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Sample records for longer intestinal persistence

  1. Longer Intestinal Persistence of Enterococcus faecalis Compared to Enterococcus faecium Clones in Intensive-Care-Unit Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; del Campo, Rosa; Coque, Teresa M.; Asensio, Angel; Bonten, Marc; Willems, Rob; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones in intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients was evaluated. Eight patients admitted directly to the neurosurgical ICU at the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) from the community and with no overlapping stay during a 10-month period in 2006 were studied. Rectal swab specimens were collected on admission and daily until the patients were discharged. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Clonal colonization dynamics were estimated by using two new parameters: the clonal diversity per patient per day (CDPD) and the clonal persistence ratio (CPR). Enterococcus faecalis isolates (n = 123) and Enterococcus faecium isolates (n = 66) were resolved into 13 and 15 clones, respectively. The CDPD of E. faecalis steadily increased during admission, and E. faecalis showed a higher (P = 0.001) CPR value than E. faecium (0.86 and 0.42, respectively). E. faecium, with the exception of an ampicillin-resistant clone belonging to clonal complex 17, frequently appeared as a short-term colonizer, even though the E. faecalis clones had significantly (P = 0.03) more days under antibiotic exposure than E. faecium (77.5 and 65 days/100 colonization days, respectively). E. faecalis had a longer persistence than E. faecium, except for the CC17 ampicillin-resistant clone, and E. faecalis showed a cumulative increase in CDPD, whereas E. faecium did not. CDPD and CPR were useful for measuring the dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones. PMID:19052172

  2. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the “long life” layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird’s physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied.The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens.The “long life” layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  3. Persistence of the intestinal defect in abetalipoproteinaemia after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Braegger, C P; Belli, D C; Mentha, G; Steinmann, B

    1998-07-01

    A 16-year-old girl is described with abetalipoproteinaemia who underwent liver transplantation for hepatic cirrhosis. After this procedure her serum lipoprotein profile was corrected; however, fat malabsorption and steatorrhea persisted because the primary defect, a mutant microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein, remains expressed in the intestine.

  4. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1) a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2) the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices). Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity. PMID:21999434

  5. Intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small-bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Pauleau, Ghislain; Commandeur, Diane; Andro, Christophe; Chapellier, Xavier

    2012-07-11

    Persistent omphalomesenteric duct as a cause of small-bowel obstruction is an exceptional finding. A neonate presented with occlusion due to intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Remnants of the duct were successfully resected, and the postoperative course was uneventful. We discuss the presentation of omphalomesenteric duct and its management.

  6. HtpG contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium intestinal persistence in pigs.

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Van Parys, Alexander; Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2015-10-14

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) contamination of pork, is one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. The bacterium is able to persist and hide in asymptomatic carrier animals, generating a reservoir for Salmonella transmission to other animals and humans. Mechanisms involved in Salmonella persistence in pigs remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Salmonella htpG gene, encoding a homologue of the eukaryotic heat shock protein 90, contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium persistence in intestine-associated tissues of pigs, but not in the tonsils. HtpG does not seem to play an important role during the acute phase of infection. The contribution to persistence was shown to be associated with htpG-dependent Salmonella invasion and survival in porcine enterocytes and macrophages. These results reveal the role of HtpG as a virulence factor contributing to Salmonella persistence in pigs.

  7. Persistence of a recurrent group of intestinal helminth species in a coyote population from southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Radomski, A A; Pence, D B

    1993-06-01

    The persistence and interrelationships of a recurrent group of intestinal helminth species in a coyote population from southern Texas were determined; data were collected at 4-yr intervals (1979, 1983, and 1987). The a priori expectation was that a defined recurrent group of helminth species persisted over time and that the respective helminth species were stable in terms of their abundances. The Fager index and subsequent recurrent group analysis indicated a small group of taxonomically unrelated recurring species of helminths that always demonstrated affinities with each other and occasionally with certain of the remaining species. Although there were differences across host subpopulations delineated by sex and age, temporal changes reflective of extrinsic environmental variables acting on certain helminth species appeared to have the greatest effect on recurrent group size and structure. Three of the 8 common intestinal helminth species (Ancylostoma caninum, Oncicola canis, and Alaria marcianae) occurred in all recurrent groups. Thus, there was temporal persistence of a small recurrent group of dominant helminth species that formed the basis of the intestinal helminth community in this coyote population.

  8. Theodore E. Woodward Award: lactase persistence SNPs in African populations regulate promoter activity in intestinal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Eric; Ahn, Jong Kun

    2011-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, lactase, is the intestinal enzyme responsible for the digestion of the milk sugar lactose. The majority of the world's human population experiences a decline in expression of the lactase gene by late childhood (lactase non-persistence). Individuals with lactase persistence, however, continue to express high levels of the lactase gene throughout adulthood. Lactase persistence is a heritable autosomal dominant condition and has been strongly correlated with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located ∼14 kb upstream of the lactase gene in different ethnic populations: -13910*T in Europeans and -13907*G, -13915*G, and -14010*C in several African populations. The coincidence of the four SNPs clustering within 100 bp strongly suggests that this region mediates the lactase non-persistence/persistence phenotype. Having previously characterized the European SNP, we aimed to determine whether the African SNPs similarly mediate a functional role in regulating the lactase promoter. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were transfected with lactase SNP/promoter-reporter constructs and assayed for promoter activity. The -13907*G and -13915*G SNPs result in a significant enhancement of lactase promoter activity relative to the ancestral lactase non-persistence genotype. Such differential regulation by the SNPs is consistent with a causative role in the mechanism specifying the lactase persistence phenotype.

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Duy M.; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A.; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V.; Naumova, Elena N.; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D.

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  10. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  11. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  12. Persistence and Toxin Production by Clostridium difficile within Human Intestinal Organoids Result in Disruption of Epithelial Paracellular Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Jhansi L.; Huang, Sha; Opp, Judith S.; Nagy, Melinda S.; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Young, Vincent B.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) results from the interactions between the pathogen, intestinal epithelium, host immune system, and gastrointestinal microbiota. Previous studies of the host-pathogen interaction in CDI have utilized either simple cell monolayers or in vivo models. While much has been learned by utilizing these approaches, little is known about the direct interaction of the bacterium with a complex host epithelium. Here, we asked if human intestinal organoids (HIOs), which are derived from pluripotent stem cells and demonstrate small intestinal morphology and physiology, could be used to study the pathogenesis of the obligate anaerobe C. difficile. Vegetative C. difficile, microinjected into the lumen of HIOs, persisted in a viable state for up to 12 h. Upon colonization with C. difficile VPI 10463, the HIO epithelium is markedly disrupted, resulting in the loss of paracellular barrier function. Since similar effects were not observed when HIOs were colonized with the nontoxigenic C. difficile strain F200, we directly tested the role of toxin using TcdA and TcdB purified from VPI 10463. We show that the injection of TcdA replicates the disruption of the epithelial barrier function and structure observed in HIOs colonized with viable C. difficile. PMID:25312952

  13. Persistence and toxin production by Clostridium difficile within human intestinal organoids result in disruption of epithelial paracellular barrier function.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jhansi L; Huang, Sha; Opp, Judith S; Nagy, Melinda S; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Young, Vincent B; Spence, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) results from the interactions between the pathogen, intestinal epithelium, host immune system, and gastrointestinal microbiota. Previous studies of the host-pathogen interaction in CDI have utilized either simple cell monolayers or in vivo models. While much has been learned by utilizing these approaches, little is known about the direct interaction of the bacterium with a complex host epithelium. Here, we asked if human intestinal organoids (HIOs), which are derived from pluripotent stem cells and demonstrate small intestinal morphology and physiology, could be used to study the pathogenesis of the obligate anaerobe C. difficile. Vegetative C. difficile, microinjected into the lumen of HIOs, persisted in a viable state for up to 12 h. Upon colonization with C. difficile VPI 10463, the HIO epithelium is markedly disrupted, resulting in the loss of paracellular barrier function. Since similar effects were not observed when HIOs were colonized with the nontoxigenic C. difficile strain F200, we directly tested the role of toxin using TcdA and TcdB purified from VPI 10463. We show that the injection of TcdA replicates the disruption of the epithelial barrier function and structure observed in HIOs colonized with viable C. difficile.

  14. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination.

  15. Emotional memory persists longer than event memory.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition performance for event memory differs from that for emotional memory. Although event recognition deteriorated equally for episodes that were or were not emotionally salient, emotional recognition remained high for only stimuli related to emotional episodes. Recognition performance pertaining to delayed emotional memory is an accurate predictor of the context of past episodes.

  16. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  17. Radiation persistently promoted oxidative stress, activated mTOR via PI3K/Akt, and downregulated autophagy pathway in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-12-01

    While acute effects of toxic radiation doses on intestine are well established, we are yet to acquire a complete spectrum of sub-lethal radiation-induced chronic intestinal perturbations at the molecular level. We investigated persistent effects of a radiation dose (2 Gy) commonly used as a daily fraction in radiotherapy on oxidants and anti-oxidants, and autophagy pathways, which are interlinked processes affecting intestinal homeostasis. Six to eight weeks old C57BL/6J mice (n=10) were exposed to 2 Gy γ-ray. Mice were euthanized two or twelve months after radiation, intestine surgically removed, and flushed using sterile PBS. Parts of the intestine from jejunal-ilial region were fixed, frozen, or used for intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) isolation. While oxidant levels and mitochondrial status were assessed in isolated IEC, autophagy and oxidative stress related signaling pathways were probed in frozen and fixed samples using PCR-based expression arrays and immunoprobing. Radiation exposure caused significant alterations in the expression level of 26 autophagy and 17 oxidative stress related genes. Immunoblot results showed decreased Beclin1 and LC3-II and increased p62, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR. Flow cytometry data showed increased oxidant production and compromised mitochondrial integrity in irradiated samples. Immunoprobing of intestinal sections showed increased 8-oxo-dG and nuclear PCNA, and decreased autophagosome marker LC3-II in IEC after irradiation. We show that sub-lethal radiation could persistently downregulate anti-oxidants and autophagy signaling, and upregulate oxidant production and proliferative signaling. Radiation-induced promotion of oxidative stress and downregulation of autophagy could work in tandem to alter intestinal functions and have implications for post-radiation chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

  18. Low zinc status and absorption exist in infants with jejunostomies or ileostomies which persists after intestinal repair

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer s...

  19. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae. PMID:24049366

  20. Living Longer in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Diaz, Claudia; Fu, Mary Manqing; Kapteyn, Arie; Pierson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This analysis of aging and income security in Mexico establishes that the older population in Mexico is increasing quickly and that this population is especially vulnerable to poverty. Mexican citizens are living longer and overall have experienced an improvement in the quality of life compared to that of prior generations. However, this study demonstrates that social improvements are not affecting the daily lives of all persons equally. The authors attempt to uncover and highlight those differences. One of the primary challenges facing Mexico is a growing older population. The demographic transition in Mexico combined with the lack of formal sources of income in retirement place many older persons in a state of financial insecurity. The information contained in this study and the proposed policy research areas are intended to enlarge the portfolio of options for older Mexicans. The authors analyze wealth and sources of income during retirement, the relationship between health and wealth, urban and rural disparities, and the impact of migration spells to the United States on wealth accumulation and health insurance in Mexico. PMID:28083208

  1. Loss of Function of Intestinal IL-17 and IL-22 Producing Cells Contributes to Inflammation and Viral Persistence in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Fromentin, Rémi; Paganini, Sara; McGary, Colleen S.; Easley, Kirk; Chomont, Nicolas; Paiardini, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    In HIV/SIV-infected humans and rhesus macaques (RMs), a severe depletion of intestinal CD4+ T-cells producing interleukin IL-17 and IL-22 associates with loss of mucosal integrity and chronic immune activation. However, little is known about the function of IL-17 and IL-22 producing cells during lentiviral infections. Here, we longitudinally determined the levels and functions of IL-17, IL-22 and IL-17/IL-22 producing CD4+ T-cells in blood, lymph node and colorectum of SIV-infected RMs, as well as how they recover during effective ART and are affected by ART interruption. Intestinal IL-17 and IL-22 producing CD4+ T-cells are polyfunctional in SIV-uninfected RMs, with the large majority of cells producing four or five cytokines. SIV infection induced a severe dysfunction of colorectal IL-17, IL-22 and IL-17/IL-22 producing CD4+ T-cells, the extent of which associated with the levels of immune activation (HLA-DR+CD38+), proliferation (Ki-67+) and CD4+ T-cell counts before and during ART. Additionally, Th17 cell function during ART negatively correlated with residual plasma viremia and levels of sCD163, a soluble marker of inflammation and disease progression. Furthermore, IL-17 and IL-22 producing cell frequency and function at various pre, on, and off-ART experimental points associated with and predicted total SIV-DNA content in the colorectum and blood. While ART restored Th22 cell function to levels similar to pre-infection, it did not fully restore Th17 cell function, and all cell types were rapidly and severely affected—both quantitatively and qualitatively—after ART interruption. In conclusion, intestinal IL-17 producing cell function is severely impaired by SIV infection, not fully normalized despite effective ART, and strongly associates with inflammation as well as SIV persistence off and on ART. As such, strategies able to preserve and/or regenerate the functions of these CD4+ T-cells central for mucosal immunity are critically needed in future HIV cure

  2. Persistence of intestinal parasitic infections during the national de-worming campaign in schoolchildren of northwestern Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitism remains a public health challenge in northwestern Mexico even when a twice yearly single dose of albendazole (400 mg) is administered to schoolchildren. We aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren of northwestern Mexico. Methods The Faust and Kato Katz techniques were used to detect and identify the intestinal parasite species. One thousand two hundred and seventy eight children from 12 public schools were invited to participate in this study; 312 children participated in September 2003. Results Sixty eight percent of the subjects had intestinal parasites, 63% had protozoan infections, and 29%, 16% and 10% were infected with Giardia duodenalis, Hymenolepsis nana, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii respectively. Fifty children excreted eggs of Hymenolepsis nana. Conclusion Educational strategies should be considered to support the national de-worming campaign, because albendazole alone will not sufficiently improve the health conditions of vulnerable populations. PMID:24714136

  3. Even! But No Longer Odd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    With hundreds of K-12 schools routinely offering online courses, the idea of a full-time virtual school is no longer as outlandish as it once may have seemed. Thanks to giant improvements in technology and the quality of their academic instruction, most virtual schools now hold a trump card they had not possessed: credibility. "There were…

  4. Longitudinal Examination of the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cellular Compartment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Provides Broader and Deeper Insights into the Link between Aberrant MicroRNA Expression and Persistent Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Kenway, Carys S.; Schiro, Faith R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic immune activation/inflammation driven by factors like microbial translocation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) disease progression. Although extensive research on inflammation has focused on studying protein regulators, increasing evidence suggests a critical role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating several aspects of the immune/inflammatory response and immune cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation. To understand their immunoregulatory role, we profiled miRNA expression sequentially in intestinal lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) of eight macaques before and at 21, 90, and 180 days postinfection (dpi). At 21 dpi, ∼20 and 9 miRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively. However, at 90 dpi (n = 60) and 180 dpi (n = 44), ≥75% of miRNAs showed decreased expression. Notably, the T-cell activation-associated miR-15b, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, and miR-150 expression was significantly downregulated at 90 and 180 dpi. Out of ∼10 downregulated miRNAs predicted to regulate CD69, we confirmed miR-92a to directly target CD69. Interestingly, the SIV-induced miR-190b expression was elevated at all time points. Additionally, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive miR-146b-5p expression at 180 dpi was confirmed in primary intestinal macrophages following LPS treatment in vitro. Further, reporter and overexpression assays validated IRAK1 (interleukin-1 receptor 1 kinase) as a direct miR-150 target. Furthermore, IRAK1 protein levels were markedly elevated in intestinal LPLs and epithelium. Finally, blockade of CD8+ T-cell activation/proliferation with delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) significantly prevented miR-150 downregulation and IRAK1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that miR-150 downregulation during T-cell activation disrupts the translational control of IRAK1, facilitating persistent gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Finally, the ability of Δ9-THC to block the mi

  5. Persistent Persister Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Seob; Wood, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells survive antibiotic treatment due to their lack of metabolism, rather than through genetic change, as shown via four seminal experiments conducted by the discoverers of the phenotype (Hobby et al., 1942; Bigger, 1944). Unfortunately, over seven decades of persister cell research, the literature has been populated by misperceptions that do not withstand scrutiny. This opinion piece examines some of those misunderstandings in the literature with the hope that by shining some light on these inaccuracies, the field may be advanced and subsequent manuscripts may be reviewed more critically. PMID:28082974

  6. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  7. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  8. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  9. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. ... abdomen Inability to pass gas Constipation A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. ...

  10. Space radiation exposure persistently increased leptin and IGF1 in serum and activated leptin-IGF1 signaling axis in mouse intestine

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Travel into outer space is fraught with risk of exposure to energetic heavy ion radiation such as 56Fe ions, which due to its high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics deposits higher energy per unit volume of tissue traversed and thus more damaging to cells relative to low-LET radiation such as γ rays. However, estimates of human health risk from energetic heavy ion exposure are hampered due to lack of tissue specific in vivo molecular data. We investigated long-term effects of 56Fe radiation on adipokines and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling axis in mouse intestine and colon. Six- to eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1.6 Gy of 56Fe ions. Serum and tissues were collected up to twelve months post-irradiation. Serum was analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, IGF1, and IGF binding protein 3. Receptor expressions and downstream signaling pathway alterations were studied in tissues. Irradiation increased leptin and IGF1 levels in serum, and IGF1R and leptin receptor expression in tissues. When considered along with upregulated Jak2/Stat3 pathways and cell proliferation, our data supports the notion that space radiation exposure is a risk to endocrine alterations with implications for chronic pathophysiologic changes in gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27558773

  11. Space radiation exposure persistently increased leptin and IGF1 in serum and activated leptin-IGF1 signaling axis in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2016-08-25

    Travel into outer space is fraught with risk of exposure to energetic heavy ion radiation such as (56)Fe ions, which due to its high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics deposits higher energy per unit volume of tissue traversed and thus more damaging to cells relative to low-LET radiation such as γ rays. However, estimates of human health risk from energetic heavy ion exposure are hampered due to lack of tissue specific in vivo molecular data. We investigated long-term effects of (56)Fe radiation on adipokines and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling axis in mouse intestine and colon. Six- to eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1.6 Gy of (56)Fe ions. Serum and tissues were collected up to twelve months post-irradiation. Serum was analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, IGF1, and IGF binding protein 3. Receptor expressions and downstream signaling pathway alterations were studied in tissues. Irradiation increased leptin and IGF1 levels in serum, and IGF1R and leptin receptor expression in tissues. When considered along with upregulated Jak2/Stat3 pathways and cell proliferation, our data supports the notion that space radiation exposure is a risk to endocrine alterations with implications for chronic pathophysiologic changes in gastrointestinal tract.

  12. The allometry of rodent intestines.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents. The herbivorous rodents have longer caecums, colons and large intestines, but their small intestines, with the exception of the desert otomyine rodents, are no different to those of omnivorous rodents. Desert otomyine rodents have significantly shorter small intestines than all other rodents, reflecting a possible habitat effect and providing a partial explanation for the low basal metabolic rates of small desert mammals. However, the desert otomyines do not have shorter colons or large intestines, challenging claims for adaptation to water retention in arid environments. Data for the Arvicolidae revealed significantly larger caecums and colons, and hence longer large intestines, with no compensatory reduction in the length of the small intestine, which may explain how the smallest mammalian herbivores manage to meet the demands of a very high mass-specific metabolic rate. This study provides phylogenetically corrected allometries suitable for future prediction testing.

  13. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Nunes, Jairo E. S.; Figueiredo, Josely F.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris. A.; Adams, Leslie Garry

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer’s patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  14. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  15. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ...

  16. Large-brained mammals live longer.

    PubMed

    González-Lagos, C; Sol, D; Reader, S M

    2010-05-01

    Many mammals have brains substantially larger than expected for their body size, but the reasons for this remain ambiguous. Enlarged brains are metabolically expensive and require elongated developmental periods, and so natural selection should have favoured their evolution only if they provide counterbalancing advantages. One possible advantage is facilitating the construction of behavioural responses to unusual, novel or complex socio-ecological challenges. This buffer effect should increase survival rates and favour a longer reproductive life, thereby compensating for the costs of delayed reproduction. Here, using a global database of 493 species, we provide evidence showing that mammals with enlarged brains (relative to their body size) live longer and have a longer reproductive lifespan. Our analysis supports and extends previous findings, accounting for the possible confounding effects of other life history traits, ecological and dietary factors, and phylogenetic autocorrelation. Thus, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that mammals counterbalance the costs of affording large brains with a longer reproductive life.

  17. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  18. [Persistent diarrhea

    PubMed

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  19. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  20. An approach for longer lifetime MCFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Hayano, Takuro

    1996-12-31

    For entering into commercialization of MCFC power plants in the beginning of the 21st century, we will devote to research for increasing lifetime as long as 40,000 hours with cell performance decay rate of 0.25 %/1000hrs as the target in FY 1999. This paper will discuss on our approach for longer lifetime MCFCs through electrolyte-loss management and NiO precipitation management as well as micro-structural control of electrodes and matrix plates. Cell voltage decay rate will be estimated by simulation through series of experiments on accelerated conditions.

  1. A Window into Longer Lasting Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    There’s a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Berkeley Lab has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. The real-time images provide a new way to learn how batteries work, and how to improve them. The method was developed at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, by a team of researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and other institutions.

  2. Atomic Weights No Longer Constants of Nature

    SciTech Connect

    Coplen, T.B.; Holden, N.

    2011-03-01

    Many of us grew up being taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis has changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature.

  3. Intestinal Capillariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    bhIll inenais, the tiny nematode causing Intestinal capillariasis In humans, Is a Iunique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been...Capillariaphilippinensis, the tiny nematode causing intestinal capillariasis in humans, is a unique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been shown to...stichocytes surrounding the oesophagus. The posterior half of the nematode is wider than the anterior half and contains the digestive tract and the

  4. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  5. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer “alternative” alternative. PMID:27148246

  6. Giant Intergalactic Gas Stream Longer Than Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A giant stream of gas flowing from neighbor galaxies around our own Milky Way is much longer and older than previously thought, astronomers have discovered. The new revelations provide a fresh insight on what started the gaseous intergalactic streamer. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to fill important gaps in the picture of gas streaming outward from the Magellanic Clouds. The first evidence of such a flow, named the Magellanic Stream, was discovered more than 30 years ago, and subsequent observations added tantalizing suggestions that there was more. However, the earlier picture showed gaps that left unanswered whether this other gas was part of the same system. "We now have answered that question. The stream is continuous," said David Nidever, of the University of Virginia. "We now have a much more complete map of the Magellanic Stream," he added. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. The Magellanic Clouds are the Milky Way's two nearest neighbor galaxies, about 150,000 to 200,000 light-years distant from the Milky Way. Visible in the Southern Hemisphere, they are much smaller than our Galaxy and may have been distorted by its gravity. Nidever and his colleagues observed the Magellanic Stream for more than 100 hours with the GBT. They then combined their GBT data with that from earlier studies with other radio telescopes, including the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico, the Parkes telescope in Australia, and the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. The result shows that the stream is more than 40 percent longer than previously known with certainty. One consequence of the added length of the gas stream is that it must be older, the astronomers say. They now estimate the age of the stream at 2.5 billion years. The revised size and age of the Magellanic Stream also provides a new potential explanation for how the flow got started

  7. [Intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Debré, Patrice; Le Gall, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    The human body normally lives in symbiosis with a considerable microscopic environment present on all interfaces with the external environment; it hosts ten times more microbes (microbiota) that it has somatic or germ cells, representing a gene diversity (microbiome) 100-150 times higher than the human genome. These germs are located mainly in the gut, where they represent a mass of about one kilogram. The primary colonization of the gastrointestinal tract depends on the delivery route, the bacterial flora rewarding then depending on the environment, food hygiene, medical treatments. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maturation of the immune system and in different physiological functions: digestion of polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, vitamins biosynthesis, bile salt metabolism of some amino acids and xenobiotics. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbiota are observed in a wide range of diseases: obesity, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, allergies... pharmacobiotics aim to modify the intestinal microbiota in a therapeutic goal and this by various means: prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics or fecal transplants. Intestinal flora also plays a direct role in the metabolism of certain drugs and the microbiota should be considered as a predictive parameter of response to some chemotherapies.

  8. Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover from Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover From Brain Injury Scans reveal white-matter decline after some ... 15, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Brain scans may reveal which children will take longer ...

  9. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J H

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops. Images PMID:1576584

  10. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H

    1992-04-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops.

  11. Octreotide in the treatment of refractory diarrhoea and intestinal fistulae.

    PubMed Central

    Farthing, M J

    1994-01-01

    Persistent, refractory diarrhoea continues to be an important clinical problem. The mechanisms involved are associated with reduced intestinal absorption and increased intestinal secretion. Reduced intestinal absorption can result from small intestinal resection or from disorders in which there is damage to the small intestine. Motility disorders may also impair absorptive function. The rationale for using octreotide in refractory diarrhoea, intestinal motility disorders, and fistulae relates to its ability to promote intestinal absorption and inhibit gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal secretion. Several clinical studies in patients with short bowel syndrome have reported a reduction of intestinal output in patients taking octreotide compared with controls. Additionally, a number of studies have shown that octreotide improves secretory diarrhoea resulting from neuroendocrine tumours, intestinal infections in AIDS patients, and intestinal graft v host disease. Octreotide may be of use in patients suffering from intestinal motility disorders such as those associated with systemic sclerosis. Octreotide may also be of value in promoting closure of gastrointestinal and pancreatic fistulae. PMID:8206397

  12. B lymphocytes play a limited role in clearance of Campylobacter jejuni from the chicken intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Chaloner, Gemma; Gilroy, Rachel; Humphrey, Suzanne; Gibbs, Kirsty; Jopson, Sue; Wright, Elli; Reid, William; Ketley, Julian; Humphrey, Tom; Williams, Nicola; Rushton, Steven; Wigley, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis with contaminated poultry meat its main source. Control of C. jejuni is a priority for the poultry industry but no vaccines are available and their development hampered by poor understanding of the immunobiology of C. jejuni infection. Here we show the functional role of B lymphocytes in response to C. jejuni in the chicken through depletion of the B lymphocyte population (bursectomy) followed by challenge. B lymphocyte depletion has little effect on bacterial numbers in the ceca, the main site of colonisation, where C. jejuni persist to beyond commercial slaughter age, but reduces clearance from the small intestine. In longer-term experiments we show antibody leads to reduction in C. jeuni numbers in the ceca by nine weeks post infection. Whilst we did not examine any protective role to re-challenge, it illustrates the difficulty in producing a vaccine in a young, immunologically naïve host. We believe this is first study of functional immunity to C. jejuni in chicken and shows antibody is ineffective in clearing C. jejuni from the ceca within the production lifetime of chickens, although is involved in clearance from the small intestine and longer-term clearance from the ceca. PMID:28332622

  13. Intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Juckett, G

    1996-06-01

    Giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in North America, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. Entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. Dysentery caused by E. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although Cryptosporidium parvum, Balantidium coli, Isospora belli, Sarcocystis species and other newly described protozoa also may cause diarrhea in healthy individuals and may result in intractable, life-threatening illness in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or other immunosuppressive diseases. Certain protozoa once considered relatively unimportant, such as Cryptosporidium, are now recognized as significant causes of morbidity even in the United States, since transmission readily occurs through contaminated water.

  14. Impact of the administration of a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) to one-day-old chicks on the persistence of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli in intestinal flora: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Baron, Sandrine; Jouy, Eric; Touzain, Fabrice; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Larvor, Emeline; de Boisseson, Claire; Amelot, Michel; Keita, Alassane; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate under controlled conditions the impact on the excretion of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli of the injection of one-day-old chicks with ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC). Three isolators containing specific-pathogen-free chicks were used. In the first one, 20 birds were injected with ceftiofur then ten of them were orally inoculated with a weak inoculum of a 3GC-resistant E. coli field isolate containing an IncI1/ST3 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1 beta-lactamase. The other chicks were kept as contact birds. None of the 20 birds in the second isolator were injected with ceftiofur, but ten of them were similarly inoculated with the 3GC-resistant strain and the others kept as contact birds. A third isolator contained ten non-injected, non-inoculated chicks. Fecal samples were collected regularly over one month and the E. coli isolated on non-supplemented media were characterized by antimicrobial agar dilution, detection of selected resistance genes and determination of phylogenetic group by PCR. The titers of 3GC-resistant E. coli in individual fecal samples were evaluated by culturing on 3GC-supplemented media. Results showed that the inoculated strain rapidly and abundantly colonized the inoculated and contact birds. The ceftiofur injection resulted in significantly higher percentages of 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates among the analyzed E. coli. No transfer of the 3GC-encoding plasmid to other isolates could be evidenced. In conclusion, these results highlight the dramatic capacity of 3GC-resistant E. coli to colonize and persist in chicks, and the selecting pressure imposed by the off-label use of ceftiofur.

  15. Effects of 4-nitrophenol on expression of the ER-α and AhR signaling pathway-associated genes in the small intestine of rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Song, Meiyan; Watanabe, Gen; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Rui, Xiaoli; Li, ChunMei

    2016-09-01

    4-Nitrophenol (PNP) is a persistent organic pollutant that was proven to be an environmental endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway in regulating the damage response to PNP in the small intestine of rats. Wistar-Imamichi male rats (21 d) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and PNP group. Each group had three processes that were gavaged with PNP or vehicle daily: single dose (1 d), repeated dose (3 consecutive days) (3 d), and repeated dose with recovery (3 consecutive days and 3 recovery days) (6 d). The weight of the body, the related viscera, and small intestine were examined. Histological parameters of the small intestine and the quantity of mucus proteins secreted by small goblet cells were determined using HE staining and PAS staining. The mRNA expression of AhR, ER-α, CYP1A1, and GST was measured by real-time qPCR. In addition, we also analyzed the AhR, ER-α, and CYP1A1 expression in the small intestine by immunohistochemical staining. The small intestines histologically changed in the PNP-treated rat and the expression of AhR, CYP1A1, and GST was increased. While ER-α was significantly decreased in the small intestine, simultaneously, when rats were exposed to a longer PNP treatment, the damages disappeared. Our results demonstrate that PNP has an effect on the expression of AhR signaling pathway genes, AhR, CYP1A1, and GST, and ER-α in the rat small intestine.

  16. [Intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Perez, Horacio Joaquín; Menezes, Maria Elisabeth; d'Acâmpora, Armando José

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulative evidence on the multiple functions of the intestinal microflora in relation to the homeostasis of the host. At first considered as a simple mutualism, today this relationship proves to be essential to the health and to pathologic processes, particularly metabolic (eg, obesity) and gastrointestinal (eg, inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders). The first studies were conducted on the microbiota from fecal material cultured anaerobically. With the advent of molecular biology, it has become possible to determine qualitative and quantitatively the dominant, subdominant and transients species. In recent years, there were advances in the understanding of the relationship betwen the microbiota and the host, as well as among the microorganisms in their respective niches. These advances result from translational integration of microbiology with specialities such as molecular biology, cell phisiology, immunology and ecology. There are few studies on the spatial distribution of the microflora in the gut. Unravelling the topography of the microflora in mammals is a way to validate new animal models for the study of microflora.

  17. Persistent Identifiers Implementation in EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K. " Rama"

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides the motivation for and status of implementation of persistent identifiers in NASA's Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The motivation is provided from the point of view of long-term preservation of datasets such that a number of questions raised by current and future users can be answered easily and precisely. A number of artifacts need to be preserved along with datasets to make this possible, especially when the authors of datasets are no longer available to address users questions. The artifacts and datasets need to be uniquely and persistently identified and linked with each other for full traceability, understandability and scientific reproducibility. Current work in the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) in assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) is discussed as well as challenges that remain to be addressed in the future.

  18. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Aya M; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately one-fifth of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here, we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With

  19. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John

    1990-01-01

    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  20. Healthy Diet May Mean Longer Life for Kidney Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Diet May Mean Longer Life for Kidney Patients Study found eating lots of fruit, vegetables, fish, ... available evidence to drive clinical decision-making by patients and doctors on whole dietary approaches in chronic ...

  1. 2. WARHEADING BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WARHEADING BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 3. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. 4. WARHEADING BUILDING, LEFT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WARHEADING BUILDING, LEFT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 1. WARHEADING BUILDING, FRONT, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WARHEADING BUILDING, FRONT, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. More Dreams in Longer Night: United States China Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT MORE DREAMS IN LONGER NIGHT: UNITED STATES CHINA POLICY by Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon United States Air Force...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Dreams in Longer Night United States China... UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Carlisle Barracks,Carlisle,PA,17013-5050 8. PERFORMING

  6. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    PubMed Central

    Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das Neves; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; de Carvalho, Rita Barbosa; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was established in a two-month-old infant, after an episode of enterocolitis, hypovolemic shock and severe malnutrition. After colonic resection, the patient did not recover intestinal motor function that would allow enteral feeding. Postoperative examination of remnant ileum showed the presence of ganglionic plexus and a reduced number of interstitial cells of Cajal in the proximal bowel segments. At 12 months, the patient remains dependent on total parenteral nutrition. Comments: Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis has clinical and surgical characteristics that differentiate it from the classic forms, complicating the diagnosis and the clinical and surgical management. The postoperative course may be associated with permanent morbidity due to intestinal dysmotility. The numerical reduction or alteration of neural connections in the interstitial cells of Cajal may represent a possible physiopathological basis for the condition. PMID:26979103

  7. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach to ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods ...

  8. Small intestine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the ... the duodenum. This short first portion of the small intestine is followed by the jejunum and the ileum. ...

  9. Small intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Paris, J K; McCandlish, I A P; Schwarz, T; Simpson, J W; Smith, S H

    2013-05-01

    A 9-year-old female neutered collie-cross dog was presented with a 2-month history of persistent diarrhoea, weight loss and intermittent vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed one loop of jejunum with a markedly thickened and multifocally hyperechoic wall, without loss of wall layering. Laparotomies were performed for biopsy and resection of affected intestine. Histopathological examination revealed small intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (GN). The dog recovered well from surgery and the diarrhoea resolved. Eleven months later the dog has gained weight and remains asymptomatic. This is the first report of small intestinal GN affecting a mature dog, in which pathology was localized to the mucosal lamina propria and surgical treatment resulted in a successful outcome.

  10. [Intestinal helminthiasis in the Mexican Republic].

    PubMed

    Tay, J; Ruiz, A; Sánchez Vega, J T; Romero-Cabello, R; Robert, L; Becerril, M A

    1995-01-01

    Very few uncertain and not trustworthy reports about the frequency of intestinal helminthiases found in humans have been made in México. However, with the few trustful studies carried out from 1981 to 1992, it is possible in México to verify that ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection and hymenolepiasis are present with significant percentages of infected people 11.2%, 1.7%, 0.15% and 1.8%, respectively. With the information obtained from the researches analyzed in this article, one can conclude that human infections by intestinal helminths in México, at the present time are almost as frequent as in past decades. Without any doubt, this occurs because still remain the factors that contribute to the persistence and spreading of the intestinal helminths, such as fecalism, poor hygienic and alimentary habits within deficient environmental sanitary conditions.

  11. Longer Gestation among Children Born Full Term Influences Cognitive and Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Espel, Emma V.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-01-01

    Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37–41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development. PMID:25423150

  12. Longer gestation among children born full term influences cognitive and motor development.

    PubMed

    Espel, Emma V; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-01-01

    Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37-41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development.

  13. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  14. We Can No Longer Afford a Monolingual Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer-Pearson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In her Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis does a service for the research and the clinical communities with this comprehensive review of the literature encompassing bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). Her work and the work of her colleagues for more than a decade have been persistent in bringing these two threads together: using…

  15. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2010-01-01

    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  16. 16. A LONGER VIEW OF THE SAME LAMP STANDARD, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. A LONGER VIEW OF THE SAME LAMP STANDARD, SHOWING THE OCTAGONAL PEBBLE AGGREGATE SHAFT. - County Line Bridge, Spanning St. Joseph River at State Route 219, 0.6 mile south of U.S. Route 20, Osceola, St. Joseph County, IN

  17. The Relationship between Video Game Use and a Performance-Based Measure of Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Matthew; Shute, Valerie; Zhao, Weinan

    2013-01-01

    An online performance-based measure of persistence was developed using anagrams and riddles. Persistence was measured by recording the time spent on unsolved anagrams and riddles. Time spent on unsolved problems was correlated to a self-report measure of persistence. Additionally, frequent video game players spent longer times on unsolved problems…

  18. Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

    1993-12-31

    Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

  19. Intestinal M cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer’s patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions. PMID:26634447

  20. No Longer Guaranteed...Global Positioning System Alternative Necessary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    enemy position and movement. The military’s use of the global positioning system ( GPS ) has created a sig- nificant military advantage in accurate...2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE No Longer Guaranteed... Global positioning system alternative...access, there are now no sufficiently secure, jam-resistant, precision positioning devices or systems . Accordingly, there is a need for a non- GPS

  1. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  2. Intestinal transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag Sureshchandra; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Girlanda, Raffaele; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving therapy for patients with intestinal failure. Intestinal transplantation is now recognized as a treatment for patients who develop complications of parenteral nutrition and in whom attempts at intestinal rehabilitation have failed. Patients with parenteral nutrition related liver disease will require a liver graft typically part of a multivisceral transplant. Isolated intestinal transplants are more commonly performed in adults while multivisceral transplants are most commonly performed in infants. Isolated intestinal transplants have the best short-term outcome, with over 80 % survival at 1 year. Patients requiring multivisceral transplants have a high rate of attrition with a 1 year survival less than 70 %. Prognostic factors for a poor outcome include patient hospitalization at the time of transplant and donor age greater than 40 years while systemic sepsis and acute rejection are the major determinant of early postoperative outcome. For patients surviving the first year the outcome of transplantation of the liver in addition to intestine affords some survival advantage though long-term outcome does not yet match other abdominal organs. Outcomes for intestinal retransplantation are poor as a result of immunology and patient debility. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop and is a clear indication with cost and quality of life advantages in patients with intestinal failure that do not remain stable on parenteral nutrition.

  3. Persistent Structures in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan; Chabalko, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Persistent structures in the turbulent boundary layer are located and analyzed. The data are taken from flight experiments on large commercial aircraft. An interval correlation technique is introduced which is able to locate the structures. The Morlet continuous wavelet is shown to not only locates persistent structures but has the added benefit that the pressure data are decomposed in time and frequency. To better understand how power is apportioned among these structures, a discrete Coiflet wavelet is used to decompose the pressure data into orthogonal frequency bands. Results indicate that some structures persist a great deal longer in the TBL than would be expected. These structure contain significant power and may be a primary source of vibration energy in the airframe.

  4. Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000150.htm Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... your bowel (intestine). This condition is called an intestinal obstruction . The blockage may be partial or total (complete). ...

  5. A longer climate memory carried by soil freeze-thaw processes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Koji

    2012-12-01

    The climate memory of a land surface generally persists for only a few months, but analysis of surface meteorological data revealed a longer-term climate memory carried by soil freeze-thaw processes in Siberia. Surface temperature variability during the snowmelt season corresponds reasonably well with that in the summer of the following year, when most stations show a secondary autocorrelation peak. The surface temperature memory is thought to be stored as variations in the amount of snowmelt water held in the soil, and through soil freezing, which emerges as latent heat variations in the near-surface atmosphere during soil thawing approximately one year later. The ground conditions are dry in the longer-term climate memory regions, such as eastern Siberia, where less snow cover (higher surface air temperature) in spring results in less snowmelt water or lower soil moisture in the summer. Consequently, through soil freezing, it will require less latent heat to thaw in the summer of the following year, resulting in higher surface air temperature. In addition to soil moisture and snow cover, soil freeze-thaw processes can also act as agents of climate memory in the near-surface atmosphere.

  6. Intestinal obstruction repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100116.htm Intestinal obstruction repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Adhesions Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  7. Intestinal obstruction (pediatric) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100165.htm Intestinal obstruction (pediatric) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  8. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  9. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation. PMID:26309256

  10. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses.

  11. Scalable video compression using longer motion compensated temporal filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golwelkar, Abhijeet V.; Woods, John W.

    2003-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) subband/wavelet coding using a motion compensated temporal filter (MCTF) is emerging as a very effective structure for highly scalable video coding. Most previous work has used two-tap Haar filters for the temporal analysis/synthesis. To make better use of the temporal redundancies, we are proposing an MCTF scheme based on longer biorthogonal filters. We show a lifting based coder capable of subpixel accurate motion compensation. If we retain the fixed size GOP structure of the Haar filter MCTFs, we need to use symmetric extensions at both ends of the GOP. This gives rise to loss of coding efficiency at the GOP boundaries resulting in significant PSNR drops there. This performance can be considerably improved by using a 'sliding window,' in place of the GOP block. We employ the 5/3 filter and its non-orthogonality causes PSNR variation, which can be reduced by employing filter-based weighting coefficients. Overall the longer filters have a higher coding gain than the Haar filters and show significant improvement in average PSNR at high bit rates. However, a doubling in the number of motion vectors to be transmitted, translates to a drop in PSNR at the lower video bit rates.

  12. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollander, D

    1999-10-01

    A major task of the intestine is to form a defensive barrier to prevent absorption of damaging substances from the external environment. This protective function of the intestinal mucosa is called permeability. Clinicians can use inert, nonmetabolized sugars such as mannitol, rhamnose, or lactulose to measure the permeability barrier or the degree of leakiness of the intestinal mucosa. Ample evidence indicates that permeability is increased in most patients with Crohn's disease and in 10% to 20% of their clinically healthy relatives. The abnormal leakiness of the mucosa in Crohn's patients and their relatives can be greatly amplified by aspirin preadministration. Permeability measurements in Crohn's patients reflect the activity, extent, and distribution of the disease and may allow us to predict the likelihood of recurrence after surgery or medically induced remission. Permeability is also increased in celiac disease and by trauma, burns, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The major determinant of the rate of intestinal permeability is the opening or closure of the tight junctions between enterocytes in the paracellular space. As we broaden our understanding of the mechanisms and agents that control the degree of leakiness of the tight junctions, we will be increasingly able to use permeability measurements to study the etiology and pathogenesis of various disorders and to design or monitor therapies for their management.

  13. Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

  14. U32: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Longer Combination Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Petrolino, Joseph; Spezia, Tony; Arant, Michael; Broshears, Eric; Chitwood, Caleb; Colbert, Jameson; Hathaway, Richard; Keil, Mitch; LaClair, Tim J; Pape, Doug; Patterson, Jim; Pittro, Collin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a single semitrailer. The goal was to measure and model the behavior of LCVs in simple maneuvers. Example maneuvers tested and modeled were single and double lane changes, a gradual lane change, and a constant radius curve. In addition to test track data collection and a brief highway test, two computer models of LCVs were developed. One model is based on TruckSim , a lumped parameter model widely used for single semitrailer combinations. The other model was built in Adams software, which more explicitly models the geometry of the components of the vehicle, in terms of compliant structural members. Among other results, the models were able to duplicate the experimentally measured rearward amplification behavior that is characteristic of multi-unit combination vehicles.

  15. In Vivo Persistence of Human Rhinoviruses in Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Ilka; Dewilde, Anny; Lazrek, Mouna; Batteux, Mathilde; Hamissi, Aminati; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Hober, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Several species of the genus Enterovirus cause persistent infections in humans. Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are generally self-limiting but occasionally persistent infections have been described. This study aimed to identify persistent HRV infections and investigate the clinical and virologic characteristics of patients with persistent infections. From January 2012 to March 2015, 3714 respiratory specimens from 2608 patients were tested for respiratory viruses by using a multiplex reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. A retrospective study was performed. Patients with at least two specimens positive for HRV/enterovirus taken 45 days or longer apart were identified and the HRV/enteroviruses were typed. Patients with persistent infection were compared to patients with reinfection and patients with cleared infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein(VP)4/VP2 region was performed. 18 patients with persistent HRV/enterovirus infection were identified. Minimum median duration of persistence was 92 days (range 50–455 days). All but one patients with persistence were immunosuppressed. Immunosuppression and hematologic disorders were more frequent in patients with persistence (n = 18) than in patients with reinfection (n = 33) and with cleared infection (n = 25) (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, this retrospective study identified HRV persistence in vivo which occurred mainly in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:28151988

  16. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  17. Biochemistry of intestinal development.

    PubMed Central

    Henning, S J

    1979-01-01

    In biochemical terms, the rat small intestine is relatively immature at birth and for the first two postnatal weeks. Then during the third week a dramatic array of enzymic changes begins, and by the end of the fourth week the intestine has the digestive and absorptive properties of the adult. Selective examples of these changes are discussed with emphasis on their implications for toxicological studies. The review also includes a detailed consideration of the roles of the dietary change of weaning and of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones in the regulation of intestinal development. PMID:575507

  18. Inflammation and Proliferation Act Together to Mediate Intestinal Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Swain, John R.; Wong, Melissa H.

    2009-01-01

    Cell fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and non-hematopoietic cells is well documented in various tissues and has recently been suggested to occur in response to injury. Here we illustrate that inflammation within the intestine enhanced the level of BMDC fusion with intestinal progenitors. To identify important microenvironmental factors mediating intestinal epithelial cell fusion, we performed bone marrow transplantation into mouse models of inflammation and stimulated epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, in a non-injury model or in instances where inflammation was suppressed, an appreciable baseline level of fusion persisted. This suggests that additional mediators of cell fusion exist. A rigorous temporal analysis of early post-transplantation cellular dynamics revealed that GFP-expressing donor cells first trafficked to the intestine coincident with a striking increase in epithelial proliferation, advocating for a required fusogenic state of the host partner. Directly supporting this hypothesis, induction of augmented epithelial proliferation resulted in a significant increase in intestinal cell fusion. Here we report that intestinal inflammation and epithelial proliferation act together to promote cell fusion. While the physiologic impact of cell fusion is not yet known, the increased incidence in an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment suggests a potential role for cell fusion in mediating the progression of intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:19657387

  19. Glyphosate persistence in seawater.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

    2014-08-30

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore.

  20. Persistent heap Management library

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-17

    PERM is a C library for persistent heap management and is intended for use with a dynamic-memory allocator (e.g. malloc, free). The PERM memory allocator replaces the standard C dynamic memory allocation functions with compatible versions that provide persistent memory to application programs. Memory allocated with the PERM allocatory will persist between program invocations after a call to a checkpoint function. This function essentially saves the state of the heap and registered global variables to a file which may reside in flash memory or other node local storage. A few other functions are also provided by the library to manage checkpoint files. Global variables in an application can be marked persistent and be included in a checkpoint by using a compiler attribute defined as PERM. The PERM checkpoint methof is not dependent on the programming model ans works with distributed memory or shared memory programs.

  1. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia. ... with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. Older people ...

  2. Effect of longer battery life on small bowel capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, George; Shahidi, Neal; Galorport, Cherry; Takach, Oliver; Lee, Terry; Enns, Robert

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine if longer battery life improves capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rates. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary, university-affiliated hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients who underwent CE with either PillCam™ SB2 or SB2U between 01/2010 and 12/2013 were considered for inclusion. SB2 and SB2U share identical physical dimensions but differ in their battery lives (8 h vs 12 h). Exclusion criteria included history of gastric or small bowel surgery, endoscopic placement of CE, interrupted view of major landmarks due to technical difficulty or significant amount of debris, and repeat CE using same system. Basic demographics, comorbidities, medications, baseline bowel habits, and previous surgeries were reviewed. Timing of major landmarks in CE were recorded, and used to calculate gastric transit time, small bowel transit time, and total recording time. A complete CE study was defined as visualization of cecum. Transit times and completion rates were compared. RESULTS: Four hundred and eight patients, including 208 (51.0%) males, were included for analysis. The mean age was 55.5 ± 19.3 years. The most common indication for CE was gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 254, 62.3%), followed by inflammatory bowel disease (n = 86, 21.1%). There was no difference in gastric transit times (group difference 0.90, 95%CI: 0.72-1.13, P = 0.352) and small bowel transit times (group difference 1.07, 95%CI: 0.95-1.19, P = 0.261) between SB2U and SB2, but total recording time was about 14% longer in the SB2U group (95%CI: 10%-18%, P < 0.001) and there was a corresponding trend toward higher completion rate (88.2% vs 93.2%, OR = 1.78, 95%CI 0.88-3.63, P = 0.111). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of positive findings (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.64-1.51, P = 0.918). CONCLUSION: Extending the operating time of CE may be a simple method to improve completion rate although it does not affect the rate of positive findings. PMID

  3. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... that only affects the colon). LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF CROHN’S DISEASE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION The most common complication of Crohn’s disease, obstruction may arise from swelling and the formation ...

  4. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include narcotic (pain) medicines and drugs used when you are ... that may have caused the problem (such as narcotic drugs) may help. In severe cases, surgery may ...

  5. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  6. Intestinal parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ki Whang; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    In general, gastrointestinal tract is the primary involvement site of parasites during their life cycle. In this article, we will describe amebiasis, ascariasis, and anisakiasis among the many common intestinal parasitic diseases. We will review the epidemiology, life cycles, clinical manifestations and complications, and illustrate detailed imaging findings of intestinal parasites. Recognizing features of parasitic infection is important to establish an early diagnosis that leads to prompt treatment and helps avoid unnecessary surgery.

  7. Symmetry Lasts Longer Than Random, but Only for Brief Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Alexis D. J.; Palumbo, Letizia; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit emotional content or physical image properties (e.g., luminance, size, and numerosity) alter subjective duration. Palumbo recently demonstrated that the presence or absence of abstract reflectional symmetry also influenced subjective duration. Here, we explored this phenomenon further by varying the type of symmetry (reflection or rotation) and the objective duration of stimulus presentation (less or more than 1 second). Experiment 1 used a verbal estimation task in which participants estimated the presentation duration of reflection, rotation symmetry, or random square-field patterns. Longer estimates were given for reflectional symmetry images than rotation or random, but only when the image was presented for less than 1 second. There was no difference between rotation and random. These findings were confirmed by a second experiment using a paired-comparison task. This temporal distortion could be because reflection has positive valence or because it is processed efficiently be the visual system. The mechanism remains to be determined. We are relatively sure, however, that reflectional patterns can increase subjective duration in the absence of explicit semantic content, and in the absence of changes in the size, luminance, or numerosity in the images. PMID:27895887

  8. Older adults with higher income or marriage have longer telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lung, For-Wey

    2013-01-01

    Background: telomere length has been used to represent biological ageing and is found to be associated with various physiological, psychological and social factors. Objective: to explore the effects of income and marriage on leucocyte telomere length in a representative sample of older adults. Design and subjects: cross-sectional analysis among 298 adults, aged 65–74, randomly selected from the community by census. Methods: telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. Participants provided information on sociodemographics, physical illness and completed questionnaires rating mental state and perceived neighbourhood experience. Results: telomere length was negatively associated with lower income [coefficient −0.141 (95% CI: −0.244 to −0.020), P = 0.021] and positively associated with the marital status [coefficient 0.111 (95% CI: −0.008 to 0.234), P = 0.067] when controlling for gender, age, educational level, physical diseases (including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease and Parkinson's disease), depressive symptoms, minor mental symptoms, cognitive impairment and perceived neighbourhood experience (including social support, perceived security and public facilities). Conclusions: these results indicate that older adults with higher income or being married have longer telomeres when other sociodemographics, physical diseases, mental status and neighbourhood experience are adjusted. PMID:22951603

  9. Symmetry Lasts Longer Than Random, but Only for Brief Presentations.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Ruth; Makin, Alexis D J; Palumbo, Letizia; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit emotional content or physical image properties (e.g., luminance, size, and numerosity) alter subjective duration. Palumbo recently demonstrated that the presence or absence of abstract reflectional symmetry also influenced subjective duration. Here, we explored this phenomenon further by varying the type of symmetry (reflection or rotation) and the objective duration of stimulus presentation (less or more than 1 second). Experiment 1 used a verbal estimation task in which participants estimated the presentation duration of reflection, rotation symmetry, or random square-field patterns. Longer estimates were given for reflectional symmetry images than rotation or random, but only when the image was presented for less than 1 second. There was no difference between rotation and random. These findings were confirmed by a second experiment using a paired-comparison task. This temporal distortion could be because reflection has positive valence or because it is processed efficiently be the visual system. The mechanism remains to be determined. We are relatively sure, however, that reflectional patterns can increase subjective duration in the absence of explicit semantic content, and in the absence of changes in the size, luminance, or numerosity in the images.

  10. Intestinal adaptation following resection.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation.

  11. Claudins in intestines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

  12. A Growing and Expanding Earth is no Longer Questionable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2008-05-01

    The young age of today's oceans is absolute proof that the Earth has been growing and expanding for the past 250 million years. Today, these young oceans now cover approximately 71% of Earth's surface and have added about 40% to its size. That fact, alone, is proof that Kant's nebular hypothesis is false, and that the Earth has been increasing in size and mass for the past 250 million years. Growth and expansion of the Earth can no longer be refuted. Ocean sediments cored from basaltic basement floors by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and its successors confirm that all of today's oceans are relatively young and could not have been present when the planet was first created, as postulated by Kant's nebular hypothesis (1755), modified by Laplace in 1796, which holds that the Earth and other planets were created approximately 4.6 billion years ago with their present sizes and chemical composition. The nebular hypothesis has no evidence to support it and is easily disproved. This discovery has immense consequences for current scientific beliefs, primarily the concepts of plate tectonics and subduction to maintain a static Earth diameter. Plate tectonics philosophy is basically correct, but its mechanism of subduction will prove to be the most avoidable and egregious error in the history of geophysics. A new cosmological concept called Accreation (creation by accretion) is offered to replace Kant's false philosophy of creation of the Earth and Solar System. Accreation, fundamentally, is based on the known daily influx of large tonnages of meteorites, particles and dust from outer space. An age for the Earth is impossible to estimate because a plausible starting point cannot be determined. Scientists of the world must face up to other erroneous hypotheses generated by Kant's false philosophy and recognize that a paradigm shift equal to that wrought by Copernicus is now in order. The benefits to scientific knowledge are inestimable, and science will henceforth be

  13. LWIR pupil imaging and longer-term calibration stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVan, Paul D.; Sakoglu, Ünal

    2016-09-01

    A previous paper described LWIR pupil imaging, and an improved understanding of the behavior of this type of sensor for which the high-sensitivity focal plane array (FPA) operated at higher flux levels includes a reversal in signal integration polarity. We have since considered a candidate methodology for efficient, long-term calibration stability that exploits the following two properties of pupil imaging: (1) a fixed pupil position on the FPA, and (2) signal levels from the scene imposed on significant but fixed LWIR background levels. These two properties serve to keep each pixel operating over a limited dynamic range that corresponds to its location in the pupil and to the signal levels generated at this location by the lower and upper calibration flux levels. Exploiting this property for which each pixel of the Pupil Imager operates over its limited dynamic range, the signal polarity reversal between low and high flux pixels, which occurs for a circular region of pixels near the upper edges of the pupil illumination profile, can be rectified to unipolar integration with a two-level non-uniformity correction (NUC). Images corrected real-time with standard non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques, are still subject to longer-term drifts in pixel offsets between recalibrations. Long-term calibration stability might then be achieved using either a scene-based non-uniformity correction approach, or with periodic repointing for off-source background estimation and subtraction. Either approach requires dithering of the field of view, by sub-pixel amounts for the first method, or by large off-source motions outside the 0.38 milliradian FOV for the latter method. We report on the results of investigations along both these lines.

  14. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  15. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  16. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  17. Visual persistence and cinema?

    PubMed

    Galifret, Yves

    2006-01-01

    In Faraday and Plateau's days, both apparent motion and the fusion of intermittent lights, two phenomena that are hardly connected, were explained by retinal persistence. The works of Exner and of the 'Gestalt' psychologists, as well as the modern works on 'sampled' motion and smooth motion, disregarded retinal persistence. One tried, originally, to measure this persistence using intermittent stimulation, but under the pressure of practical concern, what was established in 1902 was the logarithmic relation between fusion frequency and the intensity of the stimulation. One had to wait until the 1950s for the use of harmonic analysis to finally allow a renewal in which many problems that, for decades, had only given rise to discussions that led nowhere and to groundless assertions, were correctly stated and easily solved.

  18. Persistence of Salmonella typhimurium on Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Wilkoff, Lee J.; Westbrook, Louise; Dixon, Glen J.

    1969-01-01

    The persistence of Salmonella typhimurium (V-31) on wool blanket, wool gabardine, cotton sheeting, cotton knit jersey, cotton terry cloth, and cotton wash-and-wear fabrics was studied. Three methods of exposure were employed to contaminate the fabrics: direct contact, aerosol, and a lyophilized mixture of bacteria and dust having a high content of textile fibers. After contamination, the fabrics were held in 35 or 78% relative humidity at 25 C. The persistence time of S. typhimurium on fabrics held in 35% relative humidity was substantially longer when the fabrics were contaminated by direct contact or by exposure to dust containing bacteria than when contaminated by exposure to aerosolized cultures. Viable bacterial populations persisted for 24 weeks at relatively high population densities on swatches of wool gabardine, cotton sheeting, cotton knit jersey, and cotton terry cloth exposed by direct contact and held in a humidity of 35%. In 78% humidity, bacterial populations persisted on the fabrics for relatively shorter periods of time regardless of the mode of contamination or fabric type. This organism retained its virulence for Swiss mice after being recovered from wool gabardine swatches held 8 weeks in humidities of 35 or 78% and from cotton terry cloth swatches held 6 weeks in the same humidities. Images PMID:4896883

  19. Observation Impacts for Longer Forecast Lead-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, R.; Gelaro, R.; Todling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Observation impact on forecasts evaluated using adjoint-based techniques (e.g. Langland and Baker, 2004) are limited by the validity of the assumptions underlying the forecasting model adjoint. Most applications of this approach have focused on deriving observation impacts on short-range forecasts (e.g. 24-hour) in part to stay well within linearization assumptions. The most widely used measure of observation impact relies on the availability of the analysis for verifying the forecasts. As pointed out by Gelaro et al. (2007), and more recently by Todling (2013), this introduces undesirable correlations in the measure that are likely to affect the resulting assessment of the observing system. Stappers and Barkmeijer (2012) introduced a technique that, in principle, allows extending the validity of tangent linear and corresponding adjoint models to longer lead-times, thereby reducing the correlations in the measures used for observation impact assessments. The methodology provides the means to better represent linearized models by making use of Gaussian quadrature relations to handle various underlying non-linear model trajectories. The formulation is exact for particular bi-linear dynamics; it corresponds to an approximation for general-type nonlinearities and must be tested for large atmospheric models. The present work investigates the approach of Stappers and Barkmeijer (2012)in the context of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS). The goal is to calculate observation impacts in the GEOS-5 ADAS for forecast lead-times of at least 48 hours in order to reduce the potential for undesirable correlations that occur at shorter forecast lead times. References [1]Langland, R. H., and N. L. Baker, 2004: Estimation of observation impact using the NRL atmospheric variational data assimilation adjoint system. Tellus, 56A, 189-201. [2] Gelaro, R., Y. Zhu, and R. M. Errico, 2007: Examination of various

  20. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-02-25

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated

  1. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

    2003-02-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging

  2. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  3. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance: when MGUS is no longer undetermined or insignificant.

    PubMed

    Leung, Nelson; Bridoux, Frank; Hutchison, Colin A; Nasr, Samih H; Cockwell, Paul; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Dispenzieri, Angela; Song, Kevin W; Kyle, Robert A

    2012-11-22

    Multiple myeloma is the most frequent monoclonal gammopathy to involve the kidney; however, a growing number of kidney diseases associated with other monoclonal gammopathies are being recognized. Although many histopathologic patterns exist, they are all distinguished by the monoclonal immunoglobulin (or component) deposits. The hematologic disorder in these patients is more consistent with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) than with multiple myeloma. Unfortunately, due to the limitations of the current diagnostic schema, they are frequently diagnosed as MGUS. Because treatment is not recommended for MGUS, appropriate therapy is commonly withheld. In addition to end-stage renal disease, the persistence of the monoclonal gammopathy is associated with high rates of recurrence after kidney transplantation. Preservation and restoration of kidney function are possible with successful treatment targeting the responsible clone. Achievement of hematologic complete response has been shown to prevent recurrence after kidney transplantation. There is a need for a term that properly conveys the pathologic nature of these diseases. We think the term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance is most helpful to indicate a causal relationship between the monoclonal gammopathy and the renal damage and because the significance of the monoclonal gammopathy is no longer undetermined.

  4. Increasing summer drying in North American ecosystems in response to longer nonfrozen periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Bikash R.; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    In snow-dominated northern ecosystems, spring warming is predicted to decrease water availability later in the season and recent findings suggest that corresponding negative impacts on plant productivity and wildfire frequency are already observable. Here we estimate the overall vulnerability of North American ecosystems to warming-related seasonal shifts in hydrology through identifying robust interannual linkages between nonfrozen periods, peak-to-late summer vegetation greenness, and an indicator of drought for 1982-2010. Our results show that longer nonfrozen periods earlier in the year are persistently associated with declines in peak-to-late summer greenness and moisture availability across large portions of North America. Hereby, vulnerabilities increase markedly across the dominant land covers with decreasing annual precipitation rates, lowering contributions of summer rainfall, and increasing altitude. The implications are that in a warmer world, seasonal hydrological shifts may emerge as a leading factor for summer drought in relatively dry temperate-forested ecosystems and across the northern high latitudes.

  5. The Persistence of PCBs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert H.; Highland, Joseph H.

    1979-01-01

    PCB's are one of the most persistent chemicals ever introduced into the environment by man. From very early in their history of manufacture PCB's were suspected of being hazardous to health, but public awareness of the hazard was slow in coming. (RE)

  6. A Very Persistent Mistake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, J. A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Articulated bodies with an internal energy source require to be coupled to an external mass in order to accelerate themselves but the typical text book assertion that the net force is provided by the external mass is not correct. Arguments are presented demonstrating that the assertion is incorrect and reasons are suggested for the persistence of…

  7. Persistence to Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Smart, John C.

    1986-01-01

    A study is reported of the relationship of family education and income, high school grades, academic and social self-confidence, undergraduate institutional selectivity and size, academic and social integration, overall college satisfaction, bachelor's degree attainment, and financial aid on students' persistence to graduate school. (MSE)

  8. Catalase eliminates reactive oxygen species and influences the intestinal microbiota of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Guo, Fang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal innate immune response is an important defense mechanism of animals and humans against external pathogens. The mechanism of microbiota homeostasis in host intestines has been well studied in mammals and Drosophila. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antimicrobial peptides have been reported to play important roles in homeostasis. However, how to maintain the microbiota homeostasis in crustacean intestine needs to be elucidated. In this study, we identified a novel catalase (MjCAT) involved in ROS elimination in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjCAT mRNA was widely distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. After the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic bacteria via oral infection, the expression level of MjCAT was upregulated, and the enzyme activity was increased in the intestine. ROS level was also increased in the intestine at early time after oral infection and recovered rapidly. When MjCAT was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), high ROS level maintained longer time, and the number of bacteria number was declined in the shrimp intestinal lumen than those in the control group, but the survival rate of the MjCAT-RNAi shrimp was declined. Further study demonstrated that the intestinal villi protruded from epithelial lining of the intestinal wall were damaged by the high ROS level in MjCAT-knockdown shrimp. These results suggested that MjCAT participated in the intestinal host-microbe homeostasis by regulating ROS level.

  9. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    PubMed

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  10. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  11. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  12. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine N Electrolyte and mineral deficiencies ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

  13. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  14. Transient Supersaturation Supports Drug Absorption from Lipid-Based Formulations for Short Periods of Time, but Ongoing Solubilization Is Required for Longer Absorption Periods.

    PubMed

    Crum, Matthew F; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2017-02-06

    The current studies sought to explore the impact of drug supersaturation and precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs), on in vivo absorption using a coupled in vitro digestion-in vivo perfusion absorption model. Fenofibrate absorption was evaluated from a number of LBFs with different solubilization and supersaturation capacities, and conditions at the absorptive membrane manipulated by changing perfusion conditions, intestine segment lengths, and by the conduct of experiments in the presence or absence of suspended/precipitated drug. LBF dispersion and digestion resulted in varying periods of supersaturation across the different formulations. Even fleeting (5-10 min) periods of supersaturation were able to drive flux across a perfused 10 cm intestinal segment for up to 60 min, although over longer infusion periods (60-80 min) flux dropped in the absence of ongoing drug solubilization and supersaturation. In contrast, the presence or absence of precipitated/suspended drug, had little impact on drug flux. When perfused intestinal segment lengths were extended, the role of initial supersaturation was attenuated and ongoing solubilization conditions became the primary driver of absorptive flux. The data suggest that for highly permeable drugs such as fenofibrate, a short period of supersaturation at the absorptive membrane may be sufficient to drive absorptive drug flux in spite of significant drug precipitation on formulation dispersion or digestion in vitro. In contrast, where longer periods of absorption are required, for example, at higher doses, the requirement for ongoing solubilization and supersaturation becomes more apparent.

  15. [Intestinal microbiocenosis in children with intestinal enzymopathy].

    PubMed

    Kamilova, A T; Akhmedov, N N; Pulatova, D B; Nurmatov, B A

    2001-01-01

    141 children with different kinds of intestinal enzymopathy were examined; of these, 33 had celiac disease, 39--the syndrome of celiac disease, 12--congenital lactase deficiency and 57--the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency. In these patients a significant decrease in the average characteristics of the main protective flora and the growth of hemolytic and lactose-negative enterobacteria were established. In all groups of patients increased amounts of Proteus were detected, which was indicative of profound dysbiosis. The content of bifidobacteria was found to be decreased in 89.5-97% of the patients and the content of lactic acid bacteria, in 15.8-33.3%. The decreased content of Escherichia coli with normal enzymatic activity (less than 10(7) colony-forming units) was noted in one-third of the patients with the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency, in about a half of the patients with the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency and least of all in patients with celiac disease (9.1%). The association of opportunistic microbes was detected in 15.6% of the patients, more often in those with celiac disease, the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency. The severity of disturbances in intestinal eubiosis was found to depend on the gravity of the patients' state.

  16. Persistence of fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis by experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis can be deposited inside eggs laid by infected hens, so the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial egg-producing flocks is an important risk factor for human illness. Opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of salmonellae in poultry are potentially influenced by flock housing and management systems. Animal welfare concerns have spurred the development of alternatives to traditional cage-based housing. However, the consequences of poultry housing systems for food safety have not been fully resolved by prior research. The present study assessed the effects of two different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the persistence of fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis by groups of experimentally infected laying hens. In each of two trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At weekly intervals, samples of voided feces were collected from beneath each cage and cultured to detect Salmonella Enteritidis. Fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected for up to 8 wk post-inoculation by hens housed in enriched colony cages and 10 wk by hens housed in conventional cages. For both trials combined, the frequency of positive fecal cultures was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for conventional cages than for enriched colony cages at 1 wk (84.7 vs. 71.5%), 2 wk (54.2 vs. 31.3%), 3 wk (21.5 vs. 7.6%), and 4 wk (9.7 vs. 2.8%) post-inoculation. These results demonstrate that the susceptibility of hens to intestinal colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis can differ between conventional and enriched cage-based production systems, although this effect does not necessarily translate into a corresponding difference in the longer-term persistence of fecal shedding.

  17. [Pyometra and persistent hymen in an alpaca].

    PubMed

    Egloff, C; Gerspach, C; Rütten, M; Dettwiler, M; Reichler, I; Bleul, U

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old female alpaca was referred to the hospital because of tenesmus. Clinical examination revealed a habitual vaginal prolapse with tenesmus during urination and defecation. On vaginoscopic examination a persistent hymen was detected. Ultrasonography of the caudal abdomen showed an echogenic fluid-filled uterus. A diagnostic laparotomy led to diagnosis of pyometra. Following ovariohysterectomy, the recovery was uneventful. One and a half years later the alpaca was again admitted to the hospital because of colic. Based on the findings, a tentative prognosis was provided and the alpaca was euthanized at the request of the owner. At necropsy, a haemorrhagic infarction of a jejunal loop was found due to incarceration in a fibrous adhesion between the vaginal stump and small intestine.

  18. [Frequency of intestinal protozoosis in the Mexican Republic].

    PubMed

    Tay, J; Ruiz, A; Schenone, H; Robert, L; Sánchez-Vega, J T; Uribarren, T; Becerril, M A; Romero, R

    1994-01-01

    The reports about the frequency of intestinal protozooses found in humans who live in different localities of the Mexican Republic, are in general uncertain and not trustworthy, possibly because very few and poor epidemiological surveys have been undertaken in the country. However, with the few trustful studies carried out (1981 to 1991), it is possible in Mexico, to verify that amibiasis, giardiasis and criptosporidiosis are present with significant percentages of infection: 30.6, 22.3 and 39.3% respectively. With the summary of the researches analyzed in this article, one can conclude that human infections by intestinal protozoa in the Mexican Republic, at the present time, are almost as frequent as in past decades. This occurs because still remain the factors that contribute to the persistence and spreading of intestinal parasites, such as fecalism, poor hygienic and alimentary habits, within a deficient environmental sanitation.

  19. [Research progress in causes of persistent or chronic diarrhea in children].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Jing; You, Jie-Yu

    2012-08-01

    The disease course of children with persistent or chronic diarrhea lasts from two weeks to two months or over. Diarrhea is a clinical syndrome caused by a group of multiple etiologies. This paper reviews common causes of persistent or chronic diarrhea in children, including intestinal infections, nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases, food allergy, lactose intolerance, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, neural regulation abnormality, immunodeficiency disease, malnutrition, Celiac disease and zinc deficiency.

  20. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid.

  1. Optimization and Persistence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    and production costs are amplified by first-time applica- tion of high technology , security, and lim- ited production quantities. Alternate can...stred spendmg levels, average fleet age, average " technological advantage" of the fleet, and so forth. (The persistent features we discuss have all...a precise concept when dealing with nonmonetary units, such as technological advantage, but all elastic penalties are usually adjusted by the same

  2. Presynaptic learning and memory with a persistent firing neuron and a habituating synapse: a model of short term persistent habituation.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Dhanasekar, Dhiviya; Li, Guoqi; Shi, Luping; Vadakkepat, Prahlad

    2012-08-01

    Our paper explores the interaction of persistent firing axonal and presynaptic processes in the generation of short term memory for habituation. We first propose a model of a sensory neuron whose axon is able to switch between passive conduction and persistent firing states, thereby triggering short term retention to the stimulus. Then we propose a model of a habituating synapse and explore all nine of the behavioral characteristics of short term habituation in a two neuron circuit. We couple the persistent firing neuron to the habituation synapse and investigate the behavior of short term retention of habituating response. Simulations show that, depending on the amount of synaptic resources, persistent firing either results in continued habituation or maintains the response, both leading to longer recovery times. The effectiveness of the model as an element in a bio-inspired memory system is discussed.

  3. Recurrent intussusception as initial manifestation of primary intestinal melanoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kouladouros, Konstantinos; Gärtner, Daniel; Münch, Steffen; Paul, Mario; Schön, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Enteric intussusception caused by primary intestinal malignant melanoma is a very rare cause of intestinal obstruction. We herein present a case of a 42-year-old female patient with no prior medical history of malignant melanoma, who was admitted with persistent abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. A computed tomography scan revealed an intestinal obstruction due to ileocolic intussusception. An emergency laparoscopy and subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple small solid tumors across the whole small bowel. An oncologic resection was not feasible due to the insufficient length of the remaining small bowel. Only a small segment of ileum, which included the largest tumors causing the intussusception, was resected. The pathologic examination revealed two intestinal malignant melanoma lesions. A systematic clinical examination, endoscopic procedures, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan all failed to reveal any indication of cutaneous, anal, or retinal melanoma. Hence, the tumor was classified as a primary intestinal malignant melanoma with multiple intestinal metastases. Since a complete oncologic resection of tumors was not possible, in order to prevent future intestinal obstruction, a surgical resection of the largest lesions was performed with palliative intention. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of primary intestinal malignant melanoma, and intestinal intussusception in adults are discussed along with a review of the current literature. PMID:25780313

  4. Ontogeny, growth and development of the small intestine: Understanding pediatric gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Drozdowski, Laurie A; Clandinin, Tom; Thomson, Alan B R

    2010-02-21

    Throughout our lifetime, the intestine changes. Some alterations in its form and function may be genetically determined, and some are the result of adaptation to diet, temperature, or stress. The critical period programming of the intestine can be modified, such as from subtle differences in the types and ratios of n3:m6 fatty acids in the diet of the pregnant mother, or in the diet of the weanlings. This early forced adaptation may persist in later life, such as the unwanted increased intestinal absorption of sugars, fatty acids and cholesterol. Thus, the ontogeny, early growth and development of the intestine is important for the adult gastroenterologist to appreciate, because of the potential for these early life events to affect the responsiveness of the intestine to physiological or pathological challenges in later life.

  5. The Initial Rate of C Substrate Utilization and Longer-Term Soil C Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeff L.; Bell, Jennifer M.; Bolton, Harvey; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2007-12-01

    Increasing soil C storage is viewed as a legitimate mechanism to offset current increases in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources. However, microbial transformation and turnover of soil carbon inputs will influence the magnitude of net soil C storage. The purpose of this study was to investigate several simple model C compounds to determine their decomposition rates in soil and the relationship between their initial decomposition rate and longer-term C sequestration. Pure 14C compounds of glucose, acetate, arginine, oxalate, phenylalanine and urea were incubated in soil for 125 days at 24 and 34oC. Respired 14CO2 and specific activity was quantitatively measured every day for 15 days and residual soil 14C after 125 days. At both temperatures, the percent 14C remaining in the soil after 125 days of incubation was positively and significantly correlated with the percent substrate utilized in the first day. For the two temperatures, the correlation of total 14CO2 and specific activity was significant (R2=.86,.78) as was the percent remaining after 125 days (C34oC = 0.75 x C24oC, R2 = 0.90). The 14C in the microbial biomass ranged from 4-15% after 15 days and declined through day 125 contributing significantly to the 14C evolved. Priming of 12C SOM was negative at day 3 but became positive, reaching a maximum on day 12, the total increase in soil C from substrates was greater than the primed C. The data support the concept that the more rapidly a substrate is initially mineralized the more persistent it will be in the soil.

  6. Commensal-pathogen interactions in the intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Smith, Katherine A; Filbey, Kara J; Harcus, Yvonne; Hewitson, James P; Redpath, Stephen A; Valdez, Yanet; Yebra, María J; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are pivotal in determining the developmental, metabolic and immunological status of the mammalian host. However, the intestinal tract may also accommodate pathogenic organisms, including helminth parasites which are highly prevalent in most tropical countries. Both microbes and helminths must evade or manipulate the host immune system to reside in the intestinal environment, yet whether they influence each other’s persistence in the host remains unknown. We now show that abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria correlates positively with infection with the mouse intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as well as with heightened regulatory T cell (Treg) and Th17 responses. Moreover, H. polygyrus raises Lactobacillus species abundance in the duodenum of C57BL/6 mice, which are highly susceptible to H. polygyrus infection, but not in BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant. Sequencing of samples at the bacterial gyrB locus identified the principal Lactobacillus species as L. taiwanensis, a previously characterized rodent commensal. Experimental administration of L. taiwanensis to BALB/c mice elevates regulatory T cell frequencies and results in greater helminth establishment, demonstrating a causal relationship in which commensal bacteria promote infection with an intestinal parasite and implicating a bacterially-induced expansion of Tregs as a mechanism of greater helminth susceptibility. The discovery of this tripartite interaction between host, bacteria and parasite has important implications for both antibiotic and anthelmintic use in endemic human populations. PMID:25144609

  7. Unusual intestinal talcosis.

    PubMed

    Anani, P A; Ribaux, C; Gardiol, D

    1987-11-01

    A case of intestinal talcosis in a 46-year-old man is reported. At the age of 27, the patient was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis with tablets containing talc (183 g talc per 2,670 g total drug intake) over a period of 28 months. Eighteen years later, the patient was hospitalized for abdominal pain that remained refractory to antacids; he subsequently underwent a right hemicolectomy. Light-microscopic examination revealed a prominent fibrosis of the intestinal wall in which birefringent particles were demonstrated by polarized light. Using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, an analysis of these particles showed that they were predominantly composed of silicon and magnesium as well as small amounts of phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, and iron--the spectrum typically associated with talc. We believe that the source of this talc is the tablets ingested by the patient during prior antituberculosis therapy.

  8. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  9. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  10. The impact of an antireflux procedure on intestinal metaplasia of the cardia.

    PubMed Central

    DeMeester, S R; Campos, G M; DeMeester, T R; Bremner, C G; Hagen, J A; Peters, J H; Crookes, P F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether antireflux surgery is more effective in producing loss of intestinal metaplasia located only at the gastroesophageal junction than it has been in patients with intestinal metaplasia extending up into the distal esophagus. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Biopsies of a normal appearing gastroesophageal junction will demonstrate cardiac mucosa containing goblet cells--the hallmark of intestinal metaplasia--in 10% to 15% of patients who are evaluated for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and cardia is rising faster than any other cancer in America, and most of these cancers are found adjacent to areas of intestinal metaplasia. Antireflux surgery in patients with Barrett's esophagus may provide protection from progression to dysplasia and cancer; however, it does not reliably cause regression of the intestinal metaplasia. Less is known about the potential for intestinal metaplasia limited to the cardia (CIM) to regress. METHODS: Sixty patients with intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus or cardia had antireflux surgery. Patients in the intestinal (CIM) group (n = 15) had no endoscopically visible segment of columnar epithelium. Patients in the Barrett's group (n = 45) had columnar epithelium visible within the esophagus. Median follow-up was 25 months in each group. RESULTS: Postoperative biopsies showed complete loss of intestinal metaplasia in 73% of the patients with CIM compared with 4.4% of the patients with Barrett's. Low-grade dysplasia, present in 10 patients preoperatively, regressed in 7 patients (70%). No patient progressed to high-grade dysplasia or cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of intestinal metaplasia after antireflux surgery is rare in patients with Barrett's, but occurred in most patients with CIM. This suggests that cardiac epithelium is dynamic and that microscopic areas of intestinal metaplasia are able to regress much more frequently than longer

  11. Symptoms and patient factors associated with longer time to diagnosis for colorectal cancer: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Fiona M; Emery, Jon D; Mendonca, Silvia; Hall, Nicola; Morris, Helen C; Mills, Katie; Dobson, Christina; Bankhead, Clare; Johnson, Margaret; Abel, Gary A; Rutter, Matthew D; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to investigate symptoms, clinical factors and socio-demographic factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and time to diagnosis. Methods: Prospective cohort study of participants referred for suspicion of CRC in two English regions. Data were collected using a patient questionnaire, primary care and hospital records. Descriptive and regression analyses examined associations between symptoms and patient factors with total diagnostic interval (TDI), patient interval (PI), health system interval (HSI) and stage. Results: A total of 2677 (22%) participants responded; after exclusions, 2507 remained. Participants were diagnosed with CRC (6.1%, 56% late stage), other cancers (2.0%) or no cancer (91.9%). Half the cohort had a solitary first symptom (1332, 53.1%); multiple first symptoms were common. In this referred population, rectal bleeding was the only initial symptom more frequent among cancer than non-cancer cases (34.2% vs 23.9%, P=0.004). There was no evidence of differences in TDI, PI or HSI for those with cancer vs non-cancer diagnoses (median TDI CRC 124 vs non-cancer 138 days, P=0.142). First symptoms associated with shorter TDIs were rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit, ‘feeling different' and fatigue/tiredness. Anxiety, depression and gastro-intestinal co-morbidities were associated with longer HSIs and TDIs. Symptom duration-dependent effects were found for rectal bleeding and change in bowel habit. Conclusions: Doctors and patients respond less promptly to some symptoms of CRC than others. Healthcare professionals should be vigilant to the possibility of CRC in patients with relevant symptoms and mental health or gastro-intestinal comorbidities. PMID:27490803

  12. Persistent Temporal Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilley, David; Ramachandran, Umakishore

    Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by a variety of high- and low-bandwidth streams as well as a need for analyzing both live and archived streams. We present a system called Persistent Temporal Streams (PTS) that supports a higher-level, domain-targeted programming abstraction for such applications. PTS provides a simple but expressive stream abstraction encompassing transport, manipulation and storage of streaming data. In this paper, we present a system architecture for implementing PTS. We provide an experimental evaluation which shows the system-level primitives can be implemented in a lightweight and high-performance manner, and an application-based evaluation designed to show that a representative high-bandwidth stream analysis application can be implemented relatively simply and with good performance.

  13. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  14. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.

  15. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-08-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  16. How to make an intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wells, James M.; Spence, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    With the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, there is great interest in establishing in vitro models of human intestinal disease and in developing drug-screening platforms that more accurately represent the complex physiology of the intestine. We will review how recent advances in developmental and stem cell biology have made it possible to generate complex, three-dimensional, human intestinal tissues in vitro through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. These are currently being used to study human development, genetic forms of disease, intestinal pathogens, metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:24496613

  17. Cytomegalovirus Infection After Intestinal Transplantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Javier; Green, Michael; Kocoshis, Samuel; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ahu-Elmagd, Kareem; Yunis, Eduardo; Irish, William; Todo, Satoru; Reyes, Jorge; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurred in 10 of 41 children undergoing intestinal transplantation from 1990 to 1995. Stratification of CMV disease by donor (D)/recipient (R) serological status was as follows: 3 of 8, D+/R−; 3 of 9, D+/R+; 4 of 9, D−/R+; and 0 of 15, D−/R−. Treatment resulted in resolution of CMV disease in 93.3% of episodes. No deaths attributable to CMV disease occurred in this series. CMV in D+/R− children resulted in more extensive and persistent disease. However, patient and graft survival rates were similar in the different D/R subgroups and between children with and without CMV disease. Cumulative dose of steroid boluses (relative risk [RR]. 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 1.14–2.21) and history of steroid recycles (RR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.21–6.13) were associated with CMV disease. These results suggest that although CMV-associated morbidity in pediatric intestinal transplant recipients was substantial, it was not associated with an increased rate of mortality or graft loss, even among high-risk D+/R− patients. PMID:9402361

  18. Black bears with longer disuse (hibernation) periods have lower femoral osteon population density and greater mineralization and intracortical porosity.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Samantha J; Weyland, David R; Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Donahue, Seth W

    2013-08-01

    Intracortical bone remodeling is persistent throughout life, leading to age related increases in osteon population density (OPD). Intracortical porosity also increases with age in many mammals including humans, contributing to bone fragility and fracture risk. Unbalanced bone resorption and formation during disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) also increases intracortical porosity. In contrast, hibernating bears are a naturally occurring model for the prevention of both age-related and disuse osteoporoses. Intracortical bone remodeling is decreased during hibernation, but resorption and formation remain balanced. Black bears spend 0.25-7 months in hibernation annually depending on climate and food availability. We found longer hibernating bears demonstrate lower OPD and higher cortical bone mineralization than bears with shorter hibernation durations, but we surprisingly found longer hibernating bears had higher intracortical porosity. However, bears from three different latitudes showed age-related decreases in intracortical porosity, indicating that regardless of hibernation duration, black bears do not show the disuse- or age-related increases in intracortical porosity which is typical of other animals. This ability to prevent increases in intracortical porosity likely contributes to their ability to maintain bone strength during prolonged periods of physical inactivity and throughout life. Improving our understanding of the unique bone metabolism in hibernating bears will potentially increase our ability to develop treatments for age- and disuse-related osteoporoses in humans.

  19. Synthetic Small Intestinal Scaffolds for Improved Studies of Intestinal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Hongpeng, Jia; Shaffiey, Shahab; Yu, Jiajie; Jain, Nina K.; Hackam, David

    2014-01-01

    In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities, and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3D models. PMID:24390638

  20. Immunoglobulin in intestinal secretions.

    PubMed

    Cutropia de Guirao, C

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the present investigation is the study and interpretation of the role played by the immunoglobulins, especially IgA, during acute diarrhea in children. IgA, IGG and IgM values in serum and IgA in intestinal secretions were studied in a group of children (between 3 months and 5 years of age) during diarrhea, convalescence and in normals. The method of simple radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini was employed. IgA is the immunoglobulin which suffers the greastest alteration in acute diarrhea. The precipitation halos (the average values), were lower during the diarrhea than in convalescence and in normals.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guang; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Persistent or chronic pain is tightly associated with various environmental changes and linked to abnormal gene expression within cells processing nociceptive signaling. Epigenetic regulation governs gene expression in response to environmental cues. Recent animal model and clinical studies indicate that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the development/maintenance of persistent pain and, possibly the transition of acute pain to chronic pain, thus shedding light in a direction for development of new therapeutics for persistent pain. PMID:24948399

  2. Dopamine controls persistence of long-term memory storage.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Janine I; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2009-08-21

    The paradigmatic feature of long-term memory (LTM) is its persistence. However, little is known about the mechanisms that make some LTMs last longer than others. In rats, a long-lasting fear LTM vanished rapidly when the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 was injected into the dorsal hippocampus 12 hours, but not immediately or 9 hours, after the fearful experience. Conversely, intrahippocampal application of the D1 agonist SK38393 at the same critical post-training time converted a rapidly decaying fear LTM into a persistent one. This effect was mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and regulated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Thus, the persistence of LTM depends on activation of VTA/hippocampus dopaminergic connections and can be specifically modulated by manipulating this system at definite post-learning time points.

  3. Intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Blaut, Michael; Klaus, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The human gut harbors a highly diverse microbial ecosystem of approximately 400 different species, which is characterized by a high interindividual variability. The intestinal microbiota has recently been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Transplantation of gut microbiota from obese mice to nonobese, germ-free mice resulted in transfer of metabolic syndrome-associated features from the donor to the recipient. Proposed mechanisms for the role of gut microbiota include the provision of additional energy by the conversion of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids, effects on gut-hormone production, and increased intestinal permeability causing elevated systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This metabolic endotoxemia is suggested to contribute to low-grade inflammation, a characteristic trait of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Finally, activation of the endocannabinoid system by LPS and/or high-fat diets is discussed as another causal factor. In conclusion, there is ample evidence for a role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity in rodents. However, the magnitude of its contribution to human obesity is still unknown.

  4. Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

    1995-01-01

    New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed. PMID:7573050

  5. Environmental Persistence Influences Infection Dynamics for a Butterfly Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Altizer, Sonia; Williams, Mary-Kate; Hall, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). We first conducted an experiment to observe the persistence of protozoan spores exposed to natural conditions. Experimental results showed that, contrary to our expectations, pathogen doses maintained high infectivity even after 16 days in the environment, although pathogens did yield infections with lower parasite loads after environmental exposure. Because pathogen longevity exceeded the time span of our experiment, we developed a mechanistic model to better explore environmental persistence for this host-pathogen system. Model analysis showed that, in general, longer spore persistence led to higher infection prevalence and slightly smaller monarch population sizes. The model indicated that typical parasite doses shed onto milkweed plants must remain viable for a minimum of 3 weeks for prevalence to increase during the summer-breeding season, and for 11 weeks or longer to match levels of infection commonly reported from the wild, assuming moderate values for parasite shedding rate. Our findings showed that transmission stages of this butterfly pathogen are long-lived and indicated that this is a necessary condition for the protozoan to persist in local monarch populations. This study provides a modeling framework for future work examining the dynamics of an ecologically important pathogen in an iconic insect. PMID:28099501

  6. Outcomes of Patients with Intestinal Failure after the Development and Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Team.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Sabrina; Ahmed, Najma; Forget, Sylviane; Sant'Anna, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. A multidisciplinary team was created in our institution to manage patients with intestinal failure (INFANT: INtestinal Failure Advanced Nutrition Team). We aimed to evaluate the impact of the implementation of the team on the outcomes of this patient population. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients with intestinal failure over a 6-year period was performed. Outcomes of patients followed up by INFANT (2010-2012) were compared to a historical cohort (2007-2009). Results. Twenty-eight patients with intestinal failure were followed up by INFANT while the historical cohort was formed by 27 patients. There was no difference between the groups regarding remaining length of small and large bowel, presence of ICV, or number of infants who reached full enteral feeds. Patients followed up by INFANT took longer to attain full enteral feeds and had longer duration of PN, probably reflecting more complex cases. Overall mortality (14.8%/7.1%) was lower than other centers, probably illustrating our population of "early" intestinal failure patients. Conclusions. Our data demonstrates that the creation and implementation of a multidisciplinary program in a tertiary center without an intestinal and liver transplant program can lead to improvement in many aspects of their care.

  7. Outcomes of Patients with Intestinal Failure after the Development and Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Sabrina; Ahmed, Najma; Forget, Sylviane; Sant'Anna, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim. A multidisciplinary team was created in our institution to manage patients with intestinal failure (INFANT: INtestinal Failure Advanced Nutrition Team). We aimed to evaluate the impact of the implementation of the team on the outcomes of this patient population. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients with intestinal failure over a 6-year period was performed. Outcomes of patients followed up by INFANT (2010–2012) were compared to a historical cohort (2007–2009). Results. Twenty-eight patients with intestinal failure were followed up by INFANT while the historical cohort was formed by 27 patients. There was no difference between the groups regarding remaining length of small and large bowel, presence of ICV, or number of infants who reached full enteral feeds. Patients followed up by INFANT took longer to attain full enteral feeds and had longer duration of PN, probably reflecting more complex cases. Overall mortality (14.8%/7.1%) was lower than other centers, probably illustrating our population of “early” intestinal failure patients. Conclusions. Our data demonstrates that the creation and implementation of a multidisciplinary program in a tertiary center without an intestinal and liver transplant program can lead to improvement in many aspects of their care. PMID:27446876

  8. The Role of Rewarding and Novel Events in Facilitating Memory Persistence in a Separate Spatial Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvetti, Beatrice; Morris, Richard G. M.; Wang, Szu-Han

    2014-01-01

    Many insignificant events in our daily life are forgotten quickly but can be remembered for longer when other memory-modulating events occur before or after them. This phenomenon has been investigated in animal models in a protocol in which weak memories persist longer if exploration in a novel context is introduced around the time of memory…

  9. Opposing Dopaminergic and GABAergic Neurons Control the Duration and Persistence of Copulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Crickmore, Michael A.; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Behavioral persistence is a major factor in determiningwhen and under which circumstances animals will terminate their current activity and transition into more profitable, appropriate, or urgent behavior. We show that, for the first 5 min of copulation in Drosophila, stressful stimuli do not interrupt mating, whereas 10 min later, even minor perturbations are sufficient to terminate copulation. This decline in persistence occurs as the probability of successful mating increases and is promoted by approximately eight sexually dimorphic, GABAergic interneurons of the male abdominal ganglion. When these interneurons were silenced, persistence increased and males copulated far longer than required for successful mating. When these interneurons were stimulated, persistence decreased and copulations were shortened. In contrast, dopaminergic neurons of the ventral nerve cord promote copulation persistence and extend copulation duration. Thus, copulation duration in Drosophila is a product of gradually declining persistence controlled by opposing neuronal populations using conserved neurotransmission systems. PMID:24209625

  10. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  11. Persistence. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today's college student is not your '60s drop-out. In 2010, college students tended to stay enrolled (i.e., persist), even if it was in a different school, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. For a student enrolled in the fall, persistence is defined as either continued enrollment during the next term after the fall or…

  12. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  13. Multidimensional persistence in biomolecular data

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent homology has emerged as a popular technique for the topological simplification of big data, including biomolecular data. Multidimensional persistence bears considerable promise to bridge the gap between geometry and topology. However, its practical and robust construction has been a challenge. We introduce two families of multidimensional persistence, namely pseudo-multidimensional persistence and multiscale multidimensional persistence. The former is generated via the repeated applications of persistent homology filtration to high dimensional data, such as results from molecular dynamics or partial differential equations. The latter is constructed via isotropic and anisotropic scales that create new simiplicial complexes and associated topological spaces. The utility, robustness and efficiency of the proposed topological methods are demonstrated via protein folding, protein flexibility analysis, the topological denoising of cryo-electron microscopy data, and the scale dependence of nano particles. Topological transition between partial folded and unfolded proteins has been observed in multidimensional persistence. The separation between noise topological signatures and molecular topological fingerprints is achieved by the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The multiscale multidimensional persistent homology reveals relative local features in Betti-0 invariants and the relatively global characteristics of Betti-1 and Betti-2 invariants. PMID:26032339

  14. Persistent Criminality and Career Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…

  15. Persistence of the rotavirus A genome in mesenteric lymph nodes of cattle raised on farms.

    PubMed

    Mitake, Hiromichi; Ito, Naoto; Okadera, Kota; Okada, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Kento; Tanaka, Tomomi; Katsuragi, Kiyohito; Kasahara, Kasumi; Nihongi, Toshihide; Sakurai, Shoji; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies revealed that rotavirus A (RVA) is present in not only the small intestine but also various organs. It was reported that RVA persisted in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) in experimental models. However, there have been no reports focused on RVA in MLNs of animals under natural conditions. In this study, in order to investigate the persistence of the RVA genome in MLNs in cattle under natural conditions, reverse transcription-semi-nested PCR was carried out to detect RVA genomes in the MLNs from 17 calves that had been subjected to autopsy examinations. RVA genomes were detected in MLNs from 10 (˜60  %) of the 17 autopsied calves. MLNs from 170 healthy adult cattle that had been slaughtered were also examined; 15 (∼10  %) of the 170 cattle had RVA genomes in their MLNs, indicating that RNA genomes are found frequently in MLNs of cattle under natural conditions. Genetic analyses revealed that RVAs in MLNs were classified as G and/or P genotypes generally prevalent in bovines. Basically, the strains in intestinal contents were genetically identical to those in MLNs from individual cattle, suggesting that bovine RVAs have the ability to spread from the intestine to MLNs. Furthermore, amongst RVA-positive cattle, six of 10 autopsied calves and 12 of 15 healthy adult cattle were negative for the virus in the intestinal contents, indicating that bovine RVA genomes can persist in MLNs after viral clearance in the digestive tract.

  16. What Happens After Treatment for Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? For some people with small intestine cancer, ... Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Stops Working More In Small Intestine Cancer About Small Intestine Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  17. [Microbial ecology of the intestines in health and in pathology].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, G I; Dorofeĭchuk, V G; Smolianskaia, A Z; Sokolova, K Ia

    1989-06-01

    Bifidoflora constitute 85--95 per cent of the large intestine microbiocenosis in children under 1 year of age. Bacteroides are not specific of children under 6 months of age. Lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci, colon bacilli, enterococci and staphylococci (saprophytic, epidermal) constitute not more than 15 per cent. The predominating group peculiar of eubiosis in adults includes bifidobacteria and bacteroides. Changes in human autoflora are often induced by such factors as impaired ecology, stress, uncontrolled use of antibacterial drugs, radio- and chemotherapy, etc. Dysbacteriosis (first of all lower quantitative contents of bifidoflora) has an unfavourable effect on the intestine secretory function, absorption and certain indices of protein, lipid and mineral metabolism, vitamin synthesizing and fermentative functions and leads to disfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a cause of persisting and relapsing infections in children and adults. High and optimal levels of bifidoflora in the intestine usually prevent the pathogenic action of pathogens. Lysozyme of digestive secretion and secretory immunity with immunoglobulin A prevalence also play an important role in the complicated mechanism of the protective barrier. The use of bacterial preparations such as bifidumbacterin, lactobacterin or bifilact for stabilization and recovery of high bifidoflora levels is indicated in all the cases with impaired microbiocenosis of the intestine.

  18. (abstract) Effects of Radiation and Oxidative Stress on Development and Morphology of Intestinal Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, Shuji; Nelson, Gregory; Schubert, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    Intestinal cells when subjected to oxidative stress or radiation exhibit abnormal nuclear divisions observed as: 1) supernumerary cell divisions in anterior intestinal cells or 2) incomplete nuclear division and the persistence of anaphase bridges between daughter nuclei. Two oxygen sensitive mutants, mev-1 and rad-8 were observed to exhibit spontaneous supernumerary nuclear divisions at low frequency. N2 can be induced to undergo these divisions by treatment with the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyl dithicarbamate or with the free radical generator methyl viologen. By contrast, the free radical generator bleomycin produces anaphase bridges in N2 intestinal nuclei at high frequency. Intestinal anaphase bridges can be induced by ionizing radiation and their formation is dependent on dose and radiation type.

  19. Pathogenic characteristics of persistent feline enteric coronavirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Liesbeth; Van der Lubben, Mariken; te Lintelo, Eddie G; Bekker, Cornelis P J; Geerts, Tamara; Schuijff, Leontine S; Grinwis, Guy C M; Egberink, Herman F; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) comprise two biotypes: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FECV is associated with asymptomatic persistent enteric infections, while FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a usually fatal systemic disease in domestic cats and some wild Felidae. FIPV arises from FECV by mutation. FCoV also occur in two serotypes, I and II, of which the serotype I viruses are by far the most prevalent in the field. Yet, most of our knowledge about FCoV infections relates to serotype II viruses, particularly about the FIPV, mainly because type I viruses grow poorly in cell culture. Hence, the aim of the present work was the detailed study of the epidemiologically most relevant viruses, the avirulent serotype I viruses. Kittens were inoculated oronasally with different doses of two independent FECV field strains, UCD and RM. Persistent infection could be reproducibly established. The patterns of clinical symptoms, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion were monitored for up to 10 weeks revealing subtle but reproducible differences between the two viruses. Faecal virus, i.e. genomic RNA, was detected during persistent FECV infection only in the large intestine, downstream of the appendix, and could occasionally be observed also in the blood. The implications of our results, particularly our insights into the persistently infected state, are discussed.

  20. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately.

  1. Emerging insights on intestinal dysbiosis during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tu Anh N; Lawley, Trevor D

    2014-02-01

    Infection of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly linked to pathological imbalances of the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. In recent years, advanced high-throughput genomic approaches have allowed us to examine the microbiota in an unprecedented manner, revealing novel biological insights about infection-associated dysbiosis at the community and individual species levels. A dysbiotic microbiota is typically reduced in taxonomic diversity and metabolic function, and can harbour pathobionts that exacerbate intestinal inflammation or manifest systemic disease. Dysbiosis can also promote pathogen genome evolution, while allowing the pathogens to persist at high density and transmit to new hosts. A deeper understanding of bacterial pathogenicity in the context of the intestinal microbiota should unveil new approaches for developing diagnostics and therapies for enteropathogens.

  2. The Intestinal Microbiome and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuddenham, Susan; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review A diverse array of microbes colonizes the human intestine. In this review we seek to outline the current state of knowledge on what characterizes a “healthy” or “normal” intestinal microbiome, what factors modify the intestinal microbiome in the healthy state and how the intestinal microbiome affects normal host physiology Recent Findings What constitutes a “normal” or “healthy” intestinal microbiome is an area of active research, but key characteristics may include diversity, richness and a microbial community’s resilience and ability to resist change. A number of factors, including age, the host immune system, host genetics, diet and antibiotic use appear to modify the intestinal microbiome in the normal state. New research shows that the microbiome likely plays a critical role in the healthy human immune system and metabolism. Summary It is clear that there is a complicated bi-directional relationship between the intestinal microbiota and host which is vital to health. An enhanced understanding of this relationship will be critical not only to maximize and maintain human health but also to shape our understanding of disease and to foster new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26237547

  3. Intestinal flora, probiotics, and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Hernández, Ignacio; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo; Vargas Vorackova, Florencia; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microflora constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem in permanent equilibrium, composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria. However, such equilibrium may be altered by daily conditions as drug use or pathologies interfering with intestinal physiology, generating an unfavorable environment for the organism. Besides, there are factors which may cause alterations in the intestinal wall, creating the conditions for translocation or permeation of substances or bacteria. In cirrhotic patients, there are many conditions that combine to alter the amount and populations of intestinal bacteria, as well as the functional capacity of the intestinal wall to prevent the permeation of substances and bacteria. Nowadays, numerous complications associated with cirrhosis have been identified, where such mechanisms could play an important role. There is evidence that some probiotic microorganisms could restore the microbiologic and immunologic equilibrium in the intestinal wall in cirrhotic patients and help in the treatment of complications due to cirrhosis. This article has the objective to review the interactions between intestinal flora, gut permeability, and the actual role of probiotics in the field of cirrhotic patients.

  4. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  5. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Joanne M.; Wales, David J.; Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric

    2016-02-07

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  6. No Evidence for Prolonged Visible Persistence in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grimsen, Cathleen; Brand, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporal visual processing is strongly deteriorated in patients with schizophrenia. For example, the interval required between a visual stimulus and a subsequent mask has to be much longer in schizophrenic patients than in healthy controls. We investigated whether this deficit in temporal resolution is accompanied by prolonged visual persistence and/or deficient temporal precision (temporal asynchrony perception). Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated visual persistence in three experiments. In the first, measuring temporal processing by so-called backward masking, prolonged visible persistence is supposed to decrease performance. In the second experiment, requiring temporal integration, prolonged persistence is supposed to improve performance. In the third experiment, we investigated asynchrony detection, as another measure of temporal resolution. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls participated. Asynchrony detection was intact in the patients. However, patients' performance was inferior compared to healthy controls in the first two experiments. Hence, temporal processing in schizophrenic patients is indeed significantly impaired but this impairment is not caused by prolonged temporal integration. Conclusions/Significance Our results argue against a generally prolonged visual persistence in patients with schizophrenia. Together with the preserved ability of patients, to detect temporal asynchronies in permanently presented stimuli, the results indicate a more specific deficit in temporal processing of schizophrenic patients. PMID:23536838

  7. The persistence of human scalp hair on clothing fabrics.

    PubMed

    Dachs, J; McNaught, I J; Robertson, J

    2003-12-17

    This study reports the persistence behaviour of human scalp hairs under a number of different circumstances. The effects of artificial dyeing of hairs, the presence or absence of roots and different types of fabrics on the persistence of hair on a variety of garments were investigated. The garments were made from cotton, polycotton, cotton/acrylic, polyester and wool. The results indicated that neither artificial dyes nor the presence or absence of roots had statistically significant effects on the persistence of hair. In contrast, the type of fabric had a major impact and it was found that, generally, hairs persist longer on rougher fabrics. The rate of loss of hairs from non-woollen fabrics during normal wear was found to follow an exponential decay curve. In contrast, the rate of loss from the woollen garments was quite linear, indicating a constant, even loss, and thus suggests that a different process is involved in the persistence of hairs on woollen garments from that on non-woollen garments. The speed at which hair was lost from fabrics decreased in the order polyester, cotton/acrylic, polycotton, cotton, smooth wool, rough wool, so that wool gives the best chance of recovering samples of hair. Due to the uniqueness of each case, it is advised that caution be used when making any interpretations and before drawing any conclusions.

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakai, K; Fujii, H; Ishimura, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishi, S

    Persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation is related to graft function, but pre-transplantation risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism have not been evaluated in detail. We enrolled 86 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients showed persistent hyperparathyroidism characterized by the following: 1) serum parathyroid hormone levels >65 pg/mL and serum calcium levels >10.5 mg/dL at 1 year after kidney transplantation; 2) parathyroidectomy after kidney transplantation; and 3) reintroduction of cinacalcet after kidney transplantation. Compared with other patients, these 9 patients had significantly longer duration of dialysis therapy (186 ± 74 mo vs 57 ± 78 mo) and more frequent treatment with cinacalcet during dialysis (89% vs 12%). Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis vintage, calcium phosphate products, and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation were independent risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed 72 months as the cutoff value of dialysis vintage and 55 as the cutoff value of calcium phosphate products. In conclusion, dialysis vintage >6 years, calcium phosphate products >55 (mg/dL)(2), and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation are strong predictors of persistent hyperparathyroidism. High-risk patients should be evaluated for parathyroid enlargement, and parathyroidectomy must be considered before kidney transplantation.

  9. [MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BRUCELLA PERSISTENCE].

    PubMed

    Kulakov Yu K

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a dangerous zoonotic disease of animals and humans caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, which are able to survive, multiply, and persist in host cells. The review is devoted to the Brucella species persistence connected to the molecular mechanisms of escape from innate and adaptive immunity of the host and active interaction of effector proteins of the type IV secretion system with the host's signaling pathways. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by Brucella for the intracellular persistence in the host organism can allow us to develop new and effective means for the prevention and treatment of chronic brucellosis infection.

  10. Ileocolonic transfer of solid chyme in small intestinal neuropathies and myopathies

    SciTech Connect

    Greydanus, M.P.; Camilleri, M.; Colemont, L.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M. )

    1990-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess gastric emptying, small bowel transit and colonic filling in patients with motility disorders, with particular attention to the patterns of colonic filling. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed using a previously validated radiolabeled mixed meal. Fourteen patients with clinical and manometric features of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction classified as intestinal neuropathy and 6 as intestinal myopathy, were studied. The results were compared with those from 10 healthy controls studied similarly. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit of solids were significantly slower in both groups of patients than in healthy controls (P less than 0.05). In health, the ileocolonic transit of solid chyme was characterized by intermittent bolus transfers. The mean size of boluses transferred to the colon (expressed as a percentage of ingested radiolabel) was significantly less (P less than 0.05) in patients with intestinal myopathy (10% +/- 4% (SEM)) than in healthy controls (25% +/- 4%) or in patients with intestinal neuropathy (25% +/- 4%). The intervals between bolus transfer of solids (plateaus in the colonic filling curve) were longer (P less than 0.05) in myopathies (212 +/- 89 minutes) than in health (45 +/- 7 minutes) or neuropathies (53 +/- 11 minutes). Thus, gastric emptying and small bowel transit were delayed in small bowel neuropathies and myopathies. Bolus filling of the colon was less frequent and less effective in patients with myopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction, whereas bolus transfer was preserved in patients with neuropathic intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  11. In vitro patterning of pluripotent stem cell-derived intestine recapitulates in vivo human development

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Nattiv, Roy; Dedhia, Priya H.; Nagy, Melinda S.; Chin, Alana M.; Thomson, Matthew; Klein, Ophir D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intestine plays a central role in digestion, nutrient absorption and metabolism, with individual regions of the intestine having distinct functional roles. Many examples of region-specific gene expression in the adult intestine are known, but how intestinal regional identity is established during development is a largely unresolved issue. Here, we have identified several genes that are expressed in a region-specific manner in the developing human intestine. Using human embryonic stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, we demonstrate that the duration of exposure to active FGF and WNT signaling controls regional identity. Short-term exposure to FGF4 and CHIR99021 (a GSK3β inhibitor that stabilizes β-catenin) resulted in organoids with gene expression patterns similar to developing human duodenum, whereas longer exposure resulted in organoids similar to ileum. When region-specific organoids were transplanted into immunocompromised mice, duodenum-like organoids and ileum-like organoids retained their regional identity, demonstrating that regional identity of organoids is stable after initial patterning occurs. This work provides insights into the mechanisms that control regional specification of the developing human intestine and provides new tools for basic and translational research. PMID:27927684

  12. In vitro patterning of pluripotent stem cell-derived intestine recapitulates in vivo human development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Nattiv, Roy; Dedhia, Priya H; Nagy, Melinda S; Chin, Alana M; Thomson, Matthew; Klein, Ophir D; Spence, Jason R

    2017-03-15

    The intestine plays a central role in digestion, nutrient absorption and metabolism, with individual regions of the intestine having distinct functional roles. Many examples of region-specific gene expression in the adult intestine are known, but how intestinal regional identity is established during development is a largely unresolved issue. Here, we have identified several genes that are expressed in a region-specific manner in the developing human intestine. Using human embryonic stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, we demonstrate that the duration of exposure to active FGF and WNT signaling controls regional identity. Short-term exposure to FGF4 and CHIR99021 (a GSK3β inhibitor that stabilizes β-catenin) resulted in organoids with gene expression patterns similar to developing human duodenum, whereas longer exposure resulted in organoids similar to ileum. When region-specific organoids were transplanted into immunocompromised mice, duodenum-like organoids and ileum-like organoids retained their regional identity, demonstrating that regional identity of organoids is stable after initial patterning occurs. This work provides insights into the mechanisms that control regional specification of the developing human intestine and provides new tools for basic and translational research.

  13. Intestinal malrotation in a patient with Pfeiffer syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Yuri A; Putnam, Philip E; Saal, Howard M

    2010-11-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder characterized by multiple suture craniosynostosis, broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes, and variable cutaneous syndactyly. We present the case of a 16-month-old boy with Pfeiffer syndrome type 2 who presented with intestinal malrotation for which the diagnosis was delayed. This is a rare complication of Pfeiffer syndrome, with few reported cases in the literature. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing gastrointestinal malrotation as a possible cause of feeding intolerance and persistent vomiting in patients with the severe forms of Pfeiffer syndrome.

  14. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca.

    PubMed

    Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Obayashi, Shintaro; Hattori, Yukio; Kaneko, Saori; Suzuki, Yoshikatsu; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2009-09-01

    We report four cases of persistent cloaca diagnosed at 32-33 weeks of gestation. In cases of persistent cloaca, serial prenatal ultrasonography shows transient fetal ascites, enlarged cystic structures arising from the fetal pelvis. Our four cases of persistent cloaca were diagnosed prenatally. Persistent cloaca should be considered in any female fetus presenting with hydronephrosis and a large cystic lesion arising from the pelvis as assessed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Neither pulmonary hypoplasia nor severe oligohydramnios were found in any of our four cases, and they each had a good prognosis. Prenatal diagnosis allows time for parental counseling and delivery planning at a tertiary care center for neonatal intensive care and pediatric surgery.

  16. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna-F; Caputo, Carla; De Giorgio, Roberto; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-05-21

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases.

  17. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

  18. Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Harusato, Akihito; Denning, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota that populate the mammalian intestine are critical for proper host physiology, yet simultaneously pose a potential danger. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells, namely macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are integral components of the mucosal innate immune system that maintain co-existence with the microbiota in face of this constant threat. Intestinal macrophages and DCs integrate signals from the microenvironment to orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses that ultimately lead to durable tolerance of the microbiota. Tolerance is not a default response, however, because macrophages and DCs remain poised to vigorously respond to pathogens that breach the epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the salient features of macrophages and DCs in the healthy and inflamed intestine and discuss how signals from the microbiota can influence their function. PMID:25976247

  19. Object-oriented Persistent Homology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  20. Object-oriented Persistent Homology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  1. Object-oriented persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  2. Intestinal angioedema mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, A; Prather, C M

    1999-10-18

    Angioedema usually presents as episodic attacks of swelling of the face, airway and extremities, but it may also involve visceral tissues. A 58-year-old woman with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting had two laparotomies and was treated for Crohn's disease for two years before a diagnosis of acquired intestinal angioedema was made. This case provides important insights into the presentation of intestinal angioedema.

  3. Management of persistent anal canal carcinoma after combined-modality therapy: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anal canal carcinoma is a rare gastro-intestinal cancer. Radiochemotherapy is the recommended primary treatment for patients with non-metastatic carcinoma; surgery is generally reserved for persistent or recurrent disease. Follow-up and surveillance after primary treatment is paramount to classify patients in those with complete remission, persistent or progressive disease. Locally persistent disease represents a clinically significant problem and its management remains subject of some controversy. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise recommendations for the primary treatment of anal canal carcinoma, to focus on the optimal time to consider residual disease as genuine persistence to proceed with salvage treatment, and to discern how this analysis might inform future clinical trials in management in this class of patients. PMID:24472223

  4. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  5. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  6. 27 CFR 11.34 - Products which may no longer be lawfully sold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... where, due to a change in regulation or administrative procedure over which the trade buyer or an affiliate of the trade buyer has no control, a particular size or brand is no longer permitted to be sold....

  7. Pulmonary exposure of mice to engineered pseudomonads influences intestinal microbiota populations

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.E.; Kohan, M.J.; Creason, J.P.; Claxton, L.D. . Health Effects Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    In this study, a mouse model was used to evaluate indirect effects of pulmonary exposure to representative biotechnology agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AC869 and Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100) selected for their ability to degrade hazardous chemicals. CD-1[reg sign] mice were challenged intranasally with approximately 10[sup 3] or 10[sup 7] colony-forming units (cfu) of strain AC869 or 10[sup 8] cfu of strain AC1100. At time intervals, clearance of the microorganisms and effects on resident microbiota were determined. When the low (10[sup 3] cfu) dose was administered, strain AC869 was not recovered from the small intestine but was detectable in the cecum and lungs 3 h after treatment and persisted in the nasal cavity intermittently for 14 d. Treatment of animals with 10[sup 7] cfu of strain AC869 resulted in detection 14 d following treatment. Strain AC869 challenge modified the small intestinal anaerobe count and cecal obligately anaerobic gram-negative rods (OAGNR) and lactobacilli. Following exposure, Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 persisted in the lungs for 7 d and was recovered from the small intestine, cecum, and nasal cavity 2 d following treatment. Strain AC1100 treatment impacted the small intestinal anaerobe count, OAGNR counts, and reduced lactobacilli numbers. Strain AC1100 also altered the cecal OAGNR and lactobacilli. Therefore, pulmonary treatment of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or cepacia affects the balance of the protective intestinal microbiota, which may cause further negative health effects.

  8. Murine intestinal antibody response to heterologous rotavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, A A; Groene, W S; Cheng, E H; Shaw, R D

    1991-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most important worldwide cause of severe gastroenteritis. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the design of a vaccine that will prevent disease, but development of a more effective vaccine strategy may require progress in the understanding of the mucosal immune response to replicating viral antigens. In this article, we report the characterization of the intestinal antibody response of a murine model to heterologous infection with the rhesus rotavirus vaccine strain. We have adapted the enzyme-linked immunospot assay to measure this response without the difficulties associated with measurement of antibodies in intestinal contents or the artifacts associated with culturing of lymphocytes. The predominant response in terms of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) is seen in the small intestine lamina propria, which can be measured within 4 days of infection, peaks 3 weeks after infection, and remains near that level for longer than 8 weeks. The magnitude of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) cell response is approximately 10 times greater than the intestinal IgG cell response, and IgM cells are rare. Virus-specific ASC constitute approximately 50% of all ASC in the gut at the peak of the virus-specific response. This response is considerably greater than responses to nonreplicating mucosal antigens measured by similar techniques. Enteral infection engenders minimal virus-specific ASC response in the spleen. Rhesus rotavirus-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralization assays of serum and intestinal contents did not correlate with virus-specific ASC response. Images PMID:1761691

  9. Pathogenesis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in conventional and gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Vítovec, J; Koudela, B

    1992-06-01

    The pathogenesis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis was studied in 52 conventionally reared and 20 gnotobiotically reared piglets by inoculation with different doses of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The prepatent period of C. parvum in both groups of animals were variable, depending on the number of oocysts administered. The patent period of C. parvum in conventionally reared piglets was 8 or 9 days; in gnotobiotic piglets cryptosporidia were found in feces until Day post infection (DPI) 16, when the last piglet was necropsied. Cryptosporidiosis in conventionally reared piglets is a self-limited diarrheal disease associated with morphological changes within the intestine. The most severe lesion was seen in the posterior jejunum and ileum from DPI 3 to DPI 7, and consisted of villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria. In gnotobiotic piglets cryptosporidia induced severe enterocolitis which occurred at least until DPI 16. The characteristics of enteric lesions were similar to those found in conventionally reared piglets. Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in both groups of animals shifted in the course of infection in the caudal direction and terminated in the large intestine. Examination by scanning electron microscope showed that infected absorptive cells had thicker and longer microvilli than those on non-infected cells; neighboring non-infected cells were hypertrophic, bulbously protuberant with minute microvilli with no distinct intercellular borders. Numerous cryptosporidia in the heterotopic glandular epithelium in the submucosa of cecum and colon on DPI 9 and 10 were found. No differences in the location and degree of cryptosporidial infection between colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived conventionally reared piglets were found. Sow's colostrum does not appear to protect piglets from C. parvum infection. The role of intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis in piglets is discussed.

  10. Immediate and longer-term stressors and the mental health of Hurricane Ike survivors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2-5 months (Wave 1), 5-9 months (Wave 2) and 14-18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors.

  11. Rotavirus Infection Increases Intestinal Motility but Not Permeability at the Onset of Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Istrate, Claudia; Hagbom, Marie; Vikström, Elena; Magnusson, Karl-Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disease mechanisms associated with onset and secondary effects of rotavirus (RV) diarrhea remain to be determined and may not be identical. In this study, we investigated whether onset of RV diarrhea is associated with increased intestinal permeability and/or motility. To study the transit time, fluorescent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was given to RV-infected adult and infant mice. Intestinal motility was also studied with an opioid receptor agonist (loperamide) and a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine). To investigate whether RV increases permeability at the onset of diarrhea, fluorescent 4- and 10-kDa dextran doses were given to infected and noninfected mice, and fluorescence intensity was measured subsequently in serum. RV increased transit time in infant mice. Increased motility was detected at 24 h postinfection (h p.i.) and persisted up to 72 h p.i in pups. Both loperamide and atropine decreased intestinal motility and attenuated diarrhea. Analysis of passage of fluorescent dextran from the intestine into serum indicated unaffected intestinal permeability at the onset of diarrhea (24 to 48 h p.i.). We show that RV-induced diarrhea is associated with increased intestinal motility via an activation of the myenteric nerve plexus, which in turn stimulates muscarinic receptors on intestinal smooth muscles. IMPORTANCE We show that RV-infected mice have increased intestinal motility at the onset of diarrhea, and that this is not associated with increased intestinal permeability. These new observations will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in RV diarrhea. PMID:24371070

  12. Intestinal microbiota and overweight.

    PubMed

    Lyra, A; Lahtinen, S; Tiihonen, K; Ouwehand, A C

    2010-11-01

    The microbes in our gut can influence our weight by providing us with energy through the degradation of nondigestable carbohydrates and by affecting the cellular energy status of liver and muscle cells and the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that in several studies the gastrointestinal microbiota of overweight and obese subjects has been found to differ from that of lean subjects. The initial findings linked obesity with proportionally decreased levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and increased levels of the phylum Firmicutes. Later, several studies have assessed the association between overweight or obesity and the gastrointestinal microbiota, applying an array of molecular methods targeting the microbiota as a whole or specific bacterial groups or species within. However, at present it is difficult to draw conclusions on which of the observed microbiota alterations are relevant; essentially all of the bacterial groups that have been studied in more than one trial have given contradictory results in regard to their association with weight. Some of these discrepancies can result from methodological issues and some from the nature of the gastrointestinal microbiota, which is an extremely complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem with high subject specificity. In addition, selecting subjects purely based on weight may result in a largely heterogeneous group with several potentially confounding factors. While it may be premature to conclude which specific groups of bacteria are prominent in the intestinal tract of overweight and obese subjects, it appears clear that microbes contribute to weight gain and related health issues, such as the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Therefore, it is important to continue to search for common microbial markers and predictors of obesity, and to study how these may be modulated with probiotics and prebiotics to promote health.

  13. Profile and Stability of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Joseph P.; Hendricks-Munoz, Karen

    1991-01-01

    This study found that 19 of 51 infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, an incidence 25 times greater than that of intensive care unit infants in general. Treatment durations with mechanical ventilation were significantly longer for the hearing-impaired group compared to the…

  14. Chronic intestinal ischaemia: measurement of the total splanchnic blood flow.

    PubMed

    Zacho, Helle D

    2013-04-01

    A redundant collateral network between the intestinal arteries is present at all times. In case of ischaemia in the gastrointestinal tract, the collateral blood supply can develop further, thus accommodating the demand for oxygen even in the presence of significant stenosis or occlusion of the intestinal arteries without clinical symptoms of intestinal ischaemia. Symptoms of ischemia develop when the genuine and collateral blood supply no longer can accommodate the need for oxygen. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of obliteration in the intestinal arteries. In chronic intestinal ischaemia (CII), the fasting splanchnic blood flow (SBF) is sufficient, but the postprandial increase in SBF is inadequate and abdominal pain will therefore develop in relation to food intake causing the patient to eat smaller meals at larger intervals with a resulting weight loss. Traditionally, the CII-diagnosis has exclusively been based upon morphology (angiography) of the intestinal arteries; however, substantial discrepancies between CII-symptoms and the presence of atherosclerosis/stenosis in the intestinal arteries have been described repeatedly in the literature impeding the diagnosis of CII. This PhD thesis explores a method to determine the total SBF and its potential use as a diagnostic tool in patients suspected to suffer from CII. The SBF can be measured using a continuous infusion of a tracer and catheterisation of a hepatic vein and an artery. By measuring the SBF before and after a standard meal it is possible to assess the ability or inability to enhance the SBF and thereby diagnosing CII. In Study I, measurement of SBF was tested against angiography in a group of patients suspected to suffer from CII due to pain and weight loss. A very good agreement between the postprandial increase in SBF and angiography was found. The method was validated against a well-established method independent of the hepatic extraction of tracer using pAH in a porcine model (study II

  15. Small intestinal physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S K; Otterson, M F

    1989-06-01

    The small intestine, like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, is an intelligent organ. It generates a wide variety of motor patterns to meet motility requirements in different situations. Its basic motor function after a meal is to mix the chyme with exocrine and intestinal secretions, agitate its contents to uniformly and evenly expose them to the mucosal surface, and to propel them distally at a rate that allows optimal absorption of food components, and reabsorption of bile. Most of these functions are performed by individual phasic contractions. In humans, the phasic contractions are largely disorganized in time and space. These contractions may cause mixing and agitation of luminal contents with slow distal propulsion. Occasionally, an individual contraction of large amplitude and long duration migrates over several centimeters and may rapidly propel the contents over this distance. In general, the spatial and temporal relationships of individual phasic contractions become less organized distally, resulting in a slower propulsion rate in the distal small intestine than in the proximal small intestine. The migrating clustered contractions generated after a meal may also be propulsive, but because of their unpredictable and irregular occurrence, their precise role in postprandial propulsion is incompletely understood. Rapidly migrating contractions may occur when the electrical control activity is obliterated by pharmacologic agents or during parasitic infections. Their effects on motility are not known yet. Between meals, when digestion is complete, the small intestine generates migrating motor complexes that help keep the small intestine clean by dislodging debris from the villi and dumping them into the colon. This may prevent decay of these materials in the small intestine and limit their contribution to bacterial overgrowth. Giant migrating contractions may perform a similar function in the distal small intestine as well as return any refluxed fecal

  16. The human lactase persistence-associated SNP -13910*T enables in vivo functional persistence of lactase promoter-reporter transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Ahn, Jong Kun; Wodziak, Dariusz; Sibley, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Lactase is the intestinal enzyme responsible for digestion of the milk sugar lactose. Lactase gene expression declines dramatically upon weaning in mammals and during early childhood in humans (lactase nonpersistence). In various ethnic groups, however, lactase persists in high levels throughout adulthood (lactase persistence). Genetic association studies have identified that lactase persistence in northern Europeans is strongly associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene: -13910*C/T. To determine whether the -13910*T SNP can function in vivo to mediate lactase persistence, we generated transgenic mice harboring human DNA fragments with the -13910*T SNP or the ancestral -13910*C SNP cloned upstream of a 2-kb rat lactase gene promoter in a luciferase reporter construct. We previously reported that the 2-kb rat lactase promoter directs a post-weaning decline of luciferase transgene expression similar to that of the endogenous lactase gene. In the present study, the post-weaning decline directed by the rat lactase promoter is impeded by addition of the -13910*T SNP human DNA fragment, but not by addition of the -13910*C ancestral SNP fragment. Persistence of transgene expression associated with the -13910*T SNP represents the first in vivo data in support of a functional role for the -13910*T SNP in mediating the human lactase persistence phenotype.

  17. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Ichim, Gabriela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison's disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis.

  18. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.

  19. Persistence of the ring current, 1958--1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.L. )

    1989-08-01

    Statistical evidence for a solar cycle modulation in storm-time ring current particle lifetimes is presented. Linear regression of Dst with respect to a{sub p}({tau}), and an optimization of {tau} to maximize correlation, gives characteristic persistence times for each year through 2.5 solar cycles. These average persistences vary between less than 10 h at solar maximum (1962, 1975) to greater than 16 h at solar maximum (1970, 1981). The analysis is biased toward the later stages of recovery when the rate of decay has reduced, but the result is not a function of mean current strength or frequency of large storms. Increased abundance of O{sup +} is postulated as the most probable explanation of longer particle lifetimes at solar maximum, this strongly supports the proposition that a large fraction of the ring current is of ionospheric origin, and underlines the importance of dynamic coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere during disturbed periods.

  20. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M T; Solís Herruzo, J A

    2007-02-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical intestinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure of the intestinal motility is a consequence of muscular disorder, neurological disorder or both. Usually, CIPO is secondary to other systemic disease; however, in the last years, many cases of primary CIPO have been described. The use of new manometric tecniques and specific histological procedures have allowed to clarify the pathogenesis of some of these entities including mitochondrial diseases and paraneoplasic syndromes. Clinical manifestations of CIPO are diverse, depending on the location and extension of the motility disorder. As the diagnosis of this disease is usually not an easy task, patients frecuently undergo unnecesary surgical interventions, are diagnosed of psyquiatric disorders, or the correct diagnosis is delayed several years after the first symptoms arise. The aims of the treatment are to maintain the nutritional condition and to improve symptoms using nutritional measures, drugs or, eventually, endoscopical or surgical procedures.

  1. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  2. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian-Xing; Niu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target. Data Sources: This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30, 2015. Articles were selected using the following search terms: “Intestinal microbiota”, “trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)”, “trimethylamine (TMA)”, “cardiovascular”, and “atherosclerosis”. Study Selection: Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis. Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included. Results: A new CVD risk factor, TMAO, was recently identified. It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota, resulting in TMA release. TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver. Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD, particularly atherosclerosis; however, the details of this relationship remain unclear. Conclusions: Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management. PMID:26481750

  3. Therapeutic modulation of intestinal dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alan W; Lawley, Trevor D

    2013-03-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is home to an extremely numerous and diverse collection of microbes, collectively termed the "intestinal microbiota". This microbiota is considered to play a number of key roles in the maintenance of host health, including aiding digestion of otherwise indigestible dietary compounds, synthesis of vitamins and other beneficial metabolites, immune system regulation and enhanced resistance against colonisation by pathogenic microorganisms. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is also a potent source of antigens and potentially harmful compounds. In health, humans can therefore be considered to exist in a state of natural balance with their microbial inhabitants. A shift in the balance of microbiota composition such that it may become deleterious to host health is termed "dysbiosis". Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in numerous disorders, ranging from intestinal maladies such as inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer to disorders with more systemic effects such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and atopy. Given the far reaching influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health a clear future goal must be to develop reliable means to alter the composition of the microbiota and restore a healthy balance of microbial species. While it is clear that much fundamental research remains to be done, potentially important therapeutic options include narrow spectrum antibiotics, novel probiotics, dietary interventions and more radical techniques such as faecal transplantation, all of which aim to suppress clinical dysbiosis, restore intestinal microbiota diversity and improve host health.

  4. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  5. Prebiotics in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Looijer–van Langen, Mirjam A.C.; Dieleman, Levinus A.

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible fermentable fibers that are reported to have health benefits for the host. Older as well as more recent studies show beneficial effects in experimental colitis and lately also in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic pouchitis. In this review we give an overview of the benefits of prebiotics in rodent IBD models and in IBD patients and discuss their possible protective mechanisms. Commensal intestinal bacteria induce and perpetuate chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas others are protective. However, most of the current medications are directed against the exaggerated proinflammatory immune response of the host, some of them toxic and costly. Feeding prebiotics changes the composition of the intestinal microflora toward more protective intestinal bacteria and alters systemic and mucosal immune responses of the host. Therapy for IBD targeting intestinal bacteria and their function is just emerging. Prebiotics have the promise to be relatively safe, inexpensive, and easy to administer. Unraveling their protective mechanisms will help to develop rational applications of prebiotics. However, the initial promising results with dietary prebiotics in preclinical trials as well as small studies in human IBD will need to be confirmed in large randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:18831524

  6. Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae on simulated biofilm in a model drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Rice, Eugene W; Bishop, Paul L

    2006-08-15

    Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae on corroded iron surfaces in drinking water was studied using biofilm annular reactors operated under oligotrophic conditions. Reactors were inoculated with K. pneumoniae, and persistence was monitored in the bulk and biofilm phases. Initial cell concentration of 10(6) MPN/mL in the bulkwater phase resulted in significantly longer adhesion than initial concentrations 1 and 2 orders of magnitude lower. K. pneumoniae cultured in low nutrient growth medium persisted longer in dechlorinated tap water than those cultured in full strength medium. Cell surface charge was more negative under low nutrient conditions, and this influenced electrostatic attraction between the cells and the oxidized iron surface. Cells grown in full strength media persisted longer in water with both low (<0.2 mg/L) and high (>0.5 mg/L) free chlorine residuals. Growth media injected with the cells dechlorinated the water allowing adhesion without inactivation. Microelectrode measurements showed a 40-70% drop in free chlorine from the bulk to the coupon surface, which decreased disinfectant potency against adhered cells. Growth and injection conditions clearly influenced cell adhesion and persistence, but permanent colonization of the corroded iron surface by K. pneumoniae was not observed.

  7. Persistent asymmetrical priority effects in a California grassland restoration experiment.

    PubMed

    Werner, Chhaya M; Vaughn, Kurt J; Stuble, Katharine L; Wolf, Kristina; Young, Truman P

    2016-09-01

    The order of species arrival can dramatically alter the trajectory of community development. While there is experimental evidence that priority effects can be important drivers of community structure early on, the persistence and duration of these effects is unclear. Here we report on a community assembly experiment in which a mix of four native grasses and a mix of four native forbs were planted on their own, together, or with one-year priority over the other guild. We found positive effects of priority for both grasses and forbs in the initial years of the experiment. However, 6-8 yr after planting, the effectiveness of priority treatments were mixed. Some species became rare, persisting only in treatments in which they had been given priority; others continued to maintain high cover and exhibit a strong positive signal of priority effects; still others remained common but no longer showed a signature of the initial priority effects; and finally, some species became locally extinct across all experimental plots. Grass priority over forbs was strong and persistent, but not forb priority over grasses. Our results demonstrate that the long-term benefits of temporal priority can persist for at least 8 yr for some, but not all species, and these continued effects result in distinct community composition. Manipulating the trajectory of community assembly through priority in seeding has potential as a useful tool for restoration.

  8. Long persistence of rigor mortis at constant low temperature.

    PubMed

    Varetto, Lorenzo; Curto, Ombretta

    2005-01-06

    We studied the persistence of rigor mortis by using physical manipulation. We tested the mobility of the knee on 146 corpses kept under refrigeration at Torino's city mortuary at a constant temperature of +4 degrees C. We found a persistence of complete rigor lasting for 10 days in all the cadavers we kept under observation; and in one case, rigor lasted for 16 days. Between the 11th and the 17th days, a progressively increasing number of corpses showed a change from complete into partial rigor (characterized by partial bending of the articulation). After the 17th day, all the remaining corpses showed partial rigor and in the two cadavers that were kept under observation "à outrance" we found the absolute resolution of rigor mortis occurred on the 28th day. Our results prove that it is possible to find a persistence of rigor mortis that is much longer than the expected when environmental conditions resemble average outdoor winter temperatures in temperate zones. Therefore, this datum must be considered when a corpse is found in those environmental conditions so that when estimating the time of death, we are not misled by the long persistence of rigor mortis.

  9. Volcanoes and climate: Krakatoa's signature persists in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Gleckler, P J; Wigley, T M L; Santer, B D; Gregory, J M; Achutarao, K; Taylor, K E

    2006-02-09

    We have analysed a suite of 12 state-of-the-art climate models and show that ocean warming and sea-level rise in the twentieth century were substantially reduced by the colossal eruption in 1883 of the volcano Krakatoa in the Sunda strait, Indonesia. Volcanically induced cooling of the ocean surface penetrated into deeper layers, where it persisted for decades after the event. This remarkable effect on oceanic thermal structure is longer lasting than has previously been suspected and is sufficient to offset a large fraction of ocean warming and sea-level rise caused by anthropogenic influences.

  10. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  11. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Schiller, Steven R.; Todd, Annika; Billingsley, Megan A.; Goldman, Charles A.; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  12. Impaired contractility of colonic muscle cells in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Guarino, M P L; Carotti, S; Cogliandro, R; Stanghellini, V; De Giorgio, R; Barbara, G; Alloni, R; Altomare, A; Tarquini, E; Coppola, R; Corinaldesi, R; Cicala, M

    2008-03-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction represents a cause of persistent functional intestinal failure either "secondary" to specific conditions or "chronic intestinal idiopathic pseudo-obstruction" in origin. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, supported by radiological and/or endoscopic findings excluding any mechanical cause of intestinal obstruction. We reported a case of a 39-year-old woman with chronic intestinal idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, who underwent colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis; histological examination of the surgical specimen did not reveal myogenic or neurogenic defects or other pathological abnormalities indicative of an underlying neuromuscular impairment. Because of the apparent integrity of the gut neuromuscular layer, we tested whether a functional impairment affected colonic single smooth muscle cells. Muscle cells were isolated from the right colon and their contractile response to a receptor-dependent agonist evaluated in comparison to that obtained from controls. The cell contraction induced by acetylcholine in a dose response manner was markedly decreased in the patient affected by chronic intestinal idiopathic pseudo-obstruction compared with cells from controls (percentage of cell shortening with maximal dose of acetylcholine [10(-6)M]: 10.7+/-3% versus 34.2+/-4%, respectively). The present findings indicate a specific defect of colonic smooth muscle cells likely related to an ineffective response to acetylcholine.

  13. Modulation of intestinal functions following mycotoxin ingestion: meta-analysis of published experiments in animals.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J

    2013-02-21

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used.

  14. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, I.; Zanelli, G.; Smith, T.; Prouse, P.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Delacey, G.; Gumpel, M.J.; Levi, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an /sup 111/In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal /sup 111/In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (/sup 75/Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis.

  15. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Keita; Sugiyama, Makoto; Mukai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective. PMID:27681930

  16. Non-Persisting Student Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the characteristics and opinions of the non-persisting students at Moraine Valley Community College. A random sample of 500 non-persisting students was selected, with equal numbers of full-time and part-time ex-students. Separate questionnaires were used for non-persisting full-time and non-persisting part-time…

  17. Cold exposure increases intestinal paracellular permeability to nutrients in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Ruff, Lisa J; Guerra, Alberto; Karasov, William H

    2013-11-01

    In situations of increased energy demand and food intake, animals can often acclimate within several days. The intestine generally responds to elevated digestive demand by increasing in size. However, there is likely a limit to how quickly the intestine can grow to meet the new demand. We investigated the immediate and longer-term changes to intestinal properties of the mouse when suddenly exposed to 4°C. We hypothesized that paracellular permeability to nutrients would increase as part of an immediate response to elevated absorptive demand. We measured absorption of l-arabinose, intestinal size and gene expression of several tight junction proteins (claudin-2, claudin-4, claudin-15 and ZO-1) at three time points: pre-exposure, and after 1 day and 2 weeks of cold exposure. Cold exposure increased food intake by 62% after 2 weeks but intake was not significantly increased after 1 day. Intestinal wet mass was elevated after 1 day and throughout the experiment. Absorption of arabinose rose by 20% after 1 day in the cold and was 33% higher after 2 weeks. Expression of claudin-2 increased after 1 day of cold exposure, but there were no changes in expression of any claudin genes when normalized to ZO-1 expression. Our results indicate that intestinal mass can respond rapidly to increased energy demand and that increased paracellular permeability is also part of that response. Increased paracellular permeability may be a consequence of enterocyte hyperplasia, resulting in more tight junctions across which molecules can absorb.

  18. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  19. Intestinal mycoplasma in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Roediger, W E W

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal diversion with reconnection in active Crohn's disease (CD) indicates that luminal contents or bacteria contribute to the formation of CD lesions. Fluorescent staining for mycoplasma in freshly resected Crohn's tissue and electron microscopy reveal intracellular organisms akin to mycoplasma. Historically, tissue culture of CD has shown mycoplasma described as contaminants. Mycoplasma are surface epithelial parasites requiring exogenous cholesterol for membrane stability and cell entry. PCR of intestinal tissue has shown Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be detectable more significantly in CD. Oral M. iowae in experimental poultry localizes to the distal small bowel and colon. Hypothetically, lipopeptides of mycoplasmal membranes are proposed to cause chronicity and stronger immune responses than by other bacteria. 'Intestinal' mycoplasmas, from a number of observations, deserve consideration as organisms mediating inflammation of acute and chronic CD.

  20. Longer treatment time and slower ultrafiltration in hemodialysis: associations with reduced mortality in the DOPPS.

    PubMed

    Saran, R; Bragg-Gresham, J L; Levin, N W; Twardowski, Z J; Wizemann, V; Saito, A; Kimata, N; Gillespie, B W; Combe, C; Bommer, J; Akiba, T; Mapes, D L; Young, E W; Port, F K

    2006-04-01

    Longer treatment time (TT) and slower ultrafiltration rate (UFR) are considered advantageous for hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 22,000 HD patients from seven countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Logistic regression was used to study predictors of TT > 240 min and UFR > 10 ml/h/kg bodyweight. Cox regression was used for survival analyses. Statistical adjustments were made for patient demographics, comorbidities, dose of dialysis (Kt/V), and body size. Europe and Japan had significantly longer (P < 0.0001) average TT than the US (232 and 244 min vs 211 in DOPPS I; 235 and 240 min vs 221 in DOPPS II). Kt/V increased concomitantly with TT in all three regions with the largest absolute difference observed in Japan. TT > 240 min was independently associated with significantly lower relative risk (RR) of mortality (RR = 0.81; P = 0.0005). Every 30 min longer on HD was associated with a 7% lower RR of mortality (RR = 0.93; P < 0.0001). The RR reduction with longer TT was greatest in Japan. A synergistic interaction occurred between Kt/V and TT (P = 0.007) toward mortality reduction. UFR > 10 ml/h/kg was associated with higher odds of intradialytic hypotension (odds ratio = 1.30; P = 0.045) and a higher risk of mortality (RR = 1.09; P = 0.02). Longer TT and higher Kt/V were independently as well as synergistically associated with lower mortality. Rapid UFR during HD was also associated with higher mortality risk. These results warrant a randomized clinical trial of longer dialysis sessions in thrice-weekly HD.

  1. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  2. Making web annotations persistent over time

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, Robert; Van De Sompel, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    As Digital Libraries (DL) become more aligned with the web architecture, their functional components need to be fundamentally rethought in terms of URIs and HTTP. Annotation, a core scholarly activity enabled by many DL solutions, exhibits a clearly unacceptable characteristic when existing models are applied to the web: due to the representations of web resources changing over time, an annotation made about a web resource today may no longer be relevant to the representation that is served from that same resource tomorrow. We assume the existence of archived versions of resources, and combine the temporal features of the emerging Open Annotation data model with the capability offered by the Memento framework that allows seamless navigation from the URI of a resource to archived versions of that resource, and arrive at a solution that provides guarantees regarding the persistence of web annotations over time. More specifically, we provide theoretical solutions and proof-of-concept experimental evaluations for two problems: reconstructing an existing annotation so that the correct archived version is displayed for all resources involved in the annotation, and retrieving all annotations that involve a given archived version of a web resource.

  3. What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? It’s important to have honest, open discussions ... Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? More In Small Intestine Cancer About Small Intestine Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  4. Characterization of moose intestinal glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Miralda Madar; Dedic, Benjamin; Lundholm, Klara; Branzell, Filip Berner; Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann

    2015-08-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Galα3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized.

  5. Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent digestive disorders account for considerable disease burden in the tropics. Despite advances in understanding acute gastrointestinal infections, important issues concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control of most persistent digestive symptomatologies remain to be elucidated. Helminths and intestinal protozoa are considered to play major roles, but the full extent of the aetiologic spectrum is still unclear. We provide an overview of pathogens causing digestive disorders in the tropics and evaluate available reference tests. Methods We searched the literature to identify pathogens that might give rise to persistent diarrhoea, chronic abdominal pain and/or blood in the stool. We reviewed existing laboratory diagnostic methods for each pathogen and stratified them by (i) microscopy; (ii) culture techniques; (iii) immunological tests; and (iv) molecular methods. Pathogen-specific reference tests providing highest diagnostic accuracy are described in greater detail. Results Over 30 pathogens may cause persistent digestive disorders. Bacteria, viruses and parasites are important aetiologic agents of acute and long-lasting symptomatologies. An integrated approach, consisting of stool culture, microscopy and/or specific immunological techniques for toxin, antigen and antibody detection, is required for accurate diagnosis of bacteria and parasites. Molecular techniques are essential for sensitive diagnosis of many viruses, bacteria and intestinal protozoa, and are increasingly utilised as adjuncts for helminth identification. Conclusions Diagnosis of the broad spectrum of intestinal pathogens is often cumbersome. There is a need for rapid diagnostic tests that are simple and affordable for resource-constrained settings, so that the management of patients suffering from persistent digestive disorders can be improved. PMID:23347408

  6. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  7. Regulation of intestinal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Matheson, P J; Wilson, M A; Garrison, R N

    2000-09-01

    The gastrointestinal system anatomically is positioned to perform two distinct functions: to digest and absorb ingested nutrients and to sustain barrier function to prevent transepithelial migration of bacteria and antigens. Alterations in these basic functions contribute to a variety of clinical scenarios. These primary functions intrinsically require splanchnic blood flow at both the macrovascular and microvascular levels of perfusion. Therefore, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate intestinal vascular perfusion in the normal state and during pathophysiological conditions would be beneficial. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding regarding the regulatory mechanisms of intestinal blood flow in fasted and fed conditions and during pathological stress.

  8. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight(®) intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight(®) group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight(®) treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  9. Retrospection and Persistent School Absenteeism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses data based on the perceptions of 128 persistent school absentees on their initial and continued reasons for missing school. The findings suggest that a greater proportion of the students were inclined to blame their institutions, rather than social or psychological factors, for their behavior. (SSH)

  10. Looking beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Long, Bridget Terry

    2013-01-01

    Gaps in average college success among students of differing backgrounds have persisted in the United States for decades. One of the primary ways governments have attempted to ameliorate such gaps is by providing need-based grants, but little evidence exists on the impacts of such aid on longer term outcomes such as college persistence and degree…

  11. Looking beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation. NBER Working Paper No. 19306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Long, Bridget Terry

    2013-01-01

    Gaps in average college success among students of differing backgrounds have persisted in the United States for decades. One of the primary ways governments have attempted to ameliorate such gaps is by providing need-based grants, but little evidence exists on the impacts of such aid on longer-term outcomes such as college persistence and degree…

  12. How to Sync to the Beat of a Persistent Fractal Metronome without Falling Off the Treadmill?

    PubMed Central

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Marmelat, Vivien; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In rehabilitation, rhythmic acoustic cues are often used to improve gait. However, stride-time fluctuations become anti-persistent with such pacing, thereby deviating from the characteristic persistent long-range correlations in stride times of self-paced walking healthy adults. Recent studies therefore experimented with metronomes with persistence in interbeat intervals and successfully evoked persistent stride-time fluctuations. The objective of this study was to examine how participants couple their gait to a persistent metronome, evoking persistently longer or shorter stride times over multiple consecutive strides, without wandering off the treadmill. Twelve healthy participants walked on a treadmill in self-paced, isochronously paced and non-isochronously paced conditions, the latter with anti-persistent, uncorrelated and persistent correlations in interbeat intervals. Stride-to-stride fluctuations of stride times, stride lengths and stride speeds were assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis, in conjunction with an examination of the coupling between stride times and stride lengths. Stride-speed fluctuations were anti-persistent for all conditions. Stride-time and stride-length fluctuations were persistent for self-paced walking and anti-persistent for isochronous pacing. Both stride times and stride lengths changed from anti-persistence to persistence over the four non-isochronous metronome conditions, accompanied by an increasingly stronger coupling between these gait parameters, with peak values for the persistent metronomes. These results revealed that participants were able to follow the beat of a persistent metronome without falling off the treadmill by strongly coupling stride-length fluctuations to the stride-time fluctuations elicited by persistent metronomes, so as to prevent large positional displacements along the treadmill. For self-paced walking, in contrast, this coupling was very weak. In combination, these results challenge the premise

  13. Human Enteroids/Colonoids and Intestinal Organoids Functionally Recapitulate Normal Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Blutt, Sarah E; de Jonge, Hugo R; Estes, Mary K; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-02-19

    Identification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate "indefinite" ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed "mini-intestines." Primary cultures developed from isolated intestinal crypts or stem cells (termed enteroids/colonoids) and from inducible pluripotent stem cells (termed intestinal organoids) are being applied to study human intestinal physiology and pathophysiology with great expectations for translational applications, including regenerative medicine. Here we discuss the physiologic properties of these cultures, their current use in understanding diarrhea-causing host-pathogen interactions, and potential future applications.

  14. Can longer forest harvest intervals increase summer streamflow for salmon recovery?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mashel Streamflow Modeling Project in the Mashel River Basin, Washington, is using a watershed-scale ecohydrological model to assess whether longer forest harvest intervals can remediate summer low flow conditions that have contributed to sharply reduced runs of spawning Chin...

  15. Perceptions of Committed Marriages in African American Heterosexual Couples Married 25 Years and Longer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Moshae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and provide insight into meanings and factors that contribute to healthy committed marriages among African American heterosexual married couples. This study explored the experiences of couples who had been married for 25 years and longer. This qualitative study was conducted using a…

  16. Fruit flies with additional expression of the elongation factor EF-1 alpha live longer.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J C; Walldorf, U; Hug, P; Gehring, W J

    1989-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the decrease in protein synthesis that accompanies aging is preceded by a decrease in elongation factor EF-1 alpha protein and mRNA. Here we show that Drosophila transformed with a P-element vector containing an EF-1 alpha gene under control of hsp70 regulatory sequences have a longer life-span than control flies. Images PMID:2508089

  17. Why Are Written Picture Naming Latencies (Not) Longer than Spoken Naming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Cyril; Laganaro, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The comparison between spoken and handwritten production in picture naming tasks represents an important source of information for building models of cognitive processes involved in writing. Studies using this methodology systematically reported longer latencies for handwritten than for spoken production. To uncover the origin of this difference…

  18. No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2009-01-01

    Against the backdrop of today's increasingly multicultural society, are America's elite colleges admitting and successfully educating a diverse student body? "No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal" pulls back the curtain on the selective college experience and takes a rigorous and comprehensive look at how race and social class impact each stage--from…

  19. 5 CFR 890.1008 - Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length. 890.1008 Section 890.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Mandatory Debarments § 890.1008 Mandatory debarment...

  20. 5 CFR 890.1008 - Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length. 890.1008 Section 890.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Mandatory Debarments § 890.1008 Mandatory debarment...

  1. 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene No Longer Regulated as a Volatile Organic Compound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency has issued a final rule that identified 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (also known as HFO-1234yf) as a chemical compound that will no longer be regulated as a VOC under the Clean Air Act.

  2. Dissemination of English Culture in Chinua Achebe's "No Longer at Ease"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinjooee, Bahman; Khatar, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Chinua Achebe's (1930-2013) "No Longer at Ease" (1960) which depicts the dissemination of English culture in Nigeria and its effects on the life and identity of Obi Okonkwo, the Western educated male protagonist. The focus of this paper is on the dissemination of English culture and submission of Nigerian culture in…

  3. The Future Is More than Just Tomorrow: Higher Education, the Economy and the Longer Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossick, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary the author reflects on longer-term issues facing higher education in the context of recession and crisis in public finance. The views expressed are written from a personal perspective with the aim of stimulating and encouraging a wider and ongoing debate around the themes presented. The author draws upon the findings of three…

  4. Laboratory findings in four cases of adult botulism suggest colonization of the intestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    McCroskey, L M; Hatheway, C L

    1988-01-01

    There was laboratory evidence of intestinal colonization in four cases of adult botulism confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control. No performed toxin was detected in available foods, but Clostridium botulinum was isolated from foods in two instances. Botulinal toxin was detected in the sera of all four patients, in one case at 47 days after ingestion of suspected food. C. botulinum was demonstrated in the stool of all four patients and persisted for 119 days after the onset of illness in one patient. Two patients had surgical alterations of the gastrointestinal tract, which may have promoted the colonization. The apparent lack of ingestion of performed toxin in these cases and the persistence of botulinal toxin or C. botulinum, or both, for long periods in three of the patients suggest that colonization of the intestinal tract occurred. PMID:3290234

  5. Intestinal disaccharidase activities in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Siddons, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Disaccharidase activities of the small and large intestines of the chick were studied. 2. Homogenates of the small intestine readily hydrolysed maltose, sucrose and palatinose (6-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-fructose), hydrolysed lactose slowly and did not hydrolyse trehalose and cellobiose. 3. Within the small intestine the disaccharidases were located mainly in the intestinal wall; the activity in the contents accounted for less than 5% of the total activity. 4. The disaccharidases were non-uniformly distributed along the small intestine, the activities being greatest in the middle section. 5. The disaccharidase activities increased with age between 1 and 43 days. 6. Homogenates of the large intestine and contents readily hydrolysed maltose, sucrose, palatinose and lactose and hydrolysed cellobiose and trehalose slowly. 7. The large-intestinal disaccharidases were located mainly in the contents. 8. Similar Km and pH optimum values were found for the maltase, sucrase and palatinase activities of the large and small intestines. 9. The lactase activity of the large intestine was markedly affected by diet and had different Km and pH values from the small intestinal lactase. 10. Low activities of intestinal disaccharidase were found in 12-day-old embryos and marked increases in the intestinal disaccharidases of the developing embryo occurred 2–3 days before hatching. PMID:5774506

  6. Adenoviruses in Lymphocytes of the Human Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumitra; Calcedo, Roberto; Medina-Jaszek, Angelica; Keough, Martin; Peng, Hui; Wilson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Persistent adenoviral shedding in stools is known to occur past convalescence following acute adenoviral infections. We wished to establish the frequency with which adenoviruses may colonize the gut in normal human subjects. Methods The presence of adenoviral DNA in intestinal specimens obtained at surgery or autopsy was tested using a nested PCR method. The amplified adenoviral DNA sequences were compared to each other and to known adenoviral species. Lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) were isolated from the specimens and the adenoviral copy numbers in the CD4+ and CD8+ fractions were determined by quantitative PCR. Adenoviral gene expression was tested by amplification of adenoviral mRNA. Results Intestinal tissue from 21 of 58 donors and LPLs from 21 of 24 donors were positive for the presence of adenoviral DNA. The majority of the sequences could be assigned to adenoviral species E, although species B and C sequences were also common. Multiple sequences were often present in the same sample. Forty-one non-identical sequences were identified from 39 different tissue donors. Quantitative PCR for adenoviral DNA in CD4+ and CD8+ fractions of LPLs showed adenoviral DNA to be present in both cell types and ranged from a few hundred to several million copies per million cells on average. Active adenoviral gene expression as evidenced by the presence of adenoviral messenger RNA in intestinal lymphocytes was demonstrated in 9 of the 11 donors tested. Conclusion Adenoviral DNA is highly prevalent in lymphocytes from the gastro-intestinal tract indicating that adenoviruses may be part of the normal gut flora. PMID:21980361

  7. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress.

  8. EFFECTS OF HELIUM PRECONDITIONING ON INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Rongjia; Luo, Tianhang; Nie, Mingming; Bi, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur in clinical settings such as organ transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass and trauma. The noble gas helium attenuates I/R injury in a number of animal organs and thus may offer a strategy for reducing I/R-induced intestinal injury in clinical settings. In the present study, we used four different helium preconditioning (HPC) profiles to investigate the potential beneficial effect of HPC on I/R-induced intestinal injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with three cycles of air breathing for 5 min combined with three cycles of breathing a 70% helium:30% oxygen mixture for either 2, 5, 10, or 15 min, after which they were subjected to 60-min intestinal ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. Sixty minutes after reperfusion, the intestinal tissues of the variously treated rats were analyzed using histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining, myeloperoxidase activity assay, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tumor necrosis factor α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α. Intestinal permeability was assayed by measuring fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran release in blood samples. The results showed that the HPC profile consisting of three cycles of 10 or 15 min of helium breathing and three cycles of 5 min of air breathing reduced I/R-induced intestinal injury, cell apoptosis, and the inflammatory response. However, the 2- or 5-min helium breathing did not confer any protective effects. It seems that longer helium episodes should be used in HPC profiles designed to attenuate intestinal I/R injury.

  9. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  10. Lactase non-persistence is directed by DNA variation-dependent epigenetic aging

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Viviane; Buske, Orion J; Oh, Edward; Jeremian, Richie; Ptak, Carolyn; Gasiūnas, Giedrius; Maleckas, Almantas; Petereit, Rūta; Žvirbliene, Aida; Adamonis, Kęstutis; Kriukienė, Edita; Koncevičius, Karolis; Gordevičius, Juozas; Nair, Akhil; Zhang, Aiping; Ebrahimi, Sasha; Oh, Gabriel; Šikšnys, Virginijus; Kupčinskas, Limas; Brudno, Michael; Petronis, Arturas

    2016-01-01

    Inability to digest lactose due to lactase non-persistence is a common trait in adult mammals, with the exception of certain human populations that exhibit lactase persistence. It is not clear how the lactase gene can be dramatically downregulated with age in most individuals, but remains active in some. We performed a comprehensive epigenetic study of the human and mouse intestine using chromosome-wide DNA modification profiling and targeted bisulfite sequencing. Epigenetically-controlled regulatory elements were found to account for the differences in lactase mRNA levels between individuals, intestinal cell types and species. The importance of these regulatory elements in modulating lactase mRNA levels was confirmed by CRISPR-Cas9-induced deletions. Genetic factors contribute to epigenetic changes occurring with age at the regulatory elements, as lactase persistence- and non-persistence-DNA haplotypes demonstrated markedly different epigenetic aging. Thus, genetic factors facilitate a gradual accumulation of epigenetic changes with age to affect phenotypic outcome. PMID:27159559

  11. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Amiot, Aurélien; Coffin, Benoît; Lavergne-Slove, Anne; Messing, Bernard; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disease characterized by episodes resembling mechanical obstruction in the absence of organic, systemic, or metabolic disorders. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary (40%) or secondary (60%) causes. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually present many years before CIPO diagnosis. They can lead to severe electrolyte disorders and malnutrition. Principles for management of patients with CIPO are: to establish a correct clinical diagnosis in excluding mechanical obstruction; to perform a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the gastrointestinal tract involved; to look for extra-intestinal manifestations, especially for myopathy and neuropathy; to discuss in some cases a surgery for full-thickness intestinal biopsies, and/or a neuromuscular biopsy in case of mitochondrial cytopathy suspicion. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. Treatment of CIPO includes prokinetic agents which may help to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms Courses of antibiotics may be needed in patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth. When necessary, enteral nutrition is preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Intestinal transplantation can be discussed in selected patients.

  12. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  13. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  14. [Effect of various coumarins on the intestinal absorption of galactose in vivo (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ruano, M J; Bolufer, J; Larralde, J; Lluch, M

    1975-06-01

    The effect of various coumarins on the active transport of galactose by small intestine in chick and rat was studied, using the in vivo technique of sucessive absorptions. A 10(-4) M concentration of the different coumarins inhibits the absorption of galactose in the chick. This effect persists in successive absorptions without coumarin. In rat, inhibition of galactose active transport by coumarins was observed at 10(-3) M concentration.

  15. Intestinal Lesions Are Associated with Altered Intestinal Microbiome and Are More Frequent in Children and Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis and Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Flass, Thomas; Tong, Suhong; Frank, Daniel N.; Wagner, Brandie D.; Robertson, Charles E.; Kotter, Cassandra Vogel; Sokol, Ronald J.; Zemanick, Edith; Accurso, Frank; Hoffenberg, Edward J.; Narkewicz, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Cirrhosis (CIR) occurs in 5–7% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We hypothesized that alterations in intestinal function in CF contribute to the development of CIR. Aims: Determine the frequency of macroscopic intestinal lesions, intestinal inflammation, intestinal permeability and characterize fecal microbiome in CF CIR subjects and CF subjects with no liver disease (CFnoLIV). Methods 11 subjects with CFCIR (6 M, 12.8 yrs ± 3.8) and 19 matched with CFnoLIV (10 M, 12.6 yrs ± 3.4) underwent small bowel capsule endoscopy, intestinal permeability testing by urinary lactulose: mannitol excretion ratio, fecal calprotectin determination and fecal microbiome characterization. Results CFCIR and CFnoLIV did not differ in key demographics or CF complications. CFCIR had higher GGT (59±51 U/L vs 17±4 p = 0.02) and lower platelet count (187±126 vs 283±60 p = 0.04) and weight (-0.86 ± 1.0 vs 0.30 ± 0.9 p = 0.002) z scores. CFCIR had more severe intestinal mucosal lesions on capsule endoscopy (score ≥4, 4/11 vs 0/19 p = 0.01). Fecal calprotectin was similar between CFCIR and CFnoLIV (166 μg/g ±175 vs 136 ± 193 p = 0.58, nl <120). Lactulose:mannitol ratio was elevated in 27/28 subjects and was slightly lower in CFCIR vs CFnoLIV (0.08±0.02 vs 0.11±0.05, p = 0.04, nl ≤0.03). Small bowel transit time was longer in CFCIR vs CFnoLIV (195±42 min vs 167±68 p<0.001, nl 274 ± 41). Bacteroides were decreased in relative abundance in CFCIR and were associated with lower capsule endoscopy score whereas Clostridium were more abundant in CFCIR and associated with higher capsule endoscopy score. Conclusions CFCIR is associated with increased intestinal mucosal lesions, slower small bowel transit time and alterations in fecal microbiome. Abnormal intestinal permeability and elevated fecal calprotectin are common in all CF subjects. Disturbances in intestinal function in CF combined with changes in the microbiome may contribute to the development of

  16. Stability and activity of an Enterobacter aerogenes-specific bacteriophage under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Verthé, K; Possemiers, S; Boon, N; Vaneechoutte, M; Verstraete, W

    2004-09-01

    A bacteriophage, designated UZ1 and showing lytic activity against a clinically important strain (BE1) of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from hospital sewage. The stability and lytic activity against this strain under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions was evaluated. After addition of bacteriophage UZ1 to a liquid feed at gastric pH 2, the phage was immediately inactivated and could not be recovered. However, by use of an antacid to neutralize stomach acidity, no significant changes in phage titer were observed after 2 h incubation at 37 degrees C. After supplementing pancreatic juice and further incubation for 4 h, the phage titer remained stable. The persistence of UZ1 in a mixed microbial ecosystem that was representative for the large intestine was monitored using an in vitro simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. A pulse administration of bacteriophage UZ1 at a concentration of 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml to reactor 3 (which simulates the ascending colon) showed that, in the absence of the host, bacteriophage UZ1 persisted for 13 days in the simulated colon, while the theoretical washout was calculated at 16 days. To assess its lytic activity in an intestinal microbial ecosystem, a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-labeled E. aerogenes BE1 strain was constructed and gfp-specific primers were designed in order to quantify the host strain using real-time PCR. It was observed that bacteriophage UZ1 was able to replicate and showed lytic activity against E. aerogenes BE1/ gfp in an intestinal microbial ecosystem. Indeed, after 17 h a 2 log unit reduction of E. aerogenes BE1/ gfp was measured as compared with the assay without bacteriophage UZ1, while the phage titer increased by 2 log units at an initial multiplicity of infection of 0.07 PFU/colony-forming unit. This is the first report of an in vitro model to study bacteriophage activity in the complex intestinal microbial community.

  17. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Inoh, Yumi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction(CIPO) is a rare severe digestive disease in which clinical symptoms of intestinal obstruction appear without any mechanical cause. Pathophysiologically, CIPO shows ineffective intestinal propulsion due to an impairment of intestinal smooth muscle, enteric nervous system, and interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC). Sustained increased intra-bowel pressure often causes small intestinal malabsorption and bacterial translocation, and leads to malnutrition and blood stream infection (sepsis). Key points of the medical approach for CIPO are to improve nutritional status and reduce abdominal symptoms. Dietary cure and defecation control are the main options in mild cases, whereas home-parenteral-nutrition(HPN) and decompression therapy are often needed in severe cases. Stimulant laxatives, prokinetics and herbal medicine are usually used but often in fail. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy(PEG-J) tube may be burdenless compared to conventional ileus tube. Most important points in the management of this disease are to make a correct diagnosis as early as possible and avoid unnecessary surgery. However, no clear diagnostic criteria have been established so far. Manometry, scintigraphy, and full-thickness biopsy are the major examination for the CIPO diagnosis in the Western countries; however these specialized examinations are not popular in Japan. Therefore the Research Group(chief investigator, Atsushi Nakajima) proposed Japanese diagnostic criteria in 2009 to facilitate the diagnosis of this rare disease by the general physician. In 2013, we have reported that cine-MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic method for CIPO. Although further data are eagerly awaited, it can become a promising diagnostic tool in CIPO patients. Furthermore the Japanese criteria have been revised, and in 2014, the comprehensive criteria from a child to an adult have been devised. In 2015, CIPO is newly certified as Specified Rare and Intractable Disease which is

  18. Persistent Monitoring Platforms Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C L

    2007-02-22

    This project was inspired and motivated by the need to provide better platforms for persistent surveillance. In the years since the inception of this work, the need for persistence of surveillance platforms has become even more widely appreciated, both within the defense community and the intelligence community. One of the most demanding technical requirements for such a platform involves the power plant and energy storage system, and this project concentrated almost exclusively on the technology associated with this system for a solar powered, high altitude, unmanned aircraft. An important realization for the feasibility of such solar powered aircraft, made at the outset of this project, was that thermal energy may be stored with higher specific energy density than for any other known practical form of rechargeable energy storage. This approach has proved to be extraordinarily fruitful, and a large number of spin-off applications of this technology were developed in the course of this project.

  19. Search along persistent random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2008-06-01

    Optimal search strategies and their implementations in biological systems are a subject of active research. Here we study a search problem which is motivated by the hunt of sperm cells for the egg. We ask for the probability for an active swimmer to find a target under the condition that the swimmer starts at a certain distance from the target. We find that success probability is maximal for a certain level of fluctuations characterized by the persistence length of the swimming path of the swimmer. We derive a scaling law for the optimal persistence length as a function of the initial target distance and search time by mapping the search on a polymer physics problem.

  20. Longer-acting and highly potent chimaeric inhibitors of excessive exocytosis created with domains from botulinum neurotoxin A and B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafu; Zurawski, Tomas H; Bodeker, MacDara O; Meng, Jianghui; Boddul, Sanjay; Aoki, K Roger; Dolly, J Oliver

    2012-05-15

    Various human neurogenic hyper-excitability disorders are successfully treated with type A or B BoNT (botulinum neurotoxin). The BoNT/A complex is widely used because of its longer-lasting benefits; also, autonomic side-effects are more often reported for BoNT/B. To establish if this distinct effect of BoNT/B could be exploited therapeutically, BoNT/A was modified so that it would bind the more abundant BoNT/B acceptor in rodents while retaining its desirable persistent action. The advantageous protease and translocation domain of BoNT/A were recombinantly combined with the acceptor-binding moiety of type B [H(C)/B (C-terminal half of BoNT/B heavy chain)], creating the chimaera AB. This purified protein bound the BoNT/B acceptor, displayed enhanced capability relative to type A for intraneuronally delivering its protease, cleaved SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) and induced a more prolonged neuromuscular paralysis than BoNT/A in mice. The BA chimaera, generated by substituting H(C)/A (C-terminal half of BoNT/A heavy chain) into BoNT/B, exhibited an extremely high specific activity, delivered the BoNT/B protease via the BoNT/A acceptor into neurons, or fibroblast-like synoviocytes that lack SNAP-25, cleaving the requisite isoforms of VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein). Both chimaeras inhibited neurotransmission in murine bladder smooth muscle. BA has the unique ability to reduce exocytosis from non-neuronal cells expressing the BoNT/A-acceptor and utilising VAMP, but not SNAP-25, in exocytosis.

  1. Diagnosis of intestinal ischemia in the rat using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, A; Towner, R A; Langer, J C

    1993-01-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis of persistent ischemia after intestinal revascularization has remained an elusive goal. Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect changes in tissue water, we studied its efficacy in differentiating ischemic from perfused intestine in an animal model. Six-week-old rats were subjected to (1) 30-min superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion and reperfusion, (2) permanent SMA ligation, or (3) sham operation, and were then imaged for 90 min using a small-animal MRI scanner with T1 weighting (TR = 1000 msec, TE = 25 msec). In an additional group of rats, the experiment was repeated using a new contrast technique consisting of oral ferrite to decrease luminal signal and intravenous gadolinium to increase bowel wall signal. Mean abdominal intensity over the scanning period was calculated for each animal (n = 5 rats per experimental group). Definition of individual bowel loops was subjectively improved in animals scanned with intravenous and oral contrast. Mean abdominal intensity was significantly lower in ligated vs sham rats (43.90 +/- 8 vs 59.63 +/- 6 and 46.19 +/- 6 vs 54.26 +/- 6, with and without contrast, respectively). There was no significant difference in intensity between reperfused and sham animals. MRI differentiated persistently ischemic bowel from viable bowel in this model, both with and without the use of contrast. These data suggest that MRI may have a potential role in the noninvasive diagnosis of persistent intestinal ischemia.

  2. Segmental Absence of Intestinal Musculature in a 64-Year-Old Female: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, Nariman A.; Sawyer, Phyllis R.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 64 Final Diagnosis: Segmental absence of intestinal musculature Symptoms: Abdominal discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colectomy Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare disease Background: Segmental absence of intestinal musculature is a well described entity in premature infants. It presents with peritonitis, bowel perforation, and obstruction. The diagnosis is based on pathologic observation of absence of intestinal musculature. Researchers hypothesized that this entity is a result of a vascular accident during embryogenesis. However, segmental absence of intestinal musculature is no longer limited to the pediatric population. Recently, a few cases have been described in adults with and without significant vascular diseases. This change in the age of the affected population with segmental absence of intestinal musculature makes the understanding of the pathogenesis of this entity even more challenging. Case Report: Here, we report a case of segmental absence of intestinal musculature in a 64-year-old female. The patient presented to the emergency room with sudden onset of abdominal pain and signs of peritonitis. Abdominal computed tomography showed free air in the abdomen. Laparotomy was performed, and a perforation involving the descending colon was identified. Left hemicolectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the resected colon showed segmental absence of intestinal musculature. Conclusions: Although the pathologic diagnosis of segmental absence of intestinal musculature is straightforward, the assumption that this condition is limited to the pediatric population is a major player in overlooking this diagnosis in adults. Pathologists should be aware that this condition can present in adults and is segmental. Gross and microscopic examination of perforated intestine is required to reach the correct diagnosis. To our knowledge, twelve cases of this entity have been described in adults. Here we present the

  3. Longer latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection predicts olfactory neural disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shu; Matsumoto, Yu; Kuboki, Akihito; Nakayama, Tsuguhisa; Asaka, Daiya; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Kojima, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Akinori, Kashio; Kanaya, Kaori; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Nishijima, Hironobu; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Kikkawa, Yayoi; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Miyaji, Tempei; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A near loss of smell may result from conductive and/or neural olfactory disorders. However, an olfactory test to selectively detect neural disorders has not been established. We investigated whether onset latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection can detect neural disorders in humans and mice. We showed that longer preoperative onset latency of odor recognition to intravenous odor in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis predicted worse recovery of olfactory symptoms following sinus surgery. The onset latency of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) response to intravenous odor using synaptopHluorin signals from OSN axon terminals was delayed in mice with reduced numbers of OSNs (neural disorder) but not with increased mucus or blocked orthonasal pathways (conductive disorders). Moreover, the increase in onset latency correlated with the decrease in mature OSN numbers. Longer onset latency to intravenous odor injection is a useful biomarker for presence and severity of olfactory disorders with neural etiology. PMID:27734933

  4. Does telomere elongation lead to a longer lifespan if cancer is considered?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masa, Michael; Cebrat, Stanisław; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2006-05-01

    As cell proliferation is limited due to the loss of telomere repeats in DNA of normal somatic cells during division, telomere attrition can possibly play an important role in determining the maximum life span of organisms as well as contribute to the process of biological ageing. With computer simulations of cell culture development in organisms, which consist of tissues of normal somatic cells with finite growth, we obtain an increase of life span and life expectancy for longer telomeric DNA in the zygote. By additionally considering a two-mutation model for carcinogenesis and indefinite proliferation by the activation of telomerase, we demonstrate that the risk of dying due to cancer can outweigh the positive effect of longer telomeres on the longevity.

  5. Fringe tracking at longer wavelengths using near- and mid-IR integrated optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusubramanian, Balaji; Labadie, Lucas; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Tepper, Jan; Minardi, Stefano; Diener, Romina

    2016-08-01

    Fringe tracking at longer wavelengths is advantageous for its larger Fried parameter (R0) and longer coherence time (τ0). The fringe trackers which are currently available at the VLTi (Finito, FSU, Gravity, etc.) tracks fringes at the near infrared wavelengths (H and K bands). In our work we try to explore the possibilities to track near and mid- infrared fringes using GLS based laser written integrated optics beam combiners. We simulate the atmospheric optical path difference (OPD) using Kolmogorov/Von-Karman atmospheric turbulence statistics. We also include the measured the piston noise generated due to the instrumental vibrations. Using the resulting OPD time series we can estimate the sensitivity of the fringe tracker at the L band.

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ayman A.; Saliba, Walid I.; Barakat, Amr; Bassiouny, Mohammed; Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed; Al-Bawardy, Rasha; Hakim, Ali; Tarakji, Khaldoun; Baranowski, Bryan; Cantillon, Daniel; Dresing, Thomas; Tchou, Patrick; Martin, David O.; Varma, Niraj; Bhargava, Mandeep; Callahan, Thomas; Niebauer, Mark; Kanj, Mohamed; Chung, Mina; Natale, Andrea; Lindsay, Bruce D.; Wazni, Oussama M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Various ablation strategies of persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF) have had disappointing outcomes, despite concerted clinical and research efforts, which could reflect progressive atrial fibrillation–related atrial remodeling. Methods and Results Two-year outcomes were assessed in 1241 consecutive patients undergoing first-time ablation of PersAF (2005–2012). The time intervals between the first diagnosis of PersAF and the ablation procedures were determined. Patients had echocardiograms and measures of B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein before the procedures. The median diagnosis-to-ablation time was 3 years (25th–75th percentiles 1–6.5). With longer diagnosis-to-ablation time (based on quartiles), there was a significant increase in recurrence rates in addition to an increase in B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P=0.01), C-reactive protein levels (P<0.0001), and left atrial size (P=0.03). The arrhythmia recurrence rates over 2 years were 33.6%, 52.6%, 57.1%, and 54.6% in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively (Pcategorical<0.0001). In Cox Proportional Hazard analyses, B-type natriuretic peptide levels, C-reactive protein levels, and left atrial size were associated with arrhythmia recurrence. The diagnosis-to-ablation time had the strongest association with the ablation outcomes which persisted in multivariable Cox analyzes (hazard ratio for recurrence per +1Log diagnosis-to-ablation time 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.14–1.43; P<0.0001; hazard ratio fourth versus first quartile 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.68–3.65; Pcategorical<0.0001). Conclusions In patients with PersAF undergoing ablation, the time interval between the first diagnosis of PersAF and the catheter ablation procedure had a strong association with the ablation outcomes, such as shorter diagnosis-to-ablation times were associated with better outcomes and in direct association with markers of atrial remodeling. PMID:26763227

  7. Iatrogenic Iliac Artery Rupture: Emergency Management by Longer Stent-Graft on a Shorter Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Trehan, Vijay; Nigam, Arima; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2007-02-15

    Rupture of an iliac artery during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a rare but potentially devastating complication. We report a case of iatrogenic external iliac artery rupture that was successfully treated by temporary balloon occlusion followed by endovascular stent graft placement in an unusual manner. Limited availability of the hardware necessitated the use of a longer bare stent graft mounted on a relatively shorter balloon.

  8. Does a Longer Delay in Fixation of Talus Fractures Cause Osteonecrosis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Does a Longer Delay in Fixation of Talus Fractures Cause Osteonecrosis ? CPT Jaime L. Bellamy, DO,1 CDR John J. Keeling, MD,2 Joseph Wenke, PhD,3 LTC...and development of osteonecrosis and posttraumatic arthritis. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried by ICD-9 codes for talus fractures...Soldiers, ages 18 to 40, with talus fracture between 2001 and 2008 were included. Radiographs identified the injury type, Hawkins sign, osteonecrosis , and

  9. Condensed-Phase Photochemical Processes in Titan's Aerosols and Surface: The Role of Longer Wavelength Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Jacovi, Ronen; Lignell, Antti; Couturier, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss photochemical properties of Titan's organic molecules in the condensed phase as solid aerosols or surface material, from small linear polyyenes (polyacetylenes and polycyanoacetylenes) such as C2H2, C4N2, HC5N, etc. In particular we will focus on photochemistry caused by longer wavelength UV-VIS photons (greater than 250 nm) photons that make it through Titan's atmosphere to the haze region (approximately 100 km) and on to the surface of Titan.

  10. Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Lan, Qing; Slager, Susan L; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Teras, Lauren R; Camp, Nicola J; Cerhan, James R; Spinelli, John J; Wang, Sophia S; Nieters, Alexandra; Vijai, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Wang, Zhaoming; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Conde, Lucia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Cox, David G; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Giles, Graham G; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kane, Eleanor; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry J; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roos, Göran; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T; Holly, Elizabeth A; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Tinker, Lesley F; North, Kari E; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Villano, Danylo J; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chung, Charles C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Salles, Gilles; Glenn, Martha; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Curtin, Karen; Wu, Xifeng; Smedby, Karin E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Skibola, Christine F; Berndt, Sonja I; Birmann, Brenda M; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-04-15

    Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82,P-value = 8.5 × 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51,P-value = 4.0 × 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.

  11. OPAT for cellulitis: its benefits and the factors that predispose to longer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Moore, E; Bousfield, R

    2016-06-01

    This retrospective study investigated the demographics and treatment outcomes of patients with cellulitis receiving outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) between 2010 and 2014 in Cambridge University Hospitals. The rate of treatment failure (as indicated by the readmission to hospital) was low, at 5.5%. Risk factors associated with a longer duration of OPAT treatment included: immunosuppression, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, lymphoedema, previous cellulitis and diabetes.

  12. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity.

  13. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development.

  14. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  15. MOOCs and Persistence: Definitions and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent J.; Baker, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter argues for redefining the term "persistence" as it relates to MOOCs and considers how different measures produce different results in the research; it closes with a review of research on persistence in MOOCs.

  16. PERSISTENT CONTAMINANTS: NEW PRIORITIES, NEW CONCERNS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorin...

  17. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of animals in sinks can compromise persistence. Conversely, sinks can bolster population sizes, improving viability. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional persistence, we simulated the removal of sink hab...

  18. Nasopharyngeal non-intestinal-type adenocarcinoma: a case report and updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, C.; Caulley, L.; Macdonald, K.I.; Purgina, B.; Lai, C.K.; Esche, B.; Johnson-Obaseki, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-intestinal-type adenocarcinoma is a malignancy traditionally found in the sinonasal cavity. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported of this rare condition originating in the nasopharynx. Case Presentation A 67-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal non-intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, with an accompanying parapharyngeal mass received primary radiation treatment for both lesions. Her tumour subsequently persisted, with a concomitant conversion in pathology from a low- to a high-grade malignancy. Results Non-intestinal-type and intestinal-type adenocarcinomas of the nasopharynx are extremely rare tumours and do not appear in the World Health Organization classification system. We review the pathophysiologic features of these malignancies and propose modifications to the current classification system. Conclusions Non-intestinal-type adenocarcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of nasopharyngeal masses. In our experience, this tumour in this location showed a partial response to primary radiation but later converted from a low- to a high-grade adenocarcinoma. PMID:28270733

  19. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  20. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  1. Lymphatic deletion of calcitonin receptor–like receptor exacerbates intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Reema B.; Kechele, Daniel O.; Blakeney, Elizabeth S.; Pawlak, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatics play a critical role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis and in the absorption of dietary lipids, yet their roles in intestinal inflammation remain elusive. Given the increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, we investigated whether lymphatic vessels contribute to, or may be causative of, disease progression. We generated a mouse model with temporal and spatial deletion of the key lymphangiogenic receptor for the adrenomedullin peptide, calcitonin receptor–like receptor (Calcrl), and found that the loss of lymphatic Calcrl was sufficient to induce intestinal lymphangiectasia, characterized by dilated lacteals and protein-losing enteropathy. Upon indomethacin challenge, Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice demonstrated persistent inflammation and failure to recover and thrive. The epithelium and crypts of Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice exhibited exacerbated hallmarks of disease progression, and the lacteals demonstrated an inability to absorb lipids. Furthermore, we identified Calcrl/adrenomedullin signaling as an essential upstream regulator of the Notch pathway, previously shown to be critical for intestinal lacteal maintenance and junctional integrity. In conclusion, lymphatic insufficiency and lymphangiectasia caused by loss of lymphatic Calcrl exacerbates intestinal recovery following mucosal injury and underscores the importance of lymphatic function in promoting recovery from intestinal inflammation. PMID:28352669

  2. Lin-28 promotes symmetric stem cell division and drives adaptive growth in the adult Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Huan; Luhur, Arthur; Sokol, Nicholas

    2015-10-15

    Stem cells switch between asymmetric and symmetric division to expand in number as tissues grow during development and in response to environmental changes. The stem cell intrinsic proteins controlling this switch are largely unknown, but one candidate is the Lin-28 pluripotency factor. A conserved RNA-binding protein that is downregulated in most animals as they develop from embryos to adults, Lin-28 persists in populations of adult stem cells. Its function in these cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we report that Lin-28 is highly enriched in adult intestinal stem cells in the Drosophila intestine. lin-28 null mutants are homozygous viable but display defects in this population of cells, which fail to undergo a characteristic food-triggered expansion in number and have reduced rates of symmetric division as well as reduced insulin signaling. Immunoprecipitation of Lin-28-bound mRNAs identified Insulin-like Receptor (InR), forced expression of which completely rescues lin-28-associated defects in intestinal stem cell number and division pattern. Furthermore, this stem cell activity of lin-28 is independent of one well-known lin-28 target, the microRNA let-7, which has limited expression in the intestinal epithelium. These results identify Lin-28 as a stem cell intrinsic factor that boosts insulin signaling in intestinal progenitor cells and promotes their symmetric division in response to nutrients, defining a mechanism through which Lin-28 controls the adult stem cell division patterns that underlie tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  3. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  4. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  5. Intent to Persist at Religiously Affiliated Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansom, J. Mel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the secondary data analysis was to examine the attributes of students who intend to persist at the same religiously affiliated institution. The review of literature indicated that persistence has been studied extensively, but there has been only limited investigation of persistence focused on religiously affiliated institutions. The…

  6. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  7. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  8. Surgical Aspects of Intestinal Ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ajao, Oluwole G.; Solanke, Toriola F.

    1977-01-01

    At the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, a common differential diagnosis of acute abdomen is intestinal ascariasis. This condition mimics many causes of acute abdomen so that accurate pre-operative diagnosis depends mainly on a high index of suspicion. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to this condition which is prevalent in tropical countries, where preventive and social medicine have not reached their peak, and to review the pathological processes resulting from this disease. PMID:875064

  9. [Water and intestinal parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, N A; Belova, E G; Baburina, L V; Novosil'tsev, G I; Chernyshenko, A I

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents data on the rates of Lamblia cyst dissemination of surface water sources in foreign countries, the Russian Federation, Moscow, and the Moscow Region. It shows a role of drinking water in the spread of intestinal parasitic diseases. In accordance with parasitological parameters, specific data on improvement of methodological control of water quality are presented. The dosages of ultraviolet radiation are given in relation to water decontamination of parasitic disease germs.

  10. Glycoprotein biosynthesis in small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young S.; Perdomo, Jose

    1972-01-01

    Rat small intestinal mucosa was examined for ability to produce mucins with human blood group A, B, and H activity. Blood group activity of the mucins was compared to antigenic activity of red blood cells in individual rats and the enzymatic basis for differences was investigated. Red cells in all the rats examined contained human blood group A and B antigens. All rats synthesized intestinal mucins having B and H antigenic activity but 57% failed to produce mucins with blood group A activity (A-); the remaining 43% (A+) produced A substance. The activities of five glycosyltransferases including α(1→2) fucosyltransferase, the determinant of human secretor status, were measured in the intestine of A+ and A- rats. Four enzymes were the same in both groups, while the fifth, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, was present only in A+ rats. The specificity of this latter enzyme, as found in the rat, appeared similar to that in humans, since it catalyzed addition of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine only to acceptors which had the H determinant structure. In the presence of the enzyme, A- mucin could be converted to A+ mucin; this was shown both by hemagglutination inhibition and immunoprecipitin studies of the products of incubation of A- mucin with UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and the enzyme. These studies indicate that the difference between A+ and A- rats is due to the apparent absence of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase in the intestinal mucosa of A- rats. These rats may provide experimental models for studies on the effect of ABO and secretor status on susceptibility to ulceration and carcinogenesis. Images PMID:4112001

  11. Effect of Persistent Thrombocytopenia on Mortality in Surgical Critical Care Patients: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Anjum, Nadeem; Hu, Dong; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common among surgical critically ill patients. The relationship between the duration of thrombocytopenia and mortality is not well studied. This retrospective 12-month cohort study was designed to evaluate the association between persistent thrombocytopenia and mortality among surgical critically ill patients to determine the risk factors for persistent thrombocytopenia. The study included adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at our institution. Patients with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia were identified from a prospective critical care database. We defined patients with persistent thrombocytopenia as those with thrombocytopenia lasting more than 7 consecutive days. The primary outcome of this study was 28-day mortality and the secondary outcomes were lengths of SICU stay and hospital stay. Fifty-one patients experienced persistent thrombocytopenia and 71 experienced nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Among patients with persistent thrombocytopenia, mortality was significantly higher, and SICU and hospital stays were longer than those with nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Risk factor analysis failed to predict which patients with thrombocytopenia would develop into persistent thrombocytopenia. Persistent thrombocytopenia is a clinically significant disorder and is associated with poorer outcomes. Future studies are needed to further define this process.

  12. Redox biology of the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Aw, Tak Yee

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal tract, known for its capability for self-renew, represents the first barrier of defense between the organism and its luminal environment. The thiol/disulfide redox systems comprising the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) and reduced and oxidized thioredoxin (Trx/TrxSS) redox couples play important roles in preserving tissue redox homeostasis, metabolic functions, and cellular integrity. Control of the thiol-disulfide status at the luminal surface is essential for maintaining mucus fluidity and absorption of nutrients, and protection against chemical-induced oxidant injury. Within intestinal cells, these redox couples preserve an environment that supports physiological processes and orchestrates networks of enzymatic reactions against oxidative stress. In this review, we focus on the intestinal redox and antioxidant systems, their subcellular compartmentation, redox signaling and epithelial turnover, and contribution of luminal microbiota, key aspects that are relevant to understanding redox-dependent processes in gut biology with implications for degenerative digestive disorders, such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:21831010

  13. [Chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia].

    PubMed

    Castillo, T; Navarrete, J; Celestina, A

    1989-01-01

    Much has been written about gastric mucosae behavior and the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to learn something more about these matters in peruvian population. We selected 100 patients with endoscopically no localized lesions between 30 to 70 years of age. We took 8 samples of gastric mucosae in each patient which were carefully examined for the presence of inflammatory changes, settle the line type between antral and fundic mucosae and the frequency of intestinal metaplasia finding. The results showed disagreement between endoscopic and histological findings, so we conclude it is better to diagnose chronic gastritis on the basis of histological parameters. The line between antral and fundic mucosae was of the close type one found in 87% of all cases and it advanced proximally with increasing age. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 46% of the whole number of patients and the rate of occurrence increased in 50% over 50 years age. These findings will let us compare future investigations of gastric mucosae behavior with localized benign or malign lesions.

  14. Cold urticaria with persistent weals.

    PubMed

    Juhlin, L

    1981-06-01

    A patient with cold urticaria is described in whom weals appeared immediately after an ice cube test for 3 min and persisted for a week as a red, tender swelling. The duration of the oedema was dependent on the intensity of the immediate reaction. If the immediate wealing was blocked by treatment with an oral antihistamine 3 h before the ice cube test, no delayed reaction was seen. Antihistamines given after the immediate wealing had occurred did not influence the delayed reaction. Reactions to intradermally injected histamine, prostaglandin E, kallikrein, serotonin and serum appeared normal.

  15. World food and agriculture: Outlook for the medium and longer term

    PubMed Central

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    1999-01-01

    The world has been making progress in improving food security, as measured by the per person availability of food for direct human consumption. However, progress has been very uneven, and many developing countries have failed to participate in such progress. In some countries, the food security situation is today worse than 20 years ago. The persistence of food insecurity does not reflect so much a lack of capacity of the world as a whole to increase food production to whatever level would be required for everyone to have consumption levels assuring satisfactory nutrition. The world already produces sufficient food. The undernourished and the food-insecure persons are in these conditions because they are poor in terms of income with which to purchase food or in terms of access to agricultural resources, education, technology, infrastructure, credit, etc., to produce their own food. Economic development failures account for the persistence of poverty and food insecurity. In the majority of countries with severe food-security problems, the greatest part of the poor and food-insecure population depend greatly on local agriculture for a living. In such cases, development failures are often tantamount to failures of agricultural development. Development of agriculture is seen as the first crucial step toward broader development, reduction of poverty and food insecurity, and eventually freedom from excessive economic dependence on poor agricultural resources. Projections indicate that progress would continue, but at a pace and pattern that would be insufficient for the incidence of undernutrition to be reduced significantly in the medium-term future. As in the past, world agricultural production is likely to keep up with, and perhaps tend to exceed, the growth of the effective demand for food. The problem will continue to be one of persistence of poverty, leading to growth of the effective demand for food on the part of the poor that would fall short of that required for

  16. Toxicity persistence in runoff water and soil in experimental soybean plots following chlorpyrifos application.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Demetrio, Pablo; Paracampo, Ariel; Pardi, Martín; Bulus, Gustavo; Bonetto, Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Toxicity persistence in runoff water and soil was studied in experimental soybean plots in successive runoff events produced by an irrigation system. Three chlorpyrifos applications throughout the growing period were assayed. Runoff and soil toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella curvispina and the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus was assessed. Toxicity persistence to H. curvispina was shorter in the early and midseason applications (23-28 and 21-69 days in runoff and soil, respectively) and longer in the late application (more than 140 days). The same trend was observed for C. decemmaculatus: 13 days for early and 56 for the late application.

  17. Long-term lithium treatment in bipolar disorder is associated with longer leukocyte telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Martinsson, L; Wei, Y; Xu, D; Melas, P A; Mathé, A A; Schalling, M; Lavebratt, C; Backlund, L

    2013-01-01

    Telomere shortening is a hallmark of aging and has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and chronic somatic, as well as psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. Additionally, antidepressants have been found to protect against telomere shortening. However, pharmacological telomere studies are lacking in bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore telomere length (TL) in patients with BD in the context of lithium treatment. We determined TL by quantitative real-time PCR using peripheral blood leukocytes. Participants were outpatients diagnosed with BD type 1 or 2 (n=256) and healthy controls (n=139). Retrospective case–control and case–case study designs were applied. Lithium response (LiR) was scored using the Alda-Scale. Lithium-treated BD patients overall, as well as those on lithium monotherapy, had 35% longer telomeres compared with controls (P<0.0005, partial η2=0.13). TL correlated positively with lithium treatment duration of >30 months (P=0.031, R2=0.13) and was negatively associated with increasing number of depressive episodes (P<0.007). BD patients responding well to lithium treatment had longer telomeres than those not responding well. This is the first study to report a positive effect of long-term lithium treatment on TL. Importantly, longer TL was also associated with a better LiR in BD patients. These data suggest that lithium exerts a protective effect against telomere shortening especially when therapeutically efficacious. We hypothesize that induction of telomerase activity may be involved in LiR in BD. PMID:23695236

  18. Extending 3D Near-Cloud Corrections from Shorter to Longer Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Guoyong, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths.

  19. Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagata, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

  20. Economic impact of longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gadler, Fredrik; Ding, Yao; Verin, Nathalie; Bergius, Martin; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Russell, Mason W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) devices has on reducing the number of device replacements and associated costs of these replacements from a Swedish health care system perspective. Methods An economic model based on real-world published data was developed to estimate cost savings and avoided device replacements for CRT-Ds with longer battery life compared with devices with industry-standard battery life expectancy. Base-case comparisons were performed among CRT-Ds of three manufacturers – Boston Scientific Corporation, St. Jude Medical, and Medtronic – over a 6-year time horizon, as per the available clinical data. As a sensitivity analysis, we evaluated CRT-Ds as well as single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-VR) and dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-DR) devices over a longer 10-year period. All costs were in 2015 Swedish Krona (SEK) discounted at 3% per annum. Results Base-case analysis results show that up to 603 replacements and up to SEK 60.4 million cumulative-associated costs could be avoided over 6 years by using devices with extended battery life. The pattern of savings over time suggests that savings are modest initially but increase rapidly beginning in the third year of follow-up with each year’s cumulative savings two to three times the previous year. Evaluating CRT-D, ICD-VR, and ICD-DR devices together over a longer 10-year period, the sensitivity analysis showed 2,820 fewer replacement procedures and associated cost savings of SEK 249.3 million for all defibrillators with extended battery life. Conclusion Extended battery life is likely to reduce device replacements and associated complications and costs, which may result in important cost savings and a more efficient use of health care resources as well as a better quality of life for heart failure patients in Sweden. PMID:27826203

  1. Persistence of random walk records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2014-06-01

    We study records generated by Brownian particles in one dimension. Specifically, we investigate an ordinary random walk and define the record as the maximal position of the walk. We compare the record of an individual random walk with the mean record, obtained as an average over infinitely many realizations. We term the walk ‘superior’ if the record is always above average, and conversely, the walk is said to be ‘inferior’ if the record is always below average. We find that the fraction of superior walks, S, decays algebraically with time, S ˜ t-β, in the limit t → ∞, and that the persistence exponent is nontrivial, β = 0.382 258…. The fraction of inferior walks, I, also decays as a power law, I ˜ t-α, but the persistence exponent is smaller, α = 0.241 608…. Both exponents are roots of transcendental equations involving the parabolic cylinder function. To obtain these theoretical results, we analyze the joint density of superior walks with a given record and position, while for inferior walks it suffices to study the density as a function of position.

  2. Persistent ENSO in different climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Manucharyan, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, despite profound changes in tropical climate, ENSO has been active over a vast geological epoch stretching millions of years from the Late Cretaceous through the Holocene. In particular, ENSO persisted during the Pliocene when there occurred a dramatic reduction in the mean east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific - a key element of tropical dynamics. Here we use a comprehensive climate model to explore the dependence of ENSO on this temperature gradient. We find that in a broad range of climates ENSO remains surprisingly robust. When the east-west temperature gradient is reduced from 6oC to 1oC, the amplitude of ENSO decreases only by 30-40%, its dominant period remains close to 3-4 years, and the spectral peak stays above red noise. To explain these results we assess the magnitude of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks that control the stability of the natural mode of ENSO (the Bjerknes Index). We find that due to reorganization of the atmospheric Walker circulation in response to changes in the mean temperature gradient, the growth/decay rates of the ENSO mode stay nearly constant throughout different climates. This factor explains the persistence of the Southern Oscillation in past geological epochs and reconciles the seemingly contradictory findings of ENSO occurrence and the small east-west temperature gradient during the Pliocene. Finally, our results explain why ENSO in many climate models seems to be controlled by a weakly-damped mode just below neutral stability.

  3. Continuation of point clouds via persistence diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, Marcio; Hiraoka, Yasuaki; Obayashi, Ippei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical and algorithmic framework for the continuation of point clouds by persistence diagrams. A key property used in the method is that the persistence map, which assigns a persistence diagram to a point cloud, is differentiable. This allows us to apply the Newton-Raphson continuation method in this setting. Given an original point cloud P, its persistence diagram D, and a target persistence diagram D‧, we gradually move from D to D‧, by successively computing intermediate point clouds until we finally find a point cloud P‧ having D‧ as its persistence diagram. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of situations in topological data analysis where it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, from persistence diagrams to point cloud data.

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  5. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  6. Epithelial stem cells and intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian intestine is comprised of an epithelial layer that serves multiple functions in order to maintain digestive activity as well as intestinal homeostasis. This epithelial layer contains highly proliferative stem cells which facilitate its characteristic rapid regeneration. How these stem cells contribute to tissue repair and normal homeostasis are actively studied, and while we have a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular locations that underlie stem cell regulation in this tissue, much still remains undiscovered. This review describes epithelial stem cells in both intestinal and non-intestinal tissues, as well as the strategies that have been used to further characterize the cells. Through a discussion of the current understanding of intestinal self-renewal and tissue regeneration in response to injury, we focus on how dysregulation of critical signaling pathways results in potentially oncogenic aberrations, and highlight issues that should be addressed in order for effective intestinal cancer therapies to be devised.

  7. Morphometrics of the avian small intestine compared with that of nonflying mammals: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Shana R; Karasov, William H; Ives, Anthony R; Middleton, Kevin M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    Flying animals may experience a selective constraint on gut volume because the energetic cost of flight increases and maneuverability decreases with greater digesta load. The small intestine is the primary site of absorption of most nutrients (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, fat) in both birds and mammals. Therefore, we used a phylogenetically informed approach to compare small intestine morphometric measurements of birds with those of nonflying mammals and to test for effects of diet within each clade. We also compared the fit of nonphylogenetic and phylogenetic models to test for phylogenetic signal after accounting for effects of body mass, clade, and/or diet. We provide a new MATLAB program (Regressionv2.m) that facilitates a flexible model-fitting approach in comparative studies. As compared with nonflying mammals, birds had 51% less nominal small intestine surface area (area of a smooth bore tube) and 32% less volume. For animals <365 g in body mass, birds also had significantly shorter small intestines (20%-33% shorter, depending on body mass). Diet was also a significant factor explaining variation in small intestine nominal surface area of both birds and nonflying mammals, small intestine mass of mammals, and small intestine volume of both birds and nonflying mammals. On the basis of the phylogenetic trees used in our analyses, small intestine length and nominal surface area exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal in birds but not in mammals. Thus, for birds, related species tended to be similar in small intestine length and nominal surface area, even after accounting for relations with body mass and diet. A reduced small intestine in birds may decrease the capacity for breakdown and active absorption of nutrients. Birds do not seem to compensate for reduced digestive and absorptive capacity via a longer gut retention time of food, but we found some evidence that birds have an increased mucosal surface area via a greater villus area

  8. Intestinal development of bovine foetuses during gestation is affected by foetal sex and maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gionbelli, T R S; Rotta, P P; Veloso, C M; Valadares Filho, S C; Carvalho, B C; Marcondes, M I; Ferreira, M F L; Souza, J V F; Santos, J S A A; Lacerda, L C; Duarte, M S; Gionbelli, M P

    2016-08-03

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal nutrition (MN) and foetal sex on the intestinal development of bovine foetuses throughout different days of gestation (DG). Forty-four multiparous, dry Holstein × Gyr cows with average initial body weight of 480 ± 10 kg were fed the same diet of either restricted feeding at 1.15% of body weight (CO, n = 24) or fed ad libitum (overnourished, ON, n = 20). Six cows from CO group and five cows from ON group were slaughtered at 139, 199, 241 and 268 DG, and foetuses were necropsied to evaluate the intestinal development. The mass, length and density of foetal intestines were not affected by MN (p ≥ 0.260). An interaction between MN and DG was observed for the villi length of jejunum (p = 0.006) and ileum (p < 0.001). Villi length of jejunum and ileum was higher (p < 0.10) in foetuses from ON-fed cows than in foetuses from CO-fed cows at 139 DG. However, at 199 DG, the villi length of jejunum and ileum of foetuses from CO-fed cows was higher than in foetuses from ON-fed cows. Despite these differences, MN did not affect the villi length of jejunum and ileum at 268 DG (p > 0.10). Female foetuses had greater small intestine mass (p = 0.093), large intestine mass (p = 0.022), small intestine mass in proportion to body mass (p = 0.017) and large intestine mass in proportion to body mass (p < 0.001) than male foetuses. Female foetuses had also longer small intestine (p = 0.077) and greater small intestine density (p = 0.021) and villi length of jejunum (p = 0.001) and ileum (p = 0.010) than males. We conclude that MN affects the pathway for the development of foetal villi length throughout the gestation in bovine foetuses without changing the final villi length. Female foetuses had higher intestinal mass, density and villi length than males during the foetal phase in bovines.

  9. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  10. Appendicular Tourniquet: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shivashankar, Santhosh Chikkanayakanahalli; Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Varghese, Edison Vadakkenchery

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is one of the common surgical emergencies seen in daily practice. Postoperative adhesions are notorious for being the most common cause for intestinal obstruction. Occasionally, laparotomy findings do come as a surprise to surgeons. Here one such case is discussed. A patient was operated on with suspicion of intestinal obstruction secondary to postoperative adhesions. However, laparotomy revealed the appendix to be inflamed, curled around the terminal ileum and acting as a tourniquet. PMID:27437300

  11. Early Improvement in Psychosocial Function Predicts Longer-Term Symptomatic Remission in Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Manish K.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L.; Carmody, Thomas; Rush, Augustus John

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between early change in psychosocial function independent of depression severity and longer-term symptomatic remission. Participants of Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial were randomly selected for model selection (n = 334) and validation (n = 331). Changes in psychosocial function (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, WSAS) from baseline to week 6 were assessed and two data-driven sub-groups of WSAS change were identified in the randomly selected model selection half. Results of analyses to predict symptomatic remission at 3 and 7 months were validated for these sub-groups in the second half (validation sample). From baseline to week 6, psychosocial function improved significantly even after adjusting for depression severity at each visit and select baseline variables (age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, income, employment, depression onset before age 18, anxious features, and suicidal ideation), treatment-arm, and WSAS score. The WSAS change patterns identified two (early improvement and gradual change) subgroups. After adjusting for baseline variables and remission status at week 6, participants with early improvement in the second half (validation sample) had greater remission rates than those with gradual change at both 3 (3.3 times) and 7 months (2.3 times) following acute treatment initiation. In conclusion, early improvement in psychosocial function provides a clinically meaningful prediction of longer-term symptomatic remission, independent of depression symptom severity. PMID:28030546

  12. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  13. Generation of mice with longer and better preserved telomeres in the absence of genetic manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Elisa; Muñoz-Lorente, Miguel A.; Tejera, Agueda M.; Ortega, Sagrario; Blasco, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Although telomere length is genetically determined, mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with telomeres of twice the normal size have been generated. Here, we use such ES cells with ‘hyper-long' telomeres, which also express green fluorescent protein (GFP), to generate chimaeric mice containing cells with both hyper-long and normal telomeres. We show that chimaeric mice contain GFP-positive cells in all mouse tissues, display normal tissue histology and normal survival. Both hyper-long and normal telomeres shorten with age, but GFP-positive cells retain longer telomeres as mice age. Chimaeric mice with hyper-long telomeres also accumulate fewer cells with short telomeres and less DNA damage with age, and express lower levels of p53. In highly renewing compartments, such as the blood, cells with hyper-long telomeres are longitudinally maintained or enriched with age. We further show that wound-healing rates in the skin are increased in chimaeric mice. Our work demonstrates that mice with functional, longer and better preserved telomeres can be generated without the need for genetic manipulations, such as TERT overexpression. PMID:27252083

  14. [The technology of fast spectral reconstruction in the longer optical path difference PEM-FTS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min-Juan; Wang, Zhao-Ba; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Li, Xiao; Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Jin-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The optical path difference of the photoelastic modulator Fourier transform spectrometers (PEM-FTS) changes rapidly and nonlinearly, while the instrument preserves the speed as high as about 10(5) interferograms per second, so that the interferograms of PEM-FTS are sampled by equal interval. In order to fleetly and accurately reconstruct these spectrums, the principle of PEM-FTS and accelerated NUFFT algorithm were studied in the present article. The accelerating NUFFT algorithm integrates interpolation based on convolution kernel and fast Fourier transform (FFT). And the velocity and precision of the algorithm are affected by the type and parameter tau of kernel function, the single-side spreading distance q and the oversampling ratio micro, and so on. In the paper these parameters were analysed, under the condition N = 1 024, q = 10, micro = 2 and tau = 1 x 10(-6) in the Gaussian scaling factor, and the accelerated NUFFT algorithm was applied to the longer optical path difference PEM-FTS to rebuild the spectrums of 632. 8 nm laser and Xenon lamp, The frequency error of the rebuilt spectrums of 632.8 nm laser is less than 0.013 52, the spent time of interpolation is less than 0.267 s. the velocity is fast and the error is less. The accelerated nonuniform fast Fourier transform is fit for the longer optical path difference PEM-FTS.

  15. Longer prime presentation decreases picture-word cross-domain priming.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Kiyofumi; Kimura, Yusuke; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A short prime presentation has been shown to provide a greater priming magnitude, whereas a longer prime presentation results in a lower priming magnitude. In Experiment 1, we attempted to replicate the decrease of priming using word stimuli. Words were presented in both prime and test sessions, and participants judged whether each stimulus was natural or manmade. In Experiment 2, we employed a cross-domain priming paradigm to assess the impact of prime duration on non-perceptual processes. Pictures were presented in prime sessions, and their semantically matched words were presented in test sessions. We did not observe a significant decrease in priming in Experiment 1. However, we found that 2000 ms of prime exposure led to weaker cross-domain priming when compared with 250 ms of the exposure in Experiment 2. The results suggest that the longer presentation of pictures causes a non-perceptual adaptation effect. This effect may occur at conceptual, linguistic, and/or response-related levels.

  16. Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

  17. Prospective Memory Deficits in Ecstasy Users: Effects of Longer Ongoing Task Delay Interval

    PubMed Central

    WEINBORN, MICHAEL; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; NULSEN, CLAIRE; PARK, KATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy use has been associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment in a variety of domains, including prospective memory (ProM), which involves the delayed execution of a previously encoded intention in response to a specific cue. The present study adopted the multiprocess theory of ProM to evaluate the hypothesis that ecstasy users would evidence differentially impaired ProM on longer versus shorter ongoing task delays. Ecstasy (n = 31) users, high-risk alcohol users (n = 21) and healthy nonusers (n = 31) completed the short (2-min) and long (15-min) delay ProM scales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test. Results showed a significant group by ProM delay interaction, such that ecstasy users performed comparably to the comparison groups on short-delay trials, but were impaired on long-delay ProM, particularly for time-based cues. Among the ecstasy users, long-delay ProM was positively associated with risky decision-making, but not with retrospective memory or other aspects of executive functions. These findings suggest that ecstasy users may be particularly susceptible to deficits in strategic target monitoring and maintenance of cue-intention pairings over longer ProM delays. Findings are discussed in the context of their potential everyday functioning (e.g., academic, vocational) and treatment implications for ecstasy users. PMID:22047194

  18. K+-induced twitch potentiation is not due to longer action potential.

    PubMed

    Yensen, Craig; Matar, Wadih; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an increased duration of the action potential contributes to the K+-induced twitch potentiation at 37 degrees C. Twitch contractions were elicited by field stimulation, and action potentials were measured with conventional microelectrodes. For mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, twitch force was greater at 7-13 mM K+ than at 4.7 mM (control). For soleus muscle, twitch force potentiation was observed between 7 and 11 mM K+. Time to peak and half-relaxation time were not affected by the increase in extracellular K+ concentration in EDL muscle, whereas both parameters became significantly longer in soleus muscle. Decrease in overshoot and prolongation of the action potential duration observed at 9 and 11 mM K+ were mimicked when muscles were respectively exposed to 25 and 50 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX; used to partially block Na+ channels). Despite similar action potentials, twitch force was not potentiated by TTX. It is therefore suggested that the K+-induced potentiation of the twitch in EDL muscle is not due to a prolongation of the action potential and contraction time, whereas a longer contraction, especially the relaxation phase, may contribute to the potentiation in soleus muscle.

  19. Molecular dynamics of polymer crystallization revisited: Crystallization from the melt and the glass in longer polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the steady-state growth of the chain folded lamella and the cold crystallization across the glass transition temperature Tg are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation for a system of long polyethylene (PE)-like polymers made of 512 united atoms C512. The present paper aims to reconsider results of our previous simulations for short PE-like polymers C100 by carrying out very long simulations up to 1 μs for more realistic systems of much longer chains, thereby to establish the firm molecular image of chain-folded crystallization and clarify the specific molecular process of cold crystallization. We observe that the chain-folded lamella shows fast thickening-growth keeping marked tapered growth front. Despite the fast growth in much longer chains, the fold-surface is found to be predominantly of adjacent-reentry. Detailed inspections of the molecular pathway give an insightful image that can explain the apparently contradicting results. In addition, the fold-structure with specific spatial heterogeneity is found to give rise to heterogeneous mobility within the crystalline region. On the other hand, investigations of the cold crystallization during slow heating of the glassy film across Tg is found to give a granular texture made of small crystallites. The crystallites are found to nucleate preferentially near the free surfaces having lower Tg, and to be dominantly edge-on showing a definite tendency to orient their chain axes parallel to the free surface.

  20. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures.

  1. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  2. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  3. The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski; Sloane, Douglas M; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-11-01

    Extended work shifts of twelve hours or longer are common and even popular with hospital staff nurses, but little is known about how such extended hours affect the care that patients receive or the well-being of nurses. Survey data from nurses in four states showed that more than 80 percent of the nurses were satisfied with scheduling practices at their hospital. However, as the proportion of hospital nurses working shifts of more than thirteen hours increased, patients' dissatisfaction with care increased. Furthermore, nurses working shifts of ten hours or longer were up to two and a half times more likely than nurses working shorter shifts to experience burnout and job dissatisfaction and to intend to leave the job. Extended shifts undermine nurses' well-being, may result in expensive job turnover, and can negatively affect patient care. Policies regulating work hours for nurses, similar to those set for resident physicians, may be warranted. Nursing leaders should also encourage workplace cultures that respect nurses' days off and vacation time, promote nurses' prompt departure at the end of a shift, and allow nurses to refuse to work overtime without retribution.

  4. Persistent landfalling atmospheric rivers over the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Ashley E.; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    Landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are linked to heavy precipitation and extreme flooding, and are well known along the western coast of North America. The hydrological impacts of ARs upon landfall are correlated with their duration and magnitude. In order to improve the forecast of these hydrologically significant landfalling events, a better understanding of how they differ from other landfalling events must be established through an investigation of the mechanisms leading to their development prior to landfall. A subset of persistent landfalling AR events between 30°N and 50°N is identified in 3-hourly Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis and validated against existing data sets. These events are identified as features in the low troposphere with high moisture transport and extended geometry that persist over a limited region of the coastline for longer than 63 h (85th percentile of AR duration). A composite analysis shows that persistent events have distinct thermodynamical and dynamical characteristics compared to all AR events. They are characterized by greater moisture content, suggestive of Pineapple Express-type events, a perturbed upper level jet and anticyclonic overturning of potential vorticity contours associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking. Moreover, the location of the Rossby wave breaking is shifted inland compared to all AR events. Analogue analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies is used to find nonpersistent events with similar dynamical characteristics to persistent events. Despite their similarity to persistent events, nonpersistent analogues show very little shift toward longer duration. A comparison of the development of persistent and nonpersistent analogues shows that persistent events have much greater moisture content.

  5. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  6. Segmental Dilatation of Intestine Presenting as Partial Intestinal Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Khemakhem, Rachid; Elhassan, Elbager Othman

    2014-01-01

    Segmental dilatation of the intestine in pediatric age group is a rare entity. Patients usually present with partial intestinal obstruction which may delay surgical decision. Our case was an 18-month-old girl, who presented with partial intestinal obstruction, provisionally diagnosed as a case of Hirschsprung’s disease. Diagnostic evaluation with contrast study gave a clue of small intestinal obstruction with a dilated segment. PMID:25057472

  7. Diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Mika A.B.; Adler, Brent H.; Arnold, Michael A.; Kumar, Soma; Carvalho, Ryan; Besner, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    A 7 year old male with a history of congenital neutropenia and growth hormone deficiency presented with abdominal pain, fevers, and diarrhea. Imaging and endoscopy revealed significant inflammation of the ascending colon with stenosis at the level of the hepatic flexure. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and pathologic findings were consistent with diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis. Due to recurrent mass effect at the intestinal anastomotic site detected radiologically, a second intestinal resection was performed 7 months later. Genetic testing was negative for mutations in the RET protooncogene, NF1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes. We report a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child with congenital neutropenia. PMID:23701793

  8. A mathematical model of intestinal oedema formation.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer; Rivière, Béatrice; Cox, Charles S; Uray, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal oedema is a medical condition referring to the build-up of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces of the intestinal wall tissue. Intestinal oedema is known to produce a decrease in intestinal transit caused by a decrease in smooth muscle contractility, which can lead to numerous medical problems for the patient. Interstitial volume regulation has thus far been modelled with ordinary differential equations, or with a partial differential equation system where volume changes depend only on the current pressure and not on updated tissue stress. In this work, we present a computational, partial differential equation model of intestinal oedema formation that overcomes the limitations of past work to present a comprehensive model of the phenomenon. This model includes mass and momentum balance equations which give a time evolution of the interstitial pressure, intestinal volume changes and stress. The model also accounts for the spatially varying mechanical properties of the intestinal tissue and the inhomogeneous distribution of fluid-leaking capillaries that create oedema. The intestinal wall is modelled as a multi-layered, deforming, poroelastic medium, and the system of equations is solved using a discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate the model, simulation results are compared with results from four experimental scenarios. A sensitivity analysis is also provided. The model is able to capture the final submucosal interstitial pressure and total fluid volume change for all four experimental cases, and provide further insight into the distribution of these quantities across the intestinal wall.

  9. A mathematical model of intestinal oedema formation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer; Rivière, Béatrice; Cox, Charles S.; Uray, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal oedema is a medical condition referring to the build-up of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces of the intestinal wall tissue. Intestinal oedema is known to produce a decrease in intestinal transit caused by a decrease in smooth muscle contractility, which can lead to numerous medical problems for the patient. Interstitial volume regulation has thus far been modelled with ordinary differential equations, or with a partial differential equation system where volume changes depend only on the current pressure and not on updated tissue stress. In this work, we present a computational, partial differential equation model of intestinal oedema formation that overcomes the limitations of past work to present a comprehensive model of the phenomenon. This model includes mass and momentum balance equations which give a time evolution of the interstitial pressure, intestinal volume changes and stress. The model also accounts for the spatially varying mechanical properties of the intestinal tissue and the inhomogeneous distribution of fluid-leaking capillaries that create oedema. The intestinal wall is modelled as a multi-layered, deforming, poroelastic medium, and the system of equations is solved using a discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate the model, simulation results are compared with results from four experimental scenarios. A sensitivity analysis is also provided. The model is able to capture the final submucosal interstitial pressure and total fluid volume change for all four experimental cases, and provide further insight into the distribution of these quantities across the intestinal wall. PMID:23036806

  10. Intraoperative scintigraphy for active small intestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, A.; Palestro, C.; Lewis, B.S.; Katz, L.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Localizing active sites of bleeding within the small intestine remains a difficult task. Endoscopic, angiographic or scintigraphic studies may point to the small intestine as the site of blood loss, but at operation, without a palpable lesion, the exact site of bleeding remains elusive. Patients are managed at laparotomy with intraoperative endoscopy, angiography, multiple enterotomies, blind resections, or placement of an enterostomy. We describe two patients in whom intraoperative scintigraphy accurately identified active sites of bleeding in the small intestine when other modalities failed. Intraoperative scintigraphy is rapid, easy to perform and is an effective means of identifying active sites of bleeding within the small intestine.

  11. Development of intestinal transport function in mammals.

    PubMed

    Pácha, J

    2000-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in the understanding of mechanisms responsible for the ontogenetic changes of mammalian intestine. This review presents the current knowledge about the development of intestinal transport function in the context of intestinal mucosa ontogeny. The review predominantly focuses on signals that trigger and/or modulate the developmental changes of intestinal transport. After an overview of the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal mucosa, data about the bidirectional traffic (absorption and secretion) across the developing intestinal epithelium are presented. The largest part of the review is devoted to the description of developmental patterns concerning the absorption of nutrients, ions, water, vitamins, trace elements, and milk-borne biologically active substances. Furthermore, the review examines the development of intestinal secretion that has a variety of functions including maintenance of the fluidity of the intestinal content, lubrication of mucosal surface, and mucosal protection. The age-dependent shifts of absorption and secretion are the subject of integrated regulatory mechanisms, and hence, the input of hormonal, nervous, immune, and dietary signals is reviewed. Finally, the utilization of energy for transport processes in the developing intestine is highlighted, and the interactions between various sources of energy are discussed. The review ends with suggestions concerning possible directions of future research.

  12. Intestinal barriers to bacteria and their toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.I.; Owen, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Immunologic and nonimmunologic processes work together to protect the host from the multitude of microorganisms residing within the intestinal lumen. Mechanical integrity of the intestinal epithelium, mucus in combination with secretory antibody, antimicrobial metabolites of indigenous microorganisms, and peristalsis each limit proliferation and systemic dissemination of enteric pathogens. Uptake of microorganisms by Peyer's patches and other intestinal lymphoid structures and translocation circumvent the mucosal barrier, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. Improved understanding of the composition and limitation of the intestinal barrier, coupled with advances in genetic engineering of immunogenic bacteria, development of oral delivery systems, and immunomodulators, now make enhancement of mucosal barriers feasible. 32 references.

  13. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans.

    PubMed

    Shivekar, S; Senthil, K; Srinivasan, R; Sureshbabu, L; Chand, P; Shanmugam, J; Gopal, R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  14. Update on small intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tesori, Valentina; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-08-07

    Among somatic stem cells, those residing in the intestine represent a fascinating and poorly explored research field. Particularly, somatic stem cells reside in the small intestine at the level of the crypt base, in a constant balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Aim of the present review is to delve into the mechanisms that regulate the delicate equilibrium through which intestinal stem cells orchestrate intestinal architecture. To this aim, special focus will be addressed to identify the integrating signals from the surrounding niche, supporting a model whereby distinct cell populations facilitate homeostatic vs injury-induced regeneration.

  15. Cystic Fibrosis-Related Oxidative Stress and Intestinal Lipid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleme, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disorder in the Caucasian people. It is due to the mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene located on the long arm of the chromosome 7, which encodes for CFTR protein. The latter, an adenosine triphosphate binding cassette, is a transmembrane chloride channel that is also involved in glutathione transport. As glutathione/glutathione disulfide constitutes the most important pool of cellular redox systems, CFTR defects could thus disrupt the intracellular redox balance. Resulting multisystemic diseases are essentially characterized by a chronic respiratory failure, a pancreatic insufficiency, an essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), and inadequate levels of antioxidant vitamins. Recent Advances: The pathophysiology of CF is complex; however, several mechanisms are proposed, including oxidative stress (OxS) whose implication is recognized and has been clearly demonstrated in CF airways. Critical Issues: Little is known about OxS intrinsic triggers and its own involvement in intestinal lipid disorders. Despite the regular administration of pancreatic supplements, high-fat high-calorie diets, and antioxidant fat-soluble vitamins, there is a persistence of steatorrhea, EFAD, and harmful OxS. Intriguingly, several trials with elevated doses of antioxidant vitamins have not yielded significant improvements. Future Directions: The main sources and self-maintenance of OxS in CF should be clarified to improve treatment of patients. Therefore, this review will discuss the potential sources and study the mechanisms of OxS in the intestine, known to develop various complications, and its involvement in intestinal lipid disorders in CF patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 614–631. PMID:25611180

  16. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  17. Advanced Intestinal Cancers often Maintain a Multi-Ancestral Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Christopher D.; Szulczewski, Joseph M.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Paul Olson, Terrah J.; Clipson, Linda; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Middlebrooks, Malisa; Thliveris, Andrew T.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Washington, Mary Kay; Newton, Michael A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    A widely accepted paradigm in the field of cancer biology is that solid tumors are uni-ancestral being derived from a single founder and its descendants. However, data have been steadily accruing that indicate early tumors in mice and humans can have a multi-ancestral origin in which an initiated primogenitor facilitates the transformation of neighboring co-genitors. We developed a new mouse model that permits the determination of clonal architecture of intestinal tumors in vivo and ex vivo, have validated this model, and then used it to assess the clonal architecture of adenomas, intramucosal carcinomas, and invasive adenocarcinomas of the intestine. The percentage of multi-ancestral tumors did not significantly change as tumors progressed from adenomas with low-grade dysplasia [40/65 (62%)], to adenomas with high-grade dysplasia [21/37 (57%)], to intramucosal carcinomas [10/23 (43%]), to invasive adenocarcinomas [13/19 (68%)], indicating that the clone arising from the primogenitor continues to coexist with clones arising from co-genitors. Moreover, neoplastic cells from distinct clones within a multi-ancestral adenocarcinoma have even been observed to simultaneously invade into the underlying musculature [2/15 (13%)]. Thus, intratumoral heterogeneity arising early in tumor formation persists throughout tumorigenesis. PMID:26919712

  18. Application of three-dimensional imaging to the intestinal crypt organoids and biopsied intestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Liu, Yuan-An; Lee, Shih-Hua; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor's intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the muscle layer, while the recipient's intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients.

  19. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: a reservoir for persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wang, Yin; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlamydiae persist in vivo remains undefined; however, chlamydiae in most animals persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Oral infection of mice with Chlamydia muridarum was previously shown to establish a long-term persistent infection in the GI tract. In this study, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C57Bl/6 mice, infected orally with C. muridarum, were infected in the cecum for as long as 100 days in the absence of pathology. The primary target tissue was the cecum although the large intestine was also infected in most animals. A strong serum IgG and cecal IgA antibody response developed. Lymphocyte proliferation assays to chlamydial antigen on mesenteric lymph node cells were positive by day 10 and peaked on days 15–21, but the response returned to baseline levels by 50 days, despite the ongoing presence of the organism in the cecum. Since studies have shown that women and men become infected orally with chlamydiae, we propose that the GI tract is a site of persistent infection and that immune down-regulation in the gut allows chlamydiae to persist indefinitely. As a result, women may become reinfected via contamination of the genital tract from the lower GI tract. PMID:23843274

  20. Addition of omega-3 carboxylic acids to statin therapy in patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H; Phillips, Alyssa K; Kling, Douglas; Maki, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia has grown alongside that of obesity. Statin therapy has been widely recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemias. Omega-3 (OM3) fatty acid concentrates are commonly prescribed concurrently with statins in patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia for additional lowering of triglyceride and non-HDL cholesterol. The bioavailability of currently available OM3 ethyl ester drugs is limited by their need for hydrolysis by pancreatic lipases, largely stimulated by dietary fat, prior to intestinal absorption. This review will discuss the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of a novel OM3 carboxylic acid drug that provides polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids in the free fatty acid form, which is readily absorbed by the intestine. This drug was approved in May 2014 as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride levels in adults with severe (≥500 mg/dl) hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Effect of Temperature, Grain Size and Organic Content on Persistence of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Aquatic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N. T.; Juhl, A. R.; O'Mullan, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic bacteria from poorly treated sewage present a health threat in recreational waters. Sewage derived bacteria can attach to particles and sink to the bottom, where they may persist longer than in the water column. If sewage derived bacteria persist, contaminated sediments may function as a reservoir for indicator bacteria and pathogens that can be resuspended, recontaminating the water column. We quantified the persistence of the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp., in aquatic sediment microcosms in relation to sediment organic content, grain size and temperature. Surface sediment used for microcosms came from 5 near shore Hudson River estuary sites with different grain size distributions and organic content. Sediments from each location were divided into three separate containers that were then incubated in darkness at 18°, 25° and 30° C for several weeks. Subsamples were collected from each microcosm approximately weekly to track the decay of the FIB as a function of time. Duration required for 90% decay in different microcosms ranged from 6.7 to 63 days for E. coli and 5.1 to 60 days for Enterococcus sp., longer than has been typically observed in the water column. Our measurements of E. coli persistence were also longer than described in previous work. We found that E. coli persistence was strongly related to temperature with faster decay at higher temperatures. In contrast, Enterococcus sp. persistence was weakly related to temperature but was strongly related to sediment organic content and grain size distribution with decay rate increasing in sediments of low organic content and coarser grain size. Quantification of FIB persistence in sediment reservoirs can be used in water quality and public health predictions. The contrasting responses of E. coli and Enterococcus sp. persistence to sediment characteristics implies different suitability as indicators depending on environmental conditions.

  2. Persistent Pneumonia in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Kristen; Logan, Latania; Codispoti, Christopher; Jones, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month-old boy with past medical history of eczema presented with fever and cough; a chest radiograph showed lung consolidation, and he was initially treated with amoxicillin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia. After several days, his fever persisted. He was also profoundly anemic. Antibiotic coverage was broadened because of the concern for resistant organisms; he began to improve and was discharged from the hospital. However, at 5 months of age, his fever returned, and he continued to demonstrate lung consolidation on chest radiograph. Additionally, he had lost weight and continued to be anemic. Splenic cysts were noted on abdominal ultrasound. He was diagnosed with an unusual etiology for his pneumonia and improved with the appropriate therapy. An underlying immunodeficiency was suspected, but initial testing was nondiagnostic. At 12 months of age, he presented with another infection, and the final diagnosis was made. PMID:26122810

  3. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  4. Persistent nicorandil induced oral ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Healy, C M; Smyth, Y; Flint, S R

    2004-01-01

    Four patients with nicorandil induced ulceration are described, and the literature on the subject is reviewed. Nicorandil induced ulcers are very painful and distressing for patients. Clinically they appear as large, deep, persistent ulcers that have punched out edges. They are poorly responsive to topical steroids and usually require alteration of nicorandil treatment. The ulceration tends to occur at high doses of nicorandil and all four cases reported here were on doses of 40 mg per day or greater. In these situations reduction of nicorandil dose may be sufficient to promote ulcer healing and prevent further recurrence. However, nicorandil induced ulcers have been reported at doses as low as 10 mg daily and complete cessation of nicorandil may be required. PMID:15201264

  5. Persistent Pneumonia in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Kristen; Logan, Latania; Codispoti, Christopher; Jones, Carolyn; Van Opstal, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    A 4-month-old boy with past medical history of eczema presented with fever and cough; a chest radiograph showed lung consolidation, and he was initially treated with amoxicillin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia. After several days, his fever persisted. He was also profoundly anemic. Antibiotic coverage was broadened because of the concern for resistant organisms; he began to improve and was discharged from the hospital. However, at 5 months of age, his fever returned, and he continued to demonstrate lung consolidation on chest radiograph. Additionally, he had lost weight and continued to be anemic. Splenic cysts were noted on abdominal ultrasound. He was diagnosed with an unusual etiology for his pneumonia and improved with the appropriate therapy. An underlying immunodeficiency was suspected, but initial testing was nondiagnostic. At 12 months of age, he presented with another infection, and the final diagnosis was made.

  6. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  7. Incidence, Clinical Characteristics and Attributable Mortality of Persistent Bloodstream Infection in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jen-Fu; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yang, Pong-Hong; Lien, Reyin; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Tsai, Ming-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Background An atypical pattern of neonatal sepsis, characterized by persistent positive blood culture despite effective antimicrobial therapy, has been correlated with adverse outcomes. However, previous studies focused only on coagulate-negative staphylococcus infection. Methods All episodes of persistent bloodstream infection (BSI), defined as 3 or more consecutive positive blood cultures with the same bacterial species, at least two of them 48 hours apart, during a single sepsis episode, were enrolled over an 8-year period in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit. These cases were compared with all non-persistent BSI during the same period. Results We identified 81 episodes of persistent BSI (8.5% of all neonatal late-onset sepsis) in 74 infants, caused by gram-positive pathogens (n=38, 46.9%), gram-negative pathogens (n=21, 25.9%), fungus (n=20, 24.7%) and polymicrobial bacteremia (n=2, 2.5%). Persistent BSI does not differ from non-persistent BSI in most clinical characteristics and patient demographics, but tends to have a prolonged septic course, longer duration of feeding intolerance and more frequent requirement of blood transfusions. No difference was observed for death attributable to infection (9.8% vs. 6.5%), but neonates with persistent BSI had significantly higher rates of infectious complications (29.6% vs. 9.2%, P < 0.001), death from all causes (21.6% vs. 11.7%, P = 0.025), and duration of hospitalization among survivors [median (interquartile range): 80.0 (52.5-117.5) vs. 64.0 (40.0-96.0) days, P = 0.005] than those without persistent BSI. Conclusions Although persistent BSI does not contribute directly to increased mortality, the associated morbidities, infectious complications and prolonged septic courses highlight the importance of aggressive treatment to optimize outcomes. PMID:25875677

  8. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Hansen, Helen M.; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S.; Madsen, Nils R.; Bracci, Paige M.; Pico, Alexander R.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Wiencke, John K.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82×10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48×10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83×10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis. PMID:26646793

  9. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle M; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P; Smirnov, Ivan V; McCoy, Lucie S; Hansen, Helen M; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S; Madsen, Nils R; Bracci, Paige M; Pico, Alexander R; Molinaro, Annette M; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Jenkins, Robert B; Wiemels, Joseph L; Samani, Nilesh J; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82x10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48x10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83x10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis.

  10. Longer Duration of Diabetes Strongly Impacts Fracture Risk Assessment: The Manitoba BMD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit R.; Lix, Lisa M.; Morin, Suzanne N.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Kanis, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a higher risk for major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) and hip fracture than predicted by the World Health Organization fracture risk assessment (FRAX) tool. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the impact of diabetes duration on fracture risk. Methods: Using a clinical dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry registry linked with the Manitoba administrative databases, we identified all women age 40 years or older with 10 or more years of prior health care coverage undergoing hip dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements (1996–2013). Incident MOF and incident hip fractures were each studied over 7 years. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for FRAX (FRAX adjusted) and then FRAX plus comorbidity, falls, osteoporosis therapy, or insulin (fully adjusted). FRAX calibration was assessed comparing observed vs predicted probabilities. Results: There were 49 098 women without and 8840 women with diabetes (31.4% >10 y duration; 20.1% 5–10 y; 23.7% <5 y; 24.8% new onset). In FRAX-adjusted analyses, only duration longer than 10 years was associated with a higher risk for MOF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–1.66), and this was similar in the fully adjusted models (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17–1.54). In contrast, a higher risk for hip fracture was seen for all durations in a dose-dependent fashion (eg, FRAX adjusted HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.71–2.59 for duration >10 y vs HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03–1.69 for new onset). FRAX significantly underestimated the MOF risk (calibration ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.08–1.39) and hip fracture risk (1.93, 95% CI 1.50–2.35) in those with a diabetes duration longer than 10 years. Conclusion: Diabetes is a FRAX-independent risk factor for MOF only in women with a long duration of diabetes, but diabetes increases hip fracture risk, regardless of duration. Those with diabetes longer than 10 years are at particularly high risk of fracture, and this elevated risk is

  11. [Intestinal giardiasis. Mini-review].

    PubMed

    Rivera, María; de la Parte, María A; Hurtado, Pilar; Magaldi, Luis; Collazo, María

    2002-06-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a common parasite in our country and the rest of the world and is responsible for several clinical disturbances that include dysentery type diarrheas, recurrent abdominal pain, duodenitis, jejunitis, cholecystitis and in some cases toxemias and convulsions. In this paper we review recent concepts of intestinal giardiasis, considering the basic aspects of the biology and physiology of Giardia intestinalis, its morphology and its relationship the parasite pathogenicity. We detail the physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the different clinic manifestations of giardiasis, the specific laboratory and endoscopic methods of diagnosis and the most recent advances in the treatment and prophylaxis of this disease.

  12. [Intestinal complications from vascular prostheses].

    PubMed

    Fernández, C; Calvete, J; García, J; Buch, E; Castells, P; Lledó, S

    1993-01-01

    Secondary FAE is a rare complication, usually located at the duodenum. The typical clinical presentation is like a digestive hemorrhage or a sepsis. We report two cases of FAE with atypical manifestations. The first case presented a lower digestive hemorrhage produced by the fistulization to the sigma. The second case appeared like an intestinal obliteration caused by the full emigration of a prosthesis to the jejunum. We wish to remark the importance of the clinical suspicion of a FAE (Key of diagnosis), and the sparing relevance of the complementary examinations and the urgency of a surgical treatment in order to avoid the high rate of morbi-mortality associated with this complication.

  13. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria

  14. Extraversion predicts longer survival in gorillas: an 18-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Gartner, Marieke C; Gold, Kenneth C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2013-02-07

    Personality plays an important role in determining human health and risk of earlier death. However, the mechanisms underlying those associations remain unknown. We moved away from testing hypotheses rooted in the activities of modern humans, by testing whether these associations are ancestral and one side of a trade-off between fitness costs and benefits. We examined personality predictors of survival in 283 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) followed for 18 years. We found that of four gorilla personality dimensions--dominance, extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness--extraversion was associated with longer survival. This effect could not be explained by demographic information or husbandry practices. These findings suggest that understanding how extraversion and other personality domains influence longevity requires investigating the evolutionary bases of this association in nonhuman primates and other species.

  15. Achieving more frequent and longer dialysis for the majority: wearable dialysis and implantable artificial kidney devices.

    PubMed

    Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.

  16. Ocean surface temperature variability: Large model–data differences at decadal and longer periods

    PubMed Central

    Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST variability between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST variability obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST variability that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in variability are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical variability at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change. PMID:25385623

  17. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers*

    PubMed Central

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life–cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption–expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households’ retirement–age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption–expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000. PMID:23729902

  18. VEP in neglect patients have longer latencies for luminance but not for chromatic patterns.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, D; Angelelli, P; De Luca, M; Burr, D C

    1996-02-29

    In patients with unilateral neglect, visual evoked potentials (VEP) to stimuli displayed in the left visual field are delayed compared with responses to right visual field stimuli. In the present study, 10 patients with right brain damage and neglect were tested with contrast-reversed sinusoidal gratings, modulated either in luminance or in chromaticity. For gratings of luminance contrast modulated over relatively high temporal frequencies (4-10.5 Hz), latencies of VEP were about 30 ms longer for stimuli presented to the contralesional (left) visual field than to the field ipsilateral to the lesion. For equiluminant stimuli modulated at relatively low temporal frequencies (1-4 Hz), however, latency was the same for both hemifields. As this condition activates predominately the parvocellular pathway the results are consistent with our previous suggestion that the delay observed with luminance stimuli in neglect patients results from selective disruption of the faster response of the magnocellular pathway.

  19. Break-out afterburner ion acceleration in the longer laser pulse length regime

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernndez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Henig, A.; Bowers, K. J.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-06-15

    Kinetic simulations of break-out-afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration from nm-scale targets are examined in a longer pulse length regime than studied previously. It is shown that when the target becomes relativistically transparent to the laser, an epoch of dramatic acceleration of ions occurs that lasts until the electron density in the expanding target reduces to the critical density in the non-relativistic limit. For given laser parameters, the optimal target thickness yielding the highest maximum ion energy is one in which this time window for ion acceleration overlaps with the intensity peak of the laser pulse. A simple analytic model of relativistically induced transparency is presented for plasma expansion at the time-evolving sound speed, from which these times may be estimated. The maximum ion energy attainable is controlled by the finite acceleration volume and time over which the BOA acts.

  20. Break-out afterburner ion acceleration in the longer laser pulse length regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Jung, D.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Bowers, K. J.; Henig, A.; Fern´ndez, J. C.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-06-01

    Kinetic simulations of break-out-afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration from nm-scale targets are examined in a longer pulse length regime than studied previously. It is shown that when the target becomes relativistically transparent to the laser, an epoch of dramatic acceleration of ions occurs that lasts until the electron density in the expanding target reduces to the critical density in the non-relativistic limit. For given laser parameters, the optimal target thickness yielding the highest maximum ion energy is one in which this time window for ion acceleration overlaps with the intensity peak of the laser pulse. A simple analytic model of relativistically induced transparency is presented for plasma expansion at the time-evolving sound speed, from which these times may be estimated. The maximum ion energy attainable is controlled by the finite acceleration volume and time over which the BOA acts.

  1. Targeted treatment trials for tuberous sclerosis and autism: no longer a dream.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa

    2012-10-01

    Genetic disorders that present with a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer tremendous potential both for elucidating the underlying neurobiology of ASD and identifying therapeutic drugs and/or drug targets. As a result, clinical trials for genetic disorders associated with ASD are no longer a hope for the future but rather an exciting reality whose time has come. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one such genetic disorder that presents with ASD, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Cell culture and mouse model experiments have identified the mTOR pathway as a therapeutic target in this disease. This review summarizes the advantages of using TSC as model of ASD and the recent advances in the translational and clinical treatment trials in TSC.

  2. Implementation of active steering on longer combination vehicles for enhanced lateral performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharrazi, Sogol; Lidberg, Mathias; Roebuck, Richard; Fredriksson, Jonas; Odhams, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    A steering-based controller for improving lateral performance of longer combination vehicles (LCVs) is proposed. The controller steers the axles of the towed units to regulate the time span between the driver steering and generation of tyre lateral forces at the towed units and consequently reduces the yaw rate rearward amplification (RWA) and offtracking. The open-loop effectiveness of the controller is evaluated with simulations and its closed loop or driver in the loop effectiveness is verified on a test track with a truck-dolly-semitrailer test vehicle in a series of single- and double-lane change manoeuvres. The developed controller reduces the yaw rate RWA and offtracking considerably without diminishing the manoeuvrability. Furthermore, as a byproduct, it decreases the lateral acceleration RWA moderately. The obtained safety improvements by the proposed controller can promote the use of LCVs in traffic which will result in the reduction of congestion problem as well as environmental and economic benefits.

  3. Ocean surface temperature variability: large model-data differences at decadal and longer periods.

    PubMed

    Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter

    2014-11-25

    The variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST variability between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST variability obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST variability that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in variability are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical variability at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change.

  4. Short arms and talking eggs: Why we should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John P; Blumberg, Mark S; McMurray, Bob; Robinson, Scott R; Samuelson, Larissa K; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2009-08-01

    The nativist-empiricist debate and the nativist commitment to the idea of core knowledge and endowments that exist without relevant postnatal experience continue to distract attention from the reality of developmental systems. The developmental systems approach embraces the concept of epigenesis, that is, the view that development emerges via cascades of interactions across multiple levels of causation, from genes to environments. This view is rooted in a broader interpretation of experience and an appreciation for the nonobvious nature of development. We illustrate this systems approach with examples from studies of imprinting, spatial cognition, and language development, revealing the inadequacies of the nativist-empiricist debate and the inconvenient truths of development. Developmental scientists should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate and nativists' ungrounded focus on origins. Rather, the future lies in grounding our science in contemporary theory and developmental process.

  5. Do OSCAR winners live longer than less successful peers? A reanalysis of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Huszti, Ella; Hanley, James A

    2006-09-05

    In an article published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 2001, Redelmeier and Singh reported that Academy Award-winning actors and actresses lived almost 4 years longer than their less successful peers. However, the statistical method used to derive this statistically significant difference gave winners an unfair advantage because it credited an Oscar winner's years of life before winning toward survival subsequent to winning. When the authors of the current article reanalyzed the data using methods that avoided this "immortal time" bias, the survival advantage was closer to 1 year and was not statistically significant. The type of bias in Redelmeier and Singh's study is not limited to longevity comparisons of persons who reach different ranks within their profession; it can, and often does, occur in nonexperimental studies of life- or time-extending benefits of medical interventions. The current authors suggest ways in which researchers and readers may avoid and recognize this bias.

  6. The protective effect of longer duration of breastfeeding against pregnancy-associated triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ElShmay, Wael M.

    2016-01-01

    Parity associated breast cancer (PABC) often diagnosed within the 2-5 years after a full term pregnancy. PABC is usually present with more advanced, poorly differentiated, high-grade cancers that show shorter time to progression and often of the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. Data from around the world show that pregnancy-associated TNBC is independently associated with poor survival, underscoring the impact of the pregnant breast microenvironment on the biology and consequently the prognosis of these tumors. Although it is not yet clear, a link between pregnancy-associated TNBCs and lack or shorter duration of breastfeeding (not pregnancy per se) has been proposed. Here, we present epidemiological and experimental evidence for the protective effect of longer duration of lactation against pregnancy-associated TNBCs, and propose a putative molecular mechanism for this protective effect and its effect in eliminating any potential TNBC precursors from the breast by the end of the natural breast involution. PMID:27248476

  7. Extraversion predicts longer survival in gorillas: an 18-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alexander; Gartner, Marieke C.; Gold, Kenneth C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality plays an important role in determining human health and risk of earlier death. However, the mechanisms underlying those associations remain unknown. We moved away from testing hypotheses rooted in the activities of modern humans, by testing whether these associations are ancestral and one side of a trade-off between fitness costs and benefits. We examined personality predictors of survival in 283 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) followed for 18 years. We found that of four gorilla personality dimensions—dominance, extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness—extraversion was associated with longer survival. This effect could not be explained by demographic information or husbandry practices. These findings suggest that understanding how extraversion and other personality domains influence longevity requires investigating the evolutionary bases of this association in nonhuman primates and other species. PMID:23222443

  8. Why the bigger live longer and travel farther: animals, vehicles, rivers and the winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2012-08-01

    Here we show that constructal-law physics unifies the design of animate and inanimate movement by requiring that larger bodies move farther, and their movement on the landscape last longer. The life span of mammals must scale as the body mass (M) raised to the power 1/4, and the distance traveled during the lifetime must increase with body size. The same size effect on life span and distance traveled holds for the other flows that move mass on earth: atmospheric and oceanic jets and plumes, river basins, animals and human operated vehicles. The physics is the same for all flow systems on the landscape: the scaling rules of ``design'' are expressions of the natural tendency of all flow systems to generate designs that facilitate flow access. This natural tendency is the constructal law of design and evolution in nature. Larger bodies are more efficient movers of mass on the landscape.

  9. Association of germ-free mice with a simplified human intestinal microbiota results in a shortened intestine.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Kathleen; Krupova, Zuzana; Rabot, Sylvie; Loh, Gunnar; Levenez, Florence; Descamps, Amandine; Lepage, Patricia; Doré, Joël; Bellier, Sylvain; Blaut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Genetic, nutritional, and gut microbiota-derived factors have been proposed to play a role in the development of the whole intestine that is around 40% longer in PRM/Alf mice compared with other mouse strains. The PRM/Alf genotype explains 60% of this length difference. The remaining 40% are due to a maternal effect that could depend on the gut microbiota transmitted by the mother to their pups. Germ-free PRM/Alf mice and C3H/He mice were associated with a simplified human microbiota (SIHUMI) to study its impact on gut length. The small intestines of the SIHUMI-associated mice were 16.4% (PRM/Alf) and 9.7% (C3H/He) shorter than those of the corresponding germ-free counterparts. Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative real-time PCR revealed differences in microbiota composition between both SIHUMI-associated mouse strains. Anaerostipes caccae was one log lower in PRM/Alf mice than in C3H/He mice. Since polyamines and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important intestinal growth factors, their concentrations were explored. Cecal concentrations of putrescine, spermine, spermidine, and N-acetylspermine were 1.5-fold, 3.7-fold, 2.2-fold, and 1.4-fold higher, respectively, in the SIHUMI-C3H/He mice compared with the SIHUMI-PRM/Alf mice. In addition, cecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations in SIHUMI-C3H/He mice were 1.4-fold, 1.1-fold, and 2.1-fold higher, respectively, than in SIHUMI-PRM/Alf mice. These results indicate that polyamines and SCFAs did not promote gut lengthening in any of the two mouse strains. This suggests that as yet unknown factors provided by the SIHUMI prevented gut lengthening in the SIHUMI-associated mice compared with the germfree mice.

  10. Dissecting the roles of local packing density and longer-range effects in protein sequence evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Wilke, Claus O

    2016-06-01

    What are the structural determinants of protein sequence evolution? A number of site-specific structural characteristics have been proposed, most of which are broadly related to either the density of contacts or the solvent accessibility of individual residues. Most importantly, there has been disagreement in the literature over the relative importance of solvent accessibility and local packing density for explaining site-specific sequence variability in proteins. We show that this discussion has been confounded by the definition of local packing density. The most commonly used measures of local packing, such as contact number and the weighted contact number, represent the combined effects of local packing density and longer-range effects. As an alternative, we propose a truly local measure of packing density around a single residue, based on the Voronoi cell volume. We show that the Voronoi cell volume, when calculated relative to the geometric center of amino-acid side chains, behaves nearly identically to the relative solvent accessibility, and each individually can explain, on average, approximately 34% of the site-specific variation in evolutionary rate in a data set of 209 enzymes. An additional 10% of variation can be explained by nonlocal effects that are captured in the weighted contact number. Consequently, evolutionary variation at a site is determined by the combined effects of the immediate amino-acid neighbors of that site and effects mediated by more distant amino acids. We conclude that instead of contrasting solvent accessibility and local packing density, future research should emphasize on the relative importance of immediate contacts and longer-range effects on evolutionary variation. Proteins 2016; 84:841-854. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Longer term effects of New York State's law on drivers' handheld cell phone use

    PubMed Central

    McCartt, A; Geary, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether substantial short term declines in drivers' use of handheld cell phones, after a state ban, were sustained one year later. Design: Drivers' daytime handheld cell phone use was observed in four New York communities and two Connecticut communities. Observations were conducted one month before the ban, shortly after, and 16 months after. Driver gender, estimated age, and vehicle type were recorded for phone users and a sample of motorists. Intervention: Effective 1 November 2001, New York became the only state in the United States to ban drivers' handheld cell phone use. Connecticut is an adjacent state without such a law. Sample: 50 033 drivers in New York, 28 307 drivers in Connecticut. Outcome measures: Drivers' handheld cell phone use rates in New York and Connecticut and rates by driver characteristics. Results: Overall use rates in Connecticut did not change. Overall use in New York declined from 2.3% pre-law to 1.1% shortly after (p<0.05). One year later, use was 2.1%, higher than immediately post-law (p<0.05) and not significantly different from pre-law. Initial declines in use followed by longer term increases were observed for males and females, drivers younger than 60, and car and van drivers; use patterns varied among the four communities. Publicity declined after the law's implementation. No targeted enforcement efforts were evident. Cell phone citations issued during the first 15 months represented 2% of all traffic citations. Conclusions: Vigorous enforcement campaigns accompanied by publicity appear necessary to achieve longer term compliance with bans on drivers' cell phone use. PMID:14760020

  12. Gait changes in a line of mice artificially selected for longer limbs

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Leah M.; Pellatt, Emily; Yu, Sabrina S.; Raichlen, David A.; Pontzer, Herman

    2017-01-01

    In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training. Here, we compared spatiotemporal kinematics of gait in Longshanks, a long-legged mouse line created through artificial selection, and in random-bred, mass-matched Control mice raised under identical conditions. We used a gait treadmill to test the hypothesis that Longshanks have longer stance phases and stride lengths, and decreased stride frequencies in both fore- and hind limbs, compared with Controls. Our results indicate that gait differs significantly between the two groups. Specifically, and as hypothesized, stance duration and stride length are 8–10% greater in Longshanks, while stride frequency is 8% lower than in Controls. However, there was no difference in the touch-down timing and sequence of the paws between the two lines. Taken together, these data suggest that, for a given speed, Longshanks mice take significantly fewer, longer steps to cover the same distance or running time compared to Controls, with important implications for other measures of variation among individuals in whole-organism performance, such as the metabolic cost of transport. PMID:28243533

  13. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  14. Entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker to longer-than-24-h days

    PubMed Central

    Gronfier, Claude; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to the light:dark cycle is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-h day. Nonentrainment results in sleep, endocrine, and neurobehavioral impairments. Exposures to intermittent bright light pulses have been reported to phase shift the circadian pacemaker with great efficacy. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a modulated light exposure (MLE) with bright light pulses in the evening would entrain subjects to a light:dark cycle 1 h longer than their own circadian period (τ). Twelve subjects underwent a 65-day inpatient study. Individual subject's circadian period was determined in a forced desynchrony protocol. Subsequently, subjects were released into 30 longer-than-24-h days (daylength of τ + 1 h) in one of three light:dark conditions: (i) ≈25 lux; (ii) ≈100 lux; and (iii) MLE: ≈25 lux followed by ≈100 lux, plus two 45-min bright light pulses of ≈9,500 lux near the end of scheduled wakefulness. We found that lighting levels of ≈25 lux were insufficient to entrain all subjects tested. Exposure to ≈100 lux was sufficient to entrain subjects, although at a significantly wider phase angle compared with baseline. Exposure to MLE was able to entrain the subjects to the imposed sleep–wake cycles but at a phase angle comparable to baseline. These results suggest that MLE can be used to entrain the circadian pacemaker to non-24-h days. The implications of these findings are important because they could be used to treat circadian misalignment associated with space flight and circadian rhythm sleep disorders such as shift-work disorder. PMID:17502598

  15. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs. PMID:26779075

  16. Long-term outcomes of living-related small intestinal transplantation in children: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Garcia Aroz, Sandra; Tzvetanov, Ivo; Hetterman, Elizabeth Anne; Jeon, Hoonbae; Oberholzer, Jose; Testa, Giuliano; John, Eunice; Benedetti, Enrico

    2017-03-12

    Pediatric patients with irreversible intestinal failure present a significant challenge to meet the nutritional needs that promote growth. From 2002 to 2013, 13 living-related small intestinal transplantations were performed in 10 children, with a median age of 18 months. Grafts included isolated living-related intestinal transplantation (n=7), and living-related liver and small intestine (n=6). The immunosuppression protocol consisted of induction with thymoglobulin and maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and steroids. Seven of 10 children are currently alive with a functioning graft and good quality of life. Six of the seven children who are alive have a follow-up longer than 10 years. The average time to initiation of oral diet was 32 days (range, 13-202 days). The median day for ileostomy takedown was 77 (range, 18-224 days). Seven children are on an oral diet, and one of them is on supplements at night through a g-tube. We observed an improvement in growth during the first 3 years post-transplant and progressive weight gain throughout the first year post-transplantation. Growth catch-up and weight gain plateaued after these time periods. We concluded that living donor intestinal transplantation potentially offers a feasible, alternative strategy for long-term treatment of irreversible intestinal failure in children.

  17. Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Hydrolytic transformation of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters; used as antibacterial agents) to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols by tissue microsomes is well-known both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated transesterification reactions of parabens catalyzed by rat and human microsomes, using a series of 12 parabens with C1-C12 alcohol side chains. Transesterification of parabens by rat liver and small-intestinal microsomes occurred in the presence of alcohols in the microsomal incubation mixture. Among the 12 parabens, propylparaben was most effectively transesterified by rat liver microsomes with methanol or ethanol, followed by butylparaben. Relatively low activity was observed with longer-side-chain parabens. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited higher activity towards moderately long side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity toward octylparaben. When parabens were incubated with liver or small-intestinal microsomes in the presence of C1-C12 alcohols, ethanol and decanol were most effectively transferred to parabens by rat liver microsomes and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human liver and small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited significant transesterification activities with different substrate specificities, like rat microsomes. Carboxylesterase isoforms, CES1b and CES1c, and CES2, exhibited significant transesterification activity toward parabens, and showed similar substrate specificity to human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively.

  18. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, Dorthe; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Jacobsen, Bodil Lund

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG1 was investigated in the model. The plasmid encodes resistance to tetracycline. Numbers of recipient, donor, and transconjugant bacteria were monitored by selective plating of fecal samples, and transconjugants were subsequently verified by PCR. After being ingested by the mini-pigs, the recipient strain persisted in the intestine at levels between 10(6) and 10(7) CFU per g of feces throughout the experiment. The donor strain, which carried different resistance markers but was otherwise chromosomally isogenic to the recipient strain, was given to the pigs 3 weeks after the recipient strain. The donor cells were initially present in high numbers (10(6) CFU per g) in feces, but they did not persist in the intestine at detectable levels. Immediately after introduction of the donor bacteria, transconjugant cells appeared and persisted in fecal samples at levels between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU per g until the end of the experiment. These observations showed that even in the absence of selective tetracycline pressure, plasmid pCF10 was transferred from ingested E. faecalis cells to other E. faecalis organisms already present in the intestinal environment and that the plasmid subsequently persisted in the intestine.

  19. Host responses to persistent Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in surgically isolated bovine ileal segments.

    PubMed

    Charavaryamath, Chandrashekhar; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Fries, Patrick; Gomis, Susantha; Doig, Kimberley; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip J

    2013-02-01

    A lack of appropriate disease models has limited our understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent enteric infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A model was developed for the controlled delivery of a defined dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves. The stable intestinal segments enabled the characterization of host responses to persistent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections after a 9-month period, including an analysis of local mucosal immune responses relative to an adjacent uninfected intestinal compartment. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained localized at the initial site of intestinal infection and was not detected by PCR in the mesenteric lymph node. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T cell proliferative responses included both CD4 and γδ T cell receptor (γδTcR) T cell responses in the draining mesenteric lymph node. The levels of CD8(+) and γδTcR(+) T cells increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lamina propria, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon secretion by lamina propria leukocytes was also significantly (P < 0.05) increased. There was a significant (P < 0.05) accumulation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria, but the expression of mucosal toll-like receptors 1 through 10 was not significantly changed by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. In conclusion, surgically isolated ileal segments provided a model system for the establishment of a persistent and localized enteric M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and facilitated the analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific changes in mucosal leukocyte phenotype and function. The accumulation of DC subpopulations in the lamina propria suggests that further investigation of mucosal DCs may provide insight into host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and

  20. Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time

    PubMed Central

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Hall, Shaun; Roncal-Herrero, Teresa; Freeman, Colin L; Woolley, Jos; Crisp, Molly K; Wilson, Julie; Fotakis, Anna; Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M; Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen, Rosa; Olsen, Jesper V; Haile, James; Thomas, Jessica; Marean, Curtis W; Parkington, John; Presslee, Samantha; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Ditchfield, Peter; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Ward, Martyn W; Wang, Chunting Michelle; Shaw, Marvin D; Harrison, Terry; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; MacPhee, Ross DE; Kwekason, Amandus; Ecker, Michaela; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Chazan, Michael; Kröger, Roland; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Harding, John H; Cappellini, Enrico; Penkman, Kirsty; Collins, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Proteins persist longer in the fossil record than DNA, but the longevity, survival mechanisms and substrates remain contested. Here, we demonstrate the role of mineral binding in preserving the protein sequence in ostrich (Struthionidae) eggshell, including from the palaeontological sites of Laetoli (3.8 Ma) and Olduvai Gorge (1.3 Ma) in Tanzania. By tracking protein diagenesis back in time we find consistent patterns of preservation, demonstrating authenticity of the surviving sequences. Molecular dynamics simulations of struthiocalcin-1 and -2, the dominant proteins within the eggshell, reveal that distinct domains bind to the mineral surface. It is the domain with the strongest calculated binding energy to the calcite surface that is selectively preserved. Thermal age calculations demonstrate that the Laetoli and Olduvai peptides are 50 times older than any previously authenticated sequence (equivalent to ~16 Ma at a constant 10°C). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17092.001 PMID:27668515

  1. Persistent hysteresis in graphene-mica van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Jens; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Danneau, Romain

    2015-01-09

    We report the study of electronic transport in graphene-mica van der Waals heterostructures. We have designed various graphene field-effect devices in which mica is utilized as a substrate and/or gate dielectric. When mica is used as a gate dielectric we observe a very strong positive gate voltage hysteresis of the resistance, which persists in samples that were prepared in a controlled atmosphere down to even millikelvin temperatures. In a double-gated mica-graphene-hBN van der Waals heterostructure, we found that while a strong hysteresis occurred when mica was used as a substrate/gate dielectric, the same graphene sheet on mica substrate no longer showed hysteresis when the charge carrier density was tuned through a second gate with the hBN dielectric. While this hysteretic behavior could be useful for memory devices, our findings confirm that the environment during sample preparation has to be controlled strictly.

  2. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (persistent fetal circulation syndrome).

    PubMed

    Drummond, W H

    1983-01-01

    This 15-year-old disease has been clearly described anatomically. Some understanding of possible in utero predisposing conditions has emerged from clinical and animal studies. However, we have very little understanding of the cellular processes that trigger and/or prolong the abnormal medial smooth muscle hypertrophy underlying the condition. Empiric observation has resulted in the development of hyperventilation as a fairly successful treatment modality, although the underlying mechanism of this salubrious effect is unknown. Drugs, a major focus of clinical and laboratory investigations, sometimes are marginally successful (and sometimes are utter failures). Translated into the neonatal intensive care unit, the disease is more frequently accurately diagnosed than in the past, but it remains frustratingly difficult to manage, and thus far is impossible to prevent. The research foundations laid in the past decade provide impetus for accelerated search into the fundamental cellular and biochemical derangements that cause persistent pulmonary hypertension. It is to be hoped that the next decade will yield major advances in both mechanistic understanding and in treatment.

  3. Persistent homology analysis of craze formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinomiya, Takashi; Obayashi, Ippei; Hiraoka, Yasuaki

    2017-01-01

    We apply a persistent homology analysis to investigate the behavior of nanovoids during the crazing process of glassy polymers. We carry out a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of the uniaxial deformation of an amorphous polymer and analyze the results with persistent homology. Persistent homology reveals the void coalescence during craze formation, and the results suggest that the yielding process is regarded as the percolation of nanovoids created by deformation.

  4. Dualities in Persistent (Co)Homology

    SciTech Connect

    de Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-09-16

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establishalgebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existingalgorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. Wepresent experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm.

  5. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  6. The genomics of probiotic intestinal microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Seppo; Nurmi, Jussi; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    An intestinal population of beneficial commensal microorganisms helps maintain human health, and some of these bacteria have been found to significantly reduce the risk of gut-associated disease and to alleviate disease symptoms. The genomic characterization of probiotic bacteria and other commensal intestinal bacteria that is now under way will help to deepen our understanding of their beneficial effects. PMID:15998456

  7. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  8. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  9. Schlafen 3 changes during rat intestinal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Mary F.; Hermann, Rebecca; Sun, Kelian; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding gut development may illuminate the adaptive response to massive small-bowel resection and facilitate enteral nutrition. We reported that Schlafen-3 (Slfn3) mediates differentiation in vitro in rat intestinal epithelial. We hypothesized that Slfn3 is involved in intestinal development in vivo. METHODS We removed fetal intestines, liver, and lungs on day 20 of gestation, at birth, and on postnatal days 1 and 5. Expression of Slfn3, markers of intestinal differentiation, and Slfn5, to address specificity, were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Villin expression increased on days 1 and 5 (8.7 ± .6 and 5.4 ± .4, respectively; P < .01). Intestinal Slfn3 expression was increased substantially after birth (2.1- ± .5-fold) and on days 1 and 5 (P < .02). Slfn3 was higher after birth in liver and lung but decreased sharply thereafter. Slfn5 expression was mostly unchanged. CONCLUSIONS The data suggest that the developmental/maturation effects we observed correlate with Slfn3 but not Slfn5 and are more relevant to the intestines. A better understanding of how Slfn3 promotes intestinal differentiation could help promote intestinal maturation, improving outcomes in children or adults with short-gut syndrome. PMID:22906252

  10. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  11. Intestinal Organoids: New Frontiers in the Study of Intestinal Disease and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Thomas E; Bayrer, James R

    2017-02-01

    The development of sustainable intestinal organoid cell culture has emerged as a new modality for the study of intestinal function and cellular processes. Organoid culture is providing a new testbed for therapeutic research and development. Intestinal organoids, self-renewing 3-dimensional structures comprised intestinal stem cells and their differentiated epithelial progeny allow for more facile and robust exploration of cellular activity, cell organization and structure, genetic manipulation, and vastly more physiologic modeling of intestinal response to stimuli as compared to traditional 2-dimensional cell line cultures. Intestinal organoids are affecting a wide variety of research into gastrointestinal pathology. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current state-of-the-art and future effect of research using enteroids and colonoids (organoids grown from the small and large intestines, respectively).

  12. Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?

    PubMed

    Cenit, María Carmen; Olivares, Marta; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Sanz, Yolanda

    2015-08-17

    It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant's gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc.) could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections) in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis.

  13. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  14. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  15. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  16. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  17. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  18. Persistant photoconductivity of strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Violet Mary

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is a transparent conducting oxide with a range of interesting properties, including a large, temperature-dependent dielectric constant and superconductivity at low temperatures. It has a wide indirect band gap of 3.2 eV at room temperature. Annealing in a reducing atmosphere with additional strontium oxide (SrO) powder at 1200°C results in the creation of native defects. These annealed samples show persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature, when exposed to light of energy 2.9 eV or greater. The three or more order of magnitude change in resistance persists long after the light is turned off. This effect is attributed to an electron being excited from an acceptor defect, with a large barrier for recapture, to the conduction band. This work investigates many of the changes that occur and factors that affect PPC. The right amount of SrO powder is crucial to the formation of PPC. The presence of some oxygen vacancies is also necessary for PPC; however, too many will mute the dramatic change in resistivity. Peaks at 430 nm and 520 nm appear in the visible region of the spectrum. The peak at 430 nm is due to iron, while the peak at 520 nm has not been identified. The infrared region of the spectrum also shows changes. First, the intensity of the transmitted signal drops significantly after light exposure, due to free carrier absorption. Additionally, a hydrogen line at 3500 cm-1 and satellites are often observed in as-received samples. The satellites disappear during annealing and return during PPC. The hydrogen lines have the same thermal kinetics as the 520 nm peak. Hydrogen lines at 3355 and 3384 cm-1, if present, will prevent PPC. An exposed chip can be erased (i.e. returned to its pre-light exposed state) by using a heat treatment. Erasing and polishing an annealed chip prior to light exposure can result in weakly p-type behavior with high mobility holes ( > 100 cm2/Vs). This is an order of magnitude higher than those

  19. Intestinal bile acid physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) have a long established role in fat digestion in the intestine by acting as tensioactives, due to their amphipathic characteristics. BAs are reabsorbed very efficiently by the intestinal epithelium and recycled back to the liver via transport mechanisms that have been largely elucidated. The transport and synthesis of BAs are tightly regulated in part by specific plasma membrane receptors and nuclear receptors. In addition to their primary effect, BAs have been claimed to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer, intestinal inflammation and intestinal ionic transport. BAs are not equivalent in any of these biological activities, and structural requirements have been generally identified. In particular, some BAs may be useful for cancer chemoprevention and perhaps in inflammatory bowel disease, although further research is necessary in this field. This review covers the most recent developments in these aspects of BA intestinal biology. PMID:18837078

  20. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  1. Mercury methylation by fish intestinal contents.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, J W; Furutani, A; Turner, M A

    1980-01-01

    A new radiochemical method has been applied to the examination of mercury methylation in fish intestinal contents. Intestinal contents of six freshwater fish species were found capable of converting 203Hg2+ to CH3203Hg+. This activity was observed in fish from five of six lakes tested whether or not there was mercury pollution. Bacterial activity in the intestinal contents is most likely responsible for this methylation. Methylating activity of piscivors increased with decreasing quantity of intestinal contents. Generally, pike and walleye intestinal contents methylated a larger fraction of 203Hg2+ than those of whitefish and suckers. These data contradict the previous general conclusion that there is no mercury methylation in fish. PMID:7425625

  2. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  3. Longer coronary anastomosis provides lower energy loss in coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tsukui, Hiroyuki; Shinke, Manabu; Park, Young Kwang; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Distal anastomosis technique affects graft patency and long-term outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting, however, there is no standard for the appropriate length of distal anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether longer distal anastomosis provides higher quality of distal anastomosis and better hemodynamic patterns. Off pump CABG training simulator, YOUCAN (EBM Corporation, Japan), was used for distal anastomosis model. Two lengths of distal anastomosis model (10 versus 4 mm) were prepared by end-to-side anastomosis technique. After CT scan constructed three-dimensional inner shape of distal anastomosis, computational flow dynamics (CFD) was used to analyze hemodynamic patterns. The working flow was defined as Newtonian fluid with density of 1050 kg/m(3) and viscosity of 4 mPa s. The boundary condition was set to 100 mmHg at inlet, 50 ml/min at outlet, and 100 % stenosis of proximal coronary artery. Three-dimensional CT imaging showed quality of distal anastomosis in 10 mm model was more uniform without vessel wall inversion or kinking compared to 4 mm model. Anastomotic flow area was significantly larger in 10 mm model than that in 4 mm model (28.67 ± 4.91 versus 8.89 ± 3.18 mm(2), p < 0.0001). Anastomotic angle was significantly smaller in 10 mm model compared to 4 mm model (10.2 ± 5.65° versus 20.6 ± 3.31°, p < 0.0001). CFD analysis demonstrated 10 mm model had streamlined flow with smooth graft curvature, whereas 4 mm model had abrupt blood flow direction changes with flow separation at the toe. 10 mm model had significantly lower energy loss than 4 mm model (34.78 ± 6.90 versus 77.10 ± 21.47 μW, p < 0.0001). Longer distal anastomosis provided higher quality of distal anastomosis, larger anastomotic flow area, smaller anastomotic angle, and smoother graft curvatures. These factors yielded lower energy loss at distal anastomosis.

  4. Environmental persistence and toxicity of dimethyl malonate and methyl salicylate

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Cataldo, D.A.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P. ); Wentsel, R.S. )

    1991-03-01

    To determine the potential environmental persistence and toxic effects of agent simulants Diethyl Malonate (DEM) and Methyl Salicylate (MS), plants, soils, earthworms, and oil microbial populations were exposed to projected aerosolized simulant concentrations of {approximately}100 (low) and {approximately}1000 (high) mg/m{sup 3}. Both simulants exhibited biphasic residence times on foliar and soil surfaces following aerosol exposure. Half-times of DEM on soil and foliar surfaces were 1 to 3 h and 5 to 22 H, respectively, and 2 to 2 h and 5 to 31 h for the MS, respectively. Persistence was longer on the foliar surfaces than that of the soils. Both simulants proved phytotoxic to vegetation with a lower threshold of 1 to 2 {mu}m/cm{sup 2} for the MS versus that of 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} for the DEM. However, neither significantly affected chloroplast electron transport in vitro at concentrations of up to 100 {mu}g/mL. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not adversely impact soil microbial activity, while the theshold was 100 {mu}g/g dry soil for MS. Earthworm bioassays indicated survival rates of 66% at soil doses of 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2} soil and 86% at soil doses of 331 {mu}g MS/cm{sup 2}. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  5. The Persistence of Potential Refugia Mapped from Gravel Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Floods disturb aquatic habitats. On an event basis, flood characteristics control the spatial extent and depth of streambed disturbance for a given river and set limits to the amount of channel refugia for biota. The aim of this research is to quantify the area of potential refugia that persists over a long flood series and therefore affects many generations of aquatic populations. Field observations were collected in Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Streambed disturbance was documented by monitoring the three-dimensional positions of about 2500 magnetically tagged gravels over 277 floods. Tracer movement and burial observations were used to produce cellular maps of the frequency of bed disturbance within a GIS. The streambed exhibits different frequencies of disturbance as expected. The most active areas make up about 1% of the streambed and tend to be located near the channel thalweg. Undisturbed areas constitute more than 25% of the bed, and provide distinct areas of longer-term refugia that persist over the range of flood magnitudes observed. In addition to validating a key aspect of partial sediment transport, the results suggest that the natural variability of floods facilitates diverse aquatic communities by ensuring the availability of channel refugia over time.

  6. Prolactin circadian rhythm persists throughout lactation in women.

    PubMed

    Stern, J M; Reichlin, S

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the prolactin (PRL) circadian rhythm, with its characteristic nocturnal rise, persists during the hyperprolactinemia of lactation, PRL levels were analyzed in blood samples collected hourly for 24 h from 20 mothers, 4-46 months postpartum. The circadian rhythm of PRL persisted throughout lactation as manifested by: (1) significantly higher mean nighttime than daytime PRL levels in the whole sample, despite higher daytime nursing durations; (2) the distribution of zenith levels which most frequently occur between 23.00 and 07.00 h, when nursing duration is lowest, and which are almost absent between 07.00 and 23.00 h, when nursing duration is highest, and of nadir levels, which have an opposite pattern; (3) spontaneous PRL surges that are more frequent, longer, and of higher magnitude at night than during the day, and (4) the larger magnitude of suckling-induced PRL release from late afternoon through the night compared to the morning in some women. Our data suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the circadian rhythm in PRL secretion are relatively independent of the mechanisms of suckling-induced release. We propose that the nocturnal rise in PRL during lactation functions to ensure a robust milk supply during an extensive nonsuckling interval.

  7. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  8. Identification of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H− Genes Required for Intestinal Colonization in Calves

    PubMed Central

    van Diemen, Pauline M.; Dziva, Francis; Stevens, Mark P.; Wallis, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections in humans are an important public health problem and are commonly acquired via contact with ruminant feces. The serogroups that are predominantly associated with human infection in the United States and Europe are O157 and O26. Serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H− differ in their virulence and tissue tropism in calves and therefore may colonize calves by distinct mechanisms. The mechanisms underlying EHEC intestinal colonization and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Signature-tagged mutagenesis was used to identify 59 genes of EHEC O26:H− that are required for the intestinal colonization of calves. Our results indicate important roles for locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secreted proteins in intestinal colonization. In addition, colonization is facilitated by cytotoxins, putative type III secreted proteins unlinked to the LEE, a putative fimbrial operon, and numerous genes involved in central metabolism and transport and genes of unknown function. Our data also imply that the elaboration of type I fimbriae by EHEC O26:H− is disadvantageous for persistence within the bovine intestines. These observations have important implications for the design of vaccines to control these important zoonotic pathogens. PMID:15731074

  9. [Early postoperative intestinal motility following abdominal surgery in an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Schippers, E; Braun, J; Erhardt, W; Schumpelick, V

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity was registered in 6 dogs after different surgical procedures such as laparotomy, segmental resection of the jejunum and right hemicolectomy. Animals were studied in the fasted- and fed state and after pharmacological stimulation with Ceruletide. The electrical activity was recorded by means of 6 bipolar electrodes implanted along the intestinal wall. Abdominal surgery abolished normal motility in the stomach and small intestine only for a short period of time. The time for the reappearance of regularly recurring activity fronts varied with the type of the surgical procedure from 3 h after segmental resection of the jejunum to 49 h after colon resection. Severe disturbances of the BER (basic electrical rhythm) in the stomach as tachygastria and tachyarrhythmia persist even after restoration of the MMC (migrating motor complex) in the small intestine. Feeding induced a typical fedpattern but never before restoration of the MMC. Stimulation of the intestine during postoperative ileus with Ceruletide increases segmental myoelectrical activity. The period of postoperative ileus was not reduced.

  10. Lactation and Intestinal Microbiota: How Early Diet Shapes the Infant Gut.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Felicia; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Freeman, Samara L

    2015-12-01

    Breast milk is a multifunctional biofluid that provides nutrients along with highly diverse non-nutritive bioactive components such as antibodies, glycans, bacteria, and immunomodulatory proteins. Research over the past decade has confirmed the essential role of breast milk bioactives in the establishment a healthy intestinal microbiota within the infant. The intestinal microbiota of an exclusively breastfed baby is dominated by several species of Bifidobacteria - the most influential member of which is Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis) - and is referred to as the milk-oriented microbiome (MOM). MOM is associated with reduced risk of infection in infancy as well as a reduced risk of certain chronic illnesses in adulthood. Establishment and persistence of MOM is dependent on the selective digestion of complex sugar structures in breast milk that are otherwise indigestible to the infant by B. infantis and its relatives. This review focuses primarily on the influence of breast milk glycans and glycosylated proteins on the development of the intestinal microbiome, and how maternal phenotype may influence the development of MOM providing a framework to understand how variation in diet shapes a protective intestinal microbiome.

  11. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realisation that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles1,2. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and significance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncover its key roles in controlling organ size, its reproductive plasticity and its response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms, which control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognised. PMID:26887495

  12. Viral persistence during the developmental phase of Coxsackievirus B1-induced murine polymyositis.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, P E; Schmidt, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Messner, R P

    1991-01-01

    Mice infected with coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) develop a chronic hindquarter muscle weakness which resembles human polymyositis. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to screen for persistent viral RNA in hamstring and quadriceps muscles from mice that displayed various degrees of clinical weakness. At 28 to 31 days postinfection, when chronic myositis is well developed but infectious virus can no longer be recovered, persistent CVB1 RNA was found in hindquarter skeletal muscle of all 12 infected animals examined. Persistent CVB1 showed a multifocal distribution within muscle and was associated with three different histopathology patterns (HPPs). These three HPPs (HPP-1, HPP-2, and HPP-3) represent potentially different stages in the mechanism of persistence. They are based on the pattern of grains, the location of hybridization signal within the muscle, and the accompanying histopathology. In HPP-1, virus persisted in nonnecrotic muscle fibers and was not directly associated with foci of inflammatory cells. HPP-2 consisted of virus contained within necrotic myocytes that were surrounded by inflammatory cells. HPP-3 was rare and showed virus inside infiltrating mononuclear cells in a region where muscle tissue had been extensively destroyed. Persistent CVB1 occurred more frequently in severely diseased animals and in tissue sections displaying intense inflammation. Moreover, HPP-2 showed a stronger association with tissue inflammation and hindquarter weakness than did HPP-1. These data demonstrate that CVB1 persists in skeletal muscle for at least 28 to 31 days postinfection and support the concept that this persistence plays a role in the development of murine polymyositis. Images PMID:1942249

  13. Longer combination vehicles (LCVS) economics versus public safety. Research report, August 1991-April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, V.H.

    1992-04-01

    Global production will require transport companies to time deliveries in order to meet assembly requirements using components shipped from many areas of the world. To be competitive, we must use every available means of technology at our disposal. Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVS) increase our transportation productivity. They have operated safely in 20 states, and in some cases for more than 30 years. In my opinion, the Transportation Bill of 1991 prohibited the expanded use of LCVs because the federal government thought it to be the politically correct thing to do. They certainly did not have any convincing evidence to support their stand. I believe the states' Departments of Transportation should be allowed to decide the LCV issue on a state-by-state basis. And, the federal government should provide general oversight. I predict that the trucking industry will prove that LCVs are a safe and economical means of distributing products. And, eventually the 1991 Federal mandate restructing their expansion will be lifted. States will be given the authority to approve LCV use on their highway system.

  14. Brain necrosis after fractionated radiation therapy: Is the halftime for repair longer than we thought?

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Edward T.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.

  15. Rolling stones and turbulent eddies: why the bigger live longer and travel farther

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the discovery that even the simplest, oldest and most prevalent forms of evolutionary movement—rolling bodies and whirls of turbulence—exhibit the same body-size effect on life time and life travel as the evolutionary movement united by the body-size effect so far: animals, rivers, vehicles, jets and plumes. In short, the bigger should last longer and travel farther. For rolling bodies, the life span (t) and the life travel (L) should increase with the body mass (M) raised to the powers 1/6 and 1/3, respectively. The number of rolls during this movement is constant, independent of body size. For an eddy of turbulence, t should increase with the eddy mass (M) raised to the power 2/3, while L should increase with M2/3 times the bulk speed of the turbulent stream that carries the eddy. The number of rolls during the eddy life span is a constant independent of eddy size. PMID:26883787

  16. Longer lithium exposure is associated with better white matter integrity in older adults with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gildengers, Ariel G.; Butters, Meryl A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Marron, Megan M.; Emanuel, James; Anderson, Stewart J.; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Becker, James T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and structural brain abnormalities. In human and non-human studies, lithium has been related to neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. We explored whether lithium treatment is related to better brain integrity and cognitive function in older adults with BD. Methods We examined cognitive and neuroimaging data in 58 individuals with BD mean (SD) age 64.5 (9.8) years and 21 mentally healthy comparators (“controls”) of similar age and education. Subjects received comprehensive neurocognitive assessment and structural brain imaging, examining total gray matter volume, overall white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and total white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. Results In comparison to controls, subjects with BD had worse overall cognitive performance, lower total gray matter volume, and lower white matter integrity. Among BD subjects, longer duration of lithium treatment was related to higher white matter integrity after controlling for age and vascular disease burden, but not with better cognitive performance. Conclusions Lithium treatment appears to be related to better brain integrity in older individuals with BD, in particular in those who take it long-term. While intriguing, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:25257942

  17. 124Iodine: A Longer-Life Positron Emitter Isotope—New Opportunities in Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Notaristefano, Antonio; Restuccia, Antonino; Ferrari, Cristina; Rubini, Domenico; Altini, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    124Iodine (124I) with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of 124I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with 124I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of 124I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with 124I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of 124I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with 124I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on 124I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields. PMID:24895600

  18. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yu-He; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-Bo; Xu, Xiao-Niu; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Wang, Shu-Dong

    2017-02-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers.

  19. 124 Iodine: a longer-life positron emitter isotope-new opportunities in molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Notaristefano, Antonio; Restuccia, Antonino; Ferrari, Cristina; Rubini, Domenico; Altini, Corinna; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    (124)Iodine ((124)I) with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of (124)I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with (124)I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of (124)I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with (124)I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of (124)I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with (124)I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on (124)I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  20. Fibroblasts From Longer-Lived Species of Primates, Rodents, Bats, Carnivores, and Birds Resist Protein Damage.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Andrew M; Lehr, Marcus; Kohler, William J; Han, Melissa L; Miller, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Species differ greatly in their rates of aging. Among mammalian species life span ranges from 2 to over 60 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species of animals differ from those of short-lived animals in their defenses against protein damage. In parallel studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, birds, and species from the Laurasiatheria superorder (bats, carnivores, shrews, and ungulates), we find associations between species longevity and resistance of proteins to oxidative stress after exposure to H(2)O(2) or paraquat. In addition, baseline levels of protein carbonyl appear to be higher in cells from shorter-lived mammals compared with longer-lived mammals. Thus, resistance to protein oxidation is associated with species maximal life span in independent clades of mammals, suggesting that this cellular property may be required for evolution of longevity. Evaluation of the properties of primary fibroblast cell lines can provide insights into the factors that regulate the pace of aging across species of mammals.

  1. Microbiological and abiotic processes in modelling longer-term marine corrosion of steel.

    PubMed

    Melchers, Robert E

    2014-06-01

    Longer term exposure of mild steel in natural (biotic) waters progresses as a bimodal function of time, both for corrosion mass loss and for pit depth. Recent test results, however, found this also for immersion in clean fresh, almost pure and triply distilled waters. This shows chlorides or microbiological activity is not essential for the electrochemical processes producing bimodal behaviour. It is proposed that the first mode is aerobic corrosion that eventually produces a non-homogeneous corroded surface and rust coverage sufficient to allow formation of anoxic niches. Within these, aggressive autocatalytic reduction then occurs under anoxic abiotic conditions, caused by sulfide species originating from the MnS inclusions typical in steels. This is consistent with Wranglen's model for abiotic anoxic crevice and pitting corrosion without external aggressive ions. In biotic conditions, metabolites from anaerobic bacterial activity within and near the anoxic niches provides additional (sulfide) species to contribute to the severity of corrosion. Limited observational evidence that supports this hypothesis is given but further investigation is required to determine all contributor(s) to the cathodic current for the electrochemical reaction. The results are important for estimating the contribution of microbiological corrosion in infrastructure applications.

  2. Microwave processing of lunar soil for supporting longer-term surface exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, V.; Lim, S.; Anand, M.

    2016-11-01

    The future of human space exploration will inevitably involve longer-term stays and possibly permanent settlement on the surfaces of other planetary bodies. It will, therefore, be advantageous or perhaps even necessary to utilise local resources for building an infrastructure for human habitation on the destination planetary body. In this context human lunar exploration is the next obvious step. Lunar soil is regarded as an ideal feedstock for lunar construction materials. However, significant gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of certain chemical and physical properties of lunar soil, which need to be better understood in order to develop appropriate construction techniques and materials for lunar applications. This article reviews our current understanding of the dielectric behaviour of lunar soil in the microwave spectrum, which is increasingly recognised as an important topic of research in the Space Architecture field. Although the coupling between the lunar soil and microwave energy is already recognised, considerable challenges must be overcome before microwave processing could be used as a main fabrication method for producing robust structures on the Moon. We also review the existing literature on the microwave processing of lunar soil and identify three key research areas where future efforts are needed to make significant advances in understanding the potential of microwave processing of lunar soil for construction purposes.

  3. More americans living longer with cardiovascular disease will increase costs while lowering quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A; Weinstein, Milton C; Cutler, David

    2013-10-01

    In the past several decades, some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased-factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans' average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer-factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact of these opposing trends, we used the nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 to forecast total cardiovascular disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that continued improvements in cardiovascular disease treatment and declining smoking rates will not outweigh the influence of increasing population age and obesity on cardiovascular disease risk. Given an aging population, an obesity epidemic, and declining mortality from the disease, the United States should expect to see a sharp rise in the health care costs, disability, and reductions in quality of life associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Policies that target the treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol and the reduction of obesity will be necessary to curb the imminent spike in cardiovascular disease prevalence.

  4. Species with a chemical defence, but not chemical offence, live longer.

    PubMed

    Hossie, T J; Hassall, C; Knee, W; Sherratt, T N

    2013-07-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses for ageing generally predict that delayed senescence should evolve in organisms that experience lower extrinsic mortality. Thus, one might expect species that are highly toxic or venomous (i.e. chemically protected) will have longer lifespans than related species that are not likewise protected. This remarkable relationship has been suggested to occur in amphibians and snakes. First, we show that chemical protection is highly conserved in several lineages of amphibians and snakes. Therefore, accounting for phylogenetic autocorrelation is critical when conservatively testing evolutionary hypotheses because species may possess similar longevities and defensive attributes simply through shared ancestry. Herein, we compare maximum longevity of chemically protected and nonprotected species, controlling for potential nonindependence of traits among species using recently available phylogenies. Our analyses confirm that longevity is positively correlated with body size in both groups which is consistent with life-history theory. We also show that maximum lifespan was positively associated with chemical protection in amphibian species but not in snakes. Chemical protection is defensive in amphibians, but primarily offensive (involved in prey capture) in snakes. Thus, we find that although chemical defence in amphibians favours long life, there is no evidence that chemical offence in snakes does the same.

  5. Fibroblasts From Longer-Lived Species of Primates, Rodents, Bats, Carnivores, and Birds Resist Protein Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Lehr, Marcus; Kohler, William J.; Han, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Species differ greatly in their rates of aging. Among mammalian species life span ranges from 2 to over 60 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species of animals differ from those of short-lived animals in their defenses against protein damage. In parallel studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, birds, and species from the Laurasiatheria superorder (bats, carnivores, shrews, and ungulates), we find associations between species longevity and resistance of proteins to oxidative stress after exposure to H2O2 or paraquat. In addition, baseline levels of protein carbonyl appear to be higher in cells from shorter-lived mammals compared with longer-lived mammals. Thus, resistance to protein oxidation is associated with species maximal life span in independent clades of mammals, suggesting that this cellular property may be required for evolution of longevity. Evaluation of the properties of primary fibroblast cell lines can provide insights into the factors that regulate the pace of aging across species of mammals. PMID:25070662

  6. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu-he; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-bo; Xu, Xiao-niu; Wang, Zhi-gao; Wang, Shu-dong

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers. PMID:28176873

  7. An exploration of the longer-term impacts of community participation in rural health services design.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jane; Currie, Margaret; Kenny, Amanda; Munoz, Sarah-Anne

    2015-09-01

    This article explores what happened, over the longer term, after a community participation exercise to design future rural service delivery models, and considers perceptions of why more follow-up actions did or did not happen. The study, which took place in 2014, revisits three Scottish communities that engaged in a community participation research method (2008-2010) intended to design rural health services. Interviews were conducted with 22 citizens, healthcare practitioners, managers and policymakers all of whom were involved in, or knew about, the original project. Only one direct sustained service change was found - introduction of a volunteer first responder scheme in one community. Sustained changes in knowledge were found. The Health Authority that part-funded development of the community participation method, through the original project, had not adopted the new method. Community members tended to attribute lack of further impact to low participation and methods insufficiently attuned to the social nuances of very small rural communities. Managers tended to blame insufficient embedding in the healthcare system and issues around power over service change and budgets. In the absence of convincing formal community governance mechanisms for health issues, rural health practitioners tended to act as conduits between citizens and the Health Authority. The study provides new knowledge about what happens after community participation and highlights a need for more exploration.

  8. [Living longer, with more disease and less disability; trends in public health 2000-2030].

    PubMed

    Hoeymans, Nancy; Harbers, Maartje M; Hilderink, Henk B M

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Public Health Status and Foresight report 2014 explores the future of public health in the Netherlands, using a trend scenario and four future scenarios. The trend scenario provides projections until 2030, based on the trends over the last decades and assuming the policy stays the same. After many years the unfavourable trends in lifestyle seem to have ended: the percentage of smokers is decreasing and the percentage of people who are overweight is no longer increasing. Life expectancy will continue to increase, but the differences between socioeconomic groups will not become smaller. Demographic changes (rise in the ageing population) and improvements in health care will contribute to an increase in the number of chronically ill which will increase from 5.3 million in 2011 to 7 million in 2030. However, most people with a chronic disease feel healthy, have no disabilities and participate fully in society. Health care expenditures rose from 9.5% of the GDP in 2000 to 14% in 2012. How this growth will continue in the next years is uncertain.

  9. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats

    PubMed Central

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed ‘jamming’ and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats’ response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats’ response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap. PMID:26702045

  10. Emotion self-regulation and empathy depend upon longer stimulus exposure.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Satoru; Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    Observation of others in pain induces positive elevation (pain effect) in late event-related potentials (ERP). This effect is associated with top-down attention regulating processes. It has previously been shown that stimulus exposure duration can affect top-down attentional modulation of response to threat-related stimuli. We investigated the effect of exposure duration on ERP response to others in pain. Two late ERP components, P3 and late positive potentials (LPP), from 18 healthy people were measured while they viewed pictures of hands in painful or neutral situations for either 200 or 500 ms, during two task conditions (pain judgment and counting hands). P3 and LPP pain effects during the pain judgment condition were significantly greater with 500 ms than 200 ms stimulus presentation. Ours is the first study to suggest that engagement of empathy-related self-regulatory processes reflected in late potentials requires longer exposure to the pain-related stimulus. Although this is important information about the relationship between early sensory and subsequent brain processing, and about engagement of self-regulatory processes, the neural basis of this time-dependence remains unclear. It might be important to investigate the relationship between stimulus duration and empathic response in clinical populations where issues of self-regulation, empathic response and speed of information processing exist.

  11. Longer leukocyte telomeres are associated with ultra-endurance exercise independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Nelson, Christopher P; O'Brien, Brendan J; Nankervis, Scott A; Denniff, Matthew; Harvey, Jack T; Marques, Francine Z; Codd, Veryan; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Samani, Nilesh J; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Charchar, Fadi J

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is recognized as a marker of biological age, and shorter mean leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear whether repeated exposure to ultra-endurance aerobic exercise is beneficial or detrimental in the long-term and whether it attenuates biological aging. We quantified 67 ultra-marathon runners' and 56 apparently healthy males' leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) using real-time quantitative PCR. The ultra-marathon runners had 11% longer telomeres (T/S ratio) than controls (ultra-marathon runners: T/S ratio = 3.5±0.68, controls: T/S ratio = 3.1±0.41; β = 0.40, SE = 0.10, P = 1.4×10(-4)) in age-adjusted analysis. The difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 2.2×10(-4)). The magnitude of this association translates into 16.2±0.26 years difference in biological age and approximately 324-648bp difference in leukocyte telomere length between ultra-marathon runners and healthy controls. Neither traditional cardiovascular risk factors nor markers of inflammation/adhesion molecules explained the difference in leukocyte telomere length between ultra-marathon runners and controls. Taken together these data suggest that regular engagement in ultra-endurance aerobic exercise attenuates cellular aging.

  12. Nutrition label use is associated with lower longer-term diabetes risk in US adults.

    PubMed

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-03-29

    Background: Regular nutrition label use may have important long-term health implications. To our knowledge, the role of nutrition label use in protecting against the development of chronic diseases was unexplored prospectively before this study.Objective: We tested the association between nutrition label use and risk of a future diabetes diagnosis in a multiethnic US cohort.Design: Data from the ongoing National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY79) were analyzed. From 2002 (baseline) to 5 follow-up time points (2004-2012), 7150 diabetes-free, multiethnic young adults were prospectively followed for a diagnosis of incident diabetes. Nutrition label use, diabetes diagnosis, time to diabetes diagnosis, and all covariates were self-reported.Results: Between January 2002 and September 2013, 430 participants (6.0%) were diagnosed with diabetes. A weighted, multivariable, extended Cox regression was conducted, which suggested that in nutrition label users, the HR of diabetes diagnosis risk decreased significantly with time (P-nutrition label use × time interaction < 0.05) compared with risk in nutrition label nonusers.Conclusions: There is an association between nutrition label use and diabetes risk in the longer term. However, additional longitudinal research with a robust dietary intake assessment is needed to test this hypothesis.

  13. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats.

    PubMed

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-12-22

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed 'jamming' and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats' response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats' response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap.

  14. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS): report of a case with prolonged survival and literature review.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Eunice; Hernández-Zarco, Adelina; Polanco-Ortiz, Amilcar; Villa-Morales, Judith; Mateos-Sánchez, Leovigildo

    2013-02-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) was first described in 1976. A rare congenital autosomal recessive alteration that predominantly affects females (4:1 ratio), it is characterized by the presence of distended bladder (without distal urinary tract obstruction), microcolon, and decreased or absent intestinal peristalsis. Inconsistent and non-specific histological changes affecting the bladder and intestinal smooth muscle, and intrinsic innervations, have been reported most frequently. MMIHS usually has a fatal prognosis in the first year of life; nevertheless there are some case reports of longer survival. Here is presented the case report of a boy with a diagnosis of MMIHS who has achieved prolonged survival, followed by a review of the literature.

  15. The Effect of Impaired Angiogenesis on Intestinal Function Following Massive Small Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Sun, Raphael; Choi, Pamela; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Mei, Junjie; Worthen, G. Scott; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation involves villus lengthening, crypt deepening, and increased capillary density following small bowel resection (SBR). Mice lacking the proangiogenic chemokine CXCL5 have normal structural adaptation but impaired angiogenesis. This work evaluates the impact of incomplete adaptive angiogenesis on the functional capacity of the intestine after SBR. Methods CXCL5 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice underwent 50% SBR. Magnetic resonance imaging measured weekly body composition. Intestinal absorptive capacity was evaluated through fecal fat analysis. Gene expression profiles for select macronutrient transporters were measured via RT-PCR. Postoperative crypt and villus measurements assessed for structural adaptation. Submucosal capillary density was measured through CD31 immunohistochemistry. Results Comparable postoperative weight gain occurred initially. Diminished weight gain, impaired fat absorption, and elevated steatorrhea occurred in KO mice after instituting high-fat diet. Greater postoperative upregulation of ABCA1 fat transporter occurred in WT mice, while PEPT1 protein transporter was significantly downregulated in KO mice. KO mice had impaired angiogenesis but intact structural adaptation. Conclusion After SBR, KO mice display an inefficient intestinal absorption profile with perturbed macronutrient transporter expression, impaired fat absorption, and slower postoperative weight gain. In addition to longer villi and deeper crypts, an intact angiogenic response may be required to achieve functional adaptation to SBR. PMID:25818317

  16. Graduate Student Persistence: Evidence from Three Decades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gururaj, Suchitra; Heilig, Julian Vasquez; Somers, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article conducts a meta-analysis of results of studies by Andrieu (1991), DeAngelis (1998), and Liseo (2005) to assess changes over time in the effects of financial aid and other factors on graduate student persistence. A descriptive review of the studies finds that combination aid packages encouraged persistence in 1987 (Andrieu, 1991),…

  17. Correlated neural variability in persistent state networks.

    PubMed

    Polk, Amber; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2012-04-17

    Neural activity that persists long after stimulus presentation is a biological correlate of short-term memory. Variability in spiking activity causes persistent states to drift over time, ultimately degrading memory. Models of short-term memory often assume that the input fluctuations to neural populations are independent across cells, a feature that attenuates population-level variability and stabilizes persistent activity. However, this assumption is at odds with experimental recordings from pairs of cortical neurons showing that both the input currents and output spike trains are correlated. It remains unclear how correlated variability affects the stability of persistent activity and the performance of cognitive tasks that it supports. We consider the stochastic long-timescale attractor dynamics of pairs of mutually inhibitory populations of spiking neurons. In these networks, persistent activity was less variable when correlated variability was globally distributed across both populations compared with the case when correlations were locally distributed only within each population. Using a reduced firing rate model with a continuum of persistent states, we show that, when input fluctuations are correlated across both populations, they drive firing rate fluctuations orthogonal to the persistent state attractor, thereby causing minimal stochastic drift. Using these insights, we establish that distributing correlated fluctuations globally as opposed to locally improves network's performance on a two-interval, delayed response discrimination task. Our work shows that the correlation structure of input fluctuations to a network is an important factor when determining long-timescale, persistent population spiking activity.

  18. Long Persistent Light Emitting Diode Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Dongdong; Ma, Yiwei; Hunter, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory was designed for undergraduate students to make long persistent light emitting diode (LED) indicators using phosphors. Blue LEDs, which emit at 465 nm, were characterized and used as an excitation source. Long persistent phosphors, SrAl[subscript 2]O[subscript 4]:Eu[superscript 2+],Dy[superscript 3+] (green) and…

  19. Persistence of Undergraduate Women in STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Maggie Helene

    2016-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in…

  20. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

    2012-11-28

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  1. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

  2. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPARα signaling.

    PubMed

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPARα target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPARα-dependent processes also in the small intestine.

  3. STEM Field Persistence: The Impact of Engagement on Postsecondary STEM Persistence for Underrepresented Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Persistence studies in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields indicate that the pipeline to degree attainment is "leaky" and underrepresented minorities are not persisting in the STEM fields. Those students who do not persist in the STEM fields either migrate to other fields of study or drop out of higher education…

  4. Intestinal lymphangiectasia and thymic hypoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, R U; Halpin, T C; Abramowsky, C R; Hornick, D L; Miller, K M; Naylor, P; Incefy, G S

    1985-01-01

    We have evaluated the immunological abnormalities present in a 6 year old patient with primary intestinal and generalized lymphangiectasia confirmed by intestinal, lung and lymph node biopsies. Lymphocyte loss through the gut was confirmed by the detection of lymphocytes in her stool. An increased enteric protein loss was suggested by hypoproteinaemia, peripheral oedema, and a very short half-life for i.v. immune serum globulin (3 days). Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed a selective loss of T lymphocytes, with a proportionally increased loss of the OKT4 positive helper/inducer subpopulation. Functionally, there was a decrease in proliferative responses to some mitogens and to allogeneic cells, and a lack of T cell help for in vitro B lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting cells. Natural killer function was normal. In this patient, a concomitant thymic deficiency was documented by failure to identify thymic tissue on a thymus biopsy and by an absence or decrease of the serum thymic factor (thymulin) and thymosin alpha 1. No compensatory lymphopoiesis was detected in the bone marrow. In an attempt to increase T lymphocyte development, the patient was treated with thymosin fraction 5. Daily treatment with this preparation resulted in a transient clinical improvement which could not be sustained on a weekly thymosin treatment schedule. However, lymphocyte numbers did not increase during this treatment. The findings in this patient support the notion that T lymphocytes are needed to stimulate thymic epithelium. In situations of excessive loss of long lived T lymphocytes a secondary thymic atrophy may occur and further contribute to the development of a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3971596

  5. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health.

  6. Evolution of resistance in poultry intestinal Escherichia coli during three commonly used antimicrobial therapeutic treatments in poultry.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Barros-Velázquez, J; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2008-08-01

    The resistance rates of intestinal Escherichia coli populations from poultry were determined during treatment and withdrawal period with 3 antimicrobial agents commonly used as therapeutics in poultry medicine. A total of 108 chickens were considered: 18 were treated orally with enrofloxacin, 18 with doxycycline, and 18 with sulfonamides, whereas another 18 chickens were maintained as controls for each antimicrobial group. Fecal samples were taken during the treatment and after the withdrawal period, and E. coli were isolated through Fluorocult media plating. A total of 648 E. coli strains (216 per antimicrobial tested) were isolated and identified though biochemical methods. Minimal inhibitory concentrations to the antimicrobials used were also determined using a broth microdilution method. The resistance rates of intestinal E. coli to all of the antimicrobials tested significantly increased during the course of the therapeutic treatment. In addition, significant differences (P = 0.0136) in resistance rates persisted between the intestinal E. coli of the enrofloxacin-treated and control batches until the end of the withdrawal period, but this difference was not observed for the cases of doxycycline or sulfonamides treatments. Antimicrobial use in poultry medicine seems to select for antimicrobial-resistant strains of pathogenic bacterial species such as E. coli. In some cases, the higher frequencies of resistant strains may persist in the avian intestinal tract until the end of the withdrawal period, when it is legal to use these animals for human consumption.

  7. Pretreatment task persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Juliano, Laura M; Irvin, Jennifer E; Lazev, Amy B; Simmons, Vani Nath

    2003-08-01

    R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L. Copeland (1996) found that cigarette smokers were less persistent than nonsmokers, and R. A. Brown, C. W. Lejuez, C. W. Kahler, and D. R. Strong (2002) found that smokers who had previously abstained for 3 months were more persistent than those who had never quit. The present study extended these findings by using a prospective design. A pretreatment measure of task persistence (mirror tracing) completed by 144 smokers predicted sustained abstinence throughout 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, persistence predicted outcome independent of other significant predictors: gender, nicotine dependence, negative affect, and self-efficacy.

  8. Combined diagnostic imaging of intestinal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Fabio; Minordi, Laura Maria; Macis, Giuseppe; Vecchioli, Amorino

    2003-01-01

    The case of a 39-year-old male patient with symptoms of persistent abdominal pain and melena, affected by Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is reported. Abdominal CT was requested. The examination was justified by the fact that symptoms could be correlated with other pathological conditions (volvulus, neoplasms, Chron's disease, etc.) which had to be excluded. For optimum study of the abdominal wall, correct preparation and the use of oral contrast agents were required. From the analysis of CT findings, in particular loop thickening with stratified density, the increased density of mesenteric fat and the presence of fluid among loops led to the radiological diagnosis of intestinal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Other imaging procedures (double contrast enema, sonography, Doppler US, MRI) now used in the study of intestinal loops, are examined.

  9. Can Attention to the Intestinal Microbiota Improve Understanding and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jacquelyn; Kleiman, Susan C.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C.; Carroll, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe dietary restriction or other weight loss behaviors and exhibits the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Therapeutic renourishment in AN is founded primarily on clinical opinion and guidelines, with a weak evidence base. Genetic factors do not fully account for the etiology of AN, and non-genetic factors that contribute to the onset and persistence of this disease warrant investigation. Compelling evidence that the intestinal microbiota regulates adiposity and metabolism, and more recently, anxiety behavior, provides a strong rationale for exploring the role of this complex microbial community in the onset, maintenance of, and recovery from AN. This review explores the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and AN and a potential role for this enteric microbial community as a therapy for this severe illness. PMID:27003627

  10. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  11. The Circadian Clock Mutation Promotes Intestinal Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Summa, Keith C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Engen, Phillip; Naqib, Ankur; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Circadian rhythm disruption is a prevalent feature of modern day society that is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory diseases and there is a clear need for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon. We have previously demonstrated that both environmental and genetic circadian rhythm disruption causes intestinal hyperpermeability and exacerbates alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability and liver pathology. The intestinal microbiota can influence intestinal barrier integrity and impact immune system function; thus, in the current study, we sought to determine if genetic alteration of the core circadian clock gene, Clock, altered the intestinal microbiota community. Methods Male ClockΔ19 mutant mice (mice homozygous for a dominant-negative mutant allele) or littermate wild-type mice were fed one of three experimental diets: (1) a standard chow diet, (2) an alcohol-containing diet, or (3) an alcohol-control diet in which the alcohol calories were replaced with dextrose. Stool microbiota was assessed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results The fecal microbial community of Clock mutant mice had lower taxonomic diversity, relative to wild type mice and the ClockΔ19 mutation was associated with intestinal dysbiosis when mice were fed either the alcohol-containing or the control diet. We found that alcohol consumption significantly altered the intestinal microbiota in both wild type and Clock mutant mice. Conclusion Our data support a model by which circadian rhythm disruption by the ClockΔ19 mutation perturbs normal intestinal microbial communities and this trend was exacerbated in the context of a secondary dietary intestinal stressor. PMID:26842252

  12. Desmoplakin controls microvilli length but not cell adhesion or keratin organization in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Lechler, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining proper cell–cell adhesion in the intestine is essential for tissue homeostasis and barrier function. This adhesion is thought to be mediated by cell adhesion structures, including tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, which concentrate in the apical junctional region. While clear roles for adherens and tight junctions have been established in simple epithelia, the function of desmosomes has not been addressed. In stratified epithelia, desmosomes impart mechanical strength to tissues by organizing and anchoring the keratin filament network. In this paper, we report that the desmosomal protein desmoplakin (DP) is not essential for cell adhesion in the intestinal epithelium. Surprisingly, when DP is lacking, keratin filament localization is also unperturbed, although keratin filaments no longer anchor at desmosomes. Unexpectedly, DP is important for proper microvillus structure. Our study highlights the tissue-specific functions of desmosomes and reveals that the canonical functions for these structures are not conserved in simple epithelium. PMID:22238362

  13. Post-sleep inertia performance benefits of longer naps in simulated nightwork and extended operations.

    PubMed

    Mulrine, Hannah M; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Gander, Philippa H

    2012-11-01

    Operational settings involving shiftwork or extended operations require periods of prolonged wakefulness, which in conjunction with sleep loss and circadian factors, can have a negative impact on performance, alertness, and workplace safety. Napping has been shown to improve performance and alertness after periods of prolonged wakefulness and sleep loss. Longer naps may not only result in longer-lasting benefits but also increase the risk of sleep inertia immediately upon waking. The time course of performance after naps of differing durations is thus an important consideration in weighing the benefits and risks of napping in workplace settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nap opportunities of 20, 40, or 60 min for maintaining alertness and performance 1.5-6 h post-nap in simulated nightwork (P1) or extended operations (P2). Each protocol included 12 participants in a within-subjects design in a controlled laboratory environment. After a baseline 8 h time-in-bed, healthy young males (P1 mean age 25.1 yr; P2 mean age 23.2 yr) underwent either ≈ 20 h (P1) or ≈ 30 h (P2) of sleep deprivation on four separate occasions, followed by nap opportunities of 0, 20, 40, and 60 min. Sleep on the baseline night and during the naps was recorded polysomnographically. During the nap opportunities, sleep onset latency was short and sleep efficiency was high. A greater proportion of slow-wave sleep (SWS) was obtained in nap opportunities of 40 and 60 min compared with 20 min. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurred infrequently. A subjective sleepiness rating (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS), 2-Back Working Memory Task (WMT), and Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) were completed 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h post-nap. The slowest 10% of PVT responses were significantly faster after 40 and 60 min naps compared with a 20 min (P1) or no (P2) nap. There were significantly fewer PVT lapses after 40 and 60 min naps compared with no nap (P2), and

  14. Longer and less overlapping food webs in anthropogenically disturbed marine ecosystems: confirmations from the past.

    PubMed

    Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs.

  15. Longer and Less Overlapping Food Webs in Anthropogenically Disturbed Marine Ecosystems: Confirmations from the Past

    PubMed Central

    Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G.; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A.; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs. PMID:25076042

  16. CO2 lidar observations of Mount Pinatubo debris: FIRE 2 and longer-term measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, David H.; Post, Madison J.; Grund, Christian J.

    1993-01-01

    The volcanic debris in the stratosphere from the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo first appeared over the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) field site near Boulder, Colorado (40.15 N, 105.23 W), in July of 1991. The presence of the Pinatubo cloud has allowed us to characterize both the tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol backscatter using the NOAA/WPL CO2 Doppler lidar. The lidar has measured vertical backscatter profiles at lambda = 10.59 mu m for over a decade. Analysis of this dense set of profiles reveals the effects of atmospheric and microphysical processes during the buildup and decay of Mt. Pinatubo's clouds. Further information on the NOAA lidar, specifically calibrations using a hard target, can be found in Post and Cupp (1990). We present results of those measurements for June 15, 1991, through December 31, 1992. During that period of longer-term measurements, WPL took part in FIRE II (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment II), from November 12 through December 8, 1991, measuring vertical backscatter profiles almost daily. One of the mechanisms for purging stratospheric aerosols is tropopause folding, which occurs in cold-core extratropical cyclones. Tropospheric mass loading occurs during folding events which can substantially increase the amount of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere, and may affect the formation of cirrus in that region. Spring and fall are prominent times for tropopause folding events because of the migration of the subtropical and polar jet streams during the transition seasons. Sassen has suggested that the volcanic aerosols from Pinatubo played a role in the formation of cirrus during FIRE II, particularly during a period of moist subtropical flow on December 5-6, 1991.

  17. Longer thaw seasons increase nitrogen availability for leaching during fall in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Claire C.; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bowden, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has resulted in warmer soil temperatures, earlier spring thaw and later fall freeze-up, resulting in warmer soil temperatures and thawing of permafrost in tundra regions. While these changes in temperature metrics tend to lengthen the growing season for plants, light levels, especially in the fall, will continue to limit plant growth and nutrient uptake. We conducted a laboratory experiment using intact soil cores with and without vegetation from a tundra peatland to measure the effects of late freeze and early spring thaw on carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, methane (CH4) emissions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) leaching from soils. We compared soil C exchange and N production with a 30 day longer seasonal thaw during a simulated annual cycle from spring thaw through freeze-up and thaw. Across all cores, fall N leaching accounted for ˜33% of total annual N loss despite significant increases in microbial biomass during this period. Nitrate ({{{{NO}}}3}-) leaching was highest during the fall (5.33 ± 1.45 mg N m-2 d-1) following plant senescence and lowest during the summer (0.43 ± 0.22 mg N m-2 d-1). In the late freeze and early thaw treatment, we found 25% higher total annual ecosystem respiration but no significant change in CH4 emissions or DOC loss due to high variability among samples. The late freeze period magnified N leaching and likely was derived from root turnover and microbial mineralization of soil organic matter coupled with little demand from plants or microbes. Large N leaching during the fall will affect N cycling in low-lying areas and streams and may alter terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem nitrogen budgets in the arctic.

  18. Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased lower body explosive strength during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; España-Romero, Vanesa; Labayen, Idoia; Huybrechts, Inge; Papadaki, Angeliki; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Mauro, Beatrice; Widhalm, Kurt; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Castillo, Manuel J; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-11-01

    Our aim in this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric strength, and explosive strength during adolescence. A total of 2567 adolescents (1426 girls) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study aged 12.5-17.5 y were included. Information about duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding was obtained retrospectively by means of a parental questionnaire. The 20-m shuttle run, handgrip strength, and standing long jump tests were used to assess physical fitness. Significant differences among the categories of breastfeeding duration were tested using ANCOVA after adjusting for a set of potential confounders: gestational and current age, birth weight, sexual maturation, fat mass, fat-free mass, maternal education, parental weight status, country, smoking behavior, and days of vigorous physical activity. Longer breastfeeding (either any or exclusive) was associated with a higher performance in the standing long jump test in both boys and girls (P < 0.001), regardless of fat mass, fat-free mass, and the rest of potential confounders. In adolescents who were breastfed for 3-5 mo or ≥6 mo, the risk of having a standing long jump performance below the 5th percentile was reduced by half compared with those who were never breastfed [odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.30-0.96, P < 0.05; and OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.74, P < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest a role of breastfeeding in determining lower body explosive strength during adolescence.

  19. Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits.

    PubMed

    Herman, Sonja L; Smith, Derek T

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dynamic-stretching warm-up (DWU) intervention performed daily over 4 weeks positively influenced power, speed, agility, endurance, flexibility, and strength performance measures in collegiate wrestlers when compared to a static-stretching warm-up (SWU) intervention. Twenty-four male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I wrestlers were randomly assigned to complete either a 4-week treatment condition (DWU) (n = 11) or an active control condition (SWU) (n = 13) prior to their daily preseason practices. Anthropometric and performance measures were conducted before and after the 4-week experimental period (i.e., DWU or SWU). Measures included peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, medicine ball underhand throw, 300-yd shuttle, pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, broad jump, 600-m run, sit-and-reach test, and trunk extension test. Wrestlers completing the 4-week DWU intervention had several performance improvements, including increases in quadriceps peak torque (11%), broad jump (4%), underhand medicine ball throw (4%), sit-ups (11%), and push-ups (3%). A decrease in the average time to completion of the 300-yd shuttle (-2%) and the 600-m run (-2.4%) was suggestive of enhanced muscular strength, endurance, agility, and anaerobic capacity in the DWU group. In contrast to the DWU intervention, there was no observed improvement in the SWU group for peak torque of the quadriceps, broad jump, 300-yd shuttle run, medicine ball underhand throw for distance, sit-ups, push-ups, or 600-m run, and decrements in some performance measures occurred. The findings suggest that incorporation of this specific 4-week DWU intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers produced longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and agility performance enhancements.

  20. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  1. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  2. Predictors of Current and Longer-Term Patterns of Abundance of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) across a Leading-Edge Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Biel, Mark; Belt, Jami

    2016-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane ‘mainlands’. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts. However, to date no studies have investigated habitat, distribution, and abundance of pikas across hundreds of sites within a remote wilderness area. Additionally, relatively little is known about whether climate acts most strongly on pikas through direct or indirect (e.g., vegetation-mediated) mechanisms. During 2007–2009, we collectively hiked >16,000 km throughout the 410,077-ha Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in an effort to identify topographic, microrefugial, and vegetative characteristics predictive of pika abundance. We identified 411 apparently pika-suitable habitat patches with binoculars (in situ), and surveyed 314 of them for pika signs. Ranking of alternative logistic-regression models based on AICc scores revealed that short-term pika abundances were positively associated with intermediate elevations, greater cover of mosses, and taller forbs, and decreased each year, for a total decline of 68% during the three-year study; whereas longer-term abundances were associated only with static variables (longitude, elevation, gradient) and were lower on north-facing slopes. Earlier Julian date and time of day of the survey (i.e., midday vs. not) were associated with lower observed pika abundance. We recommend that wildlife monitoring account for this seasonal and diel variation when surveying pikas. Broad-scale information on status and abundance determinants of montane mammals, especially

  3. Predictors of current and longer-term patterns of abundance of American pikas (Ochotona princeps) across a leading-edge protected area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Beil, Mark; Belt, Jami

    2016-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane ‘mainlands’. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts. However, to date no studies have investigated habitat, distribution, and abundance of pikas across hundreds of sites within a remote wilderness area. Additionally, relatively little is known about whether climate acts most strongly on pikas through direct or indirect (e.g., vegetation-mediated) mechanisms. During 2007–2009, we collectively hiked >16,000 km throughout the 410,077-ha Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in an effort to identify topographic, microrefugial, and vegetative characteristics predictive of pika abundance. We identified 411 apparently pika-suitable habitat patches with binoculars (in situ), and surveyed 314 of them for pika signs. Ranking of alternative logistic-regression models based on AICc scores revealed that short-term pika abundances were positively associated with intermediate elevations, greater cover of mosses, and taller forbs, and decreased each year, for a total decline of 68% during the three-year study; whereas longer-term abundances were associated only with static variables (longitude, elevation, gradient) and were lower on north-facing slopes. Earlier Julian date and time of day of the survey (i.e., midday vs. not) were associated with lower observed pika abundance. We recommend that wildlife monitoring account for this seasonal and diel variation when surveying pikas. Broad-scale information on status and abundance determinants of montane mammals, especially

  4. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Konstantinos; Michelis, Fotios V; Delimpasi, Sosanna; Karmiris, Themistoklis

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a condition characterised by clinical manifestations of mechanical obstruction of the intestine in the absence of any organic occlusion of the lumen. This syndrome has rarely been reported to complicate the course of systemic amyloidosis. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with the syndrome of small bowel pseudo-obstruction secondary to AL amyloid infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. We comment on the pathophysiology and on the clinical importance of amyloidosis-associated intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  5. OPTN/SRTR 2015 Annual Data Report: Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2017-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant remains important in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2015, 196 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list, with equal numbers waiting for intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2015, 63.3% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 36.7% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was notably higher for intestine-liver than for intestine transplant candidates (respectively, 19.9 vs. 2.8 deaths per 100 waitlist years in 2014-2015). By age, pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 19.6 per 100 waitlist years, and lowest for children aged younger than 6 years, at 3.6 per 100 waitlist years. Pretransplant mortality by etiology was highest for candidates with non-congenital types of short-gut syndrome. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 70 in 2015. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 71 in 2015. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and non-congenital) was the main cause of disease leading to intestine and to intestine-liver transplant. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  6. A tracer study in an Alaskan gravel beach and its implications on the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C

    2011-06-01

    Despite great efforts including bioremediation, the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spills persist in many gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. To explore this mystery, a lithium tracer study was conducted along two transects on one of these beaches. The tracer injections and transports were successfully simulated using the 2-dimensional numerical model MARUN. The tracer stayed much longer in the oil-persisting, right transect (facing landwand) than in the clean, left transect. If the tracer is approximately regarded as oils, oils in the upper layer would have more opportunities to enter the lower layer in the right transect than in the left one. This may qualitatively explain the oil persistence within the right transect. When the tracer is regarded as nutrients, the long stay of nutrients within the right transect implies that the oil persistence along the right transect was not due to the lack of nutrients during the bioremediation.

  7. Age, caste, and behavior determine the replicative activity of intestinal stem cells in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ward, Kristen N; Coleman, Jennifer L; Clinnin, Kaitlin; Fahrbach, Susan; Rueppell, Olav

    2008-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) display a pronounced natural aging plasticity. The differences in aging rates between the alternative phenotypes and behavioral classes could reflect differences in protection against damage or in the ability to repair vulnerable tissues. As in other animals, including humans, the gut is continually exposed to environmental insults and harbors a large population of replicating stem cells that maintain the intestinal epithelium. Through studies of the major internal organs using incorporation and immunodetection of the mitotic marker bromo-deoxyuridine, the intestine was determined to be the main site of tissue renewal in adult honeybees. Proliferative activity of the intestinal stem cells was compared among queens, workers, and males of different ages. Simultaneous attempts to assess intestinal cell loss via apoptosis yielded inconclusive results. The relationship between intestinal cell proliferation and worker life-history was evaluated in greater depth by studying diutinus winter workers, reproductive workers, and by decoupling worker behavioral status from chronological age in a single-cohort colony. Intestinal cell proliferation was abundant in all groups and showed an age-related decline in workers, queens, and males. At young ages, workers exhibited relatively more intestinal cell proliferation than did queens and queens more than drones, but the caste and sex differences decreased with age. Cell proliferation did not decrease beyond 6 weeks of age in older queens and in diutinus workers. Ovary activation did not correlate with the amount of intestinal stem cell proliferation in workers, although the queenless hive condition was associated with lower overall counts. In the single-cohort colony, nurse bees exhibited more cell proliferation than foragers, regardless of age. The overall results do not support our hypothesis that longer-lived phenotypes exhibit increased somatic repair in the form of higher replicative activity of

  8. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  9. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  10. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  11. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  12. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  13. 50 CFR 80.137 - What if real property is no longer useful or needed for its original purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Real Property § 80.137 What if real property is no longer useful or...

  14. 50 CFR 80.137 - What if real property is no longer useful or needed for its original purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Real Property § 80.137 What if real property is no longer useful or...

  15. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  16. Persistence of atomic spectral line on laser-induced Cu plasma with spatial confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Anmin; Sui, Laizhi; Li, Suyu; Liu, Dunli; Wang, Xiaowei; Jiang, Yuanfei; Huang, Xuri; Jin, Mingxing

    2016-11-01

    This paper carries out the spatial confinement effect on laser-induced Cu breakdown spectroscopy in a cylindrical cavity via a nanosecond pulsed Q-switch Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The temporal evolution of the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy is used to investigate the characteristics of spectral persistence. The atomic spectral persistence in plasma generated from Cu with spatial confinement is experimentally demonstrated, where the results indicate that the diameter of the confinement cavity plays a very important role in the persistence of an excited neutral Cu emission line, while the depth of the confinement cavity is almost independent of Cu (I) line persistence. As the diameter of the confinement cavity increases, the persistence of the Cu (I) line in the plasma grows longer under a certain limit. The likely reason for this phenomenon is that under spatial confinement, the reflected shockwave compresses the plasma and leads to an increase in the plasma temperature and density at a certain delay time, which causes further excitation of atomic population to higher excited levels. Finally, the collision rate between particles in the plasma plume is increased.

  17. A persistent infection in MDCK cells by an influenza type B virus.

    PubMed

    Clavo, A C; Maassab, H F; Shaw, M W

    1993-07-01

    A persistent infection in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells by an influenza B virus (B/Tecumseh/63/80) has been established and characterized. Virus recovered from the persistent state titrated lower in relation to the parental wild-type (wt) that initiated the infection as measured by hemagglutination and egg and tissue culture infectious dose, suggesting that the virus is a less cytopathic variant of the original wt virus. The persistent virus (pv) has decreased cytopathology for both MDCK and primary chick kidney (PCK) cell lines, and exhibits different RNA and protein electrophoretic migrations. Plaques of the persistent virus are smaller and take longer to appear, indicating that the pv is a slower growing variant of the wt. The small plaque mutant phenotype may play a role in the maintenance of the persistent infection in MDCK cells. The pv differs from the wt antigenically and in its ability to form deposits of uric acid-like crystals beneath the culture monolayers.

  18. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material.

    PubMed

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 × 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 μl from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-μl aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics.

  19. Modelling population persistence on islands: mammal introductions in the New Zealand archipelago.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Richard P; Forsyth, David M

    2006-12-07

    Islands are likely to differ in their susceptibility to colonization or invasion due to variation in factors that affect population persistence, including island area, climatic severity and habitat modification. We tested the importance of these factors in explaining the persistence of 164 introductions of six mammal species to 85 islands in the New Zealand archipelago using survival analysis and model selection techniques. As predicted by the theory of stochastic population growth, extinction risk was the greatest in the period immediately following introduction, declining rapidly to low probability by ca 25 years. This suggests that initially small populations were at greatest risk of extinction and that populations which survived for 25 years were likely to persist subsequently for much longer. Islands in the New Zealand archipelago become colder and windier with increasing latitude, and the probability of mammal populations persisting on islands declined steeply with increasing latitude. Hence, our results suggest that climatic suitability was an important determinant of the outcome of these invasions. The form of the relationship between latitude and persistence probability differed among species, emphasizing that the outcome of colonization attempts is species-environment specific.

  20. [Persistence of dengue symptoms in patients in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana de Almeida Silva; Lopes, Juliana Salviano Mendonça; Martins, André Guilherme da Costa; Campos, Fernando Augusto Batista; Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira

    2010-03-01

    The clinical picture of dengue is characterized by a maximum duration of 14 days despite frequent complaints of longer symptoms. This study evaluated the occurrence of persistent symptoms (> 14 days) and its impact on daily life. A hundred eighteen patients were interviewed, and the main symptoms at diagnosis were mialgia (98.3%), fever (97.5%) and weakness (95.8%). The presence of at least a persistent symptom was related by 77 (65.2%) individuals of wich 10 (8.5%) described it as intense and lasting for 30 days or more. The most persistent symptoms mentioned were weakness (58 cases), hiporexia (49) and sleepiness (40), occurring mostly in women, with odds ratio: 5.4 (IC95%: 2.3-12.3). A significant association between the persistence of the symptoms and the history of extra expenses (p = 0,02) was found, as well as a delay to return to normal activities (p < 0.001). Thus, it was verified that dengue presented a relevant impact on every day life, even after 14 days, a fact wich was associated with the presence of persistent symptoms of the illness.