Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; de Melo, Robson Lopes; Riske, Karin A.; Daffre, Sirlei; Montich, Guillermo; da Silva Junior, Pedro Ismael
In contrast to vertebrate immune systems, invertebrates lack an adaptive response and rely solely on innate immunity in which antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an essential role. Most of them are membrane active molecules that are typically unstructured in solution and adopt secondary/tertiary structures upon binding to phospholipid bilayers. This work presents the first characterization of a constitutive AMP from the hemolymph of an Opiliones order animal: the harvestman Acutisoma longipes. This peptide was named longipin. It presents 18 aminoacid residues (SGYLPGKEYVYKYKGKVF) and a positive net charge at neutral pH. No similarity with other AMPs was observed. However, high sequence similarity with heme-lipoproteins from ticks suggested that longipin might be a protein fragment. The synthetic peptide showed enhanced antifungal activity against Candida guilliermondii and C. tropicalis yeasts (MIC: 3.8–7.5 μM) and did not interfered with VERO cells line viability at all concentrations tested (200–0.1 μM). This selectivity against microbial cells is related to the highest affinity of longipin for anionic charged vesicles (POPG:POPC) compared to zwitterionic ones (POPC), once microbial plasma membrane are generally more negatively charged compared to mammalian cells membrane. Dye leakage from carboxyfluorescein-loaded POPG:POPC vesicles suggested that longipin is a membrane active antimicrobial peptide and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the peptide chain is mainly unstructured in solution or in the presence of POPC vesicles. However, upon binding to POPG:POPC vesicles, the FT-IR spectrum showed bands related to β-sheet and amyloid-like fibril conformations in agreement with thioflavin-T binding assays, indicating that longipin is an amyloid antimicrobial peptide. PMID:27997568
Sayegh, Raphael Santa Rosa; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Melo, Robson Lopes de; Riske, Karin A; Daffre, Sirlei; Montich, Guillermo; da Silva Junior, Pedro Ismael
In contrast to vertebrate immune systems, invertebrates lack an adaptive response and rely solely on innate immunity in which antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an essential role. Most of them are membrane active molecules that are typically unstructured in solution and adopt secondary/tertiary structures upon binding to phospholipid bilayers. This work presents the first characterization of a constitutive AMP from the hemolymph of an Opiliones order animal: the harvestman Acutisoma longipes. This peptide was named longipin. It presents 18 aminoacid residues (SGYLPGKEYVYKYKGKVF) and a positive net charge at neutral pH. No similarity with other AMPs was observed. However, high sequence similarity with heme-lipoproteins from ticks suggested that longipin might be a protein fragment. The synthetic peptide showed enhanced antifungal activity against Candida guilliermondii and C. tropicalis yeasts (MIC: 3.8-7.5 μM) and did not interfered with VERO cells line viability at all concentrations tested (200-0.1 μM). This selectivity against microbial cells is related to the highest affinity of longipin for anionic charged vesicles (POPG:POPC) compared to zwitterionic ones (POPC), once microbial plasma membrane are generally more negatively charged compared to mammalian cells membrane. Dye leakage from carboxyfluorescein-loaded POPG:POPC vesicles suggested that longipin is a membrane active antimicrobial peptide and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the peptide chain is mainly unstructured in solution or in the presence of POPC vesicles. However, upon binding to POPG:POPC vesicles, the FT-IR spectrum showed bands related to β-sheet and amyloid-like fibril conformations in agreement with thioflavin-T binding assays, indicating that longipin is an amyloid antimicrobial peptide.
Quock, R.; Blackburn, D. C.; Ghose, S.
For the past 9 months, we have been studying the presence of disease and genetic variation in the Cameroonian species Xenopus longipes, found only in a lake on Mount Oku. During research trips to this lake (Lake Oku) over the past decade, mortalities of this species have been observed, and in addition there may be evidence of declines in other frog species in these mountains. It is well understood that in many parts of the world, amphibians are currently declining due to disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and possibly also by the iridovirus ranavirus. A previous study suggested that ranavirus could be found in Lake Oku, and also that Bd may be present. Using 25 X. longipes liver samples collected during the summer of 2013 and 10 samples collected during the summer of 2011, we screened for Ranavirus through PCR amplification and sequencing, and screened for Bd in our 25 samples from 2013 through quantitative PCR. We also PCR amplified and sequenced 1950bp of the X. longipes 16S gene to look for genetic variation. We did not find ranavirus present on these frogs, and we found low prevalence (4%) of Bd. Through our analysis of 16S data, we found low genetic variation among the X. longipes, with a maximum divergence of 0.37% observed between any two individuals. Time is of the essence and it is crucial that the causes of these die offs be identified. While there have been observed mortalities of X. longipes since 2006, and this species remains on the Critically Endangered List, the cause of these mortalities is still unknown. If and when a cause can be identified, it would be monumental for this species' population and can hopefully be used to preserve and save these frogs.
Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, A Berenice; Gutiérrez, María Del Carmen
Heliopsis longipes (Compositae) is a Mexican plant used as analgesic in pain toothache. A solution of 10mug/ml of dichloromethane extract from this plant showed analgesic activity determined by means of GABA release in mice brain slices. Through a bioassay-directed separation, fractions G-1, G-2, G-4 and G-6 at the same concentration were active. Affinin was the unique and common active compound, and evoke the GABA release 0.5min after administration at 1x10(-4)M concentration. Inactive compound were undeca-2E-en-8,10-dyinoic acid isobutylamide, hinokinin, 2'-hydroxyhinokinin, 3beta-sn-glyceroyl-(1''-palmitoxy)urs-12-ene, 13(18)-ursen-3beta-ol, 13(18)-ursen-3beta-acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The analgesic activity of Heliopsis longipes could be associated to affinin.
Almazán-Núñez, R. Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Arizmendi, María del Coro
We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382
Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo
We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.
Paladini, Giuseppe; Hansen, Haakon; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Shinn, Andrew P
Gyrodactylus longipes n. sp. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) is described from the gills of farmed juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from two sites located in Italy and Bosnia-Herzegovina and represents the second species of Gyrodactylus to be described from S. aurata. Gyrodactylus orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Di Cave et Shinn, 2009 was the first gyrodactylid to be described from S. aurata, from populations cultured in Albania and Croatia. In the current study, G. longipes was found in a mixed infection with G. orecchiae on fish maintained in Latina Province, Italy, thus extending the reported distribution of the latter throughout the Mediterranean. The morphology of the opisthaptoral hard parts of G. longipes is compared to those of G. orecchiae, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Gyrodactylus longipes is characterised by having larger, elongated ventral bar processes and long, triangular-shaped toe region to their marginal hook sickles which, by comparison, are rhomboid in G. orecchiae. The marginal hook sickles of G. longipes are almost double the size of G. orecchiae which allows for their rapid discrimination from each other in mixed infections. A comparison of the DNA sequence of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of G. longipes with the corresponding sequence from G. orecchiae and with those available in GenBank, supports the separate species status of G. longipes. Part of this study necessitated an overview of the existing Gyrodactylus fauna from Italy and Bosnia-Herzegovina; a summary from each country is provided here to assist future investigations.
Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang
The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:27159564
Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Armstrong, Nicola; Burns, Kevin C
Gaze following and awareness of attentional cues are hallmarks of human and non-human social intelligence. Here, we show that the North Island robin (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, responds to human eyes. Robins were presented with six different conditions, in which two human experimenters altered the orientation or visibility of their body, head or eyes in relation to mealworm prey. One experimenter had visual access to the prey, and the second experimenter did not. Robins were then given the opportunity to 'steal' one of two mealworms presented by each experimenter. Robins responded by preferentially choosing the mealworm in front of the experimenter who could not see, in all conditions but one. Robins failed to discriminate between experimenters who were facing the mealworm and those who had their head turned 90° to the side. This may suggest that robins do not make decisions using the same eye visibility cues that primates and corvids evince, whether for ecological, experiential or evolutionary reasons.
Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C
While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.
dos Santos, Gilson Costa; Hogan, Jerry A; Willemart, Rodrigo Hirata
Associative learning has been demonstrated in many species of invertebrates, but has not been studied in arachnids, except for some spiders and a whip-spider. Herein, we tested the ability of a Neotropical harvestman, Discocyrtus invalidus (Arachnida, Opiliones) to associate a shelter with a chemical stimulus. We used an arena with a white light at the top and two openings on the floor, one giving access to a dark shelter and the other one closed with a mesh. Filter paper with different chemicals (mate or green tea) surrounded both openings. A harvestman (n=37) was released in the arena and its behavior recorded. The procedure was repeated for 14 consecutive days with each individual. We found that harvestmen got faster at finding the refuge, became less exploratory and tended to move toward the open shelter as the days passed. We conclude that the animals learned to associate the chemical stimulus with the shelter.
Soler-Membrives, Anna; Rossi, Sergio; Munilla, Tomás
Fatty acid analysis has proved valuable in determining seasonal trophic links and the feeding behavior in organisms in which these diet and trophic links cannot be inferred from stomach content analyses. Seasonal variations in total free fatty acid content (TFFA) and fatty acid composition of seston (<250 μm), the brown macroalgae Stypocaulon spp., polychaetes (Nereididae) and the pycnogonid Ammothella longipes have been used to establish their trophic links, with particular focus on seasonality and feeding ecology of A. longipes. Samples were collected in a coastal environment (NW Mediterranean Sea) at 7-10 m depth, in five different periods (August and October 2008, February, June and September 2009). Seston and Stypocaulon spp. samples did not show significant seasonal variations in TFFA content, while nereids showed a significant variation. Analysis of fatty acid profile showed high similarities of fatty acid composition between seston and Stypocaulon spp. Nereids were closer to seston and Stypocaulon spp. than A. longipes, which seemed to follow a seasonal trend. The results of this study reveal that A. longipes may change its feeding behavior depending on the season and available food. This pycnogonid species appears to be carnivore during spring and early summer but seems to feed on detritus when availability of prey diminishes during winter. Notable high amounts of odd-chain fatty acids are found in summer-autumn for this species, which may come from bacteria acquired from the detrital diet or from de novo biosynthesis from propionate. The results obtained provide new and valuable data on the understudied feeding biology of pycnogonids in general, and contribute to the understanding of their functioning of Mediterranean shallow oligotrophic systems and their trophic links.
Yu, Yi; Fan, Qiang; Shen, Rujiang; Guo, Wei; Jin, Jianhua; Cui, Dafang; Liao, Wenbo
Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes is an endangered species in China. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of this species was investigated using amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Nei's gene diversity ranged from 0.1290 to 0.1394. The AMOVA indicated that 75.06% of variation was distributed within populations, while the between-group component 5.04% was smaller than the between populations-within-group component 19.90%. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between populations. Genetic and geographical distances were not correlated. PCA and genetic structure analysis showed that populations from East China were together with those of the Nanling Range. These patterns of genetic diversity and levels of genetic variation may be the result of D. c. subsp. longipes restricted to several isolated habitats and “excess flowers production, but little fruit set”. It is necessary to protect all existing populations of D. c. subsp. longipes in order to preserve as much genetic variation as possible. PMID:25250583
Castro-Ruiz, Jesús Eduardo; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Rivero-Cruz, Fausto; García-Gasca, Teresa; Ibarra-Alvarado, César
Heliopsis longipes roots have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to relieve pain, mainly, toothaches. Previous studies have shown that affinin, the major alkamide of these roots, induces potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of H. longipes root extracts and affinin on the cardiovascular system have not been investigated so far. In the present study, we demonstrated that the dichloromethane and ethanolic extracts of H. longipes roots, and affinin, isolated from these roots, produce a concentration-dependent vasodilation of rat aorta. Affinin-induced vasorelaxation was partly dependent on the presence of endothelium and was significantly blocked in the presence of inhibitors of NO, H2S, and CO synthesis (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), dl-propargylglycine (PAG), and chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP), respectively); K+ channel blockers (glibenclamide (Gli) and tetraethyl ammonium (TEA)), and guanylate cyclase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and indomethacin (INDO), respectively). Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that affinin induces vasodilation by mechanisms that involve gasotransmitters, and prostacyclin signaling pathways. These findings indicate that this natural alkamide has therapeutic potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28117739
Tan, Hai Siang; Azman, B. A. R.
Abstract The marine mysid species Rhopalophthalmus longipes Ii, 1964 is reported from Malaysian waters for the first time. Specimens are described and illustrated in detail based on material collected by epibenthic sledge from the seagrass meadows of Pulau Tinggi, Johor. Specimens exhibit a slight difference from Ii’s type material by possessing a rounded process bearing two small protrusions apically near the middle distal end of the third segment of antennal peduncle. In addition, its telson armed with 7-9 moderately strong setae at the lateral margin. PMID:28138298
Goff, M L; Win, B H
The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months.
Kalsi, M; Seal, D R; Nuessly, G S; Capinera, J L; Martin, C G
The milkweed assassin bug, Zelus longipes (L.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), is a generalist predator and a potential biological control agent of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae), which cause considerable economic damage to sweet corn yields in Florida. We studied the potential of Z. longipes as a biocontrol agent of four ulidiid pests in corn fields: Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, Euxesta annonae F., and Chaetopsis massyla Walker. Within-plant and within-field distributions of Z. longipes and ulidiids and functional responses of Z. longipes to ulidiid prey were determined. Highest numbers of Z. longipes and ulidiids in the R1, R2, and R3 corn stages were generally in the basal or middle leaves at 09:00 h EST, ears at 13:00 h EST, and top and tassel at 17:00 h EST. Hence, there seemed to be a coordinated migration of Z. longipes and ulidiids from the lowest to the highest parts of the corn plant during the day. Within the corn field, aggregated (clumped) distributions were most common for Z. longipes and ulidiids especially in the later R2 and R3 stages based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, index of dispersion, and Lloyd's patchiness indices of dispersion. However, predator and prey populations were lower in the R1 stage, and there were inconsistent results for dispersion indices among times of day and between predators and prey. Ulidiid distributions in R1 were mostly regular (uniform) at 13:00 h EST, but aggregated at 09:00 h and 17:00 h. However, Z. longipes R1 distributions were mostly aggregated at 13:00 h, but random or regular at 09:00 h and 17:00 h EST. Handling times for male and female Z. longipes were 1.0-1.39 h and 0.67-0.97 h, respectively, and each had a type II functional response to E. stigmatias, E. eluta, and E. annonae and consumed about five flies per day. Although the population abundance of Z. longipes can vary between seasons, it appears to be a promising biocontrol agent of ulidiid flies in corn.
Schnepf, E.; Kühn, S. F.
Cryothecomonas longipes Schnepf and Kühn sp. nov. is a colourless biflagellate organism, 9-14 µm long and 7-9 µm wide when not filled with food vacuoles. It was detected in the North Sea, feeding with pseudopodia on diatoms. It penetrates the host shell, while the main body of the flagellate remains outside the frustule. Cells are covered with a multilayered theca. The pseudopodium protrudes through a preformed slit in the theca. Each flagellum also emerges through a pit in which the theca forms a funnel of complex structure that girdles each flagellum. The anterior flagellum is 9-15 µm long and oriented forward; the ventral flagellum, posteriorly directed, is 20-24 µm long and bears fine hairs. The flagellar roots consist of microtubules that emerge at satellites around the basal bodies and run along the flagellar pits. In addition, the ventral flagellum is accompanied by a band of six microtubules. It is proximally attached to a small fibrillar band, which interconnects the basal bodies. Cryothecomonas longipes has two or three types of extrusomes which pierce the theca when discharged. Their mode of discharge is discussed. Microbody-like vesicles containing small tubules are closely associated with older digestion vacuoles. Cryothecomonas longipes is compared with other species of the genus and a diagnosis is given.
Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.
Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae. PMID:20569136
Duan, Shengchang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Wan, Wenting; He, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaoqin; Ma, Yujin; Long, Ni; Tan, Yuntao; Wang, Yangzi; Hou, Yujie; Dong, Yang
Tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. However, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. To fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars V2 and NC89 after the inoculation of either Alternaria longipes (AL) or Alternaria alternata (AA) at three different time points. We studied the gene expression profile of each cultivar-pathogen combination, and identified eight differentially expressed genes shared among all combinations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed key components during the fungal infection, which included regulation of gene expression (GO:0010468), regulation of RNA metabolic process (GO:0051252), tetrapyrrole binding (GO:0046906), and external encapsulating structure (GO:0030312). Further analyses of the continuously upregulated/downregulated genes and the resistance genes demonstrated that the gene expression profile upon fungal infection was contingent on the specific cultivar and pathogen. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction, and is of great importance for disease prevention and molecular breeding. PMID:27157477
Nuñez, J. D.; Sbragaglia, V.; García, J. A.; Company, J. B.; Aguzzi, J.
The deep sea is the largest and at the same time least explored biome on Earth, but quantitative studies on the behavior of bathyal organisms are scarce because of the intrinsic difficulties related to in situ observations and maintaining animals in aquaria. In this study, we reported, for the first time, laboratory observations on locomotor rhythms and other behavioral observations (i.e. feeding, exploring and self-grooming) for the bathyal crab Geryon longipes. Crabs were collected on the middle-lower slope (720-1750 m) off the coast of Blanes (Spain). Inertial (18 h) water currents and monochromatic blue (i.e. 470 nm) light-darkness (24 h) cycles were simulated in two different experiments in flume tanks endowed with burrows. Both cycles were simulated in order to investigate activity rhythms regulation in Mediterranean deep-sea benthos. Crabs showed rhythmic locomotor activity synchronized to both water currents and light-darkness cycles. In general terms, feeding and exploring behaviors also followed the same pattern. Results presented here indicate the importance of local inertial (18 h) periodicity of water currents at the seabed as a temporal cue regulating the behavior of bathyal benthic fauna in all continental margin areas where the effects of tides is negligible.
Sedighi Gilani, Marjan; Boone, Matthieu N; Mader, Kevin; Schwarze, Francis Willis Mathew Robert
Incubation of Norway spruce with Physisporinus vitreus and sycamore with Xylaria longipes results in reduction in density of these wood species that are traditionally used for the top and bottom plate of a violin, which follows by enhanced acoustic properties. We used Synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography, to study the three-dimensional structure of wood at the micro-scale level and the alterations of the density distribution after incubation with two white-rot fungi. Micro-tomography data from wood treated at different incubation periods are analyzed and compared with untreated (control) specimens to determine the wood density map and changes at the cell-wall level. Differences between the density of early- and latewood, xylem ray and around bordered pits in both Norway spruce and sycamore are studied. Three-dimensional hyphal networks of the P.vitreus and Xylaria longipes hyphae are visualized inside the cell lumina and their significance on the density of the early- and latewood cells after different incubation periods are discussed. The study illustrates the utility of X-ray micro-tomography for both qualitative and quantitative studies of a wide variety of biological systems and due to its high sensitivity, small structural changes can be quantified.
Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...
Extracellular Matrix Assembly in Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) (I. A Model of Adhesives Based on Chemical Characterization and Localization of Polysaccharides from the Marine Diatom Achnanthes longipes and Other Diatoms).
Wustman, B. A.; Gretz, M. R.; Hoagland, K. D.
Extracellular adhesives from the diatoms Achnanthes longipes, Amphora coffeaeformis, Cymbella cistula, and Cymbella mexicana were characterized by monosaccharide and methylation analysis, lectin-fluorescein isothiocyanate localization, and cytochemical staining. Polysaccharide was the major component of adhesives formed during cell motility, synthesis of a basal pad, and/or production of a highly organized shaft. Hot water-insoluble/hot 0.5 M NaHCO3-soluble anionic polysaccharides from A. longipes and A. coffeaeformis adhesives were primarily composed of galactosyl (64-70%) and fucosyl (32-42%) residues. In A. longipes polymers, 2,3-, t-, 3-, and 4-linked/substituted galactosyl, t-, 3-, 4-, and 2-linked fucosyl, and t- and 2-linked glucuronic acid residues predominated. Adhesive polysaccharides from C. cistula were EDTA-soluble, sulfated, consisted of 83% galactosyl (4-, 4,6-, and 3,4-linked/substituted) and 13% xylosyl (t-, 4f/5p-, and 3p-linked/substituted) residues, and contained no uronosyl residues. Ulex europaeus agglutinin uniformly localized [alpha](1,2)-L-fucose units in C. cistula and Achnanthes adhesives formed during motility and in the pads of A. longipes. D-Galactose residues were localized throughout the shafts of C. cistula and capsules of A. coffeaeformis. D-Mannose and/or D-glucose, D-galactose, and [alpha](t)-L-fucose residues were uniformly localized in the outer layers of A. longipes shafts by Cancavalia ensiformis, Abrus precatorius, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, respectively. A model for diatom cell adhesive structure was developed from chemical characterization, localization, and microscopic observation of extracellular adhesive components formed during the diatom cell-attachment process. PMID:12223660
Extracellular Matrix Assembly in Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) (I. A Model of Adhesives Based on Chemical Characterization and Localization of Polysaccharides from the Marine Diatom Achnanthes longipes and Other Diatoms).
Wustman, B. A.; Gretz, M. R.; Hoagland, K. D.
Extracellular adhesives from the diatoms Achnanthes longipes, Amphora coffeaeformis, Cymbella cistula, and Cymbella mexicana were characterized by monosaccharide and methylation analysis, lectin-fluorescein isothiocyanate localization, and cytochemical staining. Polysaccharide was the major component of adhesives formed during cell motility, synthesis of a basal pad, and/or production of a highly organized shaft. Hot water-insoluble/hot 0.5 M NaHCO3-soluble anionic polysaccharides from A. longipes and A. coffeaeformis adhesives were primarily composed of galactosyl (64-70%) and fucosyl (32-42%) residues. In A. longipes polymers, 2,3-, t-, 3-, and 4-linked/substituted galactosyl, t-, 3-, 4-, and 2-linked fucosyl, and t- and 2-linked glucuronic acid residues predominated. Adhesive polysaccharides from C. cistula were EDTA-soluble, sulfated, consisted of 83% galactosyl (4-, 4,6-, and 3,4-linked/substituted) and 13% xylosyl (t-, 4f/5p-, and 3p-linked/substituted) residues, and contained no uronosyl residues. Ulex europaeus agglutinin uniformly localized [alpha](1,2)-L-fucose units in C. cistula and Achnanthes adhesives formed during motility and in the pads of A. longipes. D-Galactose residues were localized throughout the shafts of C. cistula and capsules of A. coffeaeformis. D-Mannose and/or D-glucose, D-galactose, and [alpha](t)-L-fucose residues were uniformly localized in the outer layers of A. longipes shafts by Cancavalia ensiformis, Abrus precatorius, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, respectively. A model for diatom cell adhesive structure was developed from chemical characterization, localization, and microscopic observation of extracellular adhesive components formed during the diatom cell-attachment process.
Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.
Mercurio, Randy J
Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation.
Wustman; Lind; Wetherbee; Gretz
Achnanthes longipes is a marine, biofouling diatom that adheres to surfaces via adhesive polymers extruded during motility or organized into structures called stalks that contain three distinct regions: the pad, shaft, and collar. Four monoclonal antibodies (AL.C1-AL.C4) and antibodies from two uncloned hybridomas (AL.E1 and AL.E2) were raised against the extracellular adhesives of A. longipes. Antibodies were screened against a hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble-fraction. The hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble fraction was fractionated to yield polymers in three size ranges: F1, >/= 20,000, 000 Mr; F2, congruent with100,000 Mr; and F3, <10,000 Mr relative to dextran standards. The congruent with100,000-Mr fraction consisted of highly sulfated (approximately 11%) fucoglucuronogalactans (FGGs) and low-sulfate (approximately 2%) FGGs, whereas F1 was composed of O-linked FGG (F2)-polypeptide (F3) complexes. AL.C1, AL.C2, AL.C4, AL.E1, and AL.E2 recognized carbohydrate complementary regions on FGGs, with antigenicity dependent on fucosyl-containing side chains. AL.C3 was unique in that it had a lower affinity for FGGs and did not label any portion of the shaft. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry indicated that low-sulfate FGGs are expelled from pores surrounding the raphe terminus, creating the cylindrical outer layers of the shaft, and that highly sulfated FGGs are extruded from the raphe, forming the central core. Antibody-labeling patterns and other evidence indicated that the shaft central-core region is related to material exuded from the raphe during cell motility.
Machado, Glauco; Carrera, Patricia C; Pomini, Armando M; Marsaioli, Anita J
Two alkylated 1,4-benzoquinones were identified from the defensive secretion produced by the neotropical harvestman Goniosoma longipes (Gonyleptidae). They were characterized as 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-ethyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. We tested the effectiveness of these benzoquinone secretions against several predator types, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Different predators were exposed to the harvestmen's gland secretion or to distilled water in laboratory bioassays. Our results indicate that secretions containing the 1,4-benzoquinones released by G. longipes can be an effective defense against predation, and that the effectiveness of the secretion is dependent on the predator type. The scent gland secretion repelled seven ant species, two species of large wandering spiders, and one frog species, but was not an effective defense against an opossum. Our study also demonstrates that the scent gland secretion of G. longipes can work as a chemical shield preventing the approach of three large predatory ants for at least 10 min. The chemical shield may protect the harvestman against successive attacks of the same ant worker and also allow the harvestman to flee before massive ant recruitment. Our data support the suggestion that chemical defenses may increase survival with some but not all potential predators. This variation in defense effectiveness may result from many interacting factors, including the attack strategy, size, learning ability, and physiology of the predators, as well as the chemical nature of the defensive compounds, type of emission, and amount of effluent released by the prey.
Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason
Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.
Fronza, M; Murillo, R; Ślusarczyk, S; Adams, M; Hamburger, M; Heinzmann, B; Laufer, S; Merfort, I
Phytochemical investigations of the n-hexane extract from the roots of Peltodon longipes (Lamiaceae) resulted in the isolation of 12 known abietane diterpenes (1-12). Structures were established on the basis of one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data ((1)H and (13)C, COSY, HSQC and HMBC), electron ionization mass spectrometric analysis (EIMS) as well as comparison with data from literature. These compounds, as well as eight known diterpenes (13-19) from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and two from Salvia sahendica (20 and 21) were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects in human pancreatic (MIAPaCa-2) and melanoma (MV-3) tumor cell lines using the MTT assay. Tanshinone IIa (13), 7α-acetoxyroyleanone (1), 1,2-dihydrotanshinone (16) and cryptotanshinone (14) had the highest cytotoxic effects in MIAPaCa-2, displaying IC(50) of 1.9, 4.7, 5.6, and 5.8 μM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of abietane diterpenoid quinones are discussed.
Souza, Daniele R.; Pérez-González, Abel
Abstract Including more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. This database is part 2 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones, and it includes the members of the suborder Laniatores, infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the genera currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). In this Part 2, a total of 556 species and subspecies are listed. PMID:26752965
Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Neil Emery, R J; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C
Stellaria longipes plant communities (ecotypes) occur in several environmentally distinct habitats along the eastern slopes of southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. One ecotype occurs in a prairie habitat at ∼1000 m elevation where Stellaria plants grow in an environment in which the light is filtered by taller neighbouring vegetation, i.e. sunlight with a low red to far-red (R/FR) ratio. This ecotype exhibits a high degree of phenotypic plasticity by increasing stem elongation in response to the low R/FR ratio light signal. Another Stellaria ecotype occurs nearby at ∼2400 m elevation in a much cooler alpine habitat, one where plants rarely experience low R/FR ratio shade light. Stem elongation of plants is largely regulated by gibberellins (GAs) and auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Shoots of the prairie ecotype plants show increased IAA levels under low R/FR ratio light and they also increase their stem growth in response to applied IAA. The alpine ecotype plants show neither response. Plants from both ecotypes produce high levels of growth-active GA1 under low R/FR ratio light, though they differ appreciably in their catabolism of GA1. The alpine ecotype plants exhibit very high levels of GA8, the inactive product of GA1 metabolism, under both normal and low R/FR ratio light. Alpine origin plants may de-activate GA1 by conversion to GA8 via a constitutively high level of expression of the GA2ox gene, thereby maintaining their dwarf phenotype and exhibiting a reduced phenotypic plasticity in terms of shoot elongation. In contrast, prairie plants exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, using low R/FR ratio light-mediated changes in GA and IAA concentrations to increase shoot elongation, thereby accessing direct sunlight to optimize photosynthesis. There thus appear to be complex adaptation strategies for the two ecotypes, ones which involve modifications in the homeostasis of endogenous hormones.
Smrž, Jaroslav; Kováč, Ĺubomír; Mikeš, Jaromír; Lukešová, Alena
To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi) have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces). We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed. PMID:24146804
Smrž, Jaroslav; Kováč, Ĺubomír; Mikeš, Jaromír; Lukešová, Alena
To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi) have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces). We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.
Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific
Sogawa, Sayaka; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Saito, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimode, Shinji; Kikuchi, Tomohiko
We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest
Wang, Y.; Lu, J.; Mollet, J. C.; Gretz, M. R.; Hoagland, K. D.
The cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) and the DCB analogs 2-chloro-6-fluorobenzonitrile, 3-amino-2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, and 5-dimethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfonyl-(3-cyano-2, 4-dichloro)aniline (DCBF) inhibited extracellular adhesive production in the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes, resulting in a loss of motility and a lack of permanent adhesion. The effect was fully reversible upon removal of the inhibitor, and cell growth was not affected at concentrations of inhibitors adequate to effectively interrupt the adhesion sequence. Video microscopy revealed that the adhesion sequence was mediated by the export and assembly of polymers, and consisted of initial attachment followed by cell motility and eventual production of permanent adhesive structures in the form of stalks that elevated the diatom above the substratum. A. longipes adhesive polymers are primarily composed of noncellulosic polysaccharides (B.A. Wustman, M.R. Gretz, and K.D. Hoagland  Plant Physiol 113: 1059-1069). These results, together with the discovery of DCB inhibition of extracellular matrix assembly in noncellulosic red algal unicells (S.M. Arad, O. Dubinsky, and B. Simon  Phycologia 33: 158-162), indicate that DCB inhibits synthesis of noncellulosic extracellular polysaccharides. A fluorescent probe, DCBF, was synthesized and shown to inhibit adhesive polymer production in the same manner as DCB. DCBF specifically labeled an 18-kD polypeptide isolated from a membrane fraction. Inhibition of adhesion by DCB and its analogs provides evidence of a direct relationship between polysaccharide synthesis and motility and permanent adhesion.
Wang, Y.; Lu, J.; Mollet, J. C.; Gretz, M. R.; Hoagland, K. D.
The cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) and the DCB analogs 2-chloro-6-fluorobenzonitrile, 3-amino-2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, and 5-dimethylamino-naphthalene-1-sulfonyl-(3-cyano-2, 4-dichloro)aniline (DCBF) inhibited extracellular adhesive production in the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes, resulting in a loss of motility and a lack of permanent adhesion. The effect was fully reversible upon removal of the inhibitor, and cell growth was not affected at concentrations of inhibitors adequate to effectively interrupt the adhesion sequence. Video microscopy revealed that the adhesion sequence was mediated by the export and assembly of polymers, and consisted of initial attachment followed by cell motility and eventual production of permanent adhesive structures in the form of stalks that elevated the diatom above the substratum. A. longipes adhesive polymers are primarily composed of noncellulosic polysaccharides (B.A. Wustman, M.R. Gretz, and K.D. Hoagland  Plant Physiol 113: 1059-1069). These results, together with the discovery of DCB inhibition of extracellular matrix assembly in noncellulosic red algal unicells (S.M. Arad, O. Dubinsky, and B. Simon  Phycologia 33: 158-162), indicate that DCB inhibits synthesis of noncellulosic extracellular polysaccharides. A fluorescent probe, DCBF, was synthesized and shown to inhibit adhesive polymer production in the same manner as DCB. DCBF specifically labeled an 18-kD polypeptide isolated from a membrane fraction. Inhibition of adhesion by DCB and its analogs provides evidence of a direct relationship between polysaccharide synthesis and motility and permanent adhesion. PMID:12223661
Fernandes, Nathália da Silva; Willemart, Rodrigo Hirata
Sexually dimorphic glands have convergently appeared in animals and are often responsible for the production of pheromones. In the suborder Laniatores of the order Opiliones (Arachnida), glands of such type are widespread, but there is not a single paper on how they are used. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and a behavioral approach, we describe glandular openings and how these glands are used, in the harvestmen Gryne perlata and Gryne coccinelloides (Cosmetidae). Males of these two species have glandular openings on the metatarsi of legs I and on the metatarsi IV. Males were shown rubbing the glands of the metatarsi I against their other legs, whereas glands on the metatarsi IV are gently touched on the substrate or rubbed either against other legs, or against the substrate. Not all behaviors were seen in both species.
Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio
Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596
Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio
There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets.
Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette
Abstract This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress. Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://18.104.22.168:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c. PMID:25589875
Bain, Odile; Junker, Kerstin
Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts?) near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae) that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters. PMID:23369432
Kury, Adriano B; Mendes, Amanda Cruz; Souza, Daniele R
Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3). All of them only became available when Staręga (1992) designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae), not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies) is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the TravuniidaeTravuniinae. Nunciaovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyxcockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954), but with inverted precedence) is here combined as Nunciacoriaceaovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of
Gainett, Guilherme; Michalik, Peter; Müller, Carsten H G; Giribet, Gonzalo; Talarico, Giovanni; Willemart, Rodrigo H
Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are especially dependent on chemical cues and are often regarded as animals that rely mainly on contact chemoreception. Information on harvestman sensilla is scarce when compared to other arachnid orders, especially concerning internal morphology. Using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, we investigated tarsal sensilla on the distal tarsomeres (DT) of all leg pairs in Heteromitobates discolor (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Furthermore, we explored the typological diversity of sensilla present on the DT I and II in members of the suborder Laniatores, which include two thirds of the formally described opilionid fauna, using species from 17 families representing all main laniatorian lineages. Our data revealed that DT I and II of H. discolor are equipped with wall-pored falciform hairs (two types), wall-pored sensilla chaetica (two types) and tip-pored sensilla chaetica, while DT III and IV are mainly covered with trichomes (non-sensory) and tip-pored sensilla chaetica. The ultrastructural characteristics support an olfactory function for all wall-pored sensilla and a dual gustatory/mechanoreceptive function for tip-pored sensilla chaetica. Based on our comparative SEM survey, we show that wall-pored sensilla occur in all investigated Laniatores, demonstrating their widespread occurrence in the suborder and highlighting the importance of both legs I and II as the sensory appendages of laniatorean harvestmen. Our results provide the first morphological evidence for olfactory receptors in Laniatores and suggest that olfaction is more important for harvestmen than previously thought.
Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato
We measured the concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in a large web spider, Nephila clavata L. Koch (Nephilidae: Arachnida), collected at three sites at different distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant about 1.5 y after the accident in March 2011. The radiocesium concentrations in spiders were highest in a streamside secondary forest 33 km northwest of the power plant: mean ± a standard deviation of 2.401 ± 1.197 Bq g(-1) dry for (134)Cs and 3.955 ± 1.756 Bq g(-1) dry for (137)Cs. In a hillside secondary forest 37 km northwest of the power plant, the mean concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.825 ± 0.247 Bq g(-1) dry and 1.470 ± 0.454 Bq g(-1) dry, respectively. In a pine forest 62 km west of the power plant, very low radiocesium concentrations were detected, but in only a few individuals. The concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in spiders collected at each site tended to be correlated with the air radiation dose rate at each site. Since spiders are key components of food webs in forests, the high concentrations in this species at contaminated sites suggested that the radiocesium from the accident has transferred through food chains and reached to higher trophic level of the food chains.
Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P
Opiliones are one of the largest arachnid orders, with more than 6,500 species in 50 families. Many of these families have been erected or reorganized in the last few years since the publication of The Biology of Opiliones. Recent years have also seen an explosion in phylogenetic work on Opiliones, as well as in studies using Opiliones as test cases to address biogeographic and evolutionary questions more broadly. Accelerated activity in the study of Opiliones evolution has been facilitated by the discovery of several key fossils, including the oldest known Opiliones fossil, which represents a new, extinct suborder. Study of the group's biology has also benefited from rapid accrual of genomic resources, particularly with respect to transcriptomes and functional genetic tools. The rapid emergence and utility of Phalangium opilio as a model for evolutionary developmental biology of arthropods serve as demonstrative evidence of a new area of study in Opiliones biology, made possible through transcriptomic data.
Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A
Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.
Miller, Jeremy A.; Griswold, Charles E.; Scharff, Nikolaj; Řezáč, Milan; Szűts, Tamás; Marhabaie, Mohammad
Abstract The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureedia gen. n., ParadoneaLawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A key to all genera and major lineages is provided along with corresponding diagnoses, as well as descriptions of selected species. These are documented with collections of photographs, scanning electron micrographs, and illustrations. A new phylogeny of Eresidae based on molecular sequence data expands on a previously published analysis. A species of the genus Paradonea Lawrence, 1968 is sequenced and placed phylogenetically for the first time. New sequences from twenty Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967 specimens were added to investigate species limits within the genus. The genus Loureedia gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Eresus annulipes Lucas, 1857. Two species, Eresus semicanus Simon, 1908 and Eresus jerbae El-Hennawy, 2005, are synonymized with Loureedia annulipes comb. n. One new species, Paradonea presleyi sp. n. is described. Eresus algericus El-Hennawy, 2004 is transferred to Adonea Simon, 1873. The female of Dorceus fastuosus C. L. Koch, 1846 is described for the first time. The first figures depicting Paradonea splendens (Lawrence, 1936) are presented. PMID:22679386
Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443
Buzatto, Bruno A; Machado, Glauco
Strong sexual selection may lead small males or males in poor condition to adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) as a way to avoid the risk of being completely excluded from the mating pool. ARTs, sometimes accompanying morphological dimorphism among males, are taxonomically widespread, especially common in arthropods. Here we review the current knowledge on ARTs and male dimorphism in a diverse but relatively overlooked group of arachnids, the order Opiliones, popularly known as harvestmen or daddy long-legs. We begin with a summary of harvestman mating systems, followed by a review of the two lines of evidence for the presence of ARTs in the group: (1) morphological data from natural populations and museum collections; and (2) behavioral information from field studies. Despite receiving less attention than spiders, scorpions and insects, our review shows that harvestmen are an exciting group of organisms that are potentially great models for sexual selection studies focused on ARTs. We also suggest that investigating the proximate mechanisms underlying male dimorphism in the order would be especially important. New research on ARTs and male dimorphism will have implications for our understanding of the evolution of mating systems, sperm competition, and polyandry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.
Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Benedetti, Alípio Rezende; de Vasconcelos, Eduardo Gomes; Hara, Marcos Ryotaro
Abstract As part of an ongoing revision of the family Gonyleptidae, we have identified many species that are synonyms of previously described species or misplaced in this family. This article summarizes these findings, adding previously unavailable information or correcting imprecise observations to justify the presented taxonomic changes. The following new familial or subfamilial assignments are proposed: Nemastygnus Roewer, 1929 and Taulisa Roewer, 1956 are transferred to Agoristenidae, Agoristeninae; Napostygnus Roewer, 1929 to Cranaidae; Ceropachylinus peruvianus Roewer, 1956 and Pirunipygus Roewer, 1936 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Ampycinae; Gyndesops Roewer, 1943, Haversia Roewer, 1913 and Oxapampeus Roewer, 1963 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. The following generic synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes Mello-Leitão, 1922 = Centroleptes Roewer, 1943; Acrographinotus Roewer, 1929 = Unduavius Roewer, 1929; Gonyleptes Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium Bertkau, 1880; Mischonyx Bertkau, 1880 = Eugonyleptes Roewer, 1913 and Gonazula Roewer, 1930; Parampheres Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides Roewer, 1917; Pseudopucrolia Roewer, 1912 = Meteusarcus Roewer, 1913; Haversia Roewer, 1913 = Hoggellula Roewer, 1930. The following specific synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935) = Centroleptes flavus Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Geraeocormobius sylvarum Holmberg, 1887 = Discocyrtus serrifemur Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884) = Gonyleptes cancellatus Roewer,1917, syn. n.; Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Weyhia brieni Giltay, 1928, syn. n.; Gonyleptes fragilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Gonyleptes banana Kury, 2003, syn. n.; Gonyleptes horridus Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium bicuspidatum Bertkau, 1880, syn. n., Gonyleptes borgmeyeri Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Gonyleptes curvicornis Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Metagonyleptes hamatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. and Paragonyleptes simoni Roewer, 1930, syn. n.; Gonyleptes pustulatus Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes guttatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Haversia defensa (Butler, 1876) = Sadocus vallentini Hogg, 1913, syn. n.; Liogonyleptoides minensis (Piza, 1946) = Currala bahiensis Soares, 1972, syn. n.; Megapachylus grandis Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides almeidai Soares & Soares, 1946, syn. n.; Mischonyx cuspidatus (Roewer, 1913) = Gonazula gibbosa Roewer, 1930 syn. n.; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819) = Xundarava holacantha Mello-Leitão, 1927, syn. n.; Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 = Metapachyloides rugosus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Parapachyloides uncinatus (Sørensen, 1879) = Goyazella armata Mello-Leitão, 1931, syn. n.; Pseudopucrolia mutica (Perty, 1833) = Meteusarcus armatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Acrographinotus ornatus (Roewer, 1929), comb. n. (ex Unduavius); Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884),comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes);Gonyleptes perlatus (Mello-Leitão, 1935), comb. n. (exMoojenia);Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819), comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes); and Neopachyloides peruvianus (Roewer, 1956), comb. n. (ex Ceropachylus). The following species of Gonyleptidae, Gonyleptinae are revalidated: Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Gonyleptes curvicornis (Roewer, 1913). PMID:22707905
Kury, Adriano B; García, Andrés F
Flirtea C.L. Koch, 1839, is one of the oldest genera described in Cosmetidae, currently including 30 species mostly from the Andes. Its type species, Cosmetus pictus Perty, 1833, from Brazil, the type material of which is long lost, has since long been misidentified in the literature due to a redescription based on another unrelated species, while the true F. picta was widely known as Flirtea phalerata C.L. Koch, 1840. This unrelated species is here described as Cynorta pictoides sp. nov. Flirtea picta is here redescribed based on abundant material collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome from Bahia state, and a neotype is designated for its type species. Here, we propose a particular pattern of a white mask blot on the dorsal scutum be called "scaramuccia", and variation in this pattern is described. Genital morphology of Flirtea picta is described for the first time. Flirtea is rediagnosed and most species currently assigned to Flirtea are suggested to belong to other genera. Cynorta valida Roewer, 1928 and Paecilaema batman Pinto-da-Rocha & Yamaguti, 2013 are newly transferred to Flirtea, yielding the new combinations Flirtea valida and Flirtea batman.
The mechanism of sperm transfer in spiders is unique among arthropods. Males use their modified pedipalps to transmit sperm which is received by females of most spider groups in specialized organs, the receptacula seminis. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family belonging to the Haplogynae. Female haplogynes have supposedly simple genitalia where the receptacula derive from the uterus externus, which is the duct passed by the eggs. The purpose of the present study is to describe the unusual female genitalia of the oonopids Xyphinus sp. and Ischnothyreus sp. by combining three methods of investigation: histological serial sections, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray ultra microscopy, and to compare the results with previous findings on haplogynes. Furthermore, the male palps are briefly described. The female genitalia of both investigated species do not correspond to the general description of haplogyne genitalia given in the literature. Distinct receptacula are lacking in both species. In Xyphinus sp., sperm are deposited into the uterus internus. A sclerite with attached muscles in the uterus wall might serve females to lock the uterus during copulation in order to prevent sperm from getting into it. The male palp of Xyphinus sp. bears complicated structures indicating that males could use the palps as copulatory courtship devices. The ventral scutum of female Ischnothyreus sp. forms a large depression which was always empty in the examined specimens. Sperm could be stored in a large fold of the uterus externus. As in Xyphinus sp., spermatozoa inside the uterus internus of Ischnothyreus sp. indicate that fertilization takes place in the uterus or the ovary. The function of a sclerotized squiggled tube in females of Ischnothyreus sp. remains unknown. Surrounding glandular tissue suggests the involvement of the tube in glandular activity. The male palp shows a simple embolus accompanied by a small conductor.
Coronato-Ribeiro, Amanda; Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Rheims, Cristina Anne
A catalogue of the Opiliones types of the "Instituto Butantan", São Paulo, Brazil is given, surveying the collection after severe fire damaged in 2010. Of a total of 91 species with type material listed for the collection, 69 could be located, and 22 are considered lost. The species are arranged according to their families and genera. The collection of Salvador de Toledo Piza Jr., housed at the Museu de Zoologia "Luiz de Queiroz", was donated to the Instituto Butantan in 2009. These types received a new accession number and are listed under this new affiliation for the first time.
Fernández, Rosa; Giribet, Gonzalo
Ricinulei are among the most obscure and cryptic arachnid orders, constituting a micro-diverse group with extreme endemism. The 76 extant species described to date are grouped in three genera: Ricinoides, from tropical Western and Central Africa, and the two Neotropical genera Cryptocellus and Pseudocellus. Until now, a single molecular phylogeny of Ricinulei has been published, recovering the African Ricinoides as the sister group of the American Pseudocellus and providing evidence for the diversification of the order pre-dating the fragmentation of Gondwana. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first phylogenomic study of this neglected arachnid order based on data from five transcriptomes obtained from the five major mitochondrial lineages of Ricinulei. Our results, based on up to more than 2000 genes, strongly support a clade containing Pseudocellus and Cryptocellus, constituting the American group of Ricinulei, with the African Ricinoides nesting outside. Our dating of the diversification of the African and American clades using a 76 gene data matrix with 90% gene occupancy indicates that this arachnid lineage was distributed in the South American, North American and African plates of Gondwana and that its diversification is concordant with a biogeographic scenario (both for pattern and tempo) of Gondwanan vicariance. PMID:26543583
Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen
Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.
Burger, Matthias; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kropf, Christian
Female genital structures with their allied muscles of the haplogyne spider Opopaea fosuma are described. A functional explanation of this system is given, which indicates that cryptic female choice may occur in these spiders: the anterior wall of their spermatheca is strongly sclerotized and possesses a cone-shaped hole in its upper part. A transverse sclerite that serves as muscle attachment bears a nail-like structure and lies in a chitinized area of the anterior wall of the uterus externus. Muscle contraction presses this nail into the hole of the spermatheca. In this way, the uterus externus gets both locked and fixed. Furthermore, as this occurs the copulatory orifice is enlarged and the resulting suction probably leads to previously deposited sperm being drawn from the spermatheca and dumped. This is a common mechanism used by females to influence a male's chances of fathering their offspring in a process known as cryptic female choice.
Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia
The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.
Schönhofer, Axel L
An update of the systematics and determination key of the Opiliones suborder Dyspnoi is provided. The included catalogue represents the first comprehensive species and synonymy listing since Roewer (1923). It summarises all taxonomic changes to date and attempts to be a sound basis against the exponential growing number of online errors, for which examples are given. Species taxonomy features most obvious changes within the Nemastomatidae. The number of species in the collective genus Nemastoma is reduced from 96 (Hallan 2005) to its sensu stricto definition of 7, and the excluded names are transferred to other genera or considered as nomina dubia, predominantly in Paranemastoma. The systematics of the superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea is discussed and family-level diagnoses are renewed to support taxonomical changes: The morphological heterogeneity in the Sabaconidae is resolved by reverting the family to its original monogeneric state. Taracus and Hesperonemastoma are separated as Taracidae fam. n., and Crosbycus is tentatively transferred to this assembly. The remaining genera of Ceratolasmatidae, Acuclavella and Ceratolasma, are included as subfamily Ceratolasmatinae in the Ischyropsalididae and Ischyropsalis is assigned subfamily status, respectively. Other nomenclatural acts are restricted to species-group level with the following synonymies established: Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 syn. n. (=cavicolens (Packard, 1884)), Dicranolasma diomedeum Kulczyński, 1907 syn. n. (=hirtum Loman, 1894), Mitostoma (Mitostoma) sketi Hadži, 1973a syn. n. (=chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)), Mitostoma asturicum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=pyrenaeum (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma formosum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Nemastomella bacillifera bacillifera (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma reimoseri Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (C.L. Koch, 1835)), Nemastoma tunetanum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bureschi (Roewer, 1926)), Phalangium flavimanum C.L. Koch, 1835 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Perty, 1833)), Crosbycus graecus Giltay, 1932 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma simplex (Giltay, 1932)), Nemastoma bimaculosum Roewer 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma titaniacum (Roewer, 1914)), Trogulocratus tunetanus Roewer, 1950 syn. n. (=Calathocratus africanus (Lucas, 1849)), Trogulus albicerus Sø-rensen, 1873 syn. n. (=Calathocratus sinuosus (Sørensen, 1873)), Metopoctea exarata Simon, 1879a syn. n. (=Trogulus aquaticus Simon, 1879a), Trogulus galasensis Avram, 1971 syn. n. (=Trogulus nepaeformis (Scopoli, 1763)) and Trogulus roeweri Avram, 1971 syn. n. (=Trogulus nepaeformis (Scopoli, 1763)). Paranemastoma werneri (Kulczyński, 1903) is elevated from subspecies to species. Ischyropsalis luteipes Simon, 1872b is proposed as nomen protectum, taking precedence over Lhermia spinipes Lucas 1866 nomen oblitum. The same accounts for Anelasmocephalus cambridgei (Westwood, 1874) nomen protectum, taking precedence over Trogulus violaceus Gervais, 1844 nomen oblitum, Trogulus closanicus Avram, 1971 nomen protectum over Trogulus asperatus C.L. Koch, 1839a nomen oblitum, as well as Trogu-lus martensi Chemini, 1983 nomen protectum over Trogulus tuberculatus Canestrini, 1874 nomen oblitum. New combinations, all from Nemastoma, are Histricostoma anatolicum (Roewer, 1962), Mediostoma globuliferum (L. Koch, 1867), Nemastomella hankiewiczii (Kulczyński, 1909), Nemastomella maarebense (Simon, 1913), Nemastomella monchiquense (Kraus, 1961) and Paranemastoma simplex (Giltay, 1932); from Mitostoma: Nemastomella armatissima (Roewer, 1962). Revived combinations are Nemastomella cristinae (Rambla, 1969) (from Nemastoma) and Nemastomella sexmucronatum (Simon, 1911) (from Nemastoma). The following Nemastoma are transferred to Paranemastoma but suggested as nomina dubia: aeginum (Roewer, 1951), amuelleri (Roewer, 1951), bolei (Hadži, 1973a), caporiaccoi (Roewer, 1951), carneluttii (Hadži, 1973a), ferkeri (Roewer, 1951), gigas montenegrinum (Nosek, 1904), gostivarense (Hadži, 1973a), ikarium (Roewer, 1951), quadripunctatum ios (Roewer, 1917), kaestneri (Roe
Chang, Jin; Masters, Amber; Avery, Amanda; Werren, John H
Recent studies indicate that a newly described bacterial endosymbiont, Cardinium, is widespread in arthropods and induces different reproductive manipulations in hosts. In this study, we used a portion of the 16S rRNA gene of the Cardinium to screen 16 Opilionid species from the suborder Palptores. We found the incidence of Cardinium in these Opiliones was significantly higher than in other pooled arthropods (31.2% versus 7.2%, P=0.007). Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis revealed two distinct clades in Opiliones. One is a divergent monophyletic clade with strong support that has so far not been found in other arthropods, and a second one contains Cardinium both from Opiliones and other arthropods. There is not complete concordance of the Cardinium strains with host phylogeny, suggesting some horizontal movement of the bacteria among Opiliones. Although the divergence in the sequenced 16S rRNA region between the Cardinium infecting Opiliones and Cardinium from other arthropods is greater than among Cardinium found in other arthropods, all are monophyletic with respect to the outgroup bacteria (endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba). Based on high pairwise genetic distances, deep branch, and a distinct phylogenetic grouping, we conclude that some Opiliones harbor a newly discovered Cardinium clade.
Bollatti, Fedra; Ceballos, Alejandra
Gregarines are common intestinal parasites of numerous invertebrate groups. Their effects on host viability and development have been a matter of debate. Although they may not be lethal to the host, they can be harmless commensals, by affecting adaptive traits, or have a beneficial relationship with the host. This study focused on determining prevalence, intensity, and change in infection intensity over time by septate gregarines, and monitoring the effects on survival and weight loss in the pseudoscorpion Victorwithius similis. Individuals (n=24 females, n=55 males and n=41 tritonymphs) were captured in the field, transported to the vivarium and bred under laboratory conditions. A high prevalence of infection was found, with 77.27% of females, 62.50% of males and 73.53% of tritonymphs harboring intense infections. Of the infected pseudoscorpions, 62% of females, 58% of males and 71% of tritonymphs did not show changes in infection intensity over time. The group that maintained intense infections survived longer than those with less intense infections (χ(2)=8.642; p=0.035). Most of the results obtained indicate that relationship studied between gregarines and the pseudoscorpion V. similis might be a case of commensalism. This would explain why the infection level and prevalence was very high, as well as the apparent lack of direct costs to highly infected individuals those with infections.
Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro
Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.
Gnaspini, Pedro; Lerche, Cristiano Frederico
The first studies concerning the embryonic development of harvestmen started in the late 19th century, and focused mostly on holarctic species, and only three species of the suborder Laniatores (the largest, among the four suborders considered presently) were studied. Moreover, the last studies on embryology of harvestmen were made during the late 1970s. This study focused on the embryonic development of Ampheres leucopheus (Gonyleptidae, Caelopyginae) and Iporangaia pustulosa (Gonyleptidae, Progonyleptoidellinae). The embryonic development was followed in the field, by taking daily photographs of different eggs during about 2 months. When laid, eggs of A. leucopheus and I. pustulosa have approximately 1.13 and 1.30 mm in diameter, respectively, and the second is embedded in a large amount of mucus. The eggs grow, mainly due to water absorption at the beginning of the process, and they reach a diameter of about 1.35 and 1.59 mm, respectively, close to hatching. It took, respectively, 29-56 days and 35-66 days from egg laying to hatching. For the description of the embryonic development, we use photographs from the field, SEM micrographs, and histological analysis. This allowed us, for instance, to document the progression of structures and pigmentation directly from live embryos in the field, and to record microstructures, such as the presence of perforations in the cuticle of the embryo in the place where eyes are developing. Yet, contrary to what was expected in the literature, we record an egg tooth in one of the studied laniatoreans.
Rodriguez, Andrea L; Townsend, Victor R; Johnson, Megan B; White, Tara B
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a useful tool for identifying interspecific variation in often overlooked structures that may represent useful sources for informative phylogenetic characters. In this study, we used SEM to compare the morphology of 12 cosmetid species from Central America, the Caribbean, and North America including multiple species for the genera Cynorta, Erginulus, and Paecilaema. To determine if microanatomical structures were unique to the cosmetid taxa under examination, we investigated the microanatomical structures of six additional species of gonyleptoidean harvestmen representing the families Agoristenidae, Cranaidae, Gonyleptidae, Manaosbiidae, and Stygnidae. Our results indicate that the shape of the ocularium (narrow, intermediate, or broad) did not vary within cosmetid genera, whereas the morphology of the rough pit glands on the eye mound varied considerably between species. Each cosmetid species had 10-20 rough pit glands on the ocularium whereas only the eye mounds of Avima intermedia (Agoristenidae) and Glysterus sp. (Gonyleptidae) had similar structures. With regards to the surface texture of the dorsal scutum, cosmetid harvestmen exhibited a rivulose-microgranulate morphology (6 species), a microtuberculate-rivulose-microrgranulate morphology (4 species), or a microgranulate morphology (2 species). In contrast, each of the gonyleptoidean species exhibited a microgranulate pattern, with the exception of Stygnoplus clavotibialis, which had a rivulose-microgranulate surface texture. For cosmetid harvestmen, we observed considerable interspecific variation in the shape and number of teeth on the fixed and moveable fingers of the male chelicerae. Similarly, we also observed interspecific variation in the distribution and shape of tubercles on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the femur of the pedipalp. Overall, our results indicate that there are several microanatomical structures associated with the ocularium, dorsal scutum, male chelicera, and pedipalp that could represent informative phylogenetic characters in future taxonomic studies of cosmetid harvestmen.
Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...
Young, Monica R; Hebert, Paul D. N.
Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625). It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels—among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10–0.39), while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07–0.35). BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is ‘locked down’ in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in ‘locked down’ taxa. PMID:26308206
Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A; Quintero-Hernandez, Veronica; Possani, Lourival D
Proteomic analysis of the scorpion venom Scorpio maurus palmatus was performed using reverse-phase HPLC separation followed by mass spectrometry determination. Sixty five components were identified with molecular masses varying from 413 to 14,009 Da. The high percentage of peptides (41.5%) was from 3 to 5 KDa which may represent linear antimicrobial peptides and KScTxs. Also, 155 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed through construction the cDNA library prepared from a pair of venomous gland. About 77% of the ESTs correspond to toxin-like peptides and proteins with definite open reading frames. The cDNA sequencing results also show the presence of sequences whose putative products have sequence similarity with antimicrobial peptides (24%), insecticidal toxins, β-NaScTxs, κ-KScTxs, α-KScTxs, calcines and La1-like peptides. Also, we have obtained 23 atypical types of venom molecules not recorded in other scorpion species. Moreover, 9% of the total ESTs revealed significant similarities with proteins involved in the cellular processes of these scorpion venomous glands. This is the first set of molecular masses and transcripts described from this species, in which various venom molecules have been identified. They belong to either known or unassigned types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins, and provide valuable information for evolutionary analysis and venomics.
Nisani, Zia; Hayes, William K
Many animals use chemical squirting or spraying behavior as a defensive response. Some members of the scorpion genus Parabuthus (family Buthidae) can spray their venom. We examined the stimulus control and characteristics of venom spraying by Parabuthus transvaalicus to better understand the behavioral context for its use. Venom spraying occurred mostly, but not always, when the metasoma (tail) was contacted (usually grasped by forceps), and was absent during stinging-like thrusts of the metasoma apart from contact. Scorpions were significantly more likely to spray when contact was also accompanied by airborne stimuli. Sprays happened almost instantaneously following grasping by forceps (median=0.23s) as a brief (0.07-0.30s, mean=0.18s), fine stream (<5° arc) that was not directed toward the stimulus source; however, rapid independent movements of the metasoma and/or telson (stinger) often created a more diffuse spray, increasing the possibility of venom contact with the sensitive eyes of potential scorpion predators. Successive venom sprays varied considerably in duration and velocity. Collectively, these results suggest that venom spraying might be useful as an antipredator function and can be modulated based on threat.
Batuwita, Sudesh; Benjamin, Suresh P
Sri Lanka is part of the Western Ghats & Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Thus, the conservation of Sri Lanka's unique biodiversity is crucial. The current study is part of an ongoing survey of pseudoscorpion fauna of Sri Lanka. We carried out an island-wide survey of pseudoscorpions using a range of collection methods to sample a diverse set of habitats around the country. This produced 32 species, four of which might be new to science, belonging to 25 genera. The family Cheiridiidae was discovered on the island for the first time. One new combination, Indogarypus ceylonicus (Beier, 1973) comb. nov., is proposed. Out of the 47 species now recorded, 20 (43 %) are potentially endemic to Sri Lanka. We provide a checklist of all known species, document their distribution and give a key to the families.
Hebets, E A.; F Chapman, R
Specimens of Phrynus marginemaculatus can remain responsive when submerged in water for more than 24 hours. Behavioral data indicate that P. marginemaculatus utilizes dissolved oxygen from the surrounding water. Scanning electron miscroscopy and light microscope sections show cuticular modifications for plastron respiration. All previous examples of plastron respiration have involved animals with tracheal systems, but amblypygids respire through the use of two pairs of book lungs. This study provides the first example of plastron respiration not only in the order Amblypygi, but also, in any non-tracheate arthropod.
Crews, Sarah C.; Harvey, Mark S.
Abstract We relimit and revise the family Selenopidae to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and the Oriental Region. The family is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul & Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous inconsistencies in the diagnoses and definitions of the aforementioned genera. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: Selenops bursarius Karsch 1879, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, Selenops ollarius Zhu, Sha, & Chen 1990, and Selenops radiatus Latreille 1819, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha & Chen syn. n. is recognized as a junior synonym of Selenops radiatus. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with Amamanganops baginawa sp. n. (♀; from the Philippines). Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with Godumops caritus sp. n. (♂; from Papua New Guinea). Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and includes 24 species. A new combination is proposed for Karaops australiensis (L. Koch 1875) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), and the new species: Karaops gangarie sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops monteithi sp. n. (♀), Karaops alanlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops keithlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops larryoo sp. n. (♂), Karaops jarrit sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops marrayagong sp. n. (♀), Karaops raveni sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops badgeradda sp. n. (♀), Karaops burbidgei sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops karrawarla sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops julianneae sp. n. (♀), Karaops martamarta sp. n. (♀), Karaops manaayn sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops vadlaadambara sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops pilkingtoni sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops deserticola sp. n. (♀), Karaops ngarutjaranya sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops francesae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops toolbrunup sp. n. (♀, ♂), the type species Karaops ellenae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops jenniferae sp. n. (♀), and Karaops dawara sp. n. (♀).The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal. A new combination is proposed for Makdiops agumbensis (Tikader 1969), comb. n., Makdiops montigenus (Simon 1889), comb. n., Makdiops nilgirensis (Reimoser 1934) comb. n.,(ex. Selenops). Also, there are two new species the type of the genus Makdiops mahishasura sp. n. (♀; from India), and Makdiops shiva sp. n. (♀). The genus Pakawops gen. n. is monotypic. A new combination is proposed for Pakawops formosanus (Kayashima 1943) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), known only from Taiwan. A new combination is proposed for Siamspinops aculeatus (Simon)comb. n. (ex. Selenops). The distribution and diversity of the studied selenopid fauna is discussed. Finally, keys are provided to all of the selenopid genera and to the species of Karaops gen. n.and Makdiops gen. n. PMID:21738435
Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Diego-Garcia, Elia; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Possani, Lourival D
Background Scorpions like other venomous animals posses a highly specialized organ that produces, secretes and disposes the venom components. In these animals, the last postabdominal segment, named telson, contains a pair of venomous glands connected to the stinger. The isolation of numerous scorpion toxins, along with cDNA-based gene cloning and, more recently, proteomic analyses have provided us with a large collection of venom components sequences. However, all of them are secreted, or at least are predicted to be secretable gene products. Therefore very little is known about the cellular processes that normally take place inside the glands for production of the venom mixture. To gain insights into the scorpion venom gland biology, we have decided to perform a transcriptomic analysis by constructing a cDNA library and conducting a random sequencing screening of the transcripts. Results From the cDNA library prepared from a single venom gland of the scorpion Hadrurus gertschi, 160 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed. These transcripts were further clustered into 68 unique sequences (20 contigs and 48 singlets), with an average length of 919 bp. Half of the ESTs can be confidentially assigned as homologues of annotated gene products. Annotation of these ESTs, with the aid of Gene Ontology terms and homology to eukaryotic orthologous groups, reveals some cellular processes important for venom gland function; including high protein synthesis, tuned posttranslational processing and trafficking. Nonetheless, the main group of the identified gene products includes ESTs similar to known scorpion toxins or other previously characterized scorpion venom components, which account for nearly 60% of the identified proteins. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this report contains the first transcriptome analysis of genes transcribed by the venomous gland of a scorpion. The data were obtained for the species Hadrurus gertschi, belonging to the family Caraboctonidae. One hundred and sixty ESTs were analyzed, showing enrichment in genes that encode for products similar to known venom components, but also provides the first sketch of cellular components, molecular functions, biological processes and some unique sequences of the scorpion venom gland. PMID:17506894
Kury, Adriano B; Medrano, Miguel
In many Opiliones (notably the Laniatores) the five most anterior opisthosomal tergites are fused with the carapace forming the so called dorsal scutum (DS) (Latreille 1804; Simon 1879; Hadži 1942) with a highly variable shape arising from multiple factors, such as differential development of musculature (especially of coxa IV), internal organs and influence of appendages (Loman 1903; Winkler 1957). The different degrees of fusion of the tergites were first studied by Hadži (1942), who proposed a terminology for them. This terminology was adopted and enhanced by Kratochvíl (1958) and Martens (1978). A shield formed by the fusion of the carapace with abdominal tergites I to V is called scutum magnum (Hadži 1942). The shield formed by the fusion of carapace with abdominal tergites I to VII is called scutum complexum (Kratochvíl 1958) and occurs in the males of Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994 (Kury 1994) and Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958 (Kratochvíl 1958). Finally, the scutum completum (Hadži 1942) is formed by the complete fusion of the carapace and abdominal scutum, formed by tergites I to VIII, and occurs in the Sandokanidae (Martens 1978). In this paper we focus on the different forms of the scutum magnum.
Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....
Glushkov, Sergei; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Fet, Victor
We screened across the taxonomic diversity of order Scorpiones (22 species belonging to 21 genera and 10 families) for the presence of seven different clades of non-LTR retrotransposons in their genomes using PCR with newly designed clade-specific consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers. Scorpion genomes were found to contain four known non-LTR retrotransposon clades: R1, I, Jockey, and CR1. In total, 35 fragments of reverse transcriptase genes of new elements from 22 scorpion species were obtained and analyzed for three clades, Jockey, I, and CR1. Phylogenies of different clades of elements were built using amino acid sequences inferred from 33 non-LTR retrotransposon clones. Distinct evolutionary lineages, with several major groups of the non-LTR retroelements were identified, showing significant variation. Four lineages were revealed in Jockey clade. The phylogeny of I clade showed strong support for the monophyletic origin of such group of elements in scorpions. Three separate lineages can be distinguished in the phylogenetic tree of CR1 clade. The large fraction of the isolated elements appeared to be defective.
Haupt, Joachim; Müller, Frank
Secretion products from the opisthosomal defense gland of south east Asian whip scorpions were identified for the first time by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry. Specimens of the genera Hypoctonus, Typopeltis and Ginosigma were tested. While some ingredients are present in large concentrations, others are possibly only side products and may be synthesized more incidentally. For this reason no important functional role is attributed to them. There are considerable individual differences concerning the concentrations of various ingredients. While the secretion products of most species of the genus Typopeltis--similar to Mastigoproctus--are characterized by acetic and octanoic acid in large concentrations, the secretion product of Hypoctonus siamensis provides octanoic acid only in a very low concentration but it is characterized by hexyl acetate.
Di, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zi-Zhong; Yin, Shi-Jin; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin
This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided.
In promiscuous females, sperm ejection from the sperm storage site can be a strong mechanism to influence sperm priority patterns. Sperm dumping is reported from different animals including birds, insects, and humans. In spiders, it has been documented for four species including the oonopid Silhouettella loricatula. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising many species with peculiar female genitalia. Especially in species where studies of mating behavior are difficult, morphological investigations of the genitalia help to understand their function and evolution. In the present study, the genitalia of the oonopids Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. are investigated by means of histological serial sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are compared with previous findings on S. loricatula. In Myrmopopaea sp. and Grymeus sp., the same morphological components are present that are involved in sperm dumping in S. loricatula. Inside the receptaculum, sperm are enclosed in a secretory sac which can be moved to the genital opening and dumped during copulation by muscle contractions. The female genitalia of Lionneta sp. are asymmetric. They show the same characteristics as S. loricatula but all the investigated females were unmated. The results strongly suggest that sperm dumping occurs in Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. and happens by the same mechanism as in S. loricatula. Sperm dumping might even be common within a clade of oonopids. As in S. loricatula, the sperm transfer forms in the investigated species consist of several spermatozoa. Papillae with unknown function occur on the receptacula of all females.
Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes
Abstract Charinus taboa sp. n. comprises the twenty-second species of the genus described for Brazil. The new species belongs to the eastern Brazilian group, in which all species have sucker-like gonopods. Charinus taboa sp. n. has a marked sexual dimorphism in the pedipalps as do other members of the genus in the country. The description of Charinus taboa sp. n. offers an opportunity to discuss some aspects of ecology, troglomorphism and conservation within the genus. A key to the eastern Brazilian species of Charinus is provided. PMID:27408599
Cushing, Paula E; Graham, Matthew R; Prendini, Lorenzo; Brookhart, Jack O
Camel spiders (Solifugae) are a diverse but poorly studied order of arachnids. No robust phylogenetic analysis has ever been carried out for the order or for any family within the Solifugae. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the endemic North American family Eremobatidae Kraepelin, 1899, the first such analysis of a family of Solifugae. We use a multi-locus exemplar approach using DNA sequences from partial nuclear (28S rDNA and Histone H3) and mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase I) gene loci for 81 ingroup exemplars representing all genera of Eremobatidae and most species groups within the genera Eremobates Banks, 1900, Eremochelis Roewer, 1934, and Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903. Maximum Likelihood and two Bayesian analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eremobatidae, Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 and Eremothera Muma, 1951 along with a group comprising all subfamily Eremobatinae Kraepelin, 1901 exemplars except Horribates bantai Muma, 1989 and a group comprising all Eremocosta Roewer, 1934 exemplars except Eremocosta acuitalpanensis (Vasquez and Gavin, 2000). The subfamily Therobatinae Muma, 1951 and the genera Chanbria Muma, 1951, Hemerotrecha, Eremochelis, and Eremobates were polyphyletic or paraphyletic. Only the banksi group of Hemerotrecha was monophyletic; the other species groups recognized within Eremobates, Eremochelis, and Hemerotrecha were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. We found no support for the monophyly of the subfamily Therobatinae. A time-calibrated phylogeny dated the most recent common ancestor of extant eremobatids to the late Eocene to early Miocene, with a mean estimate in the late Oligocene (32.2 Ma).
Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Hara, Marcos Ryotaro
Abstract Praelibitia Roewer, 1956 and its type species, Praelibitia titicaca Roewer, 1956, are respectively synonymized with Platygyndes Roewer, 1943 and its type species Platygyndes titicaca Roewer, 1943, and furthermore the genus is transferred from the Gonyleptidae to the Cosmetidae. On the basis of domed and unarmed ocularium, increased number of granules on scutal areas, unarmed dorsal scutum and general body shape, Platygyndes seems to be closely related to Moselabius Roewer, 1956 and Caracarana Roewer, 1956. External morphological characters that are useful to revealing relationships among cosmetid genera are discussed. PMID:22144863
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N.; Armenta, Tiffany C.; Fraser, Devaughn L.; Kelly, Rochelle M.; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis. PMID:27802314
Karasawa, Shigenori; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie
A new species in the monotypic genus Symbioribates, S. aokii sp. nov., is described on the basis of adult material collected from canopy habitats and wind traps in the Ryukyu Archipelago, southwestern Japan. Symbioribates aokii sp. nov. expresses different dimorphism in the octotaxic system from that of the type species, S. papuensis Aoki, 1966. The characteristics of this genus and its relationships to others of the superfamily Oripodoidea are discussed and a revised diagnosis of the family is given.
Bond, Jason E.; Hendrixson, Brent E.; Hamilton, Chris A.; Hedin, Marshal
Background The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc.) is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved. Methods and Findings We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1γ, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1) the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids) is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2) the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages. Conclusions Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1) the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK); (2) establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3) the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae). In addition to these changes, we propose a “road map” for future sampling across the infraorder with the aim of solving many remaining questions that hinder mygalomorph systematics. PMID:22723885
Crews, Sarah C.
Abstract The spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 occurs in both the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics and contains nearly half of the species in the family Selenopidae Simon, 1897. In this paper the members of the genus Selenops found in North America, Central America, and on islands of the Caribbean are revised, excluding Cuban endemics. No taxonomic changes are currently made to the species from the southwestern United States. In total, 21 new species are described, including Selenops arikok sp. n., Selenops chamela sp. n., Selenops amona sp. n., Selenops baweka sp. n., Selenops bocacanadensis sp. n., Selenops enriquillo sp. n, Selenops ixchel sp. n., Selenops huetocatl sp. n., Selenops kalinago sp. n., Selenops oviedo sp. n., Selenops morro sp. n., Selenops denia sp. n., Selenops duan sp. n., Selenops malinalxochitl sp. n., Selenops oricuajo sp. n., Selenops petenajtoy sp. n., Selenops guerrero sp. n., Selenops makimaki sp. n., Selenops souliga sp. n., Selenops wilmotorum sp. n., and Selenops wilsoni sp. n. Six species names were synonymized: Selenops lunatus Muma, 1953 syn. n. = Selenops candidus Muma, 1953; Selenops tehuacanus Muma 1953 syn. n., Selenops galapagoensis Banks, 1902 syn. n. and Selenops vagabundus Kraus, 1955 syn. n. = Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880; Selenops santibanezi Valdez-Mondragón, 2010 syn. n. = Selenops nigromaculatus Keyserling, 1880; and Selenops salvadoranus Chamberlin, 1925 syn. n. = Selenops bifurcatus Banks, 1909. Lectotypes are designated for the following three species: Selenops marginalis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 (♂), Selenops morosus Banks, 1898 (♂), and Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880 (♀). The female neotype is designated for Selenops aissus Walckenaer, 1837. The males of Selenops bani Alayón-García, 1992 and Selenops marcanoi Alayón-García, 1992 are described for the first time, and the females of Selenops phaselus Muma, 1953 and Selenops geraldinae Corronca, 1996 are described for the first time. Almost all species are redescribed, barring Cuban endemics and a few species recently described. New illustrations are provided, including those of the internal female copulatory organs, many of which are illustrated for the first time. A key to species is also provided as are new distributional records. PMID:21852919
Jones, T H; Meinwald, J; Hicks, K; Eisner, T
Analyses of the chief volatile constituents of the defensive secretions of three oplionids were carried out. Leiobunum nigripalpi produces three closely related C7 compounds: E-4-methyl-4-hexen-3-one(I), 4-methylhexan-3-one(II), and 4-methylhexan-3-ol(III), along with E-4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one(IV), E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dienal(IX), and a minor, unidentified component. L. leiopenis secretion contains E-4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one(IV), 4-methylheptan-3-one(V), E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dien-1-ol(VII), and E,E-2,4-dimethylhepta-2,4-dien-1-ol(VIII). L. calcar yields chiefly E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one(VI) and E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dien-1-ol(VII). Six of these compounds are new natural products. The structures of these compounds, which can be regarded either as polyketide-derived or as modified isoprenoids, raise interesting biosynthetic questions.
Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V
Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts.
Klompen, Hans; Vázquez, Ma Magdalena; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira
In order to study homology among the major lineages of the mite (super)order Parasitiformes, developmental patterns in Opilioacarida are documented, emphasizing morphology of the earliest, post-embryonic instars. Developmental patterns are summarized for all external body structures, based on examination of material in four different genera. Development includes an egg, a 6-legged prelarva and larva, three 8-legged nymphal instars, and the adults, for the most complete ontogenetic sequence in Parasitiformes. The prelarva and larva appear to be non-feeding. Examination of cuticular structures over ontogeny allows development of an updated model for body segmentation and sensillar distribution patterns in Opilioacarida. This model includes a body made up of a well-developed ocular segment plus at most 17 additional segments. In the larvae and protonymphs each segment may carry up to six pairs of sensilla (setae or lyrifissures) arranged is distinct series (J, Z, S, Sv, Zv, Jv). The post-protonymphal instars add two more series (R and Rv) but no extra segments. This basic model is compatible with sensillar patterns in other Parasitiformes, leading to the hypothesis that all taxa in that (super)order may have the same segmental ground plan. The substantial segmental distortion implied in the model can be explained using a single process involving differential growth in the coxal regions of all appendage-bearing segments.
Daud, Rodrigo D; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato
The occurrence of mites on Bauhinia variegata L., a species introduced in Brazil as ornamental, was studied. Two plants of this species were sampled monthly from May 2000 to April 2001. A total of 8,482 mites, belonging to 25 species in 11 families were collected. The abundance of phytophagous mites was higher, being Lorryia formosa Cooreman the dominant species. The dominance of L. formosa might be caused by stress conditions of sampled plants and low number of predaceous mites on those plants.
Kulkarni, Siddharth; Khot, Rahul
The family Bithyniidae is represented in tropical Asia by the following genera, Bithynia, Digonistoma, Mysorella, Parabithynia, Emmericiopsis, Hydrobioides, Parafossarulus, Pseudovivipara, Sataria and Wattebladia (Dudgeon 1999; Pyron & Brown 2015).
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L. C.
Abstract Background There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. New information This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed. PMID:26929710
Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L
The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented.
Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato
The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant seriously contaminated a large area in northeast Japan with a large amount of radioactive material. Consequently, various organisms, including arthropods, in the ecosystem have been contaminated with radiocesium ((137)Cs) through the food chain. We previously showed that the web spider Nephila clavata was contaminated with (137)Cs and that the level of contamination, which varied among spider individuals, was independent of the amount of prey consumed. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms that could determine the level of (137)Cs contamination in N. clavata. We first demonstrated the patterns of contents of over 30 elements in N. clavata that were collected at two forest sites (PS and ES) in Fukushima and then focused on the relationships between the contents of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, and Rb and the accumulation of (137)Cs in the spiders; Cs is an alkali metal and is expected to act similarly to Li, Na, K, and Rb. We also focused on the content of the non-alkali element, Cu, which is an essential element for oxygen transport in spiders. We found that Na content correlated positively with (137)Cs accumulation at both sites, which suggested that (137)Cs accumulation in N. clavata was related with the dynamics of Na. The K-, Rb-, and Cu-(137)Cs relationships were site specific; the relationships were significant at site PS, but not significant at site ES. Factors causing the site specific relationships and the probable pathway for (137)Cs transfer from soil to plants and then to higher trophic levels are discussed in terms of the transfer processes of the alkali metals.
Medrano, Miguel; Kury, Adriano B
The genus Platymessa was originally described by Mello-Leitão and diagnosed following the Roewerian system. It originally included two species from the Colombian Andes. Subsequently, a third species was described: Platymessa transversalis Roewer, 1963, which is herein transferred to the genus Chusgonobius Roewer, 1952, forming the new combination Chusgonobius transversalis. Herein, an emended diagnosis is given to Platymessa, the type species, Platymessa h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941, is redescribed and P. nigrolimbata Mello-Leitão, 1941 is considered its junior subjective synonym. Brachylibitia Mello-Leitão, 1941, is herein considered a junior subjective synonym of Platymessa and its type species, Brachylibitia ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941, considered a species inquirenda, forming the new combination Platymessa ectroxantha. Genital morphology of Platymessa h-inscriptum is described and some characters are discussed regarding their importance in cosmetid taxonomy. Novel forms of sexual dimorphism are described in coxa IV.
Brito, Gabriel; Borges, Adolfo
Ecuador harbors one of the most diverse Neotropical scorpion faunas, hereby updated to 47 species contained within eight genera and five families, which inhabits the "Costa" (n = 17), "Sierra" (n = 34), "Oriente" (n = 16) and "Insular" (n = 2) biogeographical regions, corresponding to the western coastal, Andean, Amazonian, and the Galápagos archipelago regions, respectively. The genus Tityus Koch, in the family Buthidae, responsible for severe/fatal accidents elsewhere in northern South America and the Amazonia, is represented in Ecuador by 16 species, including T. asthenes, which has caused fatalities in Colombia and Panama, and now in the Ecuadorian provinces of Morona Santiago and Sucumbíos. Underestimation of the medical significance of scorpion envenoming in Ecuador arises from the fact that Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais) (family Buthidae) and Teuthraustes atramentarius Simon (family Chactidae), whose venoms show low toxicity towards vertebrates, frequently envenom humans in the highly populated Guayas and Pichincha provinces. This work also updates the local scorpion faunal endemicity (74.5 %) and its geographical distribution, and reviews available medical/biochemical information on each species in the light of the increasing problem of scorpionism in the country. A proposal is hereby put forward to classify the Ecuadorian scorpions based on their potential medical importance.
With flow-through respirometry under video tracking, the CO(2) release of adult male and female Pardosa lugubris (wolf spider) and Marpissa muscosa (jumping spider) was measured during rest and activity. Activity metabolism was measured in phases in which the animals were spontaneously active and during forced exercise. Standard metabolic rates (V(CO2)/ t) were 1.43 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in M. muscosa and 1.7-1.8 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in P. lugubris. Egg production caused higher resting rates in females compared with the males in P. lugubris. Maximum mass-specific CO(2) release, the additional amount of CO(2 )released after activity and the factorial aerobic scope were higher in M. muscosa. Additionally, half-time recovery and the lag between end of activity and maximum CO(2) release were lower in the jumping spider. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the well-developed tracheal system in jumping spiders increases the efficiency of the respiratory system in comparison with wolf spiders, which possess similarly developed lungs but only a simple tracheal system that is restricted to the opisthosoma.
Neto, Eraldo M Costa
This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055
Talarico, Giovanni; Lipke, Elisabeth; Alberti, Gerd
Ricinuleid functional mouthparts are the cucullus, the chelicerae, the pedipalps, and the labrum. These structures are movably jointed to the rest of the prosoma, most likely protruded upon hydrostatic hemolymph pressure and retracted by prosomal muscles. Seta-like protrusions from the labrum and the pedipalpal coxae form a sieve-like filter inside the preoral cavity and the mouth. Although the tip of the labrum can be elevated upon muscle constriction, ingestion of large, solid food particles is unlikely. The mouth has a crescent-shaped cross section. The cuticle-lined, also crescent-shaped pharynx is equipped with a large dilator muscle but lacks antagonistic constrictor muscles. It represents a precerebral sucking pump. The triangular to Y-shaped, cuticle-lined esophagus is equipped with constrictor and dilator muscles. Its posterior part represents a postcerebral sucking pump. Four blind ending diverticula ramify from the anterior prosomal part of the entodermal midgut tube. Two of these diverticula remain inside the prosoma and form few short branches. The other two extend through the pedicel into the opisthosoma and ramify and coil there. A stercoral pocket protrudes ventrally out of the midgut tube. The most distal part of the midgut tube is modified into a contractile rectal gland. Its secretions may have defensive or physiological functions. A short anal atrium is formed by the cuticle-lined ectodermal hindgut which opens at the end of the three-segmented metasoma. The telescoping segments of the metasoma are protruded by hemolymph pressure and retracted by muscles.
Crews, Sarah C
The spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 occurs in both the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics and contains nearly half of the species in the family Selenopidae Simon, 1897. In this paper the members of the genus Selenops found in North America, Central America, and on islands of the Caribbean are revised, excluding Cuban endemics. No taxonomic changes are currently made to the species from the southwestern United States. In total, 21 new species are described, including Selenops arikoksp. n., Selenops chamelasp. n., Selenops amonasp. n., Selenops bawekasp. n., Selenops bocacanadensissp. n., Selenops enriquillosp. n, Selenops ixchelsp. n., Selenops huetocatlsp. n., Selenops kalinagosp. n., Selenops oviedosp. n., Selenops morrosp. n., Selenops deniasp. n., Selenops duansp. n., Selenops malinalxochitlsp. n., Selenops oricuajosp. n., Selenops petenajtoysp. n., Selenops guerrerosp. n., Selenops makimakisp. n., Selenops souligasp. n., Selenops wilmotorumsp. n., and Selenops wilsonisp. n. Six species names were synonymized: Selenops lunatus Muma, 1953 syn. n. =Selenops candidus Muma, 1953; Selenops tehuacanus Muma 1953 syn. n., Selenops galapagoensis Banks, 1902 syn. n. and Selenops vagabundus Kraus, 1955 syn. n. = Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880; Selenops santibanezi Valdez-Mondragón, 2010 syn. n. = Selenops nigromaculatus Keyserling, 1880; and Selenops salvadoranus Chamberlin, 1925 syn. n. = Selenops bifurcatus Banks, 1909. Lectotypes are designated for the following three species: Selenops marginalis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 (♂), Selenops morosus Banks, 1898 (♂), and Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880 (♀). The female neotype is designated for Selenops aissus Walckenaer, 1837. The males of Selenops bani Alayón-García, 1992 and Selenops marcanoi Alayón-García, 1992 are described for the first time, and the females of Selenops phaselus Muma, 1953 and Selenops geraldinae Corronca, 1996 are described for the first time. Almost all species are redescribed, barring Cuban endemics and a few species recently described. New illustrations are provided, including those of the internal female copulatory organs, many of which are illustrated for the first time. A key to species is also provided as are new distributional records.
Lin, Yucheng; Ballarin, Francesco; Li, Shuqiang
Abstract Forty-three new species of Nesticidae are described from China, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar, and two new junior synonyms are suggested. A new genus, Speleoticus gen. n., is described with Nesticus navicellatus Liu & Li, 2013 as the type species, and four species are transferfed from Nesticus, i.e., Speleoticus globosus (Liu & Li, 2013), comb. n., Speleoticus libo (Chen & Zhu, 2005), comb. n., Speleoticus navicellatus (Liu & Li, 2015), comb. n. and Speleoticus uenoi (Yaginuma, 1972), comb. n. The new species described in this paper belong to four genera and are: Hamus cornutus sp. n. (♂♀), Hamus kangdingensis sp. n. (♂), Hamus luzon sp. n. (♀), Hamus mangunensis sp. n. (♂), Nescina kohi sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella baiseensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella baobab sp. n. (♂), Nesticella caeca sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella chongqing sp. n. (♀), Nesticella dazhuangensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella fuliangensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella gazuida sp. n. (♀), Nesticella gongshanensis sp. n. (♀), Nesticella griswoldi sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella hongheensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella huomachongensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella jingpo sp. n. (♀), Nesticella kaohsiungensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella lisu sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella liuzhaiensis sp. n. (♀), Nesticella nandanensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella phami sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella potala sp. n. (♀), Nesticella qiaoqiensis sp. n. (♀), Nesticella qiongensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella robusta sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella rongtangensis sp. n. (♂), Nesticella sanchaheensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella sulawesi sp. n. (♀), Nesticella sumatrana sp. n. (♂), Nesticella tibetana sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella vanlang sp. n. (♀), Nesticella wanzaiensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella xiongmao sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella xixia sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella yanbeiensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella yao sp. n. (♀), Nesticella zhiyuani sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus dafangensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus miao sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus spinosus sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus wumengensis sp. n. (♀), Pseudonesticus ziyunensis sp. n. (♂♀). Nesticella inthanoni (Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980), syn. n. is synonymised with Nesticella mollicula (Thorell, 1898); Nesticella taiwan Tso & Yoshida, 2000, syn. n. is synonymised with Nesticella odonta (Chen, 1984). The female of Nesticella connectens Wunderlich, 1995, so far unknown, is described and recorded from Thailand. Nesticidae are reported from Madagascar for the first time. Nesticella nepalensis (Hubert, 1973) is recorded for the first time from China. Types of Nesticella odonta (Chen, 1984), Nesticella songi Chen & Zhu, 2004 and Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 are re-examined and photographed. The entire genus Nesticella is reviewed, and four species groups are recognised. DNA barcodes of the new species are obtained to confirm their correct identifications. PMID:27895525
Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli
Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271
Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina
Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238
Santos, Adalberto J.; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes; Buzatto, Bruno A.
Two new species of the arachnid order Schizomida, Rowlandius ubajara sp.nov. and Rowlandius potiguar sp.nov., are described based on both male and female specimens collected in caves from northeastern Brazil. Rowlandius ubajara is known only from the Ubajara Cave, in the state of Ceará; R. potiguar is recorded from 20 caves of the Apodi Limestone Group, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. A remarkable dimorphism in male pedipalp length is described and analyzed in R. potiguar. The distribution of male pedipalp length is clearly bimodal in the species, but the two male morphs (homeomorphic and heteromorphic) present some overlap in the sizes of this structure. Moreover, males show a steeper allometry in pedipalp length than females, indicating that this trait is under a different selective regime in males and in females. PMID:23723989
Brescovit, Antonio D.; Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander
Abstract New members of the spider family Caponiidae from Brazil and Chile are presented. Three new species in previously known genera are described: Taintnops paposo sp. n. from Chile, and the Brazilian Tisentnops mineiro sp. n. and Tisentnops onix sp. n., both belonging to a genus known only from its damaged type. Additionally, two new non–nopine Brazilian genera are proposed: Nasutonops gen. n. including three new species: Nasutonops chapeu sp. n., Nasutonops sincora sp. n. and Nasutonops xaxado sp. n.; and Carajas gen. n., known only from the type species Carajas paraua sp. n. Both new genera have entire, rather than sub-segmented tarsi. Therefore, they are not included in the caponiid subfamily Nopinae. Nasutonops gen. n. is characterized by the presence of a projected clypeal horn, unique among caponiids. Additionally, the first blind caponiids are described: Tisentnops mineiro sp. n. from the state of Minas Gerais and Carajas paraua sp. n. from the state of Pará. Both of these species are found only in caves and completely lack eyes. PMID:27843380
Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C
Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20 million years ago.
Araujo, Douglas; Maia, Ulysses Madureira; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos
In this paper we present, for the first time, cytogenetical data on Latrodectus gr. curacaviensis (Theridiidae) from Brazil, as well as the first data on meiosis and sex chromosome system of this genus. Testes were submitted to colchicine, hypotonic, and fixation treatment, and chromosomal preparations were stained with Giemsa solution. The analysis showed 2n=26 telo/acrocentric chromosomes in spermatogonial metaphases. Metaphase I exhibited 12 autosomal bivalents and two sex chromosome univalents (12II + X(1)X(2)). All bivalents revealed one terminal chiasma. Metaphases II confirmed the sex chromosome system, showing 12 autosomes or 12 autosomes plus two X chromosomes, respectively. Male karyotype prevailing in theridiids is formed by 2n=22 chromosomes, including sex chromosome system X(1)X(2) in all species. The Latrodectus species of the geometricus clade analyzed until now showed smaller diploid number (2nfemale symbol=16 and 2nfemale symbol=18) than the species of the mactans clade (2nfemale symbol=24 and 2nfemale symbol=26). Thus, according to the chromosome number, the examined Latrodectus species seems to be related to the mactans clade.
Berendonck, Bettina; Greven, Hartmut
The female genital structures of the entelegyne spider Latrodectus revivensis are described using semithin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Apart from the tactile hairs overhanging the opening of the atrium, the contact zones of the female epigynum are devoid of any sensilla, indicating that the female does not discriminate in favor or against males due to their genital size or stimulation through copulatory courtship. The dumb-bell shape and the spatial separation of the entrance and the exit of the paired spermathecae suggest that they are functionally of the conduit type. Not described for other entelegyne spiders so far, the small fertilization ducts originating from the spermathecae of each side lead to a common fertilization duct that connects the spermathecae to the uterus externus. During oviposition, it is most likely that spermatozoa are indiscriminately sucked out of the spermathecal lumina by the low pressure produced by the contraction of the muscle extending from the epigynal plate to the common fertilization duct. As no greater amounts of secretion are produced by the female during oviposition, and no activated sperm are present within the female genital tract, the secretion produced by the spermathecal epithelium does not serve in displacement or (selective) activation of spermatozoa. These findings suggest that female L. revivensis are not able to exert cryptic female choice by selectively choosing spermatozoa of certain males.
Zaragoza, Juan A; Pérez, Toni
Four new hypogean species are described from the Jaén province (southern Spain): Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) espa- nyoli sp. nov., C. (E.) giennensis sp. nov., C. (E.) villacarrillo sp. nov. and Neobisium (Ommatoblothrus) perezruizi sp. nov. New records are given for the species Chthonius (E.) cazorlensis, C. (E.) perezi, C. (E.) tetrachelatus, Neobisium (O.) perezi, Microcreagrella caeca caeca and Allochernes masi. Chthonius (E.) verai and C. (E.) minutus are removed from the list of the Andalusian fauna. A new synonymy is proposed: Neobisium (O.) gev Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011, is a junior subjective synonym of N. (O.) perezi Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011.
Salvatierra, Lidianne; Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Giribet, Gonzalo
The male, larva and nymphal stages of Cryptocellus iaci Tourinho, Lo Man-Hung & Bonaldo, 2010, a species previously known only from a single female, are described based on specimens from around the type locality, in an area of both Terra Firme forest and igapó (flooded forests), at the Jufari River, Roraima State, Brazil. The specimens were illustrated using live photography, stereomicroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, allowing us to examine and describe the large diversity of tarsal sensilla and other integumental structures in Cryptocellus and to compare them to those of the previously studied Pseudocellus. Based on the male somatic characters Cryptocellus iaci is placed in thefoedus species-group. Cryptocellus iaci has two sensilla of type 1 on the distal tarsomeres of legs III (DT III), while only one has been reported for Pseudocellus spp., suggesting a potential value in this type of character for systematic studies of the group.
Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y
Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.
Abstract Background A series of databases is being prepared to list the valid species of Opiliones worldwide. This paper containing nomenclatural acts is meant to accompany Part 2, which includes the members of the infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the Grassatores currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). New information The following 32 taxonomic changes are proposed here: (1-3) The Afrotropical genera Hovanoceros Lawrence, 1959, Malgaceros Lawrence, 1959 and Tetebius Roewer, 1949 (all currently in Samoidae) are all newly transferred to Biantidae. (4-5) Microminua soerenseni Soares & Soares, 1954, from Brazil is newly transferred to Tibangara (Gonyleptoidea: Cryptogeobiidae), newly combined as Tibangara soerenseni new comb., new familial allocation for the species. (6-7) The new genus Llaguenia Gen. nov is erected for the South American species Zamora peruviana Roewer, 1956, newly combined as Llaguenia peruviana new comb., and newly placed in Gonyleptoidea: Cranaidae (Prostygninae). (8) Bebedoura Roewer, 1949, known from a single Brazilian species, is transferred from Tricommatinae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (9) Microconomma Roewer, 1915, known from a single Cameroonian species, is transferred from Samoidae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (10) Stygnomimus Roewer, 1927, with two Indomalayan species and hitherto included in the Stygnommatidae, is here formally considered Grassatores incertae sedis. (11) Bichito González-Sponga, 1998, known from a single Venezuelan species, originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Samoidae. (12) The Neotropical genus Microminua Sørensen, 1932, currently with two species, is newly transferred from Kimulidae to Samoidae. (13-14) Cornigera González-Sponga, 1987 (currently in Samoidae), is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Microminua, and its single species is combined under Microminua as Microminua flava (González-Sponga, 1987) new comb. (15) Niquitaia González-Sponga, 1999 (originally in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, currently in Zalmoxidae), monotypic from Venezuela, is newly transferred to Samoidae. (16) Heteroscotolemon Roewer, 1912 originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Zalmoxidae. (17) While the Australasian genus Zalmoxista Roewer, 1949 is currently in Samoidae and some of its former species have been transferred to Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886, Zalmoxista americana Roewer, 1952 from Peru, is here newly transferred to Zalmoxidae into Minuides Sørensen, 1932, forming the combination Minuides americanus (Roewer, 1952) new comb. (specific name inflected to match the masculine gender). (18) Neobabrius Roewer, 1949 (currently in Phalangodidae), monotypic from Indonesia, is newly transferred to Zalmoxidae. (19) While Crosbyella Roewer, 1927, belongs to Phalangodidae, Crosbyella roraima Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943 (originally Phalangodinae, but currently Zalmoxidae without generic assignment) is here transferred to Soledadiella González-Sponga, 1987, as Soledadiella roraima new comb. (Zalmoxoidea: Zalmoxidae). (20) Zalmoxissus Roewer, 1949 is newly synonymized with Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886 (Zalmoxidae). (21) The original spelling Zalmoxis sorenseni Simon, 1892 is restored from the unjustified emendation soerenseni. (22) The Neotropical genus Phalangodella Roewer, 1912 (originally in Phalangodidae: Tricommatinae, but currently in Grassatores incertae sedis) is newly transferred to Zalmoxoidea incertae sedis and (23-26) four other genera are newly synonymized with it: Phalangodella Roewer, 1912 = Exlineia Mello-Leitão, 1942 = Langodinus Mello-Leitão, 1949 = Cochirapha Roewer, 1949 = Phalpuna Roewer, 1949, generating the following new combinations (27-32): Phalangodella fulvescens (Mello-Leitão, 1943) new comb., Phalangodella milagroi (Mello-Leitão, 1942) new comb., Phalangodella rhinoceros (Mello-Leitão, 1945) new comb., Phalangodella flavipes (Mello-Leitão, 1949) new comb., Phalangodella rugipes (Roewer, 1949) new comb. and Phalangodella urarmata (Roewer, 1949) new comb. PMID:26752966
Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641
Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.
Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608
Abstract Background Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 is an uncommonly collected mite associated with hot spring environments in the western United States. Information on its distribution and ecology are incomplete. New information In this paper, we report Thermacarus nevadensis from northern British Columbia. These records represent the first of Thermacaridae from Canada, the most northern records of this species in North America, and the most northern records for the family globally. We also provide short notes and images of the habitats in which specimens have been collected in Canada. PMID:27660534
Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.
Silva-Moreira, Thiago Da; Machado, Miguel
All species of Epicadus Simon, 1895 are reviewed and redescribed, including the previously unknown males of E. rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924 and E. planus Mello-Leitão, 1932. A new diagnosis based on morphological characters is proposed for the genus. Three valid species of Epicadus are recognized: E. heterogaster (Guérin-Méneville, 1829); E. rubripes and E. planus. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: E. granulatus Banks, 1909 is considered incertae sedis, most likely belonging to a new genus; E. h. scholagriculae Piza, 1933 is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. heterogaster; E. pallidus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924; E. nigronotatus Mello-Leitão, 1940 is considered junior subjective synonym of E. planus Mello-Leitão, 1932. Species distributions were updated with new records in the Neotropics, including Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela, which makes Epicadus a genus of Neotropical distribution.
Raspotnig, Günther; Bodner, Michaela; Schäffer, Sylvia; Koblmüller, Stephan; Schönhofer, Axel; Karaman, Ivo
Large prosomal scent glands constitute a major synapomorphic character of the arachnid order Opiliones. These glands produce a variety of chemicals very specific to opilionid taxa of different taxonomic levels, and thus represent a model system to investigate the evolutionary traits in exocrine secretion chemistry across a phylogenetically old group of animals. The chemically best-studied opilionid group is certainly Laniatores, and currently available chemical data allow first hypotheses linking the phylogeny of this group to the evolution of major chemical classes of secretion chemistry. Such hypotheses are essential to decide upon a best-fitting explanation of the distribution of scent-gland secretion compounds across extant laniatorean taxa, and hence represent a key toward a well-founded opilionid chemosystematics.
Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro
A new ricinuleid species, Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov., is described based on a male specimen from Northwest Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul, Estación Biológica Bilsa). This species is unique among all Cryptocellus in having very large longitudinal carapacial translucent areas together with a markedly incrassate femur of leg II. Representing only the second species of the order described from Ecuador, C. chimaera sp. nov. is assigned to the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874. Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov. is remarkable, for its morphology resembles that of Cryptocellus magnus Ewing, 1929, especially with regard to the male copulatory apparatus, although both resemble Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980, due to the presence of diffuse longitudinal carapacial translucent areas. Along with the new species description, a comparative diagnosis and supplementary images are provided for C. magnus. Based on direct observations of some species belonging to the five species-groups of Cryptocellus, we discuss on the occurrence of different morphologies of carapacial translucent areas within the genus. We deem it important to continue the survey of morphological characters, especially within Cryptocellus, in order to increase our understanding of the species-groups and to unravel their relationships.
Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli
In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.
Pedioaxctus papyracanthus) Nodding cliff daisy (Perityle cernua) Alamo beard tongue (Penstemon alamosensis) Smooth figwort (Scrophularia laevis...Cryptantha paysonii) Smooth cucumber (Sicyos glaber) Smooth figwort (Scrophularia laevis) Long-stemmed flame flower (Talinum longipes) Castetter’s
The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).
Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón
A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.
New species in the family Ctenidae Keyserling, 1877 from high altitude habitats in Myanmar, with the first case of penetration of the female's cuticle by a male in the RTA-clade (Arachnida: Araneae: Ctenidae).
Jäger, Peter; Minn, Myin Zu
Specimens of the spider genera Ctenus Walckenaer, 1805 and Anahita Karsch, 1879 from Myanmar were investigated. Three species are described as new to science: Anahita popa spec. nov. (female; Mt Popa), Ctenus natmataung spec. nov. (male, female; Mt Victoria) and C. pingu spec. nov. (male, female; Mt Victoria). The female of C. cladarus Jäger, 2012 is described for the first time. Males of C. natmataung spec. nov. possess an easily breakable tip of their RTA. Two cases are reported where this part was clinging to the epigyne and a pointed appendix had penetrated the female's cuticle. This is the first such case reported within the RTA-clade. All three Ctenus spp. have very similar copulatory organs and are interpreted as a product of relatively recent speciation events. According to their elevational zonation, the driving factor for this speciation could be different climatic conditions at different elevations.
Notes on two species of the cavernicolous subgenus Neobisium (Blothrus) Schiödte, 1847 (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) from Transylvania (Romania), with a key to the species of the Carpathian Mountains.
Redescriptions of Neobisium (Blothrus) minutum (Tömösváry, 1882) and N. (B.) brevipes (Frivaldszky, 1865) are given, accompanied by new illustrations. Neobisium (B.) brevipes montanum is elevated to full species rank as N. (B.) montanum Beier, 1939. New records of N. (B.) minutum and N. (B.) brevipes from Romania are presented. A key to the members of the subgenus Blothrus occurring in the Carpathian Mountains is provided.
A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida) in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination), soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil.
Aguiar, N O; Gualberto, T L; Franklin, E
In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km2 at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH), to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.
First record of the mygalomorph spider family Paratropididae (Arachnida, Araneae) in North America with the description of a new species of Paratropis Simon from Mexico, and with new ultramorphological data for the family
Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro; Mendoza, Jorge I.; Francke, Oscar F.
Abstract A new species of the genus Paratropis is described from North America: Paratropis tuxtlensis sp. n., from a tropical rainforest in Veracruz, Mexico. This is the fifth Paratropis and the tenth paratropidid species described and the first North American record of this Neotropical family. The species is described based on adult males and females, and juveniles. The juveniles show ontogenetic variation in the number of cuspules on the labium and endites, and in the number and position of leg trichobothria. This is the second Paratropis species, and the third paratropidid known from both sexes. The scanning electron photographs (SEM) reveal new morphological data and contribute to the knowledge of the family. PMID:25061343
Tonini, Lorena; Silva, Juliana Paulo Da; Filho, Arlindo Serpa; Freitas, Joelcio
The genus Ransonia Blandin, 1979 (Arachnida: Araneae) was established with description of a new species, Ransonia mahasoana of the family Pisauridae (Arachnida: Araneae) endemic from Mahasoa, Madagascar. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Ransonia Kramp, 1947, a genus of the family Rhopalonematidae (Hydrozoa: Trachymedusae) with only one species, Ransonia (Aglantha) krampi Ranson (1932), from Gibraltar, Mediterranean. According to article 60 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature a new substitute name is necessary, since Ransonia Blandin, 1979 does not have a junior synonym applicable and is a junior homonym of another genus. Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the spider genus as follows.
Background Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) is an enigmatic continental subterranean water family of marine origin (thalassoid). One of the species in the genus, Metacrangonyx longipes, is endemic to the Balearic islands of Mallorca and Menorca (W Mediterranean). It has been suggested that the origin and distribution of thalassoid crustaceans could be explained by one of two alternative hypotheses: (1) active colonization of inland freshwater aquifers by a marine ancestor, followed by an adaptative shift; or (2) passive colonization by stranding of ancestral marine populations in coastal aquifers during marine regressions. A comparison of phylogenies, phylogeographic patterns and age estimations of clades should discriminate in favour of one of these two proposals. Results Phylogenetic relationships within M. longipes based on three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and one nuclear marker revealed five genetically divergent and geographically structured clades. Analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA data showed the occurrence of a high geographic population subdivision in both islands, with current gene flow occurring exclusively between sites located in close proximity. Molecular-clock estimations dated the origin of M. longipes previous to about 6 Ma, whereas major cladogenetic events within the species took place between 4.2 and 2.0 Ma. Conclusions M. longipes displayed a surprisingly old and highly fragmented population structure, with major episodes of cladogenesis within the species roughly correlating with some of the major marine transgression-regression episodes that affected the region during the last 6 Ma. Eustatic changes (vicariant events) -not active range expansion of marine littoral ancestors colonizing desalinated habitats-explain the phylogeographic pattern observed in M. longipes. PMID:21791038
Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Motokawa, Masaharu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J
Skull size and shape were examined among 14 species of the tree shrews (Tupaia montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, T. mulleri, T. longipes, T. glis, T. javanica, T. minor, T. gracilis, T. dorsalis, T. tana, Dendrogale melanura, D. murina, and Ptilocercus lowii). The bones of face were rostro-caudally longer in T. tana and T. dorsalis, contrasting with T. minor and T. gracilis, D. melanura, D. murina and P. lowii which have smaller facial length ratios. The arbo-terrestrial species (T. longipes and T. glis) were similar to terrestrial species in length ratios of bones of face unlike the other arbo-terrestrial species (T. montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, and T. mulleri). We propose that T. longipes and T. glis have adapted to foraging for termites and ants as have T. tana and T. dorsalis. Additionally small body size in T. javanica may be the result of being isolated in Java. We separated the species into 5 groups from the measurment values of skulls: 1) Terrestrial species; T. tana and T. dorsalis, 2) Arboreal species; T. minor and T. gracilis, 3) Arbo-terrestrial species group 1: T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, and T. javanica, 4) Arbo-terrestrial species group 2: T. glis and T. longipes, 5) Arboreal species of Dendrogale and Ptilocercus. Principal component analysis separated species into 8 clusters as follows: 1) T. tana, 2) T. dorsalis, 3) T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, 4) T. glis and T. longipes, 5) T. javanica, 6) T. minor and T. gracilis, 7) D. melanura and D. murina, and 8) P. lowii. We suggest that these clusters correspond to behavioral strategies and peculiarities observed in foraging, feeding and locomotion in each species.
Chalcidoidea includes 19 families of cosmopolitan parasitic hymenopterans ranging in size from 0.2 mm to 15 mm. Species of Chalcidoidea, with 21, 250 nominal species, parasitize (rarely prey on) many arthropods: twelve orders of Insecta, two orders of Arachnida, and one family of Nematoda. In Eury...
There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...
Sargos, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.
Treeshrews (order Scandentia) comprise 2 families of squirrel-sized terrestrial, arboreal, and scansorial mammals distributed throughout much of tropical South and Southeast Asia. The last comprehensive taxonomic revision of treeshrews was published in 1913, and a well-supported phylogeny clarifying relationships among all currently recognized extant species within the order has only recently been published. Within the family Tupaiidae, 2 widely distributed species, the northern treeshrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner, 1841), and the common treeshrew, T. glis (Diard, 1820), represent a particularly vexing taxonomic complex. These 2 species are currently distinguished primarily based on their respective distributions north and south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and on their different mammae counts. This problematic species complex includes 54 published synonyms, many of which represent putative island endemics. The widespread T. glis and T. belangeri collectively comprise a monophyletic assemblage representing the sister lineage to a clade composed of the golden-bellied treeshrew, T. chrysogaster Miller, 1903 (Mentawai Islands), and the long-footed treeshrew, T. longipes (Thomas, 1893) (Borneo). As part of a morphological investigation of the T. glis–T. belangeri complex, we studied the proportions of hand bones, which have previously been shown to be useful in discriminating species of soricids (true shrews). We measured 38 variables from digital X-ray images of 148 museum study skins representing several subspecies of T. glis, T. belangeri, T. chrysogaster, and T. longipes and analyzed these data using principal components and cluster analyses. Manus proportions among these 4 species readily distinguish them, particularly in the cases of T. chrysogaster and T. longipes. We then tested the distinctiveness of several of the populations comprising T. glis and T. longipes. T. longipes longipes and T. l. salatana Lyon, 1913, are distinguishable from each
Four new species of the spider genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980 from Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and the first description of the male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 with a proposed new diagnostic character for the family Nesticidae Simon, 1894 (Arachnida, Araneae).
Grall, Elena; Jäger, Peter
During various expeditions to Laos between 2003 and 2012 and one expedition to Myanmar in 2014, spiders of the family Nesticidae were collected inside and outside of caves. This was the first time this family was encountered in Laos. All specimens belong to the genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980. Four species have been recognized as being new to science, which are described in this paper: Nesticella beccus n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province, Luang Prabang Province, Huaphan Province, Khammouan Province, THAILAND: Mae Hong Son Province), Nesticella laotica n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Vientiane Province, Huaphan Province, Luang Prabang Province, Bolikhamsay Province), Nesticella foelixi n. sp. (male; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province) and Nesticella michaliki n. sp. (male, female; MYANMAR: Chin State). The male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 is described for the first time and it is the first record for Laos. Results from a first micro-computed tomography analysis of a female copulatory organ for this genus are provided. This analysis proves that female Nesticella exhibit a complex functional receptaculum, which is highly complex within the genus. The presence of a special type of leg setae (pipette setae) in males is proposed as diagnostic for the family Nesticidae.
Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J
The skull adaptation was functional-morphologically examined in 14 species of the tree shrews. From the data of the proportion indices, the similarities were confirmed between T. minor and T. gracilis, T. tana and T. dorsalis, and T. longipes and T. glis. We demonstrated that the splanchnocranium was elongated in terrestrial T. tana and T. dorsalis and shortened in arboreal T. minor and T. gracilis from the proportion data. In both dendrogram from the matrix of the Q-mode correlation coefficients and scattergram from the canonical discriminant analysis, the morphological similarities in the skull shape suggested the terrestrial-insectivorous adaptation of T. tana and T. dorsalis, and the arboreal adaptation of T. minor and T. gracilis. Since the osteometrical skull similarities were indicated among the three species of Tupaia by cluster and canonical discriminant analyses, the arbo-terrestrial behavior and its functional-morphological adaptation may be commonly established in T. montana, T. longipes and T. glis.
Mironov, Sergey V; Oconnor, Barry M
A new feather mite species, Neodectes pilgrimi sp. n. (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae), is described from three species of New Zealand wrens (Passeriformes: Acanthisittidae): Xenicus gilviventris Pelzeln, 1867 (type host), X. longipes (Gmelin, 1789) (extinct species), and Acanthisitta chloris (Sparrman, 1787). Based on known host associations of the genus Neodectes, it is hypothesized that Neodectes pilgrimi sp. n. has a secondary origin on New Zealand wrens and was probably transferred onto the ancestor of its hosts from honeyeaters (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae).
Partridge, J C; Douglas, R H; Marshall, N J; Chung, W-S; Jordan, T M; Wagner, H-J
We describe the bi-directed eyes of a mesopelagic teleost fish, Rhynchohyalus natalensis, that possesses an extensive lateral diverticulum to each tubular eye. Each diverticulum contains a mirror that focuses light from the ventro-lateral visual field. This species can thereby visualize both downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence over a wide field of view. Modelling shows that the mirror is very likely to be capable of producing a bright, well focused image. After Dolichopteryx longipes, this is only the second description of an eye in a vertebrate having both reflective and refractive optics. Although superficially similar, the optics of the diverticular eyes of these two species of fish differ in some important respects. Firstly, the reflective crystals in the D. longipes mirror are derived from a tapetum within the retinal pigment epithelium, whereas in R. natalensis they develop from the choroidal argentea. Secondly, in D. longipes the angle of the reflective crystals varies depending on their position within the mirror, forming a Fresnel-type reflector, but in R. natalensis the crystals are orientated almost parallel to the mirror's surface and image formation is dependent on the gross morphology of the diverticular mirror. Two remarkably different developmental solutions have thus evolved in these two closely related species of opisthoproctid teleosts to extend the restricted visual field of a tubular eye and provide a well-focused image with reflective optics.
Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto
Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295
Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto
Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.
Zamora, Lara Marcus; King, Catherine K; Payne, Sarah J; Virtue, Patti
Understanding the sensitivity of Antarctic marine organisms to metals is essential in order to manage environmental contamination risks. To date toxicity studies conducted on Antarctic marine species are limited. This study is the first to examine the acute effects of copper and cadmium on three common coastal Antarctic copepods: the calanoids Paralabidocera antarctica and Stephos longipes, and the cyclopoid Oncaea curvata. These copepods responded slowly to metal exposure (4-7d) emphasising that the exposure period of 48-96 h commonly used in toxicity tests with temperate and tropical species is not appropriate for polar organisms. We found that a longer 7 d exposure period was the minimum duration appropriate for Antarctic copepods. Although sensitivity to metal exposure varied between species, copper was more toxic than cadmium in all three species. P.antarctica was the most sensitive with 7d LC50 values for copper and cadmium of 20 μg L(-1) and 237 μg L(-1) respectively. Sensitivities to copper were similar for both O. curvata (LC50=64 μg L(-1)) and S. longipes (LC50=56 μg L(-1)), while O. curvata was more sensitive to cadmium (LC50=901 μg L(-1)) than S. longipes (LC50=1250 μg L(-1)). In comparison to copepods from lower latitudes, Antarctic copepods were more sensitive to copper and of similar sensitivity or less sensitive to cadmium. This study highlights the need for longer exposure periods in toxicity tests with slow responding Antarctic biota in order to generate relevant sensitivity data for inclusion in site-specific environmental quality guidelines for Antarctica.
Rudin, W; Hecker, H
The midgut epithelium of female Lutzomyia longipalpis was investigated by means of electron microscopic morphometry before and during blood digestion. Ultrastructure and cytological changes of the stomach cells upon blood feeding were generally similar to the ones described for Phlebotomus longipes (Gemetchu, 1974) and for mosquitoes (Hecker, 1977). In addition, the quantitative composition of the cells resembled the one of mosquitoes in many respects. Despite some morphological differences in the functional gut cytology, it can be admitted that, in general, digestive processes may run similarly in the midguts of sandflies and mosquitoes.
Qin, Shuang-shuang; Li, Hai-tao; Wang, Zhou-yong; Cui, Zhan-hu; Yu, Li-ying
The sequences of ITS, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH of 9 Gynostemma species or variety including 38 samples were compared and analyzed by molecular phylogeny method. Hemsleya macrosperma was designated as outgroup. The MP and NJ phylogenetic tree of Gynostemma was built based on ITS sequence, the results of PAUP phylogenetic analysis showed the following results: (1) The eight individuals of G. pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum were not supported as monophyletic in the strict consensus trees and NJ trees. (2) It is suspected whether G. longipes and G. laxum should be classified as the independent species. (3)The classification of subgenus units of Gynostemma plants is supported.
Jagersbacher-Baumann, Julia; Ebermann, Ernst
Based on males gained from laboratory cultures, nine new descriptions and one redescription of scutacarid males are given: the respective species are Heterodispus foveatus Jagersbacher-Baumann and Ebermann 2012, Imparipes dispar Rack, 1964, Lamnacarus ornatus Balogh and Mahunka, 1963, Scutacarus acarorum (Goeze, 1780), S. deserticolus Mahunka, 1969, S. ellipticus Karafiat, 1959, S. longipes Rack, 1975, S. longitarsus (Berlese, 1905), S. tackei Willmann, 1942 and S. tyrrhenicus Ebermann, 1986. The taxonomic relevance of male morphology is evaluated. It reveals a strong potential for differentiating between species, and possible characters diagnostic for scutacarid genera are discussed. Within Heterostigmatina, males of Scutacaridae show the most derived characters.
Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunlop, Jason A
Two inclusions in a piece of Upper Cretaceous (Albian) Burmese amber from Myanmar are described as a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones), Halitherses grimaldii new genus and species. The first Mesozoic harvestman to be named can be referred to the suborder Dyspnoi for the following reasons: prosoma divided into two regions, the posterior formed by the fusion of the meso- and metapeltidium; palp lacking a terminal claw, with clavate setae, and tarsus considerably shorter than the tibia. The bilobed, anteriorly projecting ocular tubercle is reminiscent of that of ortholasmatine nemastomatids. The status of other Mesozoic fossils referred to Opiliones is briefly reviewed.
Haddad Junior, Vidal; Amorim, Paulo Cezar Haddad de; Haddad Junior, William Teixeira; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa
This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil); the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes); and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas), Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees), and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).
Payne, Sarah J; King, Catherine K; Zamora, Lara Marcus; Virtue, Patti
Despite increasing human activity and risk of fuel spills in Antarctica, little is known about the impact of fuel on Antarctic marine fauna. The authors performed both single- and multi-species (whole community) acute toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of an Antarctic coastal zooplankton community to the water-accommodated fraction of Special Antarctic Blend diesel. Single-species tests using abundant copepods Oncaea curvata, Oithona similis, and Stephos longipes allowed comparisons of sensitivity of key taxa and of sensitivity estimates obtained from traditional single-species and more novel multi-species tests. Special Antarctic Blend diesel caused significant mortality and species compositional change in the zooplankton community within 4 d to 7 d. The sensitivity of the community also increased across the summer sampling period, with decreasing 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 1091 µg TPH/L in early January 2011, 353 µg TPH/L in mid January 2011, and 186 µg TPH/L in early February 2011. Copepods showed similar sensitivities to Special Antarctic Blend diesel in single-species tests (7-d LC50s: O. curvata, 158 µg TPH/L; O. similis, 176 µg TPH/L; S. longipes, 188 µg TPH/L). The combined use of single- and multi-species toxicity tests is a holistic approach to assessing the sensitivity of key species and the interactions and interdependence between species, enabling a broader understanding of the effects of fuel exposure on the whole zooplankton community.
Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, María T; Jimenez, Nuria; Garrido, Gabino; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Menendez, Roberto; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, María J
Different medicinal plants are widely used in Cuba and Mexico to treat several disorders. This paper reports in vitro inhibitory effects on the P450 system of herbal products commonly used by people in Cuba and Mexico in traditional medicine for decades. Experiments were conducted in human liver microsomes. The catalytic activities of CYP1A1/2, 2D6, and 3A4 were measured using specific probe substrates. The Heliopsis longipes extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the three enzymes, and similar effects were produced by affinin (an alkamide isolated from the H. longipes extract) and two catalytically reduced alkamides. Mangifera indica L. and Thalassia testudinum extracts, two natural polyphenol-rich extracts, diminished CYP1A1/2 and 3A4 activities, but not the CYP2D6 activity. These results suggest that these herbs inhibit the major human P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and could induce potential herbal-drug interactions.
Karawita, Rohan; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Athukorala, Yasantha; Affan, Abu; Lee, Young-Jae; Kim, Se-Kwon; Lee, Joon-Baek; Jeon, You-Jin
The enzymatic extracts from seven species of microalgae (Pediastrum duplex, Dactylococcopsis fascicularis, Halochlorococcum porphyrae, Oltmannsiellopsis unicellularis, Achnanthes longipes, Navicula sp. and Amphora coffeaeformis) collected from three habitats (freshwater, tidal pool, and coastal benthic) at Jeju Island in Korea were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Of the extracts tested, the AMG 300 L (an exo 1, 4-alpha-D-glucosidase) extract of P. duplex, the Viscozyme extract of Navicula sp., and the Celluclast extract of A. longipes provided the most potential as antioxidants. Meanwhile, the Termamyl extract of P. duplex in an H(2)O(2) scavenging assay exhibited an approximate 60% scavenging effect. In this study, we report that the DNA damage inhibitory effects of P. duplex (Termamyl extract) and D. fascicularis (Kojizyme extract) were nearly 80% and 69% respectively at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Thus, it is suggested that the microalgae tested in this study yield promising DNA damage inhibitory properties on mouse lymphoma L 5178 cells that are treated with H(2)O(2). Therefore, microalgae such as P. duplex may be an excellent source of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds with potent DNA damage inhibition potential.
Santos, Ciro L C; Dias, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Fernanda S; Lobato, Keliane S; Rosa, Luciana C; Oliveira, Tadeu G; Rebêlo, José M M
This study reports the first records of the parasitism rates of the association among ectoparasitic flies of the family Streblidae found in phyllostomid bats in the state of Maranhão. Specimens were collected in patches of secondary forest and borders of mangrove in the village of Quebra Pote, located in the south portion of the island of São Luís. A total of 201 flies of 15 species and eight genera [Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, A. phyllostomatis (Perty), Mastoptera minuta Costa Lima, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Séguy), Speiseria ambigua Kessel, Stizostrebla longirotris Jobling, Strebla guajiro (García & Casal), S. hertigi Wenzel, Trichobioides perspicillatus (Pessôa & Galvão), Trichobius costalimai Guimarães, T. dugesii Townsend, T. dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, T. joblingi Wenzel and T. longipes (Rudow)] were collected from 50 individuals of nine species of phyllostomid bats [Artibeus lituratus (Olfers), A. obscurus Schinz, Carollia perspicillata L., Glossophaga soricina Pallas, Lophostoma carrikeri J A Allen, Micronycteris minuta Gervais, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, P.hastatus Pallas and Sturnira lilium E Geoffroy)]. Mastoptera minuta, T. costalimai, T. longipes, A. falcata and S. longirostris, were the most frequently found ectoparasites, present in at least 50% of the infected bats. Two species of bats, C. perspicillata e P. discolor, showed the highest richness of ectoparasites, with four species of flies each, and an infection rate of 46% and 100%, respectively.
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.
Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830
Masta, Susan E; Longhorn, Stuart J; Boore, Jeffrey L
Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA have yielded widely differing relationships among members of the arthropod lineage Arachnida, depending on the nucleotide coding schemes and models of evolution used. We enhanced taxonomic coverage within the Arachnida greatly by sequencing seven new arachnid mitochondrial genomes from five orders. We then used all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes from these genomes to evaluate patterns of nucleotide and amino acid biases. Our data show that two of the six orders of arachnids (spiders and scorpions) have experienced shifts in both nucleotide and amino acid usage in all their protein-coding genes, and that these biases mislead phylogeny reconstruction. These biases are most striking for the hydrophobic amino acids isoleucine and valine, which appear to have evolved asymmetrical exchanges in response to shifts in nucleotide composition. To improve phylogenetic accuracy based on amino acid differences, we tested two recoding methods: (1) removing all isoleucine and valine sites and (2) recoding amino acids based on their physiochemical properties. We find that these methods yield phylogenetic trees that are consistent in their support of ancient intraordinal divergences within the major arachnid lineages. Further refinement of amino acid recoding methods may help us better delineate interordinal relationships among these diverse organisms.
Kamenz, Carsten; Staude, Andreas; Dunlop, Jason A.
Invasion of the land by arachnids required adaptations of numerous organs, such as gills evolving into lungs, as well as mechanisms facilitating sperm transfer in a terrestrial environment. Many modern arachnids use spermatophores for this purpose, i.e. sperm transmitters detached from the body. Exceptionally preserved Silurian (423 Ma) fossils of Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus Fischer, 1839 (Chelicerata: Eurypterida) preserve so-called `horn organs' which we here demonstrate as being equivalent to the spermatophore-producing parts of the genital tract in certain modern arachnids. This clarifies a long-running debate about sexing eurypterids based on the shape of the median abdominal (or genital) appendage. To our knowledge this is also the oldest direct evidence for spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer in the fossil record and suggests that eurypterids had evolved mating techniques using spermatophores as early as the Silurian, a valuable prerequisite for life on land. Spermatophores are absent in sea spiders (Pycnogonida) and horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura); thus the shared presence of sclerotized sperm-transfer devices in eurypterids and arachnids is a novel character, newly elucidated here, which offers explicit support for (Eurypterida + Arachnida). For this clade the name Sclerophorata n. nov. is proposed. Arachnida can be further defined by fusion of the originally paired genital opening.
Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R; Puttick, Mark N; Blaxter, Mark; Vinther, Jakob; Olesen, Jørgen; Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Pisani, Davide
Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.
Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto
Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.
Molina-Torres, J; García-Chávez, A; Ramírez-Chávez, E
The bioactive amides affinin and capsaicin isolated respectively from Heliopsis longipes roots and Capsicum spp fruits, were assayed for activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas solanacearum, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisicae suspension cultures. The alkamide affinin inhibited growth of E. coli and S. cerevisiae at concentrations as low as 25 microg/ml. Higher concentrations of affinin were necessary to inhibit growth of P. solanacearum and B. subtilis. However. high concentrations of capsaicin only retarded the growth of E. coli and P. solanacearum, whereas growth of B. subtilis was strongly inhibited and that of S. cerevisiae was initially enhanced. Results are discussed in relation to previous reports concerning crude extract and to the molecular structures of the bioactive compounds.
Wustman, Brandon A.; Lind, Jan; Wetherbee, Richard; Gretz, Michael R.
Achnanthes longipes is a marine, biofouling diatom that adheres to surfaces via adhesive polymers extruded during motility or organized into structures called stalks that contain three distinct regions: the pad, shaft, and collar. Four monoclonal antibodies (AL.C1–AL.C4) and antibodies from two uncloned hybridomas (AL.E1 and AL.E2) were raised against the extracellular adhesives of A. longipes. Antibodies were screened against a hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble-fraction. The hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble fraction was fractionated to yield polymers in three size ranges: F1, ≥ 20,000,000 Mr; F2, ≅100,000 Mr; and F3, <10,000 Mr relative to dextran standards. The ≅100,000-Mr fraction consisted of highly sulfated (approximately 11%) fucoglucuronogalactans (FGGs) and low-sulfate (approximately 2%) FGGs, whereas F1 was composed of O-linked FGG (F2)-polypeptide (F3) complexes. AL.C1, AL.C2, AL.C4, AL.E1, and AL.E2 recognized carbohydrate complementary regions on FGGs, with antigenicity dependent on fucosyl-containing side chains. AL.C3 was unique in that it had a lower affinity for FGGs and did not label any portion of the shaft. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry indicated that low-sulfate FGGs are expelled from pores surrounding the raphe terminus, creating the cylindrical outer layers of the shaft, and that highly sulfated FGGs are extruded from the raphe, forming the central core. Antibody-labeling patterns and other evidence indicated that the shaft central-core region is related to material exuded from the raphe during cell motility. PMID:9536061
Wolff, Jonas O.; Gorb, Stanislav N.
Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate. PMID:23346358
Koval, Thomas M.
Twelve cell lines representing 10 genera of three orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera) of the class Insecta and one cell line (Acarina) from the class Arachnida were examined to discern their sensitivity to the lethal effects of x-irradiation. Radiosensitivity was measured by a combination of colony formation and population growth curve techniques. Each of these arthropod cell lines is significantly more radioresistant than mammalian cells, though the degree of resistance varies greatly with order. Dipteran cells are 3 to 9 times and lepidopteran cells 52 to 104 times more radioresistant than mammalian cells. Orthopteran and acarine cells are intermediate in radiosensitivity between dipteran and lepidopteran cells. These cells, especially the lepidopteran, should be valuable in determining the molecular nature of repair mechanisms that result in resistance to ionizing radiation. PMID:16593348
Proposal to replace the illegitimate genus name Bryantella Wolin et al. 2004VP with the genus name Marvinbryantia gen. nov. and to replace the illegitimate combination Bryantella formatexigens Wolin et al. 2004VP with Marvinbryantia formatexigens comb. nov.
Wolin, Meyer J; Miller, Terry L; Lawson, Paul A
The prokaryote generic name Bryantella Wolin et al. 2004(VP) is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of Bryantella Chickering, 1946 (Animalia, Arthropoda, Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae, Dendryphantinae, Dendryphantini) and a later homonym of Bryantella Britton, 1957 (Animalia, Arthropoda, Scarabaeoidea, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae) [Principle 2, Rule 51b(4) of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)]. Bryantella represents a genus of jumping spiders within the family Salticidae and a genus of melolonthine scarab beetles within the family Scarabaeidae. Therefore, a new genus name, Marvinbryantia gen. nov., is proposed for this taxon. As a result, a new combination, Marvinbryantia formatexigens comb. nov., is required for the type species to replace the illegitimate combination Bryantella formatexigens Wolin et al. 2004(VP).
Pereira, Jardel Lopes; da Silva, Antonio Alberto; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Jakelaitis, Adriano
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the herbicide mixture nicosulfuron + atrazine, with or without the insecticide chlorpyrifos, onto soil entomofauna under maize crop. The treatments, applied 25 days after maize emergence, were represented by a weeded control without insecticide and herbicide, a weeded control with chlorpyrifos, and mixtures of nicosulfuron + atrazine, with or without chlorpyrifos. Arthropods populations, on the soil surface, as well as inside the soil under maize, were principally represented by mites (Arachnida: Acari), decomposer collembolans (Hexapoda:Parainsecta:Collembola) and predator ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae). The nicosulfuron + atrazine mixture with chlorpyrifos and the isolated chlorpyrifos reduced the population dynamics of all insect groups on the soil surface compared to the weeded control. In the soil, mite and ant populations were reduced after application of the herbicide mixture with chlorpyrifos and of the isolated chlorpyrifos.
Liu, Shi-ping; Yi, Qi-ying; Hu, Cui-mei; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qing-you; Zhao, Ping
Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) and Absolute protein expression (APEX) analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera. PMID:24098719
Rocha, Daniele F. O.; Wouters, Felipe C.; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J.
Arthropods produce a great variety of natural compounds, many of which have unexplored biosynthesis. Among the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the suborder Laniatores, the defensive gland exudates contain vinyl ketones and other constituents of supposed polyketide origin. We have studied the biosynthesis of 1-hepten-3-one in the Neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa by feeding individuals with 13C-labeled precursors, demonstrating its mixed acetate/propionate origin. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed an unusual labeling pattern suggesting different propionate sources for starting and extender units. Our analysis also indicates the presence of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, converting acetate into propionyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA, together with other C3 unit routes. This is the first biosynthetic study of alkyl vinyl ketones in arthropods. Our results shed light on the origin and diversification of chemical compounds in a major arthropod group. PMID:24193576
Deghiche-Diab, Nassima; Porcelli, Francisco; Belhamra, Mohamed
An inventory was carried out at five stations in the oasis of Ziban, an oasis that is characterized by its high-quality dates, in order to study the relationships between the oasis ecosystem and its insect fauna. Specimens were sampled using pitfall traps containing ethylene glycol as a preservative. In total, 115 arthropod species were collected during 5 months of survey. These species belonged to 61 families, 17 orders, and 4 classes (12 orders from Insecta, 3 from Arachnida, 1 from Chilopoda, and 1 from Malocostraca). The most represented insect orders were Coleoptera (44.42%), Hymenoptera (20.86%), and Lepidoptera (7.87%). Represented in the collections were phytophagous, omnivorous, and predator/parasite species. Given the large number of species collected, and the largely unknown relationships existing between the various ecological groups, this study is a first step in the description of the oasis entomofauna. PMID:25855607
Kidner, J; Moritz, R F A
Male-haploidy has independently evolved several times in different phylogenetic groups and has led to various extant lineages in the insects, Arachnida and Rotifera. Although the stability of male-haploidy as an evolutionary strategy is not well understood, various theories address the invasion of male-haploidy in diploid populations. Here two of these theories: (i) the maternal transmission hypothesis (MTH) and (ii) the deleterious mutation hypothesis (DMH), are re-investigated with an agent-based model to understand the role of genetic drift as a mechanism facilitating the spread of male-haploidy. These two hypotheses are analysed separately and comparatively, and the results suggest dominance of the MTH. In addition, comparison of the stochastic results to deterministic results using the same model structure shows how genetic drift can enhance the parameter space where male-haploidy can be expected to invade.
Rocha, Daniele F. O.; Wouters, Felipe C.; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J.
Arthropods produce a great variety of natural compounds, many of which have unexplored biosynthesis. Among the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the suborder Laniatores, the defensive gland exudates contain vinyl ketones and other constituents of supposed polyketide origin. We have studied the biosynthesis of 1-hepten-3-one in the Neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa by feeding individuals with 13C-labeled precursors, demonstrating its mixed acetate/propionate origin. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed an unusual labeling pattern suggesting different propionate sources for starting and extender units. Our analysis also indicates the presence of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, converting acetate into propionyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA, together with other C3 unit routes. This is the first biosynthetic study of alkyl vinyl ketones in arthropods. Our results shed light on the origin and diversification of chemical compounds in a major arthropod group.
Jänsch, Stephan; Frampton, Geoff K; Römbke, Jörg; Van den Brink, Paul J; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J
A systematic review was carried out to investigate the extent to which higher-tier (terrestrial model ecosystem [TME] and field) data regarding pesticide effects can be compared with laboratory toxicity data for soil invertebrates. Data in the public domain yielded 970 toxicity endpoint data sets, representing 71 pesticides and 42 soil invertebrate species or groups. For most pesticides, the most frequent effect class was for no observed effects, although relatively high numbers of pronounced and persistent effects occurred when Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae were exposed to fungicides and when Lumbricidae, Collembola, and Arachnida were exposed to insecticides. No effects of fungicides on Arachnida, Formicidae, or Nematoda or of herbicides on Lumbricidae, Formicidae, or Nematoda were observed in any studies. For most pesticides, higher-tier no-observed-effect concentration or lowest-observed-effect concentration values cannot be determined because of a lack of information at low pesticide concentrations. Ten pesticides had sufficient laboratory data to enable the observed higher-tier effects to be compared with 5% hazardous concentrations (HC5) estimated from acute toxicity laboratory data (atrazine, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, gamma-hexachlorocy-clohexane, lambda-cyhalothrin, parathion, pentachlorophenol, and propoxur). In eight cases, higher-tier effects concentrations were within or below the 90% confidence interval of the HC5. Good agreement exists between the results of TME and field tests for carbendazim, but insufficient information is available for a comparison between TME and field studies for other pesticides. Availability and characteristics (e.g., taxonomic composition and heterogeneity) of the higher-tier effects data are discussed in terms of possible developments in risk assessment procedures.
Pintor, Anna F. V.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K.
Species’ tolerance limits determine their capacity to tolerate climatic extremes and limit their potential distributions. Interspecific variation in thermal tolerances is often proposed to indicate climatic vulnerability and is, therefore, the subject of many recent meta-studies on differential capacities of species from climatically different habitats to deal with climate change. Most studies on thermal tolerances do not acclimate animals or use inconsistent, and insufficient, acclimation times, limiting our knowledge of the shape, duration and extent of acclimation responses. Consequently patterns in thermal tolerances observed in meta-analyses, based on data from the literature are based on inconsistent, partial acclimation and true trends may be obscured. In this study we describe time-course of complete acclimation of critical thermal minima in the tropical ectotherm Carlia longipes and compare it to the average acclimation response of other reptiles, estimated from published data, to assess how much acclimation time may contribute to observed differences in thermal limits. Carlia longipes decreased their lower critical thermal limits by 2.4°C and completed 95% of acclimation in 17 weeks. Wild populations did not mirror this acclimation process over the winter. Other reptiles appear to decrease cold tolerance more quickly (95% in 7 weeks) and to a greater extent, with an estimated average acclimation response of 6.1°C. However, without data on tolerances after longer acclimation times available, our capacity to estimate final acclimation state is very limited. Based on the subset of data available for meta-analysis, much of the variation in cold tolerance observed in the literature can be attributed to acclimation time. Our results indicate that (i) acclimation responses can be slow and substantial, even in tropical species, and (ii) interspecific differences in acclimation speed and extent may obscure trends assessed in some meta-studies. Cold tolerances
Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jezewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof
The morphology of relaxed cystacanths of polymorphid acanthocephalans collected from notothenioid fishes in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion of sub-Antarctica) is described. A parasite of birds, Andracantha baylisi (Zdzitowiecki, 1986), was found in Patagonotothen longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.82-0.89 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-5 basal hooks; distal hooks with the longest blades; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; large somatic spines arranged in two zones separated by a zone of small, loosely dispersed spines; and only the anterior 36-40% of ventral side of the trunk is covered with spines. One male specimen of Corynosoma sp. was found in Patagonotothen tessellata. It differs from A. baylisi in that the distal proboscis hooks are similar in length to the prebasal hooks, it has a smaller proboscis (0.77 mm) and in the distribution of the somatic spines, which are contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of the trunk and lack a zone of small spines between zones of larger spines. A parasite of seals and fur seals, Corynosoma evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984, was found in P. longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.61-0.78 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 20-22 rows of 12-13, including 3/4-4 basal hooks; prebasal hooks with the longest blades; a trunk divided into fore-trunk and hind-trunk; somatic spines covering the anterior 64-74% of the ventral side of the trunk; genital spines present only in males; and a terminal genital opening in both sexes. Corynosoma beaglense n. sp. was found in Champsocephalus esox. It has: an almost cylindrical proboscis (length 0.52-0.56 mm); a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-4/5 basal hooks; distal hooks shorter than the prebasal hooks; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; somatic spines contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of
Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi
A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles.
Chen, Zhiteng; Ao, Jingqun; Yang, Wenchuan; Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Tianling; Chen, Xinhua
A fungal strain, Penicillium chrysogenum A096, was isolated from an Arctic sediment sample. Its culture supernatant inhibited mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. chrysogenum A096 culture supernatant with ammonium sulfate and ion exchange chromatography, a novel antifungal protein (Pc-Arctin) was purified and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). The gene encoding for Pc-Arctin consisting of 195 nucleotides was cloned from P. chrysogenum A096 to confirm the mass spectrometry result. Pc-Arctin displays antifungal activity against Paecilomyces variotii, Alternaria longipes, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 24, 48, and 192 ng/disc, respectively. Pc-Arctin was most sensitive to proteinase K and then to trypsin but insensitive to papain. Pc-Arctin possesses high thermostability and cannot be antagonized by common surfactants, except for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Divalent ions, such as Mn(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), inhibited the antifungal activity of Pc-Arctin. Hemagglutination assays showed that Pc-Arctin had no hemagglutinating or hemolytic activity against red blood cells (RBC) from rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs. Therefore, Pc-Arctin from Arctic P. chrysogenum may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential for application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection.
Soler-Membrives, Anna; Munilla, Tomás
Biodiversity and biogeographic studies comparing the distribution patterns of benthic marine organisms across the Iberian Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are scarce. The Pycnogonida (sea spiders) are a clear example of both endemicity and diversity, and are considered a key taxon to study and monitor biogeographic and biodiversity patterns. This is the first review that compiles data about abundance and diversity of Iberian pycnogonids and examines their biogeographic patterns and bathymetric constraints using GIS tools. A total of 17762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families. Achelia echinata and Ammothella longipes (family Acheliidae) were the most abundant comprising ~80% of the total records. The Acheliidae is also the most speciose in Iberian waters with 15 species. In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae. Species accumulation curves indicate that further sampling would increase the number of Iberian species records. Current sampling effort suggests that the pycnogonid fauna of the Mediterranean region may be richer than that of the Atlantic. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are recognized as species-rich areas that act as buffer zones between the Atlantic and Mediterranean boundaries. The deep waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula are poorly surveyed, with only 15% of the sampling sites located below 1000 m. Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side. PMID:25781483
Armstrong, Nicola; Garland, Alexis; Burns, K. C.
Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with (1) the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and (2) the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval). Results showed that subjects generally performed above-chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3, and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10, and 60 s. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to 1 min long retention intervals without training. PMID:23293622
Gabriš, Radim; Kundrata, Robin; Trnka, Filip
Abstract We reviewed the species of genus Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae: Morimopsini) from Borneo, which included the redescriptions of two species – Dolichostyrax moultoni Aurivillius, 1911 and Dolichostyrax longipes Aurivillius, 1913, with the first female description for the latter. After the examination of the additional material previously identified as Dolichostyrax, we described three new genera – Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n., and Eurystyrax gen. n. Borneostyrax cristatus sp. n. was described based on the male and female specimens, whilst Microdolichostyrax hefferni sp. n., Microdolichostyrax minutus sp. n. and Eurystyrax nemethi sp. n. are known only from females. All studied species are distributed in the mountain regions of Sabah, with the exception of Dolichostyrax moultoni from Sarawak. An identification key to the genera of Bornean Morimopsini and species of Dolichostyrax, Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n. and Eurystyrax gen. n. is provided and their distributions and intraspecific morphological variability are discussed. The short and wide ovipositor, loss of spermatheca, and presence of large larvae without apparent eggbursters inside the female abdomens indicate the presence of (ovo)viviparity in Borneostyrax gen. n. This is the first case of this rare phenomenon within Cerambycidae. PMID:27408527
Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Krupnova, Tatiana N; Ayala, Francisco J
The brown alga Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is a highly polymorphic representative of the family Laminariaceae, inhabiting the northwest Pacific region. We have obtained 16S rRNA sequence data in symbiont microorganisms of the typical form (TYP) of S. japonica and its common morphological varieties, known as "longipes" (LON) and "shallow-water" (SHA), which show contrasting bathymetric distribution and sharp morphological, life history traits, and ecological differences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences shows that the microbial communities are significantly different in the three forms studied and consist of mosaic sets of common and form-specific bacterial lineages. The divergence in bacterial composition is substantial between the TYP and LON forms in spite of their high genetic similarity. The symbiont distribution in the S. japonica forms and in three other laminarialean species is not related to the depth or locality of the algae settlements. Combined with our previous results on symbiont associations in sea urchins and taking into account the highly specific character of bacteria-algae associations, we propose that the TYP and LON forms may represent incipient species passing through initial steps of reproductive isolation. We suggest that phenotype differences between genetically similar forms may be caused by host-symbiont interactions that may be a general feature of evolution in algae and other eukaryote organisms. Bacterial symbionts could serve as sensitive markers to distinguish genetically similar algae forms and also as possible growth-promoting inductors to increase algae productivity.
Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne
Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators.
Sun, Bin; Li, Duo-Chuan; Ci, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Run-Fang; Wang, Ying
Treatment with mercuric chloride (0.01%), salicylic acid (10.0 mg/mL) or riboflavin (1 mmol/L) induced the beta-1, 3-glucanase activity in all the three wheat varieties i.e. 331, Kangdao 680 and Lumai 23 tested, with the strongest inductive effect on variety 331 by treatment with mercuric chloride (0.01%) for 24 h. From leaves of variety 331 treated with mercuric chloride (0.01%) for 24 h, a kind of beta-1, 3-glucanase was purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate, Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography (Phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow), ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow) and gel-filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-100). Through SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, the molecular weight of the purified beta-1, 3-glucanase was determined to be about 52.0-53.6 kD. The purified beta-1, 3-glucanase showed antifungal activity against both Alternaria longipes and Rhizoctonia cerealis on tested plates, and inhibited the germ tube elongation and spore germination of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium omysporum f.sp cucumerinum.
Nazareth, Taís M.; Machado, Glauco
Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs) would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF). We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders) than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group. PMID:26331946
Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi
A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523
Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun
In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60  × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.
Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Lopez-Orenes, Antonio; Alba, Juan M; Duarte, Marcus V A; Pallini, Angelo; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R
Inducible anti-herbivore defenses in plants are predominantly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). On tomato plants, most genotypes of the herbivorous generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induce JA defenses and perform poorly on it, whereas the Solanaceae specialist Tetranychus evansi, who suppresses JA defenses, performs well on it. We asked to which extent these spider mites and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes preying on these spider mites eggs are affected by induced JA-defenses. By artificially inducing the JA-response of the tomato JA-biosynthesis mutant def-1 using exogenous JA and isoleucine (Ile), we first established the relationship between endogenous JA-Ile-levels and the reproductive performance of spider mites. For both mite species we observed that they produced more eggs when levels of JA-Ile were low. Subsequently, we allowed predatory mites to prey on spider mite-eggs derived from wild-type tomato plants, def-1 and JA-Ile-treated def-1 and observed that they preferred, and consumed more, eggs produced on tomato plants with weak JA defenses. However, predatory mite oviposition was similar across treatments. Our results show that induced JA-responses negatively affect spider mite performance, but positively affect the survival of their offspring by constraining egg-predation.
Barnett, Craig; Salter, Matt; Chevallier, Clément; Robertson, Nicola; Berard, Otis; Burns, Kevin C.
Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird's ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird's underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were differences among North Island (NI) robins (Petroica longipes), based on their underlying behavioural type, in their abilities to discriminate between familiar and novel human observers. Using a simple feeding experiment, we timed how long it took birds to attack a food item placed next to an observer on each of 7 days. On the eighth day, a different observer timed the birds. We found that birds could be split into two behaviour types based on their attack behaviour: fast attackers (latencies <20 sec) and slow attackers (latencies >20 secs). Interestingly, the fast birds did not increase their attack latency in response to the novel observer whereas the slow attackers did. This result, for the first time, demonstrates that a bird's ability to discriminate between humans can vary among birds based on their behavioural type. PMID:23700482
Chow, Seinen; Suzuki, Sayaka; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lavery, Shane; Jeffs, Andrew; Takeyama, Haruko
The stomach contents of the larvae of marine animals are usually very small in quantity and amorphous, especially in invertebrates, making morphological methods of identification very difficult. Nucleotide sequence analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a likely approach, but the large quantity of larval (host) DNA present may mask subtle signals from the prey genome. We have adopted peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-directed PCR clamping to selectively inhibit amplification of host DNA for this purpose. The Japanese spiny lobster (Panulirus japonicus) and eel (Anguilla japonica) were used as model host and prey organisms, respectively. A lobster-specific PNA oligomer (20 bases) was designed to anneal to the sequence at the junction of the 18 S rDNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the lobster. PCR using eukaryote universal primers for amplifying the ITS1 region used in conjunction with the lobster-specific PNA on a mixed DNA template of lobster and eel demonstrated successful inhibition of lobster ITS1 amplification while allowing efficient amplification of eel ITS1. This method was then applied to wild-caught lobster larvae of P. japonicus and P. longipes bispinosus collected around Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. ITS1 sequences of a wide variety of animals (Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Teleostei, Mollusca, and Chaetognatha) were detected.
Roy, Lise; Dowling, Ashley P.G.; Chauve, Claude Marie; Buronfosse, Thierry
Molecular markers for cladistic analyses may perform differently according to the taxonomic group considered and the historical level under investigation. Here we evaluate the phylogenetic potential of five different markers for resolving evolutionary relationships within the ectoparasitic genus Dermanyssus at the species level, and their ability to address questions about the evolution of specialization. COI provided 9–18% divergence between species (up to 9% within species), 16S rRNA 10–16% (up to 4% within species), ITS1 and 2 2–9% (up to 1% within species) and Tropomyosin intron n 8–20% (up to 6% within species). EF-1α revealed different non-orthologous copies within individuals of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Tropomyosin intron n was shown containing consistent phylogenetic signal at the specific level within Dermanyssus and represents a promising marker for future prospects in phylogenetics of Acari. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the generalist condition is apomorphic and D. gallinae might represent a complex of hybridized lineages. The split into hirsutus-group and gallinae-group in Dermanyssus does not seem to be appropriate based upon these results and D. longipes appears to be composed of two different entities. PMID:20480038
Gunawardena, N E; Bandumathie, M K
Defensive secretion produced by adult males and females ofLeptocorisa oratorius, Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) living on the host plant,Oriza sativa, was analyzed by a combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. Both male and female secretions consisted of two major components: (E)-2-octenal andn-octyl acetate, 76% and 16% (w/w), respectively. The remaining 8% were trace compounds, some of which were identified as hexyl acetate, 3-octenal, 1-octanol, and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate. In a survey among 38 coreid defensive secretions, (E)-2-octenal andn-octyl acetate were found to occur rarely in addition to coreid-specific compounds, while their combination as primary constituents was found to be unique. Toxicity and repellency of this secretion were evaluated using two household pests,Anoplolepis longipes andSitotroga cerealella, as test insects, and lethal concentration (LC50) values of 0.24 ppm and 0.14 ppm, respectively, and repellencies of 63% and 58%, respectively, were obtained. Comparing the above values with those of a pentatomid bug,Coridius janus, evaluated under the same conditions, it was apparent that this secretion has potential as a repellent to enemies ofL. oratorius but not as a toxicant to attack them. Bioassay on the alarm activity of this secretion revealed that it elicits alarm responses, alerting and dispersing aggregated male and femaleL. oratorius: this is followed by "self-coating" activities. In addition, some unique behaviors were also noted among alarmedL. oratorius.
Berggren, Asa; Armstrong, Doug P.; Lewis, Rebecca M.
Many bird species show delayed plumage maturation (DPM), retaining sub-adult plumage until after their first breeding season. Most explanations assume that DPM increases fitness over the breeding season. However, unless birds undergo a full moult before breeding, DPM could also be an adaptation to increase survival over the previous winter. The winter adaptation hypothesis has never been tested owing to the difficulty of measuring overwinter survival. We experimentally tested this hypothesis in North Island robins (Petroica longipes) using a closed island population where we could accurately estimate survival. The experiment involved dyeing 41 juveniles to mimic adult males, and comparing their survival with 41 control juveniles treated with the same peroxide base minus the pigment. The population was monitored with a series of resighting surveys, and mark-recapture analysis used to estimate overwinter survival. Survival probability was estimated to be 10% for dyed birds versus 61% for control birds in 2001, and 29% for dyed birds versus 40% for control birds in the winter of 2002, supporting the winter adaptation hypothesis for DPM. Access to suitable habitat is the key factor limiting juvenile survival in this population, and the locations where dyed juveniles were sighted suggest that they were often excluded from suitable areas. PMID:15475331
Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M; Dalton, Desiré L; Kotzé, Antoinette; Muya, Shadrack; Haubensak, Patricia; Bálint, Boglárka; Munimanda, Gopi K; Deimel, Caroline; Setzer, Andrea; Dicks, Kara; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Siegismund, Hans R; Robovský, Jan; O'Donoghue, Paul; Bruford, Michael W
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species' once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled. Using both mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, we described a staggering loss of 69% of the species' mitochondrial genetic variation, including the most ancestral lineages that are now absent from modern populations. Genetically unique populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive in the Masai Mara. We also identify conservation units that will help maintain evolutionary potential. Our results suggest a complete re-evaluation of current conservation management paradigms for the black rhinoceros.
Moodley, Yoshan; Russo, Isa-Rita M.; Dalton, Desiré L.; Kotzé, Antoinette; Muya, Shadrack; Haubensak, Patricia; Bálint, Boglárka; Munimanda, Gopi K.; Deimel, Caroline; Setzer, Andrea; Dicks, Kara; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Kalthoff, Daniela C.; Siegismund, Hans R.; Robovský, Jan; O’Donoghue, Paul; Bruford, Michael W.
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species’ once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled. Using both mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, we described a staggering loss of 69% of the species’ mitochondrial genetic variation, including the most ancestral lineages that are now absent from modern populations. Genetically unique populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historic range of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southern Kenya, where a handful of individuals survive in the Masai Mara. We also identify conservation units that will help maintain evolutionary potential. Our results suggest a complete re-evaluation of current conservation management paradigms for the black rhinoceros. PMID:28176810
Morsy, T A; al Dakhil, M A; el Bahrawy, A F
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (zoonotic, ZCL) and L. tropica (anthroponotic, ACL) is found in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Phlebotomus papatasii is the proven vector of L. major and rodents Rhombomys opimus, Psammomys obesus, Meriones spp. and Gerbillus spp. serve as animal reservoirs. Ph. sergenti is the vector of L. tropica in the majority of endemic foci. On the other hand; in the Eastern African highlands (mainly Ethiopia and Kenya), stable foci of L. aethiopica are maintanined by hyraxes and transmitted by Ph. longipes and Ph. pedifer. In this paper, natural Leishmania sp. infection was demonstrated serologically (IHAT) and parasitologically (smear examination) in two out of four rock hyraxes trapped in the highlands of Najran, southern part of the Kingdom. It is concluded that the identity of the Leishmania parasite(s)in such a focus is essential since it has implication in control and treatment. Also, passive case-detection and isolates from man and sandfly in the vicinity of Najran for typing is a must.
Kitajima, Kaoru; Mulkey, Stephen S; Samaniego, Mirna; Joseph Wright, S
The effect of leaf age on photosynthetic capacity, a critical parameter in the theory of optimal leaf longevity, was studied for two tropical pioneer tree species, Cecropia longipes and Urera caracasana, in a seasonally dry forest in Panama. These species continuously produce short-lived leaves (74 and 93 d, respectively) during the rainy season (May-December) on orthotropic branches. However, they differ in leaf production rate, maximum number of leaves per branch, light environment experienced by the leaves, leaf mass per unit area, and nitrogen content. Light-saturated photosynthetic rates for marked leaves of known ages (±1 wk) were measured with two contrasting schemes (repeated measurements vs. chronosequence within branch), which overall produced similar results. In both species, photosynthetic rates and nitrogen use efficiency were negatively correlated with leaf age and positively correlated with light availability. Photosynthetic rates declined faster with leaf age in Cecropia than in Urera as predicted by the theory. The rate of decline was faster for leaves on branches with faster leaf turnover rates. Nitrogen per unit leaf area decreased with leaf age only for Urera. Leaf mass per unit area increased with leaf age, either partly (in Cecropia) or entirely (in Urera) due to ash accumulation.
Wen, Chao; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua
A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection.
Wallis, Jake R.; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.; Jones, Hugh J.; Buchanan, Pearse J.; Crawford, Christine M.; James, Lainey C.; Johnson, Robert; Meiners, Klaus M.; Virtue, Patti; Westwood, Karen; Kawaguchi, So
Sea ice is an influential feature in Southern Ocean-Antarctic marine environments creating a 2-phase vertical ecosystem. The lack of information on how this system influences community structure during the winter-spring transition, however, is largely lacking. Zooplankton form the link that bridges these environments, with the meiofaunal and algal communities within sea ice directly influencing the epipelagic zooplankton community at the ice-water interface. A combination of methods including sea-ice coring, umbrella net sampling and Laser Optical Plankton Counter were used to describe the vertical structure of zooplankton and meiofaunal communities. The distribution of meiofauna and chlorophyll a both played important roles in structuring the zooplankton community within this dynamic region. Many dominant taxa, including Calanus propinquus and Oithona similis, directly responded to the high availability of algae present within the bottom strata of sea ice. The sea-ice associated species Stephos longipes represented a strong link between this 2-phase ecosystem. Observations of the vertical distribution of biomass obtained from the LOPC suggests that the responses of these species to the sea ice directly influences the vertical structure of zooplankton during the winter-spring transition.
Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason
Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes) with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments. In most conditions, robins preferred to steal food located near the experimenter whose limbs were obscured by a cloth or board rather than food located near the experimenter whose limbs were not obscured. The robins’ responses indicate that human limb visibility is associated with reduced access to food. Current findings lay the groundwork for a closer look at the potential general use of causal reasoning in an inter-specific context of using limbs to perform physical acts, specifically within the context of pilfering. This study presents one of the first tests of the role of visual attendance of potential limb availability in a competitive context, and could provide an alternative hypothesis for how other species have passed tests designed to examine what individuals understand about the physical acts others are capable of performing. PMID:27455334
Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin
In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60  × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497
Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Hashim, R; Abdullah, N A; Ramli, R; Lau, K W; Heo, C C; Goh, T G; Izzul, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M
This study reported the ant species that were recovered from monkey carcasses in three different ecological habitats in Malaysia. The study was conducted from 9 May - 10 October 2007, 6 May - 6 August 2008 and 26 May - 14 July 2009 in forested area (Gombak, Selangor), coastal area (Tanjong Sepat, Selangor) and highland area (Bukit Cincin, Pahang), respectively. Monkey carcass was used as a model for human decomposition in this study. A total of 4 replicates were used in each of the study sites. Ants were observed to prey on eggs, larvae, pupae and newly emerged flies. This study found that ant species could be found at all stages of decomposition, indicating that ants were not a significant indicator for faunal succession. However, different species of ants were obtained from monkey carcasses placed in different ecological habitats. Cardiocondyla sp. was only found on carcasses placed in the coastal area; while Pheidole longipes, Hypoponera sp. and Pachycondyla sp. were solely found on carcasses placed in the highland area. On the other hand, Pheidologeton diversus and Paratrechina longicornis were found in several ecological habitats. These data suggests that specific ant species can act as geographic indicators for different ecological habitats in forensic entomology cases in Malaysia.
Dunlop, Jason A
Chelicerata probably appeared during the Cambrian period. Their precise origins remain unclear, but may lie among the so-called great appendage arthropods. By the late Cambrian there is evidence for both Pycnogonida and Euchelicerata. Relationships between the principal euchelicerate lineages are unresolved, but Xiphosura, Eurypterida and Chasmataspidida (the last two extinct), are all known as body fossils from the Ordovician. The fourth group, Arachnida, was found monophyletic in most recent studies. Arachnids are known unequivocally from the Silurian (a putative Ordovician mite remains controversial), and the balance of evidence favours a common, terrestrial ancestor. Recent work recognises four principal arachnid clades: Stethostomata, Haplocnemata, Acaromorpha and Pantetrapulmonata, of which the pantetrapulmonates (spiders and their relatives) are probably the most robust grouping. Stethostomata includes Scorpiones (Silurian-Recent) and Opiliones (Devonian-Recent), while Haplocnemata includes Pseudoscorpiones (Devonian-Recent) and Solifugae (Carboniferous-Recent). Recent works increasingly favour diphyletic mite origins, whereby Acaromorpha comprises Actinotrichida (Devonian-Recent), Anactinotrichida (Cretaceous-Recent) and Ricinulei (Carboniferous-Recent). The positions of the Phalangiotarbida (Devonian-Permian) and Palpigradi (Neogene-Recent) are poorly resolved. Finally, Pantetrapulmonata includes the following groups (listed here in their most widely recovered phylogenetic sequence): Trigonotarbida (Silurian-Permian), Uraraneida (Devonian-Permian), Araneae (Carboniferous-Recent), Haptopoda (Carboniferous), Amblypygi (?Devonian-Recent), Thelyphonida (Carboniferous-Recent) and Schizomida (Paleogene-Recent).
Dunlop, Jason A; Selden, Paul A; Giribet, Gonzalo
A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.
Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo
A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.
Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Onychophora are the next relatives of Arthropoda and, hence, represent an important taxon to unravel relationships among Insecta, Crustacea, Arachnida, and Myriapoda. Here, we screened for immune inducible genes from the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae) by injecting crude bacterial LPS and applying the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. Our analysis of 288 cDNAs resulted in identification of 36 novel genes in E. biolleyi whose potential homologues from other animals are known to mediate immune-related signaling (e.g. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein), to be involved in cellular processes (e.g. perilipin and myosin light chain), or to act as immune effector molecules (e.g. lysosomal beta-galactosidase, a putative antimicrobial peptide and a potential thiolester containing protein). Comparisons with homologous genes from other animals including the two most favored ecdysozoan model organisms of innate immunity research, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, provide further insights into the origin and evolution of Arthropoda immunity.
Czechowski, Paul; White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I
The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales.
Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I
Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.
Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Gan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Kaifeng; Lai, Ren
Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6 μM for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:27407029
Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Van Loy, Tom; Vanden Broeck, Jozef
Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors or LGRs are receptors with important functions in development and reproduction. Belonging to this evolutionarily conserved group of receptors are the well-studied glycoprotein hormone receptors and relaxin receptors in mammals, as well as the bursicon receptor, which triggers cuticle hardening and tanning in freshly enclosed insects. In this study, the numerous LGR sequences in different animal phyla are analyzed and compared. Based on these data a phylogenetic tree was generated. This information sheds new light on structural and evolutionary aspects regarding this receptor group. Apart from vertebrates and insects, LGRs are also present in early chordates (Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Hyperoartia) and other arthropods (Arachnida and Branchiopoda) as well as in Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Nematoda, and even in ancient animal life forms, such as Cnidaria and Placozoa. Three distinct types of LGR exist, distinguishable by their number of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), their type-specific hinge region and the presence or absence of an LDLa motif. Type C LGRs containing only one LDLa (C1 subtype) appear to be present in nearly all animal phyla. We here describe a second subtype, C2, containing multiple LDLa motifs, which was discovered in echinoderms, mollusks and in one insect species (Pediculus humanis corporis). In addition, eight putative LGRs can be predicted from the genome data of the placozoan species Trichoplax adhaerens. They may represent an ancient form of the LGRs, however, more genomic data will be required to confirm this hypothesis.
Background Leptotrombidium pallidum and Leptotrombidium scutellare are the major vector mites for Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus. Before these organisms can be subjected to whole-genome sequencing, it is necessary to estimate their genome sizes to obtain basic information for establishing the strategies that should be used for genome sequencing and assembly. Method The genome sizes of L. pallidum and L. scutellare were estimated by a method based on quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, a k-mer analysis of the whole-genome sequences obtained through Illumina sequencing was conducted to verify the mutual compatibility and reliability of the results. Results The genome sizes estimated using qPCR were 191 ± 7 Mb for L. pallidum and 262 ± 13 Mb for L. scutellare. The k-mer analysis-based genome lengths were estimated to be 175 Mb for L. pallidum and 286 Mb for L. scutellare. The estimates from these two independent methods were mutually complementary and within a similar range to those of other Acariform mites. Conclusions The estimation method based on qPCR appears to be a useful alternative when the standard methods, such as flow cytometry, are impractical. The relatively small estimated genome sizes should facilitate whole-genome analysis, which could contribute to our understanding of Arachnida genome evolution and provide key information for scrub typhus prevention and mite vector competence. PMID:24947244
Cunningham, Mónica; Garcia, Fernando; Pollero, Ricardo J
Findings on hemolymph lipoproteins in the class Arachnida are reviewed in relation to their lipid and protein compositions, hydrated densities, the capacity of apoproteins to bind lipids, and the influence of xenobiotics on their structures and functionality. The occurrence of hemolymphatic lipoproteins in arachnids has been reported in species belonging to the orders Araneida, Scorpionida, Solpugida and Acarina. However, lipoproteins were properly characterized in only three species, Eurypelma californicum, Polybetes pythagoricus and Latrodectus mirabilis. Like insect and crustaceans the arachnids examined contain high density lipoproteins (HDLs) as predominant circulating lipoproteins. Although in most arachnids these particles resemble those of insect HDLs called "lipophorins", in two arachnid species they differ from lipophorins in their apoproteins, total mass and lipid composition. The hemolymph of P. pythagoricus and L. mirabilis contains another HDL of higher density, while P. pythagoricus and E. californicum hemolymph contain a third lipoprotein of very high density (VHDL). Composition of arachnid lipoproteins regarding apoprotein classes as well as lipid classes differ among species. Hemocyanin, in addition to the classical role of this protein as respiratory pigment, is presented here performing the function of apolipoprotein in some arachnid species. Reports on experiments demonstrating the capacity of hemocyanin to bind neutral and polar lipid classes, including ecdysteroids, are commented. Recent works about the changes evoked by a phosphorous pesticide on the structures and functionality of spider lipoproteins are also reviewed.
Lepore, Emiliano; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola
Spider silk is regarded as one of the best natural polymer fibers especially in terms of low density, high tensile strength and high elongation until breaking. Since only a few bio-engineering studies have been focused on spider silk ageing, we conducted nano-tensile tests on the vertical naturally spun silk fibers of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Arachnida, Araneae) to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the silk (ultimate stress and strain, Young’s modulus, toughness) over time. We studied the natural process of silk ageing at different time intervals from spinning (20 seconds up to one month), comparing silk fibers spun from adult spiders collected in the field. Data were analyzed using Linear Mixed Models. We detected a positive trend versus time for the Young’s modulus, indicating that aged silks are stiffer and possibly less effective in catching prey. Moreover, we observed a negative trend for the ultimate strain versus time, attesting a general decrement of the resistance force. These trends are interpreted as being due to the drying of the silk protein chains and the reorientation among the fibers.
Sandionigi, A; Vicario, S; Prosdocimi, E M; Galimberti, A; Ferri, E; Bruno, A; Balech, B; Mezzasalma, V; Casiraghi, M
The study of diversity in biological communities is an intriguing field. Huge amount of data are nowadays available (provided by the innovative DNA sequencing techniques), and management, analysis and display of results are not trivial. Here, we propose for the first time the use of phylogenetic entropy as a measure of bacterial diversity in studies of microbial community structure. We then compared our new method (i.e. the web tool phyloh) for partitioning phylogenetic diversity with the traditional approach in diversity analyses of bacteria communities. We tested phyloh to characterize microbiome in the honeybee (Apis mellifera, Insecta: Hymenoptera) and its parasitic mite varroa (Varroa destructor, Arachnida: Parasitiformes). The rationale is that the comparative analysis of honeybee and varroa microbiomes could open new perspectives concerning the role of the parasites on honeybee colonies health. Our results showed a dramatic change of the honeybee microbiome when varroa occurs, suggesting that this parasite is able to influence host microbiome. Among the different approaches used, only the entropy method, in conjunction with phylogenetic constraint as implemented in phyloh, was able to discriminate varroa microbiome from that of parasitized honeybees. In conclusion, we foresee that the use of phylogenetic entropy could become a new standard in the analyses of community structure, in particular to prove the contribution of each biological entity to the overall diversity.
Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A
Arthropod filiform hairs respond to air particle movements and are among the most sensitive animal sensory organs. In many species, they are tuned to detect predators or prey and trigger escape or prey capture behaviours. Here we show for the first time that these hairs also receive intraspecific near-field sound signals in an arachnid. During agonistic encounters, whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) perform antenniform leg vibration (ALV) displays that have significantly longer duration in contest winners than losers. During an ALV display: (i) the vibrating antenniform leg of the displaying whip spider is positioned close to the trichobothria (filiform hairs) on its opponent's walking legs, (ii) the vibrating antenniform leg can excite these trichobothria via air movements and without direct contact, (iii) the antenniform leg of the displaying whip spider vibrates at a frequency that causes particularly strong, sustained excitation and little adaptation in the trichobothria, and (iv) the duration of an ALV display can be extracted from the response of a trichobothrium. Since filiform hairs are widespread among arthropods, communication via such hairs could be extremely prevalent.
Roeding, Falko; Borner, Janus; Kube, Michael; Klages, Sven; Reinhardt, Richard; Burmester, Thorsten
In recent years, phylogenetic tree reconstructions that rely on multiple gene alignments that had been deduced from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have become a popular method in molecular systematics. Here, we present a 454 pyrosequencing approach to infer the transcriptome of the Emperor scorpion Pandinus imperator. We obtained 428,844 high-quality reads (mean length=223+/-50 b) from total cDNA, which were assembled into 8334 contigs (mean length 422+/-313 bp) and 26,147 singletons. About 1200 contigs were successfully annotated by BLAST and orthology search. Specific analyses of eight distinct hemocyanin sequences provided further proof for the quality of the 454 reads and the assembly process. The P. imperator sequences were included in a concatenated alignment of 149 orthologous genes of 67 metazoan taxa that covers 39,842 amino acids. After removal of low-quality regions, 11,168 positions were employed for phylogenetic reconstructions. Using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, we obtained strongly supported monophyletic Ecdysozoa, Arthropoda (excluding Tardigrada), Euarthropoda, Pancrustacea and Hexapoda. We also recovered the Myriochelata (Chelicerata+Myriapoda). Within the chelicerates, Pycnogonida form the sister group of Euchelicerata. However, Arachnida were found paraphyletic because the Acari (mites and ticks) were recovered as sister group of a clade comprising Xiphosura, Scorpiones and Araneae. In summary, we have shown that 454 pyrosequencing is a cost-effective method that provides sufficient data and coverage depth for gene detection and multigene-based phylogenetic analyses.
Doña, Jorge; Proctor, Heather; Mironov, Sergey; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger
Understanding host-symbiont networks is a major question in evolutionary ecology. Birds host a great diversity of endo- and ectosymbiotic organisms, with feather mites (Arachnida: Acariformes: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea) being among the most diverse of avian symbionts. A global approach to the ecology and evolution of bird-feather-mite associations has been hampered because of the absence of a centralized data repository. Here we present the most extensive data set of associations between feather mites and birds. Data include 12 036 records of 1887 feather mite species located on the flight feathers of 2234 bird species from 147 countries. Feather mites typically located inside quills, on the skin, or on downy body feathers are not included. Data were extracted from 493 published sources dating from 1882 to 2015. Data exploration shows that although most continents and bird families are represented, most bird species remain unexplored for feather mites. Nevertheless, this is the most comprehensive data set available for enabling global macroecological analyses of feather mites and their hosts, such as ecological network analyses. This metadata file outlines the structure of these data and provides primary references for all records used.
Di, Zhiyong; Yu, Yao; Wu, Yingliang; Hao, Pei; He, Yawen; Zhao, Huabin; Li, Yixue; Zhao, Guoping; Li, Xuan; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian
Homeobox genes belong to a large gene group, which encodes the famous DNA-binding homeodomain that plays a key role in development and cellular differentiation during embryogenesis in animals. Here, one hundred forty-nine homeobox genes were identified from the Asian scorpion, Mesobuthus martensii (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Scorpiones: Buthidae) based on our newly assembled genome sequence with approximately 248 × coverage. The identified homeobox genes were categorized into eight classes including 82 families: 67 ANTP class genes, 33 PRD genes, 11 LIM genes, five POU genes, six SINE genes, 14 TALE genes, five CUT genes, two ZF genes and six unclassified genes. Transcriptome data confirmed that more than half of the genes were expressed in adults. The homeobox gene diversity of the eight classes is similar to the previously analyzed Mandibulata arthropods. Interestingly, it is hypothesized that the scorpion M. martensii may have two Hox clusters. The first complete genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes in Chelicerata not only reveals the repertoire of scorpion, arachnid and chelicerate homeobox genes, but also shows some insights into the evolution of arthropod homeobox genes.
Ment, Dana; Gindin, Galina; Rot, Asael; Soroker, Victoria; Glazer, Itamar; Barel, Shimon; Samish, Michael
The present study describes an accurate quantitative method for quantifying the adherence of conidia to the arthropod cuticle and the dynamics of conidial germination on the host. The method was developed using conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and engorged Rhipicephalus annulatus (Say) (Arachnida: Ixodidae) females and was also verified for M. anisopliae var. acridum Driver et Milner (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae. This novel method is based on using an organic solvent (dichloromethane [DCM]) to remove the adhered conidia from the tick cuticle, suspending the conidia in a detergent solution, and then counting them using a hemocytometer. To confirm the efficacy of the method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the conidial adherence to and removal from the tick cuticle. As the concentration of conidia in the suspension increased, there were correlating increases in both the number of conidia adhering to engorged female R. annulatus and tick mortality. However, no correlation was observed between a tick's susceptibility to fungal infection and the amount of adhered conidia. These findings support the commonly accepted understanding of the nature of the adhesion process. The mechanism enabling the removal of the adhered conidia from the host cuticle is discussed.
Battirola, Leandro D; Adis, Joachim; Marques, Marinêz I; Silva, Fábio H O
Six trees of the palm species Attalea phalerata Mart. were sampled during high water (aquatic phase) of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001), by canopy fogging. The composition, structure, and biomass of the arthropod community associated with their canopies were analysed, as well as the influence the flood pulse renders on it. Each tree was fogged once, followed by three consecutive collections. A total of 63,657 arthropods (643.0 +/-; 259.87 ind./m(2)) were collected, representing 25 orders in the classes Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea. The dominant groups were Acari (40.0%; 257.2 +/- 116.50 ind./m(2)), Coleoptera (12.0%; 77.5 +/- 64.93 ind./m(2)), Psocoptera (9.2%; 59.0 +/- 38.00 ind./m(2)), Diptera (8.4%; 54.1 +/- 18.72 ind./m(2)), Collembola (8.3%; 53.4 +/- 26.24 ind./m(2)) and Hymenoptera (7.9%; 50.6 +/- 21.40 ind./m(2)), the latter mostly represented by Formicidae (49.2%). Arthropod biomass amounted to 8.86 g dry weight and 0.18 mg/m(2). Coleoptera, Blattodea, Orthoptera, Araneae and Hymenoptera were the most representative taxa. The hydrological regime (flood pulse), as well as seasonality, appear to strongly affect the composition and structure of this canopy community.
Steen, Christopher J; Carbonaro, Paul A; Schwartz, Robert A
Arthropods are important in medicine for a multitude of reasons. Their bites and stings may induce allergic reactions, ranging from annoying to life-threatening. Many arthropod products are also capable of inciting allergic responses in sensitized persons. In recent years, bites and stings have gained greater attention owing to increased concern about disease transmission. A common hypersensitivity response to arthropod bites, stings, and products is papular urticaria. This eruption occurs primarily in children, who eventually "outgrow" this disease, probably through desensitization after multiple arthropod exposures. Papular urticaria is most often caused by fleas or bedbugs, but virtually any arthropod is capable of inducing such a reaction. Two arthropod classes of medical importance are the Arachnida (spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites) and the Insecta (lice, fleas, bedbugs, flies, bees, and ants). Animals in these two classes are probably responsible for more morbidity and mortality worldwide than are any other group of venomous creatures. In general, the diagnosis of arthropod bites and stings is dependent on maintenance of a high index of suspicion and familiarity with the arthropod fauna not only in one's region of practice, but also in the travel regions of one's patients. Learning objective At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the clinical manifestations caused by a variety of arthropods as well as the treatment and possible sequelae of arthropod attacks.
Gaspar, Clara; Crespo, Luís Carlos Fonseca; Rigal, François; Cardoso, Pedro; Pereira, Fernando; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R.; Melo, Catarina; Aguiar, Carlos; André, Genage; Mendonça, Enésima P.; Ribeiro, Sérvio; Hortal, Joaquín; Santos, Ana M.C.; Barcelos, Luís; Enghoff, Henrik; Mahnert, Volker; Pita, Margarida T.; Ribes, Jordi; Baz, Arturo; Sousa, António B.; Vieira, Virgílio; Wunderlich, Jörg; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Whittaker, Robert J.; Quartau, José Alberto; Serrano, Artur R.M.; Triantis, Kostas A.
Abstract Background In this contribution we present detailed distribution and abundance data for arthropod species identified during the BALA – Biodiversity of Arthropods from the Laurisilva of the Azores (1999-2004) and BALA2 projects (2010-2011) from 18 native forest fragments in seven of the nine Azorean islands (all excluding Graciosa and Corvo islands, which have no native forest left). New information Of the total 286 species identified, 81% were captured between 1999 and 2000, a period during which only 39% of all the samples were collected. On average, arthropod richness for each island increased by 10% during the time frame of these projects. The classes Arachnida, Chilopoda and Diplopoda represent the most remarkable cases of new island records, with more than 30% of the records being novelties. This study stresses the need to expand the approaches applied in these projects to other habitats in the Azores, and more importantly to other less surveyed taxonomic groups (e.g. Diptera and Hymenoptera). These steps are fundamental for getting a more accurate assessment of biodiversity in the archipelago. PMID:28174509
Lepore, Emiliano; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola
Spider silk is regarded as one of the best natural polymer fibers especially in terms of low density, high tensile strength and high elongation until breaking. Since only a few bio-engineering studies have been focused on spider silk ageing, we conducted nano-tensile tests on the vertical naturally spun silk fibers of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Arachnida, Araneae) to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the silk (ultimate stress and strain, Young’s modulus, toughness) over time. We studied the natural process of silk ageing at different time intervals from spinning (20 seconds up to one month), comparing silk fibers spun from adult spiders collected in the field. Data were analyzed using Linear Mixed Models. We detected a positive trend versus time for the Young’s modulus, indicating that aged silks are stiffer and possibly less effective in catching prey. Moreover, we observed a negative trend for the ultimate strain versus time, attesting a general decrement of the resistance force. These trends are interpreted as being due to the drying of the silk protein chains and the reorientation among the fibers. PMID:27156712
White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I.
The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales. PMID:28083092
Giribet, G; Carranza, S; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M; Ribera, C
The complete 18S rDNA gene sequence of Macrobiotus group hufelandi (Tardigrada) was obtained and aligned with 18S rDNA and rRNA gene sequences of 24 metazoans (mainly protostomes). Discrete character (maximum-parsimony) and distance (neighbor-joining) methods were used to infer their phylogeny. The evolution of bootstrap proportions with sequence length (pattern of resolved nodes, PRN) was studied to test the resolution of the nodes in neighbor-joining trees. The results show that arthropods are monophyletic. Tardigrades represent the sister group of arthropods (in parsimony analyses) or they are related with crustaceans (distance analysis and PRN). Arthropoda are divided into two main evolutionary lines, the Hexapoda + Crustacea line (weakly supported), and the Myriapoda + Chelicerata line. The Hexapoda + Crustacea line includes Pentastomida, but the internal resolution is far from clear. The Insecta (Ectognatha) are monophyletic, but no evidence for the monophyly of Hexapoda is found. The Chelicerata are a monophyletic group and the Myriapoda cluster close to Arachnida. Overall, the results obtained represent the first molecular evidence for a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade. In addition, the congruence between molecular phylogenies of the Arthropoda from other authors and this obtained here indicates the need to review those obtained solely on morphological characters.
Dunlop, Jason A.; Penney, David; Dalüge, Natalie; Jäger, Peter; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.
Computed tomography (CT) methods were applied to a problematic fossil spider (Arachnida: Araneae) from the historical Berendt collection of Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. The original specimens of Ocypete crassipes Koch and Berendt 1854 are in dark, oxidised amber and the published descriptions lack detail. Despite this, they were subsequently assigned to the living Pantropical genus Heteropoda Latreille, 1804 and are ostensibly the oldest records of huntsman spiders (Sparassidae) in general. Given their normally large size, and presumptive ability to free themselves more easily from resin, it would be surprising to find a sparassid in amber and traditional (optical) methods of study would likely have left O. crassipes as an equivocal record—probably a nomen dubium. However, phase contrast enhanced X-ray CT revealed exquisite morphological detail and thus `saved' this historical name by revealing characters which confirm that it's a bona fide member both of Sparassidae and the subfamily Eusparassinae. We demonstrate here that CT studies facilitate taxonomic equivalence even between recent spiders and unpromising fossils described in older monographs. In our case, fine structural details such as eye arrangement, cheliceral dentition, and leg characters like a trilobate membrane, spination and claws, allow a precise referral of this fossil to an extant genus as Eusparassus crassipes (Koch and Berendt 1854) comb. nov.
Baldo, Laura; Prendini, Lorenzo; Corthals, Angelique; Werren, John H
The presence and distribution of the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata (including class Arachnida) has not been extensively explored. Here we report the discovery of Wolbachia in scorpions. Five strains found in host species of the genus Opistophthalmus (Southern African burrowing scorpions) have been characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing and by Wolbachia Surface Protein. Phylogenetic analyses indicate clustering in the supergroup F and a high genetic relatedness among all scorpion strains as a result of a potential transmission within the host genus. The F-group is an uncommon lineage compared to the A and B supergroups, although it is present in a broad range of hosts (including insects, filarial nematodes, and now arachnids) and across a large geographical area (e.g., North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia). It also shows no evidence of recombination and has a significantly higher genetic diversity than supergroup A and B. Overall, this pattern suggests an older radiation of F-strains with respect to A and B-strains, followed by limited horizontal transmission across host genera and reduced genetic flux among strains. A more extensive sampling of supergroup F-strains is required to confirm this scenario.
Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Wheeler, Ward C; Babbitt, Courtney
The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones.
Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Rawski, Michał
Background and Aims Recently, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the phylogeny of subtribe Oncidiinae, resulting in the re-alignment of several of its genera. Here, a description is given of the structure of the floral elaiophores (oil glands) of four species formerly assigned to Oncidium Sw. Those of Vitekorchis excavata (Lindl.) Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum meirax (Rchb.f.) Dalström and a species of Oncidium displaying floral dimorphism, namely O. heteranthum Poepp. & Endl. var. album, are compared with that of Gomesa longipes (Lindl.) M.W. Chase & N.H. Williams, whose epithelial elaiophores are typical of many Oncidiinae, in order to extend our understanding of elaiophore diversity within this subtribe. Methods Floral elaiophore structure was examined and compared at anthesis for all four species using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Key Results In all species investigated, with the exception of C. meirax, the floral elaiophore occurs on the labellar callus and is of the intermediate type, possessing both glabrous and trichomatous regions. By contrast, although all four species produce lipid secretions, C. meirax lacks an obvious elaiophore. In each case, the secretory tissue is represented by a single-layered epidermis of cuboidal cells (trichomatous and/or atrichomatous). Palisade cells are absent. The secretion may be wax- or oil-like and is usually produced by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). However, in C. meirax, where rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) predominates, oil accumulates as plastoglobuli within elaioplasts. These plastoglobuli are then discharged into the cytoplasm, forming oil bodies. In some species, oil usually accumulates within vesicles at the plasmalemma or in the periplasmic space before traversing the cell wall and accumulating beneath the cuticle, sometimes with distension of the latter. Gomesa longipes is unusual in its production of a
Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Gabilondo, Regina
Epibiont communities of Pagurus bernhardus and its inhabiting shell collected in the same month of two consecutive years near the Isle of Cumbrae (Scotland) were analyzed. The epibionts found were: (1) the protozoans Acineta, Conchacineta, Corynophrya, Zoothamnium, Cothurnia mobiusi, Cothurnia longipes, Chilodochona, Cryptacineta, Ephelota gemmipara and Ephelota plana; (2) the hydrozoans Leuckartiara, Clytia and Phialella; (3) the entoproct Barentsia; (4) the cirripeds Balanus balanus and Balanus crenatus; (5) the polychaetes Pomatoceros triqueter, Circeis amoricana paguri and Hydroides norvegica. Among these epibionts, a protozoan ( E. plana), two hydrozoans ( Leuckartiara, and Phialella), and the entoproct ( Barentsia) have not been described previously as epibionts on crustaceans. The protozoan, entoproct and hydrozoan epibiont species found on P. bernhardus represent the first mention of their presence on this hermit crab. The protozoan epibionts were found only on the crab, while the hydrozoan epibionts were observed on the shell and on the crab. The cirriped species were observed only on the external surface of the shell, and the polychaete species were observed on the external and internal surfaces of the shell, although Circeis was found only internally. An analysis of the distribution and density of each epibiont species on the anatomical units of the crab, as well as on the different shell areas were made. The comparison between the data of the two years showed differences with respect to the size of crabs, diversity of epibiont groups and density of epibionts. There was a significant difference between the two years with respect to the distribution of epibionts on the anatomical units of the crab, both in terms of density and biomass. The influence of some environmental parameters on these differences is considered.
Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro
Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of
Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang
The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern China
Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Clarke, Julia A.
Background The early Eocene Green River Formation avifauna preserves exceptional exemplars of the earliest unambiguous stem representatives of many extant avian clades. We identify the basal-most member of Podargiformes (extant and fossil stem lineage frogmouths) based on a new specimen of Fluvioviridavis platyrhamphus, a unique neoavian bird from the Fossil Butte Member of the Green River Formation of Wyoming. Extant frogmouths (Podargidae) comprise approximately 13 nocturnal species with an exclusively Australasian distribution. Methodology/Principal Findings The new specimen was included in a combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological (osteology and soft tissue) and molecular sequence (cytochrome b, c-myc exon 3, and RAG) data sampling species-level taxa from both extant and extinct members of Steatornithidae, Podargidae, Caprimulgidae, Nyctibiidae, Aegothelidae, and Apodiformes ( = Strisores). New data from F. platyrhamphus help resolve phylogenetic relationships within Strisores, supporting placement of F. platyrhamphus and the European fossil form Masillapodargus longipes as basal parts of Podargiformes and also supporting a sister taxon relationship between Podargiformes and Steatornithiformes (oilbirds) within Strisores. This relationship is recovered only when fossil taxa are included, reaffirming the potential impact of stem fossil taxa on inferences of phylogenetic relationships. The well-preserved mandible and palate of the new specimen demonstrate that many of the unique characteristics of the skull that characterize the crown frogmouth clade Podargidae arose early in the evolutionary history of the clade, over 50 million years ago. Comparisons with the new specimen also indicate that Eurofluvioviridavis and Fluvioviridavis are not closely related. Conclusions/Significance Together with the European fossil frogmouth Masillapodargus, Fluvioviridavis shows that Podargiformes had a much wider geographic distribution in the past, whereas extant
Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric
Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.
Zargiel, Kelli A; Swain, Geoffrey W
Many experiments utilize static immersion tests to evaluate the performance of ship hull coatings. These provide valuable data; however, they do not accurately represent the conditions both the hull and fouling organisms encounter while a ship is underway. This study investigated the effect of static and dynamic immersion on the adhesion and settlement of diatoms to one antifouling coating (BRA 640), four fouling-release coatings (Intersleek(®) 700, Intersleek(®) 900, Hempasil X3, and Dow Corning 3140) and one standard surface (Intergard(®) 240 Epoxy). Differences in community composition were observed between the static and dynamic treatments. Achnanthes longipes was present on all coatings under static immersion, but was not present under dynamic immersion. This was also found for diatoms in the genera Bacillaria and Gyrosigma. Melosira moniformis was the only diatom present under dynamic conditions, but not static conditions. Several common fouling diatom genera were present on panels regardless of treatment: Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis Cylindrotheca, Licmophora, Navicula, Nitzschia, Plagiotropis, and Synedra. Biofilm adhesion, diatom abundance and diatom diversity were found to be significantly different between static and dynamic treatments; however, the difference was dependent on coating and sampling date. Several coatings (Epoxy, DC 3140 and IS 700) had significantly higher biofilm adhesion on dynamically treated panels on at least one of the four sampling dates, while all coatings had significantly higher diatom abundance on at least one sampling date. Diversity was significantly greater on static panels than dynamic panels for Epoxy, IS 700 and HX3 at least once during the sampling period. The results demonstrate how hydrodynamic stress will significantly influence the microfouling community. Dynamic immersion testing is required to fully understand how antifouling surfaces will respond to biofilm formation when subjected to the stresses experienced
Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang
The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler’s system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu’s concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern
Turner, J. R.; White, E. M.; Collins, M. A.; Partridge, J. C.; Douglas, R. H.
The sensitivity hypothesis seeks to explain the correlation between the wavelength of visual pigment absorption maxima ( λmax) and habitat type in fish and other marine animals in terms of the maximisation of photoreceptor photon catch. In recent years its legitimacy has been called into question as studies have either not tested data against the output of a predictive model or are confounded by the wide phylogeny of species used. We have addressed these issues by focussing on the distribution of λmax values in one family of marine teleosts, the lanternfish (Myctophidae). Visual pigment extract spectrophotometry has shown that 54 myctophid species have a single pigment in their retinae with a λmax falling within the range 480-492 nm. A further 4 species contain two visual pigments in their retinae. The spectral distribution of these visual pigments seems relatively confined when compared to other mesopelagic fishes. Mathematical modelling based on the assumptions of the sensitivity hypothesis shows that, contrary to the belief that deep-sea fishes' visual pigments are shortwave shifted to maximise their sensitivity to downwelling sunlight, the visual pigments of myctophids instead seem better placed for the visualisation of bioluminescence. The predicted maximum visualisation distance of a blue/green bioluminescent point source by a myctophid was up to 30 m under ideal conditions. Two species ( Myctophum nitidulum and Bolinichthys longipes) have previously been shown to have longwave-shifted spectral sensitivities and we show that they could theoretically detect stomiid far-red bioluminescence from as far as ca. 7 m.
Nie, Y.; Chen, H.; Schwinning, S.
Plant communities in continental ecosystems usually access to at least two pools of water that can be differentiated based on their turnover characteristics: a plant preferred pool with rapid recharge and depletion (dynamic pool), and a more consistent pool with less frequent recharge and slower loss rates (reserve pool). Identifying the use of different pools by community members is the key to estimating their ecological and hydrological functions. In regions with rocky, thin soils in which plant roots also take up water from rock fissures and crevices, it is usually very difficult to locate plant available water pools and quantify their water status or use by plants. Fortunately, we expect dynamic water pools to frequently change isotopic ratios due to rapid recharge and depletion, while reserve pools of water is expected to have distinct isotope ratios and maintain much less variability. Thus, we can use this fact to derive limited quantitative conclusions about the species differences in water use. In order to reveal sources of water used by one karst endemic tree species (Platycarya longipes) established in two typical karst habitats (cliff face and nearby loose rocky soils), stem samples for the tree and one coexistence shallow rooted shrub species (Tirpitzia ovoidea, which was proved to relied on shallow water sources) were collected for 9 times throughout a growing season. Linear relationships (regression slopes were closed to 1) were found between stem water isotope ratios of the two species in each habitat, indicating that the target tree species also relied on water in the dynamic pool. We further discussed the probable water movement mechanism based on the responses of stem water isotope ratios to rainfall.
Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A
Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.
Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L; Telford, Maximilian J; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V
Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of
Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many Ixodida genera can induce paralysis and other types of toxicoses. Tick saliva was previously proposed as a special kind of venom since tick venom is used for blood feeding that counteracts host defense mechanisms. As a result, the present study provides evidence to reconsider the venomous properties of tick saliva. Results Based on our extensive literature mining and in silico research, we demonstrate that ticks share several similarities with other venomous taxa. Many tick salivary protein families and their previously described functions are homologous to proteins found in scorpion, spider, snake, platypus and bee venoms. This infers that there is a structural and functional convergence between several molecular components in tick saliva and the venoms from other recognized venomous taxa. We also highlight the fact that the immune response against tick saliva and venoms (from recognized venomous taxa) are both dominated by an allergic immunity background. Furthermore, by comparing the major molecular components of human saliva, as an example of a non-venomous animal, with that of ticks we find evidence that ticks resemble more venomous than non-venomous animals. Finally, we introduce our considerations regarding the evolution of venoms in Arachnida. Conclusions Taking into account the composition of tick saliva, the venomous functions that ticks have while interacting with their hosts, and the distinguishable differences between human (non-venomous) and tick salivary
DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal
Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607
Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping
Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnS(AGN) and trnS(UCN) lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders.
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic, and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism toward cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of SFG rickettsiae (SFGR) in mammalian cells. The growth of non-pathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of non-pathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the non-pathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review. PMID:22737150
Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.
Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3–0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2–0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases. PMID:20664811
Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.
The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.
Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.
The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented < 10%. When comparing habitats, there was a relatively higher percentage of predators and shredders in the depositional habitat, while all other functional groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.
Regier, J C; Shultz, J W
Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always <5%. With additional nonarthropod sequences included, one indel supports monophyly of Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda relative to molluscan, annelidan, and mammalian outgroups. New and previously published sequences from RNA polymerase II (1038 nucleotides) and elongation factor-1alpha (1092 nucleotides) were analyzed for the same taxa. A comparison of bootstrap values from the three genes analyzed separately revealed widely varying values for some clades, although there was never strong support for conflicting groups. In combined analyses, there was strong bootstrap support for the generally accepted clades Arachnida, Arthropoda, Euchelicerata, Hexapoda, and Pycnogonida, and for Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Pancrustacea, whose monophyly is more controversial. Recovery of some additional groups was fairly robust to method of analysis but bootstrap values were not high; these included Pancrustacea + Chelicerata, Hexapoda + Cephalocarida + Remipedia, Cephalocarida + Remipedia, and Malaocostraca + Cirripedia. Atelocerata (= Myriapoda + Hexapoda) was never recovered. Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the
Fuzita, Felipe J.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Patane, José S. L.; Juliano, Maria A.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Lopes, Adriana R.
, a large gene duplication of cathepsin L occurred in Arachnida with the sequences from ticks being completely divergent from other arachnids probably due to the particular selective pressures over this group. PMID:25875018
DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal
The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.
Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Babbitt, Courtney
The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. c2002 The Willi Hennig Society.
Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R
, a large gene duplication of cathepsin L occurred in Arachnida with the sequences from ticks being completely divergent from other arachnids probably due to the particular selective pressures over this group.
Dias, Barbara C; Willemart, Rodrigo H
Most empirical and theoretical papers on prey-predator interactions are for animals with long-range detection, animals that can detect and react to predators long before these touch the prey. Heavy-bodied and chemically defended harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are an exception to this general pattern and rely on contact to detect arthropod predators. We examined the interactions between the Brazilian wandering spider Ctenus ornatus with harvestmen (Mischonyx cuspidatus) or control prey (Gryllus sp. and M. cuspidatus immature, both with soft integuments). Considering a prey-predator system in which fleeing from or reacting to a predator at a distance is not possible, we predicted both a high survival value of near-range defense mechanisms and that mortality would be higher in the absence of such defense mechanisms. We also expected the predator to behave differently when interacting with harvestmen or with a control prey without such defense mechanisms. Our results from laboratory experiments partially matched our predictions: First of all, histological sections showed that the integument of adult harvestmen is thicker than that of immature harvestmen and that of crickets. Adult harvestmen were less preyed upon than the control prey; the heavy armature increases the survival rate but the secretions from the scent glands do not. The predator did behave differently when attacking harvestmen compared to crickets. Despite the large size difference between predator and harvestmen, the protection provided by the armature allowed some of the harvestmen to survive encounters without pre-contact detection, thus greatly reducing the reliance on long-range detection to survive encounters with predators. Harvestmen call for theoretical and empirical work on prey-predator interactions that take into account the possibility that prey may not detect the predator before contact is established.
Schicht, Sabine; Qi, Weihong; Poveda, Lucy; Strube, Christina
SUMMARY Although the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) is the major parasitic pest in poultry farming causing substantial economic losses every year, nucleotide data are rare in the public databases. Therefore, de novo sequencing covering the transcriptome of D. gallinae was carried out resulting in a dataset of 232 097 singletons and 42 130 contiguous sequences (contigs) which were subsequently clustered into 24 140 isogroups consisting of 35 788 isotigs. After removal of sequences possibly originating from bacteria or the chicken host, 267 464 sequences (231 657 singletons, 56 contigs and 35 751 isotigs) remained, of which 10·3% showed homology to proteins derived from other organisms. The most significant Blast top-hit species was the mite Metaseiulus occidentalis followed by the tick Ixodes scapularis. To gain functional knowledge of D. gallinae transcripts, sequences were mapped to Gene Ontology terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and parsed to InterProScan. The transcriptome dataset provides new insights in general mite genetics and lays a foundation for future studies on stage-specific transcriptomics as well as genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic explorations and might provide new perspectives to control this parasitic mite by identifying possible drug targets or vaccine candidates. It is also worth noting that in different tested species of the class Arachnida no 28S rRNA was detectable in the rRNA profile, indicating that 28S rRNA might consists of two separate, hydrogen-bonded fragments, whose (heat-induced) disruption may led to co-migration with 18S rRNA.
Roller, Ladislav; Žitňanová, Inka; Dai, Li; Šimo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Adams, Michael E.; Žitňan, Dušan
Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETH) from peripheral endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and blast search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology search, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of the natural and ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all examined insects the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. Here we report for the first time presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). Possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservancy of ETH-ETHR signaling. PMID:19951734
Smith, Todd A; Driscoll, Timothy; Gillespie, Joseph J; Raghavan, Rahul
Amblyomma americanum (Lone star tick) is an important disease vector in the United States. It transmits several human pathogens, including the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, and southern tick-associated rash illness. Blood-feeding insects (Class Insecta) depend on bacterial endosymbionts to provide vitamins and cofactors that are scarce in blood. It is unclear how this deficiency is compensated in ticks (Class Arachnida) that feed exclusively on mammalian blood. A bacterium related to Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has been observed previously within cells of A. americanum. Eliminating this bacterium (CLEAA, Coxiella-like endosymbiont of A. americanum) with antibiotics reduced tick fecundity, indicating that it is an essential endosymbiont. In an effort to determine its role within this symbiosis, we sequenced the CLEAA genome. While highly reduced (656,901 bp) compared with C. burnetii (1,995,281 bp), the CLEAA genome encodes most major vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis pathways, implicating CLEAA as a vitamin provisioning endosymbiont. In contrast, CLEAA lacks any recognizable virulence genes, indicating that it is not a pathogen despite its presence in tick salivary glands. As both C. burnetii and numerous “Coxiella-like bacteria” have been reported from several species of ticks, we determined the evolutionary relationship between the two bacteria. Phylogeny estimation revealed that CLEAA is a close relative of C. burnetii, but was not derived from it. Our results are important for strategies geared toward controlling A. americanum and the pathogens it vectors, and also contribute novel information regarding the metabolic interdependencies of ticks and their nutrient-provisioning endosymbionts. PMID:25618142
Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping
Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnSAGN and trnSUCN lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders. PMID:26722222
Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V.
Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms—the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of
Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G
Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.
Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Lloris, Domènec; Morales-Nin, Beatriz
, Munida tenuimana, Geryon longipes) species, and (2) fish at lower trophic levels, deduced from fractional trophic levels, showed higher differences in the MDO than fish at higher trophic levels. Trophic position of species in food webs seems the most important factor affecting the distributional differences between contrasting areas.
Liu, C.; Guo, K.; Liu, Y.
Frequent temporary drought in the rain season, as well as long-term drought in the dry season, is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats of southwestern China. The morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of six native woody plant species were investigated under both temporary and prolonged drought stress. The six plant species included Pyracantha fortuneana (evergreen shrub), Rosa cymosa (deciduous shrub), Cinnamomum bodinieri (evergreen tree), and other three deciduous trees, Broussonetia papyrifera, Platycarya longipes and Pteroceltis tatarinowii. Under severe drought stress, the two shrubs with low leaf area ratio (LAR) maintained higher water status, higher photosynthetic capacity and larger percent biomass increase than the most of the trees, owing to their lower specific leaf area, higher intrinsic water use efficiency and thermal dissipation, and higher capacities of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant protection. The evergreen tree, C. bodinieri, exhibited small decrease of water potential and maintained higher leaf mass ratio (LMR) and LAR than the deciduous species under moderate drought stress, due to the high proline accumulation and high activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, it showed high levels of cellular damages, very low photosynthetic capacity, and sharp decreases of water potential and biomass under severe drought stress. After rewatering, C. bodinieri showed a lower ability to recover from severe drought with the successive repeats of severe drought event. The three deciduous trees developed high root mass ratio for maximizing water uptake, and showed higher LAR and biomass than the two shrubs under well-watered condition. However, drought stress resulted in sharp decreases of biomass in the three deciduous trees, which were attributed to the large drought-induced decreases of LMR, LAR and gas exchange. Under drought conditions, the deciduous trees
Comparison between ROV video and Agassiz trawl methods for sampling deep water fauna of submarine canyons in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea with observations on behavioural reactions of target species
Ayma, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Bahamon, N.; Mecho, A.; Company, J. B.
In this paper we present a comparison between Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Agassiz trawling methods for sampling deep-water fauna in three submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and describe the behavioural reactions of fishes and crustacean decapods to ROV approach. 10 ROV dives, where 3583 individuals were observed and identified to species level, and 8 Agassiz trawls were carried out in a depth range of 750-1500 m. As noticed in previous studies, abundances of fishes and decapod crustaceans were much higher in the ROV videos than in Agassiz trawl samples, as the latter are designed for the retrieval of benthic, less motile species in permanent contact with the bottom. In our observations fish abundance was one order of magnitude higher with ROV (4110.22 ind/km2) than with Agassiz trawl (350.88 ind/km2), whereas decapod crustaceans were six times more abundant in ROV videos (6362.40 ind/km2) than in Agassiz samples (1364.52 ind/km2). The behaviour of highly motile fishes was analysed in terms of stationary positioning over the seafloor and avoidance or attraction to ROV approach. The most frequently occurring fish species Coelorinchus mediterraneus, Nezumia aequalis, Bathypterois dubius, Lepidion lepidion, Trachyrincuss scabrus and Polyacanthonotus rissoanus did not react to the presence of the ROV in most cases (>50%). Only B. dubius (11%), Lepidion lepidion (14.8%), P. rissoanus (41%) and T. scabrus (14.3%) reacted to ROV approach. More than 60% of less motile species, such as crustacean decapods, did not respond to ROV presence either. Only 33.3% of Geryon longipes, 36.2% of Munida spp. and 29.79% of Pagurus spp. were observed avoiding or defensively reacting to the ROV. The comparison of results obtained with ROV and trawl sampling is of ecological relevance since ROV can report observations in areas where trawling is technically unfeasible. The lack of reaction by most fish and crustacean decapod specimens further confirms that ROV
Kamiński, Piotr; Barczak, Tadeusz; Bennewicz, Janina; Jerzak, Leszek; Bogdzińska, Maria; Aleksandrowicz, Oleg; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Woźniak, Alina
The relationships between the bioaccumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb, acidity (pH), salinity (Ec), and organic matter content within trophic levels (water-soil-plants-invertebrates) were studied in saline environments in Poland. Environments included sodium manufactures, wastes utilization areas, dumping grounds, and agriculture cultivation, where disturbed Ca, Mg, and Fe exist and the impact of Cd and Pb is high. We found Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, and Cd accumulation in the leaves of plants and in invertebrates. Our aim was to determine the selectivity exhibited by soil for nutrients and heavy metals and to estimate whether it is important in elucidating how these metals are available for plant/animal uptake in addition to their mobility and stability within soils. We examined four ecological plant groups: trees, shrubs, minor green plants, and water macrophytes. Among invertebrates, we sampled breastplates Malacostraca, small arachnids Arachnida, diplopods Diplopoda, small insects Insecta, and snails Gastropoda. A higher level of chemical elements was found in saline polluted areas (sodium manufactures and anthropogenic sites). Soil acidity and salinity determined the bioaccumulation of free radicals in the trophic levels measured. A pH decrease caused Zn and Cd to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Ca, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the anthropogenic sites. pH increase also caused Na, Mg, and Fe to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Na, Fe, Mn, and Co in the anthropogenic sites. There was a significant correlation between these chemical elements and Ec in soils. We found significant relationships between pH and Ec, which were positive in saline areas of sodium manufactures and negative in the anthropogenic and control sites. These dependencies testify that the measurement of the selectivity of cations and their fluctuation in soils provide essential information on the affinity and binding strength in these environments. The
Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier
Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. The living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. Body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. Fleas are widespread but are not adapted to a specific host and may occasionally bite humans. Most common fleas that parasite humans are the cat, the rat, and the human fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Pulex irritans, respectively. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae, in particular, the genera Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Ixodes, are frequent parasites in humans. Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a mite (Arachnida class) responsible for scabies. It is an obligate parasite of human skin. The hematophagic-biting mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus, is a mite of the rat, mouse, and other domestic rodents but can also bite humans. Finally, the incidence of skin disease secondary to infestation with the human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, has increased recently. Bacteria, such as Wolbacchia spp. have been detected in bedbug. The threat posed by the ectoparasite in homeless is not the ectoparasite themselves but the associated infectious diseases that they may transmit to humans. Except for scabies all these ectoparasites are potential vectors for infectious agents. Three louse-borne diseases are known at this time. Trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana (B. quintana), epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, and relapsing fever caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis. Fleas transmit plague (Xenopsylla cheopis and Pulex irritans), murine typhus (Xenopsylla cheopis), flea-borne spotted rickettsiosis on account of the recently described species Rickettsia felis (C. felis
Introduction Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance classified in the class Arachnida, inhabiting hot and dry environments. All scorpions have a venomous sting and several thousand people die each year from scorpion stings, but this mortality is due to the venom of about 25 species located in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, Mexico and parts of South America. Poldokhtar County belongs to one of the southern cities of Lorestan Province, providing suitable habitats for many different species of scorpions due to its specific climatic conditions. Aim To examine the fauna of scorpion and its distribution in the Poldokhtar County and to provide appropriate preventive and medical interventions in combating scorpionism. Materials and Methods This present study was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. This study was conducted from April 2014 to November 2014 in regions of Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, and west of Iran. Cluster sampling methodology was employed in the sampling and scorpion collection procedure. Sampling was undertaken for an eight-month period, in villages and districts, namely, Myankuhe sharqi, Jayedar, Jelogir and Malavi within the county. The Chi-square test and the Fisher-exact test for homogeneity of proportions were used to compare quantitative variables. Results Totally, 393 specimens were captured entailing 193 (49.1%) males and 200 (50.9%) females. There were at least seven species of scorpions belonging to three families; BU= Buthidae, HE = Hemiscorpiidae, SCN = Scorpionidae in Poldokhtar. Out of 393 collected scorpions, seven species, Androctonus crassicauda, Hottentotta (Buthotus) saulcyi, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Compsobuthus rugosulus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Scorpio maurus and Hemiscorpius lepturus were identified. The overall sex ratio of females to males was 1:1.03. Conclusion It is crucial to improve the knowledge of residents in this region regarding preventive methods towards scorpion stinging
Bochkov, A V; Mironov, S V
The term synhospitality means the association of two or more closely related parasite species with one host species (Eichler, 1966). The cases of two or three synhospitalic species are known from the same host species, and especially ones where parasites were recorded from different parts of the host range, are quite common. The most ordinary reason causing synhospitality in permanent parasites is the host switching. Nevertheless, there are a number of synhospitality cases, where the parasite complex is monophyletic because evolved on a single host species. The special term--"phylogenetic synhospitality" (FS) is proposed for these cases of synhospitality. Most known cases of FS in acariform mites, permanent parasites of vertebrates, are analysed. It is found out that both astigmatan and prostigmatan parasite mites demonstrate a numbers of FS. The majority of these examples represent parasitism of two or three synhospitalic parasite species. Impressive examples of FS involving a number of synhospitalic species is shown by only astigmatan mites inhabiting the fur of mammals or plumage of birds. Most known examples involving four or more mite species are discussed: 51 mite species of the genus Schizocarpus (Chirodiscidae) parasitizing Castor fiber and C. canadensis (Castoridae); 6 species of Listrophorus spp. (Listrophoridae) from Ondatra zibethicus (Cricetidae); 23 species of Listrophoroides s. 1. (Atopomelidae) from Maxomys surifer (Muridae); 21 species of Cytostethum (Atomelidae) from Potorous tridactylus (Potoridae); 4 species of Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) from Malacomys longipes (Muridae); 7 species of Fainalges (Xolalgidae) from Aratinga holochlora (Psittacidae); 4 species of Zygepigynia (Pteronyssidae) from Chrysocolaptes lucidus (Picidae). The main reason of FS is that, in spite of the Fahrenholz's rule, the speciation of many parasites proceeds much more intensively than in their hosts because of the more rapid replacement of the parasitic
Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin
in combination with molecular work. Hy. fraxineus was described from Europe as a cryptic species that differed from Hy. albidus by molecular data alone. However, the Hy. albidus/Hy. fraxineus species complex represents one of many examples within the ascomycetes in which subtle microscopic differences between closely related species, in this case the presence or absence of croziers at the ascus base, are strictly correlated with molecular characteristics. Two species that closely resemble Hy. albidus and Hy. fraxineus form pseudosclerotia in Aesculus leaves and again differ from each other mainly in the ascus base: Hymenoscyphus aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum from Europe lacks croziers, whereas Hymenoscyphus honshuanus from Japan on Aesculus turbinata possesses croziers. Other taxa treated here include Hymenoscyphus vacini, a European species growing on stromatized net veins of skeletonized leaves of Acer, and Hymenoscyphus torquatus, a Chinese species on unidentified herbaceous stems. An equivalent stroma-forming North American species on leaves of Fraxinus, Rutstroemia longipes (Rutstroemiaceae), is discussed and compared. A key to the Hymenoscyphus species that form a dark stroma on leaves of Acer, Aesculus, Fraxinus, and Picrasma is provided. PMID:25544935
Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin
in combination with molecular work. Hy. fraxineus was described from Europe as a cryptic species that differed from Hy. albidus by molecular data alone. However, the Hy. albidus/Hy. fraxineus species complex represents one of many examples within the ascomycetes in which subtle microscopic differences between closely related species, in this case the presence or absence of croziers at the ascus base, are strictly correlated with molecular characteristics. Two species that closely resemble Hy. albidus and Hy. fraxineus form pseudosclerotia in Aesculus leaves and again differ from each other mainly in the ascus base: Hymenoscyphus aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum from Europe lacks croziers, whereas Hymenoscyphus honshuanus from Japan on Aesculus turbinata possesses croziers. Other taxa treated here include Hymenoscyphus vacini, a European species growing on stromatized net veins of skeletonized leaves of Acer, and Hymenoscyphus torquatus, a Chinese species on unidentified herbaceous stems. An equivalent stroma-forming North American species on leaves of Fraxinus, Rutstroemia longipes (Rutstroemiaceae), is discussed and compared. A key to the Hymenoscyphus species that form a dark stroma on leaves of Acer, Aesculus, Fraxinus, and Picrasma is provided.
Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.
), Baconia turgifrons sp. n., Baconia crassa sp. n., Baconia anthracina sp. n., Baconia emarginata sp. n., Baconia obsoleta sp. n.], Baconia ruficauda group [Baconia ruficauda sp. n., Baconia repens sp. n.], Baconia angusta group [Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Baconia incognita sp. n., Baconia guartela sp. n., Baconia bullifrons sp. n., Baconia cavei sp. n., Baconia subtilis sp. n., Baconia dentipes sp. n., Baconia rubripennis sp. n., Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.], Baconia aeneomicans group [Baconia aeneomicans (Horn, 1873), Baconia pulchella sp. n., Baconia quercea sp. n., Baconia stephani sp. n., Baconia irinae sp. n., Baconia fornix sp. n., Baconia slipinskii Mazur, 1981, Baconia submetallica sp. n., Baconia diminua sp. n., Baconia rufescens sp. n., Baconia punctiventer sp. n., Baconia aulaea sp. n., Baconia mustax sp. n., Baconia plebeia sp. n., Baconia castanea sp. n., Baconia lescheni sp. n., Baconia oblonga sp. n., Baconia animata sp. n., Baconia teredina sp. n., Baconia chujoi (Cooman, 1941), Baconia barbarus (Cooman, 1934), Baconia reposita sp. n., Baconia kubani sp. n., Baconia wallacea sp. n., Baconia bigemina sp. n., Baconia adebratti sp. n., Baconia silvestris sp. n.], Baconia cylindrica group [Baconia cylindrica sp. n., Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.], Baconia gibbifer group [Baconia gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., Baconia maquipucunae sp. n., Baconia tenuipes sp. n., Baconia tuberculifer sp. n., Baconia globosa sp. n.], Baconia insolita group [Baconia insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n., Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870), Baconia tricolor sp. n., Baconia pilicauda sp. n.], Baconia riouka group [Baconia riouka (Marseul, 1861), Baconia azuripennis sp. n.], Baconia famelica group [Baconia famelica sp. n., Baconia grossii sp. n., Baconia redemptor sp. n., Baconia fortis sp. n., Baconia longipes sp. n., Baconia katieae sp. n., Baconia cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n., Baconia haeterioides sp. n.], Baconia micans group [Baconia micans (Schmidt, 1889a