern of activity — postsynaptic bursting — accompanies synaptic potentiation in adults. PMID:10753798

  7. Related studies in long term lithium battery stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-09-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  8. Related Studies in Long Term Lithium Battery Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  9. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy].

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-10-23

    Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term Moreover, MDMA has been shown to induce long-term deleterious effects and provoke neurotoxic affecting the serotoninergic system. However, the psychopathological consequences of such neurotoxicity are still controversial, particularly since many ecstasy consumers are multi-drug users. A complex pharmacological profile The mechanism of action of MDMA involves various neurobiological systems (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin), that may all interact.

  10. Long term exposure of metals to hydrazine nitrate blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Clifford M.; Blue, Gary D.

    1986-01-01

    A long term testing program is being conducted to determine the effects of materials in contact with a hydrazine nitrate blend for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion systems which can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. Analysis of this data indicates that some aluminum alloys are acceptable for use with the particular blend of fuel used. Titanium alloy was identified as being acceptable for 10-year applications. Corrosion resistant steels, however, were found to have excessive corrosion rates and are therefore considered unacceptable for long-term use. There is also some evidence that the propellant decomposed at a rate far in excess of the acceptable rate of 0.1 percent per year when in contact with stainless steel.

  11. 19. Generic services for the long-term care patient.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, E

    1976-05-01

    The purpose of multidimensional functional assessment of the long-term care patient or client is to identify the relevant set of services or service package. This necessitates defining the universe of services independently of existing service providers and settings, which vary considerably in scope and type of activities. A list of 24 generic services developed by the Duke Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development has proved useful in assigning patients to the appropriate providers. It is also a means of describing accurately the service capacity of a given program or institution, as well as the precise nature of the intervention, or set of services, in studies of impact or outcome. Planners and evaluators can use the list to cost existing programs and to plan new ones more responsive to the requirements of long-term care patients and clients.

  12. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    PubMed

    Mills, James A; Teplitsky, Céline; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter H; Birkhead, Tim R; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Côté, Steeve D; Coulson, John C; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H M; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W; Furness, Robert W; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J; Lens, Luc; Linnell, John D C; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merilä, Juha; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nisbet, Ian C T; van Noordwijk, Arie J; Oro, Daniel; Pärt, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Réale, Denis; Rockwell, Robert F; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S; Swenson, Jon E; Thébaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F; Wilson, Alastair J; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers.

  13. Long-term safety concerns with proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tauseef; Roberts, David Neil; Tierney, William M

    2009-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide. Their use has resulted in dramatic improvements in treatment of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Despite an acceptable safety profile, mounting data demonstrate concerns about the long-term use of PPIs. To provide a comprehensive review regarding the concerns of long-term PPI use, a literature search was performed to identify pertinent original and review articles. Despite study shortcomings, the collective body of information overwhelmingly suggests an increased risk of infectious complications and nutritional deficiencies. Data regarding any increased risk in gastric or colon malignancy are less convincing. PPIs have revolutionized the management and complications of acid-related disorders with a high margin of safety; however, with the data available, efforts to reduce the dosing of or discontinue the use of PPIs must be reassessed frequently.

  14. Space station experiment definition: Long term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary design of an experiment to demonstrate and evaluate long-term cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies has been performed. This Long-Term Cryogenic Fluid Storage (LTCFS) experiment is a Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment proposed by the NASA Lewis Research Center to be deployed on the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station. Technologies required by future orbital cryogenic systems such as Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) were defined, and critical technologies requiring demonstration were chosen to be included in the experiment. A three-phase test program was defined to test the following types of technologies: (1) Passive Thermal Technologies; (2) Fluid Transfer Technologies; and (3) Active Refrigeration Technologies. The development status of advanced technologies required for the LTCFS experiment is summarized, including current, past and future programs.

  15. Long-term Effectiveness of Online Anaphylaxis Education for Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Sandra; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Loh, Richard; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) anaphylaxis e-learning program compared to lectures or no training. Design. A controlled interrupted-time-series study of Australian pharmacists and pharmacy students who completed ASCIA anaphylaxis e-learning or lecture programs was conducted during 2011-2013. Effectiveness was measured using a validated test administered pretraining, posttraining, and 3 and 7 months after training. Assessment. All learning groups performed significantly better on all posttests compared to the pretest, and compared to a control group (p<0.001). The proportion of e-learners achieving the minimum standard for anaphylaxis knowledge improved from 45% at pretest to 87% at 7 months. Conclusion. The ASCIA e-learning program significantly increased anaphylaxis knowledge. The high proportion of participants achieving the minimum standard at 7 months indicates long-term knowledge change. PMID:25258441

  16. Long-term consequences of posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Lopez Pereira, Pedro; Martinez Urrutia, M J; Espinosa, L; Jaureguizar, E

    2013-10-01

    Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the most common congenital cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy, and it is the effect of this obstruction on the bladder and the kidneys that will decide a patient's prognosis. With the improvements in diagnosis and treatments, what was previously a poor prognosis for boys with PUV has improved, and more patients will encounter the long-term sequelae of PUV during puberty and adulthood. In these patients the long-term prognosis in terms of renal and bladder function and fertility, as well as the risk of malignancy in those whose bladders were augmented with gastrointestinal segments, is still a matter of great concern and all of these topics will be discussed in this article.

  17. Short and Long-Term Outcomes for Extremely Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravi Mangal

    2016-01-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. In developed countries, extremely preterm infants contribute disproportionately to both neonatal and infant mortality. Survival of this high-risk population has incrementally improved in recent years. Despite these improvements, approximately 1 in 4 extremely preterm infants dies during the birth hospitalization. Among those who survive, respiratory and other morbidities are common, although their effect on quality of life is variable. In addition, long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is a large concern for patients, clinicians and families. However, the interplay of multiple factors contribute to neurodevelopmental impairment, with measures that change over time and outcomes that can be difficult to define and predict. Understanding outcomes of extremely preterm infants can help better counsel families regarding antenatal and postnatal care and guide strategies to improve survival without morbidity. This review summarizes recent evidence to provide an overview into the short- and long-term outcomes for extremely preterm infants. PMID:26799967

  18. Long-term operational testing of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of long-term operational testing of several quantum cascade laser (QCL) variants to illustrate their robustness and long lifetimes. Performance factors are investigated including power and spectral stability over different timescales ranging from days to years. The effects of burn-in, packaging, mounting, and facet coatings are considered with respect to their influence on long-term laser performance. In addition, the results from the several years' operation of a custom external cavity quantum cascade laser-based trace gas sensor are presented to highlight the reliable performance of QCL-based sensor systems. This sensor monitored the laboratory air for multiple chemicals and operated continuously for two years without any evidence of degradation in performance. The data from all of these experiments will be discussed to demonstrate the reliability and robust performance of QCLs.

  19. Early nutrition and health: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes.

  20. Long-term stability of the earth's climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The long-term climatic evolution of the earth has been studied on the basis of one-dimensional, globally-averaged climate models yielding only a qualitative understanding of climatic history, and in any case proceeding under a series of potentially invalid assumptions. One such major assumption, which invites comparison with a three-dimensional GCM, is that of fixed relative humidity. A GCM may also be used to study the problem of water loss from both the earth and Venus.

  1. A Brief History of Long-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Roger A

    2017-01-18

    Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) in 1973, thousands of papers have been published on this intriguing phenomenon, which provides a compelling cellular model for learning and memory. Although LTP has suffered considerable growing pains over the years, LTP has finally come of age. Here the rich history of LTP is reviewed. These are exciting times and the pace of discovery is remarkable.

  2. Long-term variability of T Tauri stars using WASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, Laura; Scholz, Alexander; Anderson, David; West, Richard

    2017-03-01

    We present a reference study of the long-term optical variability of young stars using data from the WASP project. Our primary sample is a group of well-studied classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), mostly in Taurus-Auriga. WASP light curves cover time-scales of up to 7 yr and typically contain 10 000-30 000 data points. We quantify the variability as a function of time-scale using the time-dependent standard deviation 'pooled sigma'. We find that the overwhelming majority of CTTSs have a low-level variability with σ < 0.3 mag dominated by time-scales of a few weeks, consistent with rotational modulation. Thus, for most young stars, monitoring over a month is sufficient to constrain the total amount of variability over time-scales of up to a decade. The fraction of stars with a strong optical variability (σ > 0.3 mag) is 21 per cent in our sample and 21 per cent in an unbiased control sample. An even smaller fraction (13 per cent in our sample, 6 per cent in the control) show evidence for an increase in variability amplitude as a function of time-scale from weeks to months or years. The presence of long-term variability correlates with the spectral slope at 3-5 μm, which is an indicator of inner disc geometry, and with the U-B band slope, which is an accretion diagnostics. This shows that the long-term variations in CTTSs are predominantly driven by processes in the inner disc and in the accretion zone. Four of the stars with long-term variations show periods of 20-60 d, significantly longer than the rotation periods and stable over months to years. One possible explanation is cyclic changes in the interaction between the disc and the stellar magnetic field.

  3. Hardikar syndrome: long term outcome of a rare genetic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nydegger, Andreas; Van Dyck, Maria; Fisher, Robert A; Jaeken, Jaak; Hardikar, Winita

    2008-10-01

    Hardikar syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. Features of the syndrome are manifold with a predominance of liver and renal involvement. The syndrome is clearly distinct from other previously described syndromes such as Alagille syndrome, congenital hepatic fibrosis, Caroli disease, and Kabuki make-up syndrome. To date, only four cases of Hardikar syndrome have been published worldwide. We report here on the long term outcome of these patients.

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Di Sclafani, Victoria; Finn, Peter; Fein, George

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND A high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders has been demonstrated in individuals with an alcohol use disorder in both community and treatment samples, with higher comorbidity in treatment samples. In this study, we examined lifetime and current psychiatric diagnoses in long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; mean abstinence = 6.3 years; n = 52) compared to age and gender-comparable non-alcoholic controls (NC; n = 48). We asked the following questions: 1) to achieve long-term abstinence, must an individual be relatively psychiatrically healthy (i.e., comparable to NC) and 2) can ongoing abstinence be maintained in the face of a current psychiatric disorder? METHODS Lifetime and current (prior 12-months) psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in the mood, anxiety, and externalizing disorder domains using the computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule (c-DIS). RESULTS Over 85% of LTAA had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis, compared to 50% of NC. LTAA had a higher prevalence than NC of lifetime mood, anxiety, and externalizing disorder diagnoses. LTAA also had a greater prevalence than NC of current mood and anxiety diagnoses. Although LTAA had a greater lifetime prevalence of an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) than NC, no LTAA or NC had a current ASPD diagnosis. Finally, there was no association of duration of abstinence with lifetime or current psychiatric diagnoses, consistent with psychiatric diagnoses having little effect on relapse. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that: 1) the presence of a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis does not militate against achieving long-term abstinence, 2) abstinence can be maintained in the presence of a current mood or anxiety disorder, and 3) a current diagnosis of ASPD may not be compatible with long-term abstinence. The relatively low levels of antisocial behavior compared to pre-abstinence (as indicated by no LTAA meeting current criteria for ASPD) raises the question of whether the neurobiology underlying

  5. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    PubMed

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  6. Elimination of long-term variations from chaotic light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachy, E.; Kolláth, Z.

    2013-11-01

    We performed a comparative dynamical investigation of chaotic test data using the global flow reconstruction method. We demonstrate that large-amplitude, long-term variations may have a disturbing effect for the analysis. The Empirical Mode Decomposition method (EMD) and the Fourier filtering were tested to remove the additional variations. Test results show that the elimination of these variations significantly increased the robustness of the reconstructions.

  7. Principles of Long-Term Dynamics of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Yasumatsu, Nobuaki; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Takashi; Noguchi, Jun; Kasai, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapse strength requires enlargement of dendritic spines on cerebral pyramidal neurons. Long-term depression (LTD) is linked to spine shrinkage. Indeed, spines are dynamic structures: they form, change their shapes and volumes or can disappear in the space of hours. Do all such changes result from synaptic activity, or do some changes result from intrinsic processes? How do enlargement and shrinkage of spines relate to elimination and generation of spines, and how do these processes contribute to the stationary distribution of spine volumes? To answer these questions, we recorded the volumes of many individual spines daily for several days using two-photon imaging of CA1 pyramidal neurons in cultured slices of rat hippocampus between postnatal day 17 to 23. With normal synaptic transmission, spines often changed volume or were created or eliminated, thereby showing activity-dependent plasticity. However, we found that spines changed volume even after we blocked synaptic activity, reflecting a native instability of these small structures over the long term. Such “intrinsic fluctuations” showed unique dependence on spine volume. A mathematical model constructed from these data and the theory of random fluctuations explains population behaviors of spines, such as rates of elimination and generation, stationary distribution of volumes and the long-term persistence of large spines. Our study finds that generation and elimination of spines are more prevalent than previously believed, and spine volume shows significant correlation with its age and life expectancy. The population dynamics of spines also predict key psychological features of memory. PMID:19074033

  8. Long-term health consequences of epilepsy diet treatments.

    PubMed

    Vining, Eileen P G

    2008-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) typically provides a marginally healthy diet and in recent years has been used for more protracted courses of therapy. This results in concern about the impact of the diet on the general health of the child. Studies have demonstrated poor growth, dyslipidemia, kidney stones, and numerous other problems seen less frequently. Major areas of concern are reviewed as well as some emerging evidence of more beneficial long-term health consequences beyond the expected control of seizures.

  9. CBO’s 2011 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    the rate that reflects unemployment arising from all sources except fluctuations in overall demand related to the business cycle) by 2017 and... 2017 and remains at that level through 2021, matching CBO’s January 2011 economic forecast for that period; the rate then declines to 5.0 percent...THREE CBO’S 2011 LONG-TERM BUDGET OUTLOOK 39the costs of covering enrollees newly eligible under the program’s expansion. From 2017 to 2020, the

  10. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Metrologia 51 (2014) 263?269 14...Std Z39-18 | Bureau International des Poids et Mesures Metrologia Metrologia 51 (2014) 263–269 doi:10.1088/0026-1394/51/3/263 Evaluation of long term...utilizes data from hundreds of these clocks, 0026-1394/14/030263+07$33.00 263 © 2014 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK Metrologia 51 (2014) 263 S

  11. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP.

  12. Long-term trends and a sustainability transition

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Parris, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    How do long-term global trends affect a transition to sustainability? We emphasize the “multitrend” nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability transition more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of global trends that impact place-based sustainability studies. PMID:12829798

  13. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  14. The Reintegration of Military Families Following Long Term Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    again during reunion most dramatically lead to successful reintegration and what leads to negative outcomes such as domestic violence or divorce...best as possible to adapt to separation and reunion. Potentially, programs can be developed that foster traits associated with successful reintegration ...reunifies, it must be discovered what successful reintegration is for AF families after they experienced a long-term separation. Since single parenting

  15. Short- and long-term climate changes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The present climate of Mars is dominated by the seasonal cycles of dust, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. Understanding these cycles represents a first step towards interpreting climate changes in the past. Past climates on Mars were probably different from the present one due to astronomical variations of orbital and axial properties, to major changes in atmospheric pressure and/or composition, and to long-term changes in solar luminosity.

  16. Long-term trends and a sustainability transition.

    PubMed

    Kates, Robert W; Parris, Thomas M

    2003-07-08

    How do long-term global trends affect a transition to sustainability? We emphasize the "multitrend" nature of 10 classes of trends, which makes them complex, contradictory, and often poorly understood. Each class includes trends that make a sustainability transition more feasible as well as trends that make it more difficult. Taken in their entirety, they serve as a checklist for the consideration of global trends that impact place-based sustainability studies.

  17. Long-Term Materials Test Program: materials exposure test plan

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    The Long Term Materials Test Program is designed to identify promising corrosion resistant materials for coal-fired gas turbine applications. Resistance of materials to long term accelerated corrosion will be determined through realistic PFB environmental exposure of candidate turbine materials for up to 14,000 hours. Selected materials also will be evaluated for their ability to withstand the combined erosive and corrosive aspects of the PFB effluent. A pressurized fluidized bed combustor facility has been constructed at the General Electric Coal Utilization Research Laboratory at Malta, New York. The 12-inch diameter combustor will burn high sulfur coal with moderate-to-high chlorine and alkali levels and utilize dolomite as the sulfur sorbent. Hot gas cleanup is achieved using three stages of cyclone separators. Downstream of the cylone separators, a low velocity test section (approx. 30 ft/s) capable of housing 180 pin specimens 1/4'' diameter has been installed to assess the corrosion resistance of the various materials at three different temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1600/sup 0/F. Following the low velocity test section is a high velocity test section consisting of four cascades of airfoil shaped specimens, six specimens per cascade. This high velocity test section is being used to evaluate the combined effects of erosion and corrosion on the degradation of gas turbine materials at gas velocities of 800 to 1400 ft/s. This report summarizes the materials selection and materials exposure test plan for the Long Term Materials Test.

  18. Myocardial injury after electrical burns: short and long term study.

    PubMed

    Guinard, J P; Chiolero, R; Buchser, E; Delaloye-Bischof, A; Payot, M; Grbic, A; Krupp, S; Freeman, J

    1987-01-01

    Miscellaneous cardiac abnormalities can occur after electrical burns. The long term outcomes are still unknown. We studied 10 patients, 9 of whom suffered high-voltage electrocution, and one of whom was struck by lightning. Serial electrocardiograms (ECG) and serum MB creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (MB-CPK) activities were obtained during their stay in hospital. ECG and thallium 201 cardiac scintigraphy at rest, as well as echocardiograms were obtained in all patients 4 to 48 months after discharge. In hospital, 9 patients showed one or more abnormal findings at physical examination (4 cases), ECG (8 cases), MB-CPK (1 case). At long term follow-up, 5 patients had one or more myocardial functions or conduction abnormalities, with or without symptoms. One patient had compensated heart failure. Nine patients were asymptomatic. Abnormal ECG findings persisted in 3 patients. Three cardiac scans showed evidence of regional myocardial hypoperfusion. Decreases in left ventricular indices measured by echocardiogram were found in 3 patients. We conclude that high-voltage electrocution is associated with a high incidence of cardiac abnormalities, which may persist. Long term evaluation, requiring cardiac T1 201 scintigraphy and echocardiogram, may be justified.

  19. Review article: the long-term management of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, S B

    2004-10-01

    After the induction of remission, the second priority of therapy for ulcerative colitis is sustained clinical remission, defined as the absence of inflammatory symptoms (diarrhoea, bleeding, rectal urgency) and the maintenance of an intact mucosa, with the absence of ulcers, friability or significant granularity at endoscopy. The 'optimal' maintenance strategy will depend on the therapy needed to induce remission. Thus, the transition from induction to maintenance therapy will be determined by the intensity of acute therapy necessary to induce remission and the duration of therapy required to complete the resolution of clinical symptoms. There are few controlled clinical trials pertaining to maintenance after each induction regimen. However, experience dictates that aminosalicylates are efficacious after aminosalicylate-induced remissions, that steroids should be tapered according to the time required to induce remission, that patients requiring ciclosporin will benefit from the addition of long-term immunomodulation with azathioprine or mercaptopurine, and that many patients with distal colitis who require topical mesalazine (mesalamine) will continue to need topical therapy to maintain remission, albeit at reduced frequency. The expectations for maintenance therapy require patient adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen. Patients require education with regard to the long-term goals of maintenance therapy (e.g. prevention of relapse, reduction of long-term complications of disease activity or risks of acute therapy with steroids), and should be warned against the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cautioned about the cessation of smoking, when applicable, due to potential risks of relapse or chronic activity.

  20. Cognitive Performance in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Torres, Jennifer; Price, Leonard J.; Di Sclafani, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Background There are few investigations of the potential recovery of neurocognitive function in chronic alcoholic samples after very long-term abstinence. The current study examined cognitive abilities in middle-aged, (mean age 46.8 years) long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA). Twenty-five LTAA men and 23 LTAA women abstinent for an average of 6.7 years were compared to an equal number of gender and age comparable normal controls (NC). We examined the association of neurocognitive variables with age, duration of abstinence, alcohol use measures, and the density of family history of problem drinking. Methods LTAA and NC underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Performance was measured in the following nine domains: abstraction/cognitive flexibility, attention, auditory working memory, immediate memory, delayed memory, psychomotor function, reaction time, spatial processing, and verbal skills. Results LTAA performed similarly to NC, except for deficits in the spatial processing domain. The spatial processing results must be interpreted with caution because of multiple comparison issues; however, spatial processing deficits are among the impairments most often reported in abstinent alcoholics. None of the cognitive measures was associated with length of abstinence, any alcohol use variable, or family history measure. Conclusions Very long-term abstinence resolves most neurocognitive deficits associated with alcoholism, except for the suggestion of lingering deficits in spatial processing. PMID:16930216

  1. Financing long-term care. An insurance-based approach.

    PubMed

    Pawlson, L G; Lavizzo Mourey, R J

    1990-06-01

    A joint public-private insurance program is the best approach to resolving the problem of financing long-term care. In this report, we describe one possible approach in detail. A modest expansion of the current (ie, after repeal of the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Law of 1988) Medicare benefit for persons needing relatively short-term nursing home and home care services would be a first step. For those with extended long-term service needs, a non-means tested, publicly funded program with joint federal-state financing and administration would provide coverage after a substantial elimination period and with an income-related copayment. Private long-term care insurance purchased through employers before retirement or in the periretirement period, through use of income or equity accumulated in life insurance, pension funds, or home ownership, would be used to fund the exclusionary period or copayments of the public program by those who wish to have greater protection for income or assets. The role of Medicaid would be limited to paying for the deductible, copayments, and initial long-stay expenses of those with low incomes and limited assets.

  2. Effectiveness of Heparin during Long-Term Tocolysis.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Makino, Shintaro; Yorifuji, Takashi; Sugimura, Motoi; Takeda, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Drip infusion during long-term tocolysis causes mechanical and infectious vasculitis and increases the frequency of peripheral venous catheter exchange (PVC), thereby placing a burden on patients. Our study aim is to confirm whether heparin ameliorates pain due to vasculitis during long-term tocolysis and reduces the frequency of peripheral venous catheter exchange. Design. Prospective study. Setting and Sample. All the patients requiring admission because of the presence of uterine contraction or progressive cervical dilatation from August 2009 to June 2011 at Juntendo University in Japan. Methods. Heparin was used for patients at the time the total number of peripheral venous catheter exchanges exceeded 5 in two weeks, and we evaluated whether heparin reduced the frequency of peripheral venous catheter exchange and improved the visual analog scale (VAS) for patients. The main outcome measures frequency of PVC exchange and VAS. Results. This study demonstrated that heparin reduced the frequency of peripheral venous catheter exchange (P = 0.0069) and VAS (P = 0.042). No side effects were noted. Conclusion. Heparin could satisfy patients during long-term tocolysis in terms of ameliorating pain due to vasculitis and reducing the PVC exchange frequency.

  3. Cardiac function in long-term survivors of childhood lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Mark K; Solt, Ido; Weyl-Ben-Arush, Myriam; Braver, Yulia; Lorber, Avraham

    2011-01-20

    Objectives. We studied long-term effects of therapy for childhood lymphoma on cardiac function. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 45 survivors of childhood lymphoma, using clinical parameters, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Further comparisons were made between lymphoma subgroups and between males and females. Results. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years. Mean followup duration was 10.9 years. The NYHA functional class was I in 43 patients and II in 2 patients. A prolonged QTc interval (>0.44 msec) was found in 8 patients. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function and compliance were normal (LV shortening fraction 40 ± 5.6%; cardiac index 2.84 ± 1.13 L/min/m(2); E/A wave ratio 2.5 ± 1.3; mean ± S.D.), LV mass was normal (97 ± 40 grams/m(2), mean ± S.D.). Mitral regurgitation was observed in 7/45 patients (16%). Asymptomatic pericardial effusions were found in 3/45 (7%) patients. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up shows that most parameters of cardiac function are normal in survivors of childhood lymphoma. This is likely due to relatively low doses of anthracyclines in modern protocol modalities. Abnormalities in mitral valve flow, QTc prolongation and in a small proportion of survivors, and functional capacity necessitate long-term cardiac follow-up of these patients.

  4. Long Term Stability of Coriolis Flow Meters: DESY experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckmann, T.; Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Petersen, B.; Putselyk, S.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D.; Zhirnov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of coolant flow is important operational parameter for reliable operation of cryogenic system with superconducting magnets or cavities as well as for the system diagnostics in case of non-steady-state operation, e.g. during cool-down/warm-up or other transients. Proper flowmeter is chosen according to the different parameters, e.g. turn-down, operating temperature range, leak-tightness, pressure losses, long-term stability, etc. For helium cryogenics, the Venturi tube or Orifice, as well as Coriolis flow meters are often applied. For the present time, the orifices are usually used due to their simplicity and low costs, however, low turn-down range, large pressure drop, restriction of flow area, susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations limit their useful operation range. Operational characteristics of Venturi tubes is substantially improved in comparison to orifices, however, relative high costs and susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations still limit their application to special cases. The Coriolis flow meters do not have typical drawbacks of Venturi tube and orifices, however long-term stability over many years was not demonstrated yet. This paper describes the long-term behaviour of Coriolis flow meters after many years of operation at AMTF and XMTS facilities.

  5. Predicting long-term sickness absence from sleep and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Kecklund, Goran; Alfredsson, Lars; Selen, Jan

    2007-12-01

    Disturbed or shortened sleep is prospectively related to disease. One might also expect that sickness absence would be another consequence but very little data seem to exist. The present study used 8300 individuals in a national sample to obtain information on reports of disturbed sleep and fatigue one [corrected] year and merged this with data on long-term sickness absence two [corrected] years later. A logistic regression analysis was applied to the data with adjustments for demographic and work environment variables. The results showed that individuals without registered sickness absence at the start had a higher probability of entering a period of long-term (>/=90 days, odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 with 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.09[corrected]-2.18[corrected]) sickness absence two [corrected] years later if they reported disturbed sleep at the start. The value [corrected] for fatigue was OR = 1.69[corrected] (CI = 1.23[corrected]-2.33[corrected]). When fatigue or disturbed sleep was separately excluded the OR increased to OR = 1.90[corrected] and OR = 1.86[corrected], respectively. Intermediate sickness absence (14-89 days) showed similar but slightly weaker results. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of long-term absence and it is suggested that impaired sleep may be part of a chain of causation, considering its effects on fatigue.

  6. Optogenetic Long-Term Manipulation of Behavior and Animal Development

    PubMed Central

    Schultheis, Christian; Liewald, Jana Fiona; Bamberg, Ernst; Nagel, Georg; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used for rapid photodepolarization of neurons, yet, as it requires high-intensity blue light for activation, it is not suited for long-term in vivo applications, e.g. for manipulations of behavior, or photoactivation of neurons during development. We used “slow” ChR2 variants with mutations in the C128 residue, that exhibit delayed off-kinetics and increased light sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Following a 1 s light pulse, we could photodepolarize neurons and muscles for minutes (and with repeated brief stimulation, up to days) with low-intensity light. Photoactivation of ChR2(C128S) in command interneurons elicited long-lasting alterations in locomotion. Finally, we could optically induce profound changes in animal development: Long-term photoactivation of ASJ neurons, which regulate larval growth, bypassed the constitutive entry into the “dauer” larval state in daf-11 mutants. These lack a guanylyl cyclase, which possibly renders ASJ neurons hyperpolarized. Furthermore, photostimulated ASJ neurons could acutely trigger dauer-exit. Thus, slow ChR2s can be employed to long-term photoactivate behavior and to trigger alternative animal development. PMID:21533086

  7. Long-term spatial memory in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J M

    2000-09-01

    In animal models of human amnesia, using lesion methods, it has been difficult to establish the role played by the hippocampus in the formation of long-term spatial knowledge. For example, lesions sustained after acquisition have generally produced a flat retrograde amnesia for spatial information. These results have not made it possible to dissociate the participation of the hippocampus in retrieval/performance processes from its participation in consolidation/retention. The present study was designed to investigate if electrolytic hippocampal lesions made before training lead to a deficit in the long-term retention of spatial knowledge when the rats show equal performance levels during the acquisition. Results show that lesioned rats learn a place response just as well as the control rats when, during the training, an intramaze cue orients the animal in its navigation towards the goal arm. One day after reaching criterion, lesioned and control rats remember the task perfectly during a transfer test in which the intramaze signal used previously is not present. However, 24 days later, the hippocampal animals manifest a profound deficit in the retention of the spatial information. When the spatial task learned during the acquisition phase requires only the use of a guidance strategy, control and lesioned animals show the same level of performance during the training phase and the same degree of retention during the retraining phase 24 days after criterion. Taken together, these results suggest that the hippocampus plays a crucial role in long-term retention of allocentric spatial information.

  8. Long term functional results from major limb replantations.

    PubMed

    Laing, T A; Cassell, O; O'Donovan, D; Eadie, P

    2012-07-01

    Replantation is now firmly established as a viable treatment option in traumatic limb amputation, yet there are few long-term studies describing the functional outcome of these cases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate long-term results in a population of such patients to determine overall success and patient satisfaction. Since 1981, twenty macro-replants involving nineteen patients have been performed in our unit. All patients were reviewed by means of case note analysis, patient questionnaire, and follow-up clinical evaluation for functional outcome using the Tamai scoring system. Acute limb salvage was successful in 18/20 (90%) cases. One patient is still undergoing secondary reconstructive surgery and was unable to be assessed for final outcome leaving 17 replanted limbs that underwent full functional assessment. Overall functional results were good in 7/17 (41%) limbs, fair in 7/17 (41%) and poor in 3/17 (18%). The majority of patients (12/17) claimed to be highly or well satisfied with their outcome and eleven have returned to work since their injury. The current study of major limb replantation demonstrates favorable or acceptable long term functional outcomes in the majority of cases. High patient satisfaction rates even where results were poor emphasise the positive psychological impact of successful replantation.

  9. Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations are infrequently reported. It is believed that replantation is indicated for amputations at all levels in children and for all distal amputations in adults. Replantations of arm or proximal forearm amputations in adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of major upper extremity replantations, defined as those that are transmetacarpal, through the wrist, forearm, elbow or arm. METHODS: A review of these types of replantations performed at the authors’ institution from 2002 to 2012 was conducted. Patients’ strength, range of motion and two-point discrimination were assessed. Patients completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: Seventeen patients underwent major upper extremity replantation surgery. The majority (16 of 17 [94%]) of the included patients were male. Of 17 patients, 13 (76.5%) required reoperations. The mean (± SD) DASH score of seven patients who consented to completing all questionnaires was 75.4±14.2 of 100 (range 59.2 to 91.1). On the MHQ, the mean score for affected hand function was 16% compared with 84% in the unaffected hand. Patients generally demonstrated at least mild levels of anxiety and depression on the HADS. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that major upper extremity injuries and replantations have a significant impact on patients’ long-term hand function, and produce long-term anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:25152640

  10. Developing public-private long term care insurance partnerships.

    PubMed

    Meiners, M R; McKay, H L

    1989-01-01

    Recognition of long term care as an insurable risk has provided a framework for reexamining how we finance and deliver nursing home, home health, and community care to our elderly citizens. Insurance options are beginning to be marketed that provide consumers the opportunity to pay for their long term care needs in a more reasonable way than the situation in which individuals have to first self-insure and then rely on Medicaid when their resources are inadequate. The emergency of long term care insurance has stimulated public policy interest in supporting market development. Government payers will benefit if private insurance can reduce the role of Medicaid as a source of payment for middle-income elderly by delaying or avoiding the need to spend-down their resources. States, in particular, have taken the lead in seeking ways to help make the available products appealing and affordable so that the market can be broadened to include those at risk of needing Medicaid assistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Results of a Survey of Long-Term Archiving Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA’s Heliophysics Data Management Policy calls for discipline-specific “final archives,” which will be responsible for the long-term archiving and service of Heliophysics mission data. Long-term archival functions, such as periodic revalidation of the data and migration to newer storage media when appropriate, have never been part of the Solar Data Analysis Center core capabilities. We also recognize that the largest space solar physics data set, the SDO AIA and HMI data at the Stanford Joint Science and Operations Center (JSOC), will eventually need preservation and long-term access, as will the potentially much larger data archive of DKIST observations. We have carried out a study of data archiving best practices in other disciplines and organizations, including NASA’s Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and private industry, and report on the lessons learned and possible cost models. We seek input from the broader solar physics community on the relative value of various levels of preservation effort.

  12. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  13. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-12-31

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated.

  14. Reconsolidation of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Chen, Shanping; Glanzman, David L

    2012-10-09

    When an animal is reminded of a prior experience and shortly afterward treated with a protein synthesis inhibitor, the consolidated memory for the experience can be disrupted; by contrast, protein synthesis inhibition without prior reminding commonly does not disrupt long-term memory [1-3]. Such results imply that the reminding triggers reconsolidation of the memory. Here, we asked whether the behavioral and synaptic changes associated with the memory for long-term sensitization (LTS) of the siphon-withdrawal reflex in the marine snail Aplysia californica [4, 5] could undergo reconsolidation. In support of this idea, we found that when sensitized animals were given abbreviated reminder sensitization training 48-96 hr after the original sensitization training, followed by treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, LTS was disrupted. We also found that long-term (≥ 24 hr) facilitation (LTF) [6], which can be induced in the monosynaptic connection between Aplysia sensory and motor neurons in dissociated cell culture by multiple spaced pulses of the endogenous facilitatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) [7, 8], could be eliminated by treating the synapses with one reminder pulse of 5-HT, followed by anisomycin, at 48 hr after the original training. Our results provide a simple model system for understanding the synaptic basis of reconsolidation.

  15. Long-term forecasting of internet backbone traffic.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaki, Konstantina; Taft, Nina; Zhang, Zhi-Li; Diot, Christophe

    2005-09-01

    We introduce a methodology to predict when and where link additions/upgrades have to take place in an Internet protocol (IP) backbone network. Using simple network management protocol (SNMP) statistics, collected continuously since 1999, we compute aggregate demand between any two adjacent points of presence (PoPs) and look at its evolution at time scales larger than 1 h. We show that IP backbone traffic exhibits visible long term trends, strong periodicities, and variability at multiple time scales. Our methodology relies on the wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA) and linear time series models. Using wavelet MRA, we smooth the collected measurements until we identify the overall long-term trend. The fluctuations around the obtained trend are further analyzed at multiple time scales. We show that the largest amount of variability in the original signal is due to its fluctuations at the 12-h time scale. We model inter-PoP aggregate demand as a multiple linear regression model, consisting of the two identified components. We show that this model accounts for 98% of the total energy in the original signal, while explaining 90% of its variance. Weekly approximations of those components can be accurately modeled with low-order autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. We show that forecasting the long term trend and the fluctuations of the traffic at the 12-h time scale yields accurate estimates for at least 6 months in the future.

  16. Long-term complications of splenectomy in adult immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Lan-Huong; Mahévas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Dumas, Guillaume; Khellaf, Mehdi; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recent large decrease in splenectomy use for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is partly due to still-unsolved questions about long-term safety. We performed the first single-center exposed/unexposed cohort study evaluating the long-term incidence of splenectomy complications in patients with primary ITP. Overall, 83 patients who underwent splenectomy more than 10 years ago (exposed) were matched with 83 nonsplenectomized patients (unexposed) on the date of ITP diagnosis ±5 years, age and gender. After a median follow-up of 192 months (range 0.5–528), 43 patients (52%) achieved overall response after splenectomy. Splenectomized patients experienced more venous thromboembolism (VTE) than controls (n = 13 vs n = 2, P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, splenectomy was an independent risk factor of VTE (hazard ratio = 4.006, P = 0.032 [95% confidence interval: 1.13–14.21]). Splenectomized patients presented more severe infections on long-term follow-up: all required hospitalization, and 5/26 (19%) infections led to severe sepsis or septic shock and to death for 3 cases (none in controls). However, the incidence of malignancy was similar in both groups, as was cardiovascular risk, which appeared to be related more to ITP than splenectomy. Finally, splenectomy did not significantly decrease overall survival. Despite the risk of thrombosis and severe sepsis, splenectomy remains an effective and curative treatment for ITP. PMID:27902585

  17. Long term complications following 54 consecutive lung transplants

    PubMed Central

    Tabarelli, Walther; Bonatti, Hugo; Tabarelli, Dominique; Eller, Miriam; Müller, Ludwig; Ruttmann, Elfriede; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Larcher, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the complex therapy and the required high level of immunosuppression, lung recipients are at high risk to develop many different long term complications. Methods From 1993–2000, a total of 54 lung transplantation (LuTx) were performed at our center. Complications, graft and patient survival of this cohort was retrospectively analyzed. Results One/five and ten-year patient survival was 71.4%, 41.2% and 25.4%; at last follow up (4/2010), twelve patients were alive. Of the 39 deceased patients, 26 died from infectious complications. Other causes of death were myocardial infarction (n=1), progressive graft failure (n=1), intracerebral bleeding (n=2), basilary vein thrombosis (n=1), pulmonary emboli (n=1), others (n=7). Surgical complication rate was 27.7% during the first year and 25% for the 12 long term survivors. Perioperative rejection rate was 35%, and 91.6% for the 12 patients currently alive. Infection incidence during first hospitalization was 79.6% (1.3 episodes per transplant) and 100% for long term survivors. Commonly isolated pathogens were cytomegalovirus (56.8%), Aspergillus (29.4%), RSV (13.7%). Other common complications were renal failure (56.8%), osteoporosis (54.9%), hypertension (45%), diabetes mellitus (19.6%). Conclusions Infection and rejection remain the most common complications following LuTx with many other events to be considered. PMID:27293842

  18. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  19. Position paper on PRM and persons with long term disabilities.

    PubMed

    Takáč, P; Petrovičová, J; Delarque, A; Stibrant Sunnerhagen, K; Neumann, V; Vetra, A; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2014-08-01

    In the current population we observe a rise of chronic health problems often with multiple characteristics. This results in a growing number of people who are experiencing long-term disabilities or difficulties in functioning because of disability. These conditions require a complex response over an extended period of time, that involves coordinated inputs from a wide range of health professionals. This paper argues the central role and benefit of rehabilitation and describes the rehabilitation as an integral component in the management of people with chronic disabilities. It also presents the most important related definitions: long-term care, rehabilitation for chronic disease and disability, the aim of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). An interdisciplinary team is ideal for an effective implementation of rehabilitation for chronic disease and disability. However, the article mainly focuses on defining the role and contribution of the PRM physician in the rehabilitation of persons with long-term disabilities. The article includes: descriptions of his/her key role and competencies, particularly with regard to medical and functional status and prognosis, of the ability to comprehensively define the rehabilitation needs of the patient/person with respect to ICD-WHO classification domains, of the cooperation with other medical specialists and health professionals, of determining the rehabilitation potential, of developing the rehabilitation plan tailored to specific needs, as well as of the contribution of PRM physician in the follow-up care pathways.

  20. Long-term demographic consequences of a seed dispersal disruption

    PubMed Central

    Traveset, Anna; González-Varo, Juan P.; Valido, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The loss or decline of vertebrate frugivores can limit the regeneration of plants that depend on them. However, empirical evidence is showing that this is still very scarce, as functionally equivalent species may contribute to maintain the mutualistic interaction. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of the extinction of frugivorous lizards on the population persistence of a Mediterranean relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon (Cneoraceae). We examined the demographic parameters among 26 insular and mainland populations, which encompass the entire plant distributional range, comparing populations with lizards with those in which these are extinct, but in which alien mammals currently act as seed dispersers. Plant recruitment was found to be higher on island populations with lizards than on those with mammals, and the long-term effects of the native disperser's loss were found in all vital phases of plant regeneration. The study thus gives evidence of the cascading effects of human-induced changes in ecosystems, showing how the disruption of native ecological processes can lead to species regression and, in the long term, even to local extinctions. PMID:22628466

  1. Supramolecular hydrogels for long-term bioengineered stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Junseok; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Hyuntae; Namkoong, Hong; Yang, Jeonga; Hwang, Byung Woo; Oh, Kyunghoon; Kim, Kimoon; Sung, Young Chul; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2015-01-28

    Synthetic hydrogels have been extensively investigated as artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs) for tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo. Crucial challenges for such hydrogels are sustaining long-term cytocompatible encapsulation and providing appropriate cues at the right place and time for spatio-temporal control of the cells. Here, in situ supramolecularly assembled and modularly modified hydrogels for long-term engineered mesenchymal stem cell (eMSC) therapy are reported using cucurbit[6]uril-conjugated hyaluronic acid (CB[6]-HA), diaminohexane conjugated HA (DAH-HA), and drug-conjugated CB[6] (drug-CB[6]). The eMSCs producing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) remain alive and emit the fluorescence within CB[6]/DAH-HA hydrogels in mice for more than 60 d. Furthermore, the long-term expression of mutant interleukin-12 (IL-12M) by eMSCs within the supramolecular hydrogels results in effective inhibition of tumor growth with a significantly enhanced survival rate. Taken together, these findings confirm the feasibility of supramolecular HA hydrogels as 3D artificial ECMs for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications.

  2. Inhibition promotes long-term potentiation at cerebellar excitatory synapses

    PubMed Central

    Binda, F.; Dorgans, K.; Reibel, S.; Sakimura, K.; Kano, M.; Poulain, B.; Isope, P.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the cerebellar cortex to learn from experience ensures the accuracy of movements and reflex adaptation, processes which require long-term plasticity at granule cell (GC) to Purkinje neuron (PN) excitatory synapses. PNs also receive GABAergic inhibitory inputs via GCs activation of interneurons; despite the involvement of inhibition in motor learning, its role in long-term plasticity is poorly characterized. Here we reveal a functional coupling between ionotropic GABAA receptors and low threshold CaV3 calcium channels in PNs that sustains calcium influx and promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) at GC to PN synapses. High frequency stimulation induces LTP at GC to PN synapses and CaV3-mediated calcium influx provided that inhibition is intact; LTP is mGluR1, intracellular calcium store and CaV3 dependent. LTP is impaired in CaV3.1 knockout mice but it is nevertheless recovered by strengthening inhibitory transmission onto PNs; promoting a stronger hyperpolarization via GABAA receptor activation leads to an enhanced availability of an alternative Purkinje-expressed CaV3 isoform compensating for the lack of CaV3.1 and restoring LTP. Accordingly, a stronger hyperpolarization also restores CaV3-mediated calcium influx in PNs from CaV3.1 knockout mice. We conclude that by favoring CaV3 channels availability inhibition promotes LTP at cerebellar excitatory synapses. PMID:27641070

  3. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  4. Regional Long-term Coastal Change in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Reid, D.; Weber, K.; Morgan, K.; Morton, R.; Sallenger, A.

    2004-12-01

    The USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change project addresses issues that include the impact of severe storms, identifying coastal vulnerability, and the effects of potential accelerated sea-level rise. One of the principal tasks is to calculate long-term shoreline change rates using a method that is consistent and repeatable at a national scale. We have undertaken the analysis of the open-coast shorelines for California, Oregon and Washington. Methodologies that have already been developed for the Gulf of Mexico are applied to the West Coast and modified where necessary to adjust to the differences in coastal geomorphology between East and Gulf Coast-type shorelines and the variable geomorphology of the West Coast. In addition to measuring coastal change along linear and sometimes dune-backed beaches, the methods must also incorporate the means to measure long-term change along narrow beaches backed by cliffs, pocket beaches and headlands, and high-relief stretches of coast. For the completed analysis of Southern California, the dataset includes nearly 150 historical maps dating back as far as the mid-1800s. In addition, lidar data, collected for the entire U.S. West Coast in 1998, is used in the analysis. Three coastal change reference features are used for the Southern California analysis: high water line and mean high water shorelines for the sandy beaches, and the cliff edge. The long-term shoreline change rates for Southern California, generated using a linear regression method on four shorelines, are surprisingly low for a region that is generally thought to be experiencing widespread erosion. Our analysis for an approximately 120-year period shows that only 6% of the 277 km of coastline analyzed is undergoing long-term erosion, at an average rate of 0.4±0.2 m/yr. This pattern changes somewhat in the last 25 years, where the percent of eroding coastline increases to 21% and the average erosion rate is 1.1±0.2 m/yr. The highest erosion rates are in the

  5. Agarose Microchambers for Long-term Calcium Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Bringmann, Henrik

    2015-06-24

    Behavior is controlled by the nervous system. Calcium imaging is a straightforward method in the transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to measure the activity of neurons during various behaviors. To correlate neural activity with behavior, the animal should not be immobilized but should be able to move. Many behavioral changes occur during long time scales and require recording over many hours of behavior. This also makes it necessary to culture the worms in the presence of food. How can worms be cultured and their neural activity imaged over long time scales? Agarose Microchamber Imaging (AMI) was previously developed to culture and observe small larvae and has now been adapted to study all life stages from early L1 until the adult stage of C. elegans. AMI can be performed on various life stages of C. elegans. Long-term calcium imaging is achieved without immobilizing the animals by using short externally triggered exposures combined with an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera recording. Zooming out or scanning can scale up this method to image up to 40 worms in parallel. Thus, a method is described to image behavior and neural activity over long time scales in all life stages of C. elegans.

  6. Long-term weather predictability: Ural case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of the state-of-the-art long-term meteorological forecast (at the seasonal level) is still low. Here it is presented approach (RAMES method) realizing different forecasting methodology. It provides prediction horizon of up to 19-22 years under equal probabilities of determination of parameters in every analyzed period [1]. Basic statements of the method are the following. 1. Long-term forecast on the basis of numerical modeling of the global meteorological process is principally impossible. Extension of long-term prediction horizon could be obtained only by the revealing and using a periodicity of meteorological situations at one point of observation. 2. Conventional calendar is unsuitable for generalization of meteorological data and revealing of cyclicity of meteorological processes. RAMES method uses natural time intervals: one day, synodic month and one year. It was developed a set of special calendars using these natural periods and the Metonic cycle. 3. Long-term time series of meteorological data is not a uniform universal set, it is a sequence of 28 universal sets appropriately superseding each other in time. The specifics of the method are: 1. Usage of the original research toolkit consisting of - a set of calendars based on the Metonic cycle; - a set of charts (coordinate systems) for the construction of sequence diagrams (of daily variability of a meteorological parameter during the analyzed year; of daily variability of a meteorological parameter using long-term dynamical time series of periods-analogues; of monthly and yearly variability of accumulated value of meteorological parameter). 2. Identification and usage of new virtual meteorological objects having several degrees of generalization appropriately located in the used coordinate systems. 3. All calculations are integrated into the single technological scheme providing comparison and mutual verification of calculation results. During the prolonged testing in the Ural region, it was

  7. Postsynaptic density-95 mimics and occludes hippocampal long-term potentiation and enhances long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Valentin; House, David R C; Bredt, David S; Nicoll, Roger A

    2003-07-02

    Previous studies have shown that overexpression of the protein PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95) selectively enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal pyramidal cells. To determine whether this effect is related to synaptic plasticity at these synapses, we examined whether PSD-95 expression mimics long-term potentiation (LTP), and also whether it influences LTP and long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal slice cultures. Using simultaneous recording from transfected or infected cells and control pyramidal cells, we found that PSD-95, similar to LTP, increases the amplitude and frequency of miniature EPSCs. It also converts silent synapses to functional synapses, as does LTP. In addition, LTP is completely occluded in cells expressing PSD-95, whereas LTD is greatly enhanced. These results suggest that common mechanisms are involved in controlling synaptic AMPA receptors by PSD-95 and synaptic plasticity.

  8. Christie Gardens Apartments and Care Inc. and the Ontario Long Term Care Association: long term care recruitment and retention project.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, the Ontario Long Term Care Association was awarded funding from HealthForceOntario to assist with its nursing recruitment strategy based on research it had initiated in 2007. The research goal was to understand the career motivations and perceptions of students enrolled in registered nursing (RN) and registered practical nursing (RPN) programs in Ontario to develop and test a message to support recruitment.

  9. Estrogen metabolism genotypes, use of long-term hormone replacement therapy and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Novakovic, Srdjan; Frkovic-Grazio, Snjezana; Pohar-Perme, Maja; Stegel, Vida; Gersak, Ksenija

    2011-08-01

    Association between long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and increased risk of breast cancer is still under debate. Functionally relevant genetic variants within the estrogen metabolic pathway may alter exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We investigated the associations of common polymorphisms in 4 genes encoding key proteins of the estrogen metabolic pathway, duration of HRT use and their interactions with breast cancer risk. We studied 530 breast cancer cases and 270 controls of the same age and ethnicity participating in a case-control study of postmenopausal women. Duration of HRT use was ascertained through a postal questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695) and MnSOD (rs4880) polymorphisms by PCR-based RFLP and TaqMan® allelic discrimination method. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis. HRT use was significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (p<0.001). None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with breast cancer risk. A significant interaction was observed between MnSOD 47T>C and HRT use (pinteraction=0.036); the risk of breast cancer associated with long-term vs. short-term HRT use was decreased in women homozygous for the wild-type allele and increased in women with at least one variant allele of the MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism. Our results suggest that MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism in interaction with long-term HRT use may modify the risk of breast cancer.

  10. Long-term chlorhexidine effect on bond strength to Er:YAG laser irradiated-dentin.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Daniel; Scatena, Camila; Colucci, Vivian; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Campos Serra, Mônica; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the bond strength of dentin prepared with Er:YAG laser or bur, after rewetting with chlorhexidine on long-term artificial saliva storage and thermocycling. One hundred and twenty human third molars were sectioned in order to expose the dentin surface (n = 10). The specimens were randomly divided in 12 groups according to treatment and aging: Er:YAG laser rewetting with deionized water (LW) and 24 h storage in artificial saliva (WC); LW and 6 months of artificial saliva storage + 12.000 thermocycling (6M), LW and 12 months of artificial saliva storage + 24.000 thermocycling (12M), Er:YAG laser rewetting with 2% chlorhexidine (LC) and WC, LC and 6M, LC and 12M, bur on high-speed turbine rewetting with deionized water (TW) and WC, TW6M, TW12M, bur on high-speed turbine + 2% chlorhexidine (TC) and WC, TC and 6M, TC and 12M. The specimens were etched with 35% phosphoric acid, washed, and dried with air. Single Bond 2 adhesive was applied and the samples were restored with a composite. Each tooth was sectioned in order to obtain 4 sticks, which were submitted to microtensile bond strength test (µTBS). The two-way ANOVA, showed no significant differences for the interaction between the factors and for the aging factor. Tukey 5% showed that the LC group had the lowest µTBS. The rewetting with chlorhexidine negatively influenced the bond strength of the preparation with the Er:YAG laser. The artificial saliva aging and thermocycling did not interfere with dentin bond strength.

  11. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  12. Reuse Requirements for Generating Long Term Climate Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Creating long term climate data sets from remotely sensed data requires a specialized form of code reuse. To detect long term trends in a geophysical parameter, such as global ozone amount or mean sea surface temperature, it is essential to be able to differentiate between real changes in the measurement and artifacts related to changes in processing algorithms or instrument characteristics. The ability to rerun the exact algorithm used to produce a given data set many years after the data was originally made is essential to create consistent long term data sets. It is possible to quickly develop a basic algorithm that will convert a perfect instrument measurement into a geophysical parameter value for a well specified set of conditions. However the devil is in the details and it takes a massive effort to develop and verify a processing system to generate high quality global climate data over all necessary conditions. As an example, from 1976 until now, over a hundred man years and eight complete reprocessings have been spent on deriving thirty years of total ozone data from multiple backscattered ultraviolet instruments. To obtain a global data set it is necessary to make numerous assumptions and to handle many special conditions (e.g. "What happens at high solar zenith angles with scattered clouds for snow covered terrain at high altitudes"?) It is easier to determine the precision of a remotely sensed data set than to determine its absolute accuracy. Fortunately if the entire data set is made with a single instrument and a constant algorithm the ability to detect long term trends is primarily determined by the precision of the measurement system rather than its absolute accuracy. However no instrument runs forever and new processing algorithms are developed over time. Introducing the resulting changes can impact the estimate of product precision and reduce the ability to estimate long term trends.Given an extended period of time when both the initial measurement

  13. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  14. Cognitive Performance in Long-Term Abstinent Elderly Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, there is a wealth of literature describing the deleterious effects of active alcoholism on cognitive function. There has also been, more recently, a growing body of literature investigating the extent of cognitive recovery that can or may occur with abstinence. However, there is still a dearth of published findings on cognitive functioning in very long-term abstinence alcoholics, especially in the elderly population. Methods The current study examines 91 elderly abstinent alcoholics (EAA) (49 men and 42 women) with an average age of 67.3 years, abstinent for an average of 14.8 years (range 0.5 to 45 years), and age and gender comparable light/non-drinking controls. The EAA group was broken down into three sub-groups, individuals who attained abstinence before the age of 50, between the ages 50 and 60, and after the age of 60. Attention, verbal fluency, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, spatial processing, and auditory working memory were assessed. Results Overall, the three EAA groups performed comparably to controls on all of the assessments of cognitive function. In fact, only the abstinent before age 50 group performed worse than controls, and this was only in the domain of auditory working memory. Conclusions Our data clearly show that it’s possible for elderly alcoholics with long-term abstinence to attain essentially normal cognitive functioning, even for those individuals who drank relatively late into life. These results don’t imply, however, that all individuals with long-term abstinence will attain normal cognition. It’s possible that selective survivorship may play a part in these findings (e.g. cognitively healthier alcoholics may be more likely to live into their sixties, seventies, or eighties). PMID:17877784

  15. Review of long-term results of stereotactic psychosurgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Choi, Chang-Rak

    2002-09-01

    Stereotactic psychosurgery is an effective method for treating some medically intractable psychiatric illnesses. However, it is unfamiliar and the long-term clinical results have not been reported in Asia. The long-term results of psychosurgery are evaluated and the neuroanatomical basis is discussed. Twenty-one patients underwent stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable psychiatric illnesses since 1993. All were referred from psychiatrists for these disorders. Two patients showed aggressive behavior, 12 had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seven had depression with anxiety disorders. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were performed for aggressive behavior, limbic leucotomy was performed for OCD, and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was performed for depression with anxiety. OCD was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the visual analogue scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were used for the evaluation of aggressive behavior. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was used for evaluation of depression. Ventriculography was used in the first seven patients and magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotaxy was used in the recent 14 cases for localization of the target. The lesions were made with a radiofrequency lesion generator. OAS scores in the two patients with aggressive behavior during follow up declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement. All 12 patients with OCD returned to their previous life and showed the mean YBOCS scores decreased from 34 to 3. Ten patients with OCD could be followed up (mean 45 months). All patients returned to their previous social life. In seven patients with depression with anxiety, HAMD scores declined from 28.5 to 16.5. There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except for one case of mild

  16. Long Term Stability of Nanowire Nanoelectronics in Physiological Environments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease. PMID:24479700

  17. Long term stability of nanowire nanoelectronics in physiological environments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Fu, Tian-Ming; Xie, Chong; Liu, Jia; Lieber, Charles M

    2014-03-12

    Nanowire nanoelectronic devices have been exploited as highly sensitive subcellular resolution detectors for recording extracellular and intracellular signals from cells, as well as from natural and engineered/cyborg tissues, and in this capacity open many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here we demonstrate the capability to take full advantage of the attractive capabilities of nanowire nanoelectronic devices for long term physiological studies by passivating the nanowire elements with ultrathin metal oxide shells. Studies of Si and Si/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) core/shell nanowires in physiological solutions at 37 °C demonstrate long-term stability extending for at least 100 days in samples coated with 10 nm thick Al2O3 shells. In addition, investigations of nanowires configured as field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that the Si/Al2O3 core/shell nanowire FETs exhibit good device performance for at least 4 months in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. The generality of this approach was also tested with in studies of Ge/Si and InAs nanowires, where Ge/Si/Al2O3 and InAs/Al2O3 core/shell materials exhibited stability for at least 100 days in physiological model solutions at 37 °C. In addition, investigations of hafnium oxide-Al2O3 nanolaminated shells indicate the potential to extend nanowire stability well beyond 1 year time scale in vivo. These studies demonstrate that straightforward core/shell nanowire nanoelectronic devices can exhibit the long term stability needed for a range of chronic in vivo studies in animals as well as powerful biomedical implants that could improve monitoring and treatment of disease.

  18. Long-Term Trends Derived from Satellite PMC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deland, M. T.

    2003-12-01

    The recent availability of long-term PMC data sets from satellites provides the opportunity to evaluate possible PMC trends over the past few decades. Satellite PMC data have daily coverage to characterize seasonal variations, sufficient detections for each season to give good statistics, quantitative information for physical analysis, and coverage of both hemispheres to evaluate global behavior. Multiple PMC data sets are available from the SBUV and SBUV/2 instruments on the Nimbus-7 and NOAA TIROS polar orbiting satellites. These overlapping data sets now provide more than 24 years of continuous data from November 1978 to the present, typically with concurrent measurements from multiple instruments during each PMC season. The SAGE II instrument has also accumulated more than 17 years of PMC data since 1985. Analysis of these lengthy data sets shows a clear anti-correlation between seasonally averaged PMC occurrence frequency and solar UV activity over the past two solar cycles, in agreement with model predictions. The SBUV data also show a significant long-term increase in PMC brightness in both hemispheres, approximately +4%/decade in the Northern Hemisphere and +7%/decade in the Southern Hemisphere. These results can be compared with information about trends in plausible source mechanisms such as mesospheric water vapor and temperature. Model results suggest that PMC brightness changes are consistent with observed long-term water vapor changes. Additional factors probably contribute to the overall PMC response for individual seasons. Future satellite instruments (SBUV/2, OMPS) will continue the SBUV PMC data record for an additional 10-20 years. Hopefully, further improvements in modeling will allow these data to become useful in characterizing the trends in atmospheric parameters.

  19. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heupel, M. R.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring is required to fully define periodicity and patterns in animal movement. This is particularly relevant for defining what factors are driving the presence, location, and movements of individuals. The long-term movement and space use patterns of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, were examined on a whole of reef scale in the southern Great Barrier Reef to define whether movement and activity space varied through time. Twenty-nine C. amblyrhynchos were tracked for over 2 years to define movement patterns. All individuals showed high residency within the study site, but also had high roaming indices. This indicated that individuals remained in the region and used all of the monitored habitat (i.e., the entire reef perimeter). Use of space was consistent through time with high reuse of areas most of the year. Therefore, individuals maintained discrete home ranges, but undertook broader movements around the reef at times. Mature males showed greatest variation in movement with larger activity spaces and movement into new regions during the mating season (August-September). Depth use patterns also differed, suggesting behaviour or resource requirements varied between sexes. Examination of the long-term, reef-scale movements of C. amblyrhynchos has revealed that reproductive activity may play a key role in space use and activity patterns. It was unclear whether mating behaviour or an increased need for food to sustain reproductive activity and development played a greater role in these patterns. Reef shark movement patterns are becoming more clearly defined, but research is still required to fully understand the biological drivers for the observed patterns.

  20. Adults with VATER association: long-term prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Patricia G; Weaver, David D

    2005-10-15

    VATER "association" is a common condition, with the diagnosis typically based on a characteristic constellation of congenital anomalies. Reported long-term follow-up information on VATER association is limited, thus making it difficult to prognosticate the future of infants and children with this condition. Further, there are few data on how often the initial diagnosis of VATER association is correct. Some information has been published on growth deficiency and mental retardation, but these data are minimal [Bull et al., 1985; Mapstone et al., 1986; Weaver et al., 1986] and for the most part look at children under the age of 10 years. We have undertaken a long-term follow-up of individuals with VATER association originally reported by Weaver et al. [1986] or diagnosed with VATER association by his associates and him after 1986. Out of the 50 patients, we were able to contact 20 individuals or families. Two of the 20 individuals had died: 1 at 3 days with cardiac failure due to a truncus arteriosus, and 1 at 4 years of unspecified cause. Two were unwilling to participate. Of the rest, we interviewed and examined seven persons, and interviewed another nine by telephone. Of the 16, 5 had some degree of cognitive impairment. These individuals were more likely to have congenital anomalies outside of the typical scope of VATER association, such as prune belly sequence or findings of CHARGE association. Of the nine individuals with a history of imperforate anus, five had partial or complete incontinence as adults leading to difficulties in maintaining employment. Height was at the 5th centile or less in 6 of 16 patients. Three of four patients who were trying to have children, had infertility. In two women, the infertility was thought to be related to congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system and multiple pelvic operations. We also present the long-term medical and neurologic problems in these individuals.

  1. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence.

  2. Automated patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Zabihi, Morteza; Ince, Dilek

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a novel systematic approach for patient-specific classification of long-term Electroencephalography (EEG). The goal is to extract the seizure sections with a high accuracy to ease the Neurologist's burden of inspecting such long-term EEG data. We aim to achieve this using the minimum feedback from the Neurologist. To accomplish this, we use the majority of the state-of-the-art features proposed in this domain for evolving a collective network of binary classifiers (CNBC) using multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization (MD PSO). Multiple CNBCs are then used to form a CNBC ensemble (CNBC-E), which aggregates epileptic seizure frames from the classification map of each CNBC in order to maximize the sensitivity rate. Finally, a morphological filter forms the final epileptic segments while filtering out the outliers in the form of classification noise. The proposed system is fully generic, which does not require any a priori information about the patient such as the list of relevant EEG channels. The results of the classification experiments, which are performed over the benchmark CHB-MIT scalp long-term EEG database show that the proposed system can achieve all the aforementioned objectives and exhibits a significantly superior performance compared to several other state-of-the-art methods. Using a limited training dataset that is formed by less than 2 min of seizure and 24 min of non-seizure data on the average taken from the early 25% section of the EEG record of each patient, the proposed system establishes an average sensitivity rate above 89% along with an average specificity rate above 93% over the test set.

  3. Behavioral and systemic consequences of long-term inflammatory challenge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-11-15

    Inflammatory reactions are involved in a diversity of diseases, including major depressive disorder. Cytokines act as intercellular signaling molecules and mediators of inflammation between the periphery and the brain. Within the brain, evidence from animal studies of acute inflammation has shown that elevated cytokine levels are linked to behavioral responses of sickness and depression-like behavior. Although chronic inflammation is more translational to human depression than acute studies, little is known on central cytokine expression and associated behavioral responses following chronic immune challenges. The present study assessed behavioral changes and a selection of cytokines in the brain and in the blood in rats randomized to receive a single or 8week administration with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 600μg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Acute and long-term LPS treatments caused similar sickness and depression-like behavior. Chronic LPS administration did not have an effect on blood cytokine levels, indicating endotoxin tolerance, whereas increased fasting blood glucose was observed, indicating insulin resistance, a metabolic consequence of chronic inflammation. While a single LPS injection produced a generalized cytokine response in the brain, long-term LPS administration produced a specific central cytokine response with increased interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon (IFN)-γ. These cytokines can explain the behavioral changes observed, and could indicate microglia activation, although future studies are needed to uncover this assumption. Taken together, although the behavioral outcome was similar between acute and chronic LPS administration, the central cytokine response was distinct. As the long-term LPS paradigm also posed a metabolic demand, this setting may reflect a more translational insight into inflammatory reactions in human depression, and could prove useful for assessing cytokine down-stream effects and experimental antidepressant drug products.

  4. [Bone and joint problems in long-term dialysis].

    PubMed

    Brunner, F P

    1992-05-09

    Bone and joint pathology in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for end-stage renal failure is presented in the light of typical cases and a brief review of the literature. Osteomalacia with bone pain and fractures is caused mainly by aluminium overload due to enteral uptake from aluminium-containing phosphate binders. This is why calcium acetate or calcium carbonate should be used exclusively to lower enteral phosphate reabsorption. If--due to hypercalcemia--aluminium containing phosphate binders--cannot be entirely avoided, they should never be administered together with citrate (citrate-containing medication, fruit juice, etc.), which chelates aluminium and thereby massively increases enteral aluminium uptake. Secondary hyperparathyroidism with overt radiologically demonstrable bone disease develops in many patients on long-term dialysis despite efforts to maintain plasma calcium within or slightly above the upper normal range and concomitant treatment with calcitriol. Intravenous administration of relatively high-dose calcitriol or 1-alpha-OH-D3 (neither readily available at the present time), as well as the newly developed experimental vitamin D analogs such as 22-oxa-(OH)2-D3, which appear to suppress the parathyroid glands without increasing enteral calcium reabsorption, may in future reduce the high incidence of parathyroidectomy in patients on maintenance dialysis. beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis is a new disease entity which develops in the majority of long-term dialysis patients. Apart from carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger fingers and tendon ruptures, it is associated with acute and chronic painful erosive arthropathy with joint effusions and fractures, particularly around the hip, due to cystic bone lesions where bone is replaced by nodular amyloid deposits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Antibiotic treatment and long term prognosis of reactive arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laasila, K; Laasonen, L; Leirisalo-Repo, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a three month course of lymecycline has an effect on the long term prognosis of reactive arthritis (ReA). Methods: In 1987–88 a double-blind controlled study with three month course of lymecycline/placebo was conducted. 17 of 23 patients treated at the outpatient department of Helsinki University Central Hospital volunteered to take part in a follow up study, where a physical examination were performed, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and radiographs of the lumbosacral spine and sacroiliac joints and of symptomatic peripheral joints were examined. Results: 16/17 (94%) patients reported some kind of back pain and 10/17 (59%) peripheral joint symptoms during the follow up. Two patients had unilateral grade 1 sacroiliitis, one patient grade 4 sacroiliitis, and one patient bilateral grade 2 sacroiliitis. In one patient the disease had progressed to ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and in another to chronic spondyloarthropathy. In addition, two patients had small erosions in radiocarpal joints. No statistically significant differences were found between placebo and lymecycline groups in the development of chronic arthritis, sacroiliitis, or AS. Conclusion: The results of the initial study showed that long term treatment with lymecycline in patients with acute ReA decreased the duration of arthritis in those with Chlamydia trachomatis triggered ReA, but not in other patients with ReA. Ten years after the acute arthritis one patient had developed AS, and three had radiological sacroiliitis, three patients had radiological changes at peripheral joints. Long term lymecycline treatment did not change the natural history of the disease. PMID:12810429

  6. Long-term contraception in a small implant

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Deslorelin (Suprelorin®; Virbac) is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist licensed in select countries for the long-term suppression of fertility in adult male dogs and male ferrets. This article summarizes studies investigating the use of deslorelin implants for the long-term suppression of fertility in male and female domestic cats. Evidence base: Slow-release deslorelin implants have been shown to generate effective, safe and reversible long-term contraception in male and female cats. In pubertal cats, a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant suppressed steroid sex hormones for an average of approximately 20 months (range 15–25 months) in males and an average of approximately 24 months (range 16–37 months) in females. Reversibility has been demonstrated by fertile matings approximately 2 years post-treatment in both male and female adult cats. In prepubertal female cats of approximately 4 months of age, puberty was postponed to an average of approximately 10 months of age (range 6–15 months) by a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. Challenges: The large variability in the duration of suppression of gonadal activity makes the definition of the optimal time for reimplantation quite challenging. In addition, the temporary stimulation phase occurring in the weeks following deslorelin implantation can induce in adult female cats a fertile estrus that needs to be managed to avoid unwanted pregnancy. Longer duration and larger scale controlled field studies implementing blinding, a negative control group and a carefully controlled randomization to each group are needed. Furthermore, the effects of repeated treatment need to be investigated. Finally, the effect of treatment on growth and bone quality of prepubertal cats needs to be assessed. However, the ease of use, long-lasting effects and reversibility of deslorelin implants are strong positive points supporting their use for controlling feline reproduction. PMID:26323800

  7. Long-term soy isoflavone supplementation and cognition in women

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, V.W.; St. John, J.A.; Hodis, H.N.; Kono, N.; McCleary, C.A.; Franke, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cognitive effects of long-term dietary soy isoflavones in a daily dose comparable to that of traditional Asian diets. Methods: In the double-blind Women's Isoflavone Soy Health trial, healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive daily 25 g of isoflavone-rich soy protein (91 mg of aglycone weight of isoflavones: 52 mg of genistein, 36 mg of daidzein, and 3 mg glycitein) or milk protein−matched placebo. The primary cognitive endpoint compared between groups at 2.5 years was change from baseline on global cognition, a composite of the weighted sum of 14 neuropsychological test score changes. Secondary outcomes compared changes in cognitive factors and individual tests. Results: A total of 350 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45–92 years enrolled in this trial; 313 women with baseline and endpoint cognitive test data were included in intention-to-treat analyses. Adherence in both groups was nearly 90%. There was no significant between-group difference on change from baseline in global cognition (mean standardized improvement of 0.42 in the isoflavone group and 0.31 in the placebo group; mean standardized difference 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.13 to 0.35). Secondary analyses indicated greater improvement on a visual memory factor in the isoflavone group (mean standardized difference 0.33, 95% CI 0.06–0.60) but no significant between-group differences on 3 other cognitive factors or individual test scores, and no significant difference within a subgroup of younger postmenopausal women. Conclusion: For healthy postmenopausal women, long-term dietary soy isoflavone supplementation in a dose comparable to that of traditional Asian diets has no effect on global cognition but may improve visual memory. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that long-term dietary supplementation with isoflavone-rich soy protein does not improve global cognition of healthy postmenopausal women. PMID

  8. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans.

  9. Long-term Trends in the Solar Wind Proton Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Heather A.; McComas, David J.; DeForest, Craig E.

    2016-11-01

    We examine the long-term time evolution (1965-2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature (T p) and speed (V p) and between the proton density (n p) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature-speed (T p-V p) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density-speed (n p-V p) relationship is not linear like the T p-V p relationship, we perform power-law fits for n p-V p. The exponent (steepness in the n p-V p relationship) is correlated with the solar cycle. This exponent has a stronger correlation with current sheet tilt angle than with sunspot number because the sunspot number maxima vary considerably from cycle to cycle and the tilt angle maxima do not. To understand this finding, we examined the average n p for different speed ranges, and found that for the slow wind n p is highly correlated with the sunspot number, with a lag of approximately four years. The fast wind n p variation was less, but in phase with the cycle. This phase difference may contribute to the n p-V p exponent correlation with the solar cycle. These long-term trends are important since empirical formulas based on fits to T p and V p data are commonly used to identify interplanetary coronal mass ejections, but these formulas do not include any time dependence. Changes in the solar wind density over a solar cycle will create corresponding changes in the near-Earth space environment and the overall extent of the heliosphere.

  10. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position using active breathing control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Koshani, Rojano . E-mail: rkashani@umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Hayman, James A.; Henning, George T.; Herk, Marcel van

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position for scans acquired using an active breathing control (ABC) device. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with lung cancer were scanned over three sessions during the course of treatment. For each session, two scans were acquired at deep inhale, and one scan each at half of deep inhale and at exhale. Long-term reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the same breathing state scans from two sessions, with setup variation removed by skeletal alignment. Tumor alignment was based on intensity matching of a small volume around the tumor. For short-term reproducibility, the two inhale volumes from the same session were compared. Results: For the short-term reproducibility, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the displacement of the center of tumor were 0.0 (1.5) mm in anteroposterior (AP), 0.3 (1.4) mm in superior/inferior (SI), and 0.2 (0.7) mm in right/left (RL) directions. For long-term reproducibility, the mean (SD) were -1.3 (3.1) mm AP, -0.5 (3.8) mm SI, and 0.3 (1.6) mm RL for inhale and -0.2 (2.8) mm AP, 0.2 (2.1) mm SI, and -0.7 (1.1) mm RL for exhale. Conclusion: The ABC device demonstrates very good short-term and long-term reproducibility. Increased long-term variability in position, primarily in the SI and AP directions, indicates the role of tumor-directed localization in combination with breath-held immobilization.

  11. The long-term forecast of station view periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    Using dynamical systems theory, a definite integral is obtained that gives the average view period of a ground station for spacecraft in circular orbits. Minor restrictions exist on the class of circular orbits to which this method can be applied. This method avoids the propagation of the orbit, which requires a lot of resources, and simplifies the algorithm used to compute the mean station view period. The integral is used for long-term station load forecast studies. It also provides a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of a ground station as a function of its latitude.

  12. Long-term variation of solar activity: recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The concept of solar activity is a common term nowadays. However, it is not straight-forwardly interpreted and it is ambiguously defined. A review of our knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity in the past is presented, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method (millennial time scale) and the direct historical observations (secular time scale). The latest international efforts to obtain a series of sunspot numbers of the last four centuries are reviewed. Observations of sunspots during the Maunder minimum (1645–1715) are particularly interesting and they show the solar cycle during this period of Grand Minimum of solar activity.

  13. Drivers of long-term ocean salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has highlighted near-surface salinity pattern amplification (PA) and depth-integrated halosteric (salinity-driven) sea-level changes in long-term change estimates from observations and climate model simulations. These suggest that fresh ocean regions are becoming fresher, and salty regions saltier in part to a response to evaporation minus precipitation (E-P; water cycle) changes driven by a warming Earth. While near-surface salinity changes relate to the climatological mean (fresh becoming fresher, salty becoming saltier), subsurface salinity changes have also been recorded. Similar to the near-surface, these changes represent a complex three-dimensional structure that is different in each ocean basin. Like near-surface changes, subsurface salinity changes also share a strong correspondence with the subsurface climatological mean. When integrated through the depth of observed data coverage (0-2000 m), these show a clear basin halosteric contrast - a freshening Pacific and an enhancing Atlantic salinity a fingerprint of change that has been successfully attributed to anthropogenic climate change in previous studies. As long-term observational insights are limited, model simulations provide a novel method to assess and validate observed change estimates, and attribute the drivers of long-term change. Using the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 & 5) 20C3M/historical (20th century), SRES/RCP (future 21st century) and pre-industrial (piControl; unforced) simulations, these basin salinity change contrasts are investigated and their relationship to simulated E-P (water cycle) changes is diagnosed. The intrinsic variability of both modelled salinity and E-P change fields is investigated to ascertain an envelope of unforced (piControl) climate variability, an estimate currently unavailable for long-term observational estimates due to poor measurement coverage. These unforced distributions are compared to those of weakly- (20C3M

  14. Symptoms Experienced by Long Term Users of Mobil Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucer, Nermin

    2007-04-01

    In this study was investigated the possible effects of long term usage of mobile phone. The studied symptoms are headache, dizziness, extreme irritation, forgetfulness, neuropsychological discomfort, decrease of the reflex, clicking sound in the ears, and increase in carelessness. This survey study, using questionnaire, was conducted among randomly selected 146 university students in Kocaeli, Turkey. There is no effect on neuropsychological discomfort, increase in carelessness, headache, and clicking sound in the ears, but some statistical evidences are found that mobile phone may cause extreme irritation, decrease of the reflex, dizziness, and forgetfulness.

  15. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; Tlatov, Andrey G.; Kilcik, Ali; Nagovitsyn, Yury A.; Cliver, Edward W.

    2014-02-01

    Measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) were used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified approach similar to that presented in Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. Lett. 742, L36, 2011), we selected the sunspot with the strongest measured field strength for each observing week and computed monthly averages of these weekly maximum field strengths. The data show the solar cycle variation of the peak field strengths with an amplitude of about 500 - 700 gauss (G), but no statistically significant long-term trends. Next, we used the sunspot observations from the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) to establish a relationship between the sunspot areas and the sunspot field strengths for cycles 15 - 19. This relationship was used to create a proxy of the peak magnetic field strength based on sunspot areas from the RGO and the USAF/NOAA network for the period from 1874 to early 2012. Over this interval, the magnetic field proxy shows a clear solar cycle variation with an amplitude of 500 - 700 G and a weaker long-term trend. From 1874 to around 1920, the mean value of magnetic field proxy increases by about 300 - 350 G, and, following a broad maximum in 1920 - 1960, it decreases by about 300 G. Using the proxy for the magnetic field strength as the reference, we scaled the MWO field measurements to the measurements of the magnetic fields in Pevtsov et al. (2011) to construct a combined data set of maximum sunspot field strengths extending from 1920 to early 2012. This combined data set shows strong solar cycle variations and no significant long-term trend (the linear fit to the data yields a slope of - 0.2±0.8 G year-1). On the other hand, the peak sunspot field strengths observed at the minimum of the solar cycle show a gradual decline over the last three minima (corresponding to cycles 21 - 23) with a mean downward trend of ≈ 15 G year-1.

  16. Preeclampsia: Short-term and Long-term Implications.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jaimey M; Repke, John T

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that affects 4% of pregnancies and has a high risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as long-term cardiovascular risk. Recent updates in the definition, diagnosis, and management guidelines for preeclampsia warrant review by general obstetrician-gynecologists. Screening and prevention algorithms for preeclampsia are available, but ultimately the cure remains delivery of the fetus and placenta. Close monitoring for the development and worsening of preeclampsia during pregnancy is essential to optimize both maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes.

  17. Short and long term simulations of relativistic, magnetized jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    We will present a series of numerical simulations addressed to understand the morphology and dynamics of relativistic, magnetized, axisymmetric jets. Some of the simulations have been specifically set up to follow the long term evolution of extragalactic jets under idealized conditions. The simulations have been done with an extension of the GENESIS code (Aloy et al 1999a} suitable for relativistic magnetohydrodynamcs applications. The code is based on a Godunov-type scheme whose building block is a method of lines. The numerical algorithm can provide up to third order of accuracy and makes use of a constrained transport method in order to keep the divergence--free condition of the magnetic field.

  18. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  19. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  20. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  1. Estimation of long-term creep behavior of salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, R.C.

    1980-08-01

    A computer routine for both primary and secondary creep laws has been developed using a modified strain hardening law. The computations reveal that results from Heard's steady-state creep law and Lomenick and Bradshaw's primary creep law can differ from each other by a factor of thirty after about 6 hours of creep deformation, but the difference diminishes as time becomes large. The belief that these two creep laws may yield long-term results that are orders of magnitude apart is shown to be unfounded.

  2. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-15

    Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFRL -RV-PS-TP-2014-0009 9...1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVBXS/Dr. Carl Henney 1 cy Approved for public release; distribution... AFRL -RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 AFRL -RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 CYCLIC AND LONG-TERM VARIATION OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS Alexei A. Pevtsov, et al. 15

  3. Long-term laser frequency stabilization using fiber interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Jia; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2015-07-15

    We report long-term laser frequency stabilization using only the target laser and a pair of 5 m fiber interferometers, one as a frequency reference and the second as a sensitive thermometer to stabilize the frequency reference. When used to stabilize a distributed feedback laser at 795 nm, the frequency Allan deviation at 1000 s drops from 5.6 × 10{sup −8} to 6.9 × 10{sup −10}. The performance equals that of an offset lock employing a second, atom-stabilized laser in the temperature control.

  4. Long term decontamination at the Hanford Site: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.; Hansen, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes an engineering study that evaluates decontamination requirements at Hanford and the potential reutilization of the first plutonium processing production facility as a decontamination facility. The logic used to develop the study, the options available for a long-term decontamination mission, and the resultant strategy recommended in the study are presented. The paper provides a starting point for other similar study efforts. The process flowsheets, regulatory restrictions, and preconceptual designs developed in this study are common throughout the nuclear waste industry.

  5. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  6. Place cells and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cobar, Luis Fernando; Yuan, Li; Tashiro, Ayumu

    2017-02-01

    Place cells show location-specific firing patterns according to an animal's position in an environment and are thought to contribute to the spatial representation required for self-navigation. Decades of study have extensively characterized the properties of place cells and suggested the involvement of long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting synaptic strengthening, in place cell activity. Here, we review the basic characteristics of place cell activity and the findings that support the idea that LTP contributes to the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of place cell activity.

  7. CLIPPERS and the need for long-term immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Abkur, Tarig M; Kearney, Hugh; Hennessy, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female who presented with right sided facial tingling, gait ataxia and diplopia. Neuroimaging revealed pontine curvilinear enhancing lesions with extension into cerebellar peduncles, characteristic of CLIPPERS. This report discusses the differential diagnosis and the importance of prolonged immunomodulatory treatment for this rare neuro-inflammatory disorder. Long-term immunosuppression appears to be mandatory in order to achieve sustained remission and prevent disability related to atrophy of the structures involved in repeated attacks.

  8. A simple technique for long-term preservation of leptospires.

    PubMed

    Samir, Ahmed; Wasfy, Momtaz O

    2013-03-01

    The viability of six serovars of Leptospira spp. was studied after long storage at -70°C. The bacteria were either preserved in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) liquid growth medium or in sheep blood added as a cryoprotectant. The viability of the strains was observed on a monthly basis by dark-ground microscopy over a period of 20 months at -70°C. Addition of sheep blood was not significantly advantageous, since leptospires that were stored in EMJH showed a slight increase in number after recovery. The results suggest a very simple and useful technique for long-term preservation of such Leptospira.

  9. A multivariate analysis of long-term care nursing services.

    PubMed

    Segal, M N

    1992-01-01

    Marketing, as a useful conceptual framework, has been extended to a variety of nonprofit sectors including the health care industry. Despite ever growing literature devoted to general health care marketing, there appears to be a death of specific application-oriented studies. This paper illustrates the development and application of a multiple discriminant analysis model in the context of long-term care (LTC) facilities. Empirical findings are presented and factors affecting the occupancy rates are discussed with implications for marketers, managers and administrators of skilled LTC nursing homes.

  10. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat.

  11. Home health, long-term care, and other compliance activities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D; Sadoff, J W

    1999-04-01

    The Federal government continues to crack down on fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry with such initiatives and tools as Operation Restore Trust and intermediate tax sanctions. Home health and long-term care organizations are the latest entities under study by the Office of Inspector General, and the result of these studies likely will be more antifraud and abuse measures being taken against these entities. All healthcare organizations should pay particular attention to their tax risk exposure. Healthcare organizations that put effective compliance programs in place should be able to reduce the overall risk of challenges to their financial practices.

  12. COMPASS: status update and long term development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratadour, D.; Ferreira, F.; Sevin, A.; Doucet, N.; Clénet, Y.; Gendron, E.; Lainé, M.; Vidal, F.; Brulé, J.; Puech, M.; Vérinaud, C.; Carlotti, A.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the COMPASS project was to bring together the efforts of the actors from the French AO community (PHASE partnership), with the participation of the Maison de la Simulation, around the collaborative development of a numerical platform for AO, optimized and based on the use of graphics processing units (GPU). This platform allows today to lead the design studies of AO modules addressing all of the first generation instrumentation of the E-ELT. In this paper, we provide a status update of the platform and the long term maintenance and development plan.

  13. Long-term outcome following heart transplantation: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Markus J

    2015-03-01

    Heart transplantation keeps its leading position in the treatment of end-stage heart failure (HF). Survival rates and functional status following heart transplantation are excellent, particularly if compared to medical therapy. The process of acute and chronic transplant rejection, however, and the sequelae of immunosuppression, such as infection, malignancy and renal insufficiency, prevents even better results. Therapy with current mechanical circulatory support devices is associated with improving outcome and may become competitive to heart transplantation, at least in selected patients. But long-term results are not yet available.

  14. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities.

  15. Long-term pair bonds in the Laysan Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Breeden, J.H.; Vekasy, M.S.; Ellis, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe long-term pair bonds in the endangered Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis), a dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. Individually marked birds were identified on Laysan Island between 1998 and 2006 (n = 613 marked adults). We recorded pair bonds while observing marked birds, and documented within and between year mate switches and multi-year pair bonds. Twenty pairs banded before 2001 had stable pair bonds lasting ???5 years with a maximum enduring pair bond of nine breeding seasons. Understanding reproductive strategy, including mate retention, would aid conservation planning and management efforts for the Laysan Duck. Further study is needed to characterize the social system of this endangered species.

  16. Long term prediction and the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Talman, R.

    1990-09-01

    Successful operation of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will depend on the stable circulation of particles for tens of millions of turns around the rings, in the presence of small nonlinear deflecting fields. One design challenge is to set specifications for the maximum allowable field imperfections of this sort, consistent with the required. stability. Another challenge is to plan for the inclusion of field compensating elements that will ameliorate the effects of errors. The tools'' available for projecting the long term stability are theoretical, both analytic and numerical, and experimental. These aspects are reviewed. 19 refs.

  17. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-04-01

    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance.

  18. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

    PubMed

    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats.

  19. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Cuddy, Lola L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge. PMID:27635355

  20. Long Term Data Preservation for CDF at INFN-CNAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerio, S.; Chiarelli, L.; dell'Agnello, L.; De Girolamo, D.; Gregori, D.; Pezzi, M.; Prosperini, A.; Ricci, P.; Rosso, F.; Zani, S.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term preservation of experimental data (intended as both raw and derived formats) is one of the emerging requirements coming from scientific collaborations. Within the High Energy Physics community the Data Preservation in High Energy Physics (DPHEP) group coordinates this effort. CNAF is not only one of the Tier-1s for the LHC experiments, it is also a computing center providing computing and storage resources to many other HEP and non-HEP scientific collaborations, including the CDF experiment. After the end of data taking in 2011, CDF is now facing the challenge to both preserve the large amount of data produced during several years of data taking and to retain the ability to access and reuse it in the future. CNAF is heavily involved in the CDF Data Preservation activities, in collaboration with the Fermilab National Laboratory (FNAL) computing sector. At the moment about 4 PB of data (raw data and analysis-level ntuples) are starting to be copied from FNAL to the CNAF tape library and the framework to subsequently access the data is being set up. In parallel to the data access system, a data analysis framework is being developed which allows to run the complete CDF analysis chain in the long term future, from raw data reprocessing to analysis-level ntuple production. In this contribution we illustrate the technical solutions we put in place to address the issues encountered as we proceeded in this activity.