Science.gov

Sample records for longipes arachnida opilones

  1. Conservation Biology of Xenopus Longipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quock, R.; Blackburn, D. C.; Ghose, S.

    2014-12-01

    For the past 9 months, we have been studying the presence of disease and genetic variation in the Cameroonian species Xenopus longipes, found only in a lake on Mount Oku. During research trips to this lake (Lake Oku) over the past decade, mortalities of this species have been observed, and in addition there may be evidence of declines in other frog species in these mountains. It is well understood that in many parts of the world, amphibians are currently declining due to disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and possibly also by the iridovirus ranavirus. A previous study suggested that ranavirus could be found in Lake Oku, and also that Bd may be present. Using 25 X. longipes liver samples collected during the summer of 2013 and 10 samples collected during the summer of 2011, we screened for Ranavirus through PCR amplification and sequencing, and screened for Bd in our 25 samples from 2013 through quantitative PCR. We also PCR amplified and sequenced 1950bp of the X. longipes 16S gene to look for genetic variation. We did not find ranavirus present on these frogs, and we found low prevalence (4%) of Bd. Through our analysis of 16S data, we found low genetic variation among the X. longipes, with a maximum divergence of 0.37% observed between any two individuals. Time is of the essence and it is crucial that the causes of these die offs be identified. While there have been observed mortalities of X. longipes since 2006, and this species remains on the Critically Endangered List, the cause of these mortalities is still unknown. If and when a cause can be identified, it would be monumental for this species' population and can hopefully be used to preserve and save these frogs.

  2. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria longipes in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed Central

    Gené, J; Azón-Masoliver, A; Guarro, J; Ballester, F; Pujol, I; Llovera, M; Ferrer, C

    1995-01-01

    Alternaria longipes was reported as the agent of a cutaneous infection in a patient with a neoplastic disease. The fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. It was distinguished by its rather small conidia with smooth or slightly verruculose walls and a pale brown beak which rarely extended into a secondary conidiophore. In vitro inhibitory activities of amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole were shown. PMID:8567925

  3. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  4. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    PubMed Central

    Almazán-Núñez, R. Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Arizmendi, María del Coro

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382

  5. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382

  6. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yujie; Ma, Xiao; Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:27159564

  7. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:27159564

  8. Lanostanoids with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity from the mushroom Haddowia longipes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; Ma, Qing-Yun; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Yu, Zhi-Fang; Zhao, You-Xing

    2015-02-01

    Nine lanostanoids, together with nine known ones, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Haddowia longipes. Their structures were elucidated as 11-oxo-ganoderiol D, lanosta-8-en-7,11-dioxo-3β-acetyloxy-24,25,26-trihydroxy, lanosta-8-en-7-oxo-3β-acetyloxy-11β,24,25,26-tetrahydroxy, lanosta-7,9(11)-dien-3β-acetyloxy-24,25,26-trihydroxy, lanosta-7,9(11)-dien-3β-acetyloxy-24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy, 11-oxo-lucidadiol, 11β-hydroxy-lucidadiol, lucidone H and lanosta-7,9(11),24E-trien-3β-acetyloxy-26,27-dihydroxy by analysing their 1D/2D NMR and MS spectra. In addition, bioassays of inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of all compounds showed that thirteen compounds possessed inhibitory activity against AChE with the percentage inhibition ranging from 10.3% to 42.1% when tested at 100 μM.

  9. Wild robins (Petroica longipes) respond to human gaze.

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Armstrong, Nicola; Burns, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Gaze following and awareness of attentional cues are hallmarks of human and non-human social intelligence. Here, we show that the North Island robin (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, responds to human eyes. Robins were presented with six different conditions, in which two human experimenters altered the orientation or visibility of their body, head or eyes in relation to mealworm prey. One experimenter had visual access to the prey, and the second experimenter did not. Robins were then given the opportunity to 'steal' one of two mealworms presented by each experimenter. Robins responded by preferentially choosing the mealworm in front of the experimenter who could not see, in all conditions but one. Robins failed to discriminate between experimenters who were facing the mealworm and those who had their head turned 90° to the side. This may suggest that robins do not make decisions using the same eye visibility cues that primates and corvids evince, whether for ecological, experiential or evolutionary reasons.

  10. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  11. Feeding ecology of Ammothella longipes (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) in the Mediterranean Sea: A fatty acid biomarker approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Rossi, Sergio; Munilla, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    Fatty acid analysis has proved valuable in determining seasonal trophic links and the feeding behavior in organisms in which these diet and trophic links cannot be inferred from stomach content analyses. Seasonal variations in total free fatty acid content (TFFA) and fatty acid composition of seston (<250 μm), the brown macroalgae Stypocaulon spp., polychaetes (Nereididae) and the pycnogonid Ammothella longipes have been used to establish their trophic links, with particular focus on seasonality and feeding ecology of A. longipes. Samples were collected in a coastal environment (NW Mediterranean Sea) at 7-10 m depth, in five different periods (August and October 2008, February, June and September 2009). Seston and Stypocaulon spp. samples did not show significant seasonal variations in TFFA content, while nereids showed a significant variation. Analysis of fatty acid profile showed high similarities of fatty acid composition between seston and Stypocaulon spp. Nereids were closer to seston and Stypocaulon spp. than A. longipes, which seemed to follow a seasonal trend. The results of this study reveal that A. longipes may change its feeding behavior depending on the season and available food. This pycnogonid species appears to be carnivore during spring and early summer but seems to feed on detritus when availability of prey diminishes during winter. Notable high amounts of odd-chain fatty acids are found in summer-autumn for this species, which may come from bacteria acquired from the detrital diet or from de novo biosynthesis from propionate. The results obtained provide new and valuable data on the understudied feeding biology of pycnogonids in general, and contribute to the understanding of their functioning of Mediterranean shallow oligotrophic systems and their trophic links.

  12. The complete genome sequence of a novel mycovirus from Alternaria longipes strain HN28.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanhong; Zhang, Hailong; Zhao, Chengjin; Liu, Shengxue; Guo, Lihua

    2015-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Alternaria longipes dsRNA virus 1 (AlRV1), a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, was determined and analyzed. AlRV1-HN28 contains a single dsRNA genome segment 3415 base pairs in length (excluding the 3' poly(A) tail) and was predicted to contain two discontiguous open reading frames (ORFs, ORF A and ORF B). The 5'-proximal ORF A (1182 nt) potentially encodes a protein of 394 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 43 kDa; this protein showed no significant similarities to any other sequences in any of the NCBI protein databases. The 3'-proximal ORF B (1737 nt) encodes a protein of 579 aa with a predicted molecular mass of 65 kDa; this protein sequence shares similarities with the conserved domains of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of other mycoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AlRV1-HN28 was closely related to four other unclassified viruses, which suggests that the AlRV1-HN28 isolated from Alternaria longipes may belong to a new family of dsRNA mycoviruses. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of a mycovirus that infects Alternaria longipes.

  13. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes (Hamamelidaceae) Based on AFLP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Fan, Qiang; Shen, Rujiang; Guo, Wei; Jin, Jianhua; Cui, Dafang; Liao, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes is an endangered species in China. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of this species was investigated using amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Nei's gene diversity ranged from 0.1290 to 0.1394. The AMOVA indicated that 75.06% of variation was distributed within populations, while the between-group component 5.04% was smaller than the between populations-within-group component 19.90%. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between populations. Genetic and geographical distances were not correlated. PCA and genetic structure analysis showed that populations from East China were together with those of the Nanling Range. These patterns of genetic diversity and levels of genetic variation may be the result of D. c. subsp. longipes restricted to several isolated habitats and “excess flowers production, but little fruit set”. It is necessary to protect all existing populations of D. c. subsp. longipes in order to preserve as much genetic variation as possible. PMID:25250583

  14. Tropical dermatology: Venomous arthropods and human skin: Part II. Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Arachnida.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-09-01

    Members of arthropod classes Chilopoda (centipedes), Diplopoda (millipedes), and Arachnida (spiders and scorpions) cause tissue injury via bites, stings, and/or a release of toxins. A few members of the Acari subclass of Arachnida (mites and ticks) can transmit a variety of infectious diseases, but this review will cover the noninfectious manifestations of these vectors. Dermatologists should be familiar with the injuries caused by these arthropods in order to initiate proper treatment and recommend effective preventative measures.

  15. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months. PMID:9397565

  16. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months.

  17. Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Middle Jurassic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Diying; Selden, Paul A.; Dunlop, Jason A.

    2009-08-01

    Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) are familiar animals in most terrestrial habitats but are rare as fossils, with only a handful of species known from each of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras. Fossil harvestmen from Middle Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China, are described as Mesobunus martensi gen. et sp. nov. and Daohugopilio sheari gen. et sp. nov.; the two genera differ primarily in the relative length of their legs and details of the pedipalps. Jurassic arachnids are extremely rare and these fossils represent the first Jurassic, and only the fourth Mesozoic, record of Opiliones. These remarkably well-preserved and modern-looking fossils are assigned to the Eupnoi, whereby M. martensi demonstrably belongs in Sclerosomatidae. It thus represents the oldest record of a modern harvestman family and implies a high degree of evolutionary stasis among one of the most widespread and abundant groups of long-legged, round-bodied harvestmen.

  18. Antifungal Activity of Narceine Methyl Ester and Narceine Isolated from Corydalis longipes Against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Dibyendu; Maurya, S.; Pandey, M. B.; Pandey, V. B.; Sarma, B. K.

    2005-01-01

    Narceine methyl ester and narceine are potent alkaloids which were isolated from Corydalis longipes were found effective in vitro at very low concentration, i.e., 100~500 ppm against spore germination of some test plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria solani, A. tagetica, Cercospora abelmoschi, Curvularia maculans, Erysiphe cichoracearum, E. pisi, Fusarium udum, Helminthosporium oryzae, H. penniseti, Ustilago cynodontis). Among the test, phytopathogens the spores of F. udum, C. maculans and H. penniseti were highly sensitive at 200 ppm. However, spores of E. pisi, A. solani and A. tagetica were less sensitive at low concentration followed by other test fungi. Most of the fungi showed zero or nearly zero percent spore germination at 400 and 500 ppm. PMID:24049502

  19. Functional anatomy of the pretarsus in whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Seiter, Michael; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-11-01

    Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are a small, cryptic order of arachnids mainly distributed in the tropics. Some basal lineages (families Charinidae and Charontidae) have adhesive pads on the tips of their six walking legs. The present study describes the macro- and ultrastructure of these pads and investigates their contact mechanics and adhesive strength on smooth and rough substrates. Furthermore, the structure of the pretarsus and its kinematics are compared in Charon cf. grayi (with an adhesive pad) and Phrynus longipes (without an adhesive pad). The adhesive pads exhibit an elaborate structure with a unique combination of structural features of smooth and hairy foot pads including a long transversal contact zone performing lateral detachment, a thick internally-branched cuticle with longitudinal ribs and hexagonal surface microstructures with spatulate keels. The contact area of the pads on smooth glass is discontinuous due to the spatulate microstructures with a discontinuous detachment, which could be observed in vivo by high speed videography at a rate of up to 10,000 fps. Adhesive strength was measured with vertical whole animal pull-off tests, obtaining mean values between 55 and 200 kPa. The occurrence of viscous lipid secretions between microstructures was occasionally observed, which, however, seems not to be a necessity for good foothold. The results are discussed in relation to the whip spider's ecology and evolution. Structure-function relationships of the adhesive pads are compared to those of insects and vertebrates. PMID:26386460

  20. Functional anatomy of the pretarsus in whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Seiter, Michael; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-11-01

    Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are a small, cryptic order of arachnids mainly distributed in the tropics. Some basal lineages (families Charinidae and Charontidae) have adhesive pads on the tips of their six walking legs. The present study describes the macro- and ultrastructure of these pads and investigates their contact mechanics and adhesive strength on smooth and rough substrates. Furthermore, the structure of the pretarsus and its kinematics are compared in Charon cf. grayi (with an adhesive pad) and Phrynus longipes (without an adhesive pad). The adhesive pads exhibit an elaborate structure with a unique combination of structural features of smooth and hairy foot pads including a long transversal contact zone performing lateral detachment, a thick internally-branched cuticle with longitudinal ribs and hexagonal surface microstructures with spatulate keels. The contact area of the pads on smooth glass is discontinuous due to the spatulate microstructures with a discontinuous detachment, which could be observed in vivo by high speed videography at a rate of up to 10,000 fps. Adhesive strength was measured with vertical whole animal pull-off tests, obtaining mean values between 55 and 200 kPa. The occurrence of viscous lipid secretions between microstructures was occasionally observed, which, however, seems not to be a necessity for good foothold. The results are discussed in relation to the whip spider's ecology and evolution. Structure-function relationships of the adhesive pads are compared to those of insects and vertebrates.

  1. Distribution of Zelus longipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in south Florida corn fields and its functional response to corn-infesting picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae).

    PubMed

    Kalsi, M; Seal, D R; Nuessly, G S; Capinera, J L; Martin, C G

    2014-10-01

    The milkweed assassin bug, Zelus longipes (L.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), is a generalist predator and a potential biological control agent of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae), which cause considerable economic damage to sweet corn yields in Florida. We studied the potential of Z. longipes as a biocontrol agent of four ulidiid pests in corn fields: Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, Euxesta annonae F., and Chaetopsis massyla Walker. Within-plant and within-field distributions of Z. longipes and ulidiids and functional responses of Z. longipes to ulidiid prey were determined. Highest numbers of Z. longipes and ulidiids in the R1, R2, and R3 corn stages were generally in the basal or middle leaves at 09:00 h EST, ears at 13:00 h EST, and top and tassel at 17:00 h EST. Hence, there seemed to be a coordinated migration of Z. longipes and ulidiids from the lowest to the highest parts of the corn plant during the day. Within the corn field, aggregated (clumped) distributions were most common for Z. longipes and ulidiids especially in the later R2 and R3 stages based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, index of dispersion, and Lloyd's patchiness indices of dispersion. However, predator and prey populations were lower in the R1 stage, and there were inconsistent results for dispersion indices among times of day and between predators and prey. Ulidiid distributions in R1 were mostly regular (uniform) at 13:00 h EST, but aggregated at 09:00 h and 17:00 h. However, Z. longipes R1 distributions were mostly aggregated at 13:00 h, but random or regular at 09:00 h and 17:00 h EST. Handling times for male and female Z. longipes were 1.0-1.39 h and 0.67-0.97 h, respectively, and each had a type II functional response to E. stigmatias, E. eluta, and E. annonae and consumed about five flies per day. Although the population abundance of Z. longipes can vary between seasons, it appears to be a promising biocontrol agent of ulidiid flies in corn.

  2. Distribution of Zelus longipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in south Florida corn fields and its functional response to corn-infesting picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae).

    PubMed

    Kalsi, M; Seal, D R; Nuessly, G S; Capinera, J L; Martin, C G

    2014-10-01

    The milkweed assassin bug, Zelus longipes (L.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), is a generalist predator and a potential biological control agent of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae), which cause considerable economic damage to sweet corn yields in Florida. We studied the potential of Z. longipes as a biocontrol agent of four ulidiid pests in corn fields: Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, Euxesta annonae F., and Chaetopsis massyla Walker. Within-plant and within-field distributions of Z. longipes and ulidiids and functional responses of Z. longipes to ulidiid prey were determined. Highest numbers of Z. longipes and ulidiids in the R1, R2, and R3 corn stages were generally in the basal or middle leaves at 09:00 h EST, ears at 13:00 h EST, and top and tassel at 17:00 h EST. Hence, there seemed to be a coordinated migration of Z. longipes and ulidiids from the lowest to the highest parts of the corn plant during the day. Within the corn field, aggregated (clumped) distributions were most common for Z. longipes and ulidiids especially in the later R2 and R3 stages based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, index of dispersion, and Lloyd's patchiness indices of dispersion. However, predator and prey populations were lower in the R1 stage, and there were inconsistent results for dispersion indices among times of day and between predators and prey. Ulidiid distributions in R1 were mostly regular (uniform) at 13:00 h EST, but aggregated at 09:00 h and 17:00 h. However, Z. longipes R1 distributions were mostly aggregated at 13:00 h, but random or regular at 09:00 h and 17:00 h EST. Handling times for male and female Z. longipes were 1.0-1.39 h and 0.67-0.97 h, respectively, and each had a type II functional response to E. stigmatias, E. eluta, and E. annonae and consumed about five flies per day. Although the population abundance of Z. longipes can vary between seasons, it appears to be a promising biocontrol agent of ulidiid flies in corn. PMID

  3. Transcriptomic profile of tobacco in response to Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata infections

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shengchang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Wan, Wenting; He, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaoqin; Ma, Yujin; Long, Ni; Tan, Yuntao; Wang, Yangzi; Hou, Yujie; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. However, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. To fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars V2 and NC89 after the inoculation of either Alternaria longipes (AL) or Alternaria alternata (AA) at three different time points. We studied the gene expression profile of each cultivar-pathogen combination, and identified eight differentially expressed genes shared among all combinations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed key components during the fungal infection, which included regulation of gene expression (GO:0010468), regulation of RNA metabolic process (GO:0051252), tetrapyrrole binding (GO:0046906), and external encapsulating structure (GO:0030312). Further analyses of the continuously upregulated/downregulated genes and the resistance genes demonstrated that the gene expression profile upon fungal infection was contingent on the specific cultivar and pathogen. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction, and is of great importance for disease prevention and molecular breeding. PMID:27157477

  4. First laboratory insight on the behavioral rhythms of the bathyal crab Geryon longipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, J. D.; Sbragaglia, V.; García, J. A.; Company, J. B.; Aguzzi, J.

    2016-10-01

    The deep sea is the largest and at the same time least explored biome on Earth, but quantitative studies on the behavior of bathyal organisms are scarce because of the intrinsic difficulties related to in situ observations and maintaining animals in aquaria. In this study, we reported, for the first time, laboratory observations on locomotor rhythms and other behavioral observations (i.e. feeding, exploring and self-grooming) for the bathyal crab Geryon longipes. Crabs were collected on the middle-lower slope (720-1750 m) off the coast of Blanes (Spain). Inertial (18 h) water currents and monochromatic blue (i.e. 470 nm) light-darkness (24 h) cycles were simulated in two different experiments in flume tanks endowed with burrows. Both cycles were simulated in order to investigate activity rhythms regulation in Mediterranean deep-sea benthos. Crabs showed rhythmic locomotor activity synchronized to both water currents and light-darkness cycles. In general terms, feeding and exploring behaviors also followed the same pattern. Results presented here indicate the importance of local inertial (18 h) periodicity of water currents at the seabed as a temporal cue regulating the behavior of bathyal benthic fauna in all continental margin areas where the effects of tides is negligible.

  5. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.

  6. The land crabs of the Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 species group, with description of a new species from Guam (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-06-30

    Specimens of the gecarcinid land crab Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867, from the western Pacific, can be separated into two distinct groups on the basis of DNA (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and structure of the male first gonopod. On the basis of this data, the material that occurs from the Loyalty Islands to French Polynesia is shown to be D. longipes s. str., whereas specimens from Guam are here referred to a new pseudocryptic species, D. michalis n. sp. The two species are described and figured; and a revised key to the long-legged Discoplax species is provided.

  7. Chemical defense in harvestmen (arachnida, opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators?

    PubMed

    Machado, Glauco; Carrera, Patricia C; Pomini, Armando M; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2005-11-01

    Two alkylated 1,4-benzoquinones were identified from the defensive secretion produced by the neotropical harvestman Goniosoma longipes (Gonyleptidae). They were characterized as 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-ethyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. We tested the effectiveness of these benzoquinone secretions against several predator types, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Different predators were exposed to the harvestmen's gland secretion or to distilled water in laboratory bioassays. Our results indicate that secretions containing the 1,4-benzoquinones released by G. longipes can be an effective defense against predation, and that the effectiveness of the secretion is dependent on the predator type. The scent gland secretion repelled seven ant species, two species of large wandering spiders, and one frog species, but was not an effective defense against an opossum. Our study also demonstrates that the scent gland secretion of G. longipes can work as a chemical shield preventing the approach of three large predatory ants for at least 10 min. The chemical shield may protect the harvestman against successive attacks of the same ant worker and also allow the harvestman to flee before massive ant recruitment. Our data support the suggestion that chemical defenses may increase survival with some but not all potential predators. This variation in defense effectiveness may result from many interacting factors, including the attack strategy, size, learning ability, and physiology of the predators, as well as the chemical nature of the defensive compounds, type of emission, and amount of effluent released by the prey.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography imaging and analysis of wood degraded by Physisporinus vitreus and Xylaria longipes.

    PubMed

    Sedighi Gilani, Marjan; Boone, Matthieu N; Mader, Kevin; Schwarze, Francis Willis Mathew Robert

    2014-08-01

    Incubation of Norway spruce with Physisporinus vitreus and sycamore with Xylaria longipes results in reduction in density of these wood species that are traditionally used for the top and bottom plate of a violin, which follows by enhanced acoustic properties. We used Synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography, to study the three-dimensional structure of wood at the micro-scale level and the alterations of the density distribution after incubation with two white-rot fungi. Micro-tomography data from wood treated at different incubation periods are analyzed and compared with untreated (control) specimens to determine the wood density map and changes at the cell-wall level. Differences between the density of early- and latewood, xylem ray and around bordered pits in both Norway spruce and sycamore are studied. Three-dimensional hyphal networks of the P.vitreus and Xylaria longipes hyphae are visualized inside the cell lumina and their significance on the density of the early- and latewood cells after different incubation periods are discussed. The study illustrates the utility of X-ray micro-tomography for both qualitative and quantitative studies of a wide variety of biological systems and due to its high sensitivity, small structural changes can be quantified.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography imaging and analysis of wood degraded by Physisporinus vitreus and Xylaria longipes.

    PubMed

    Sedighi Gilani, Marjan; Boone, Matthieu N; Mader, Kevin; Schwarze, Francis Willis Mathew Robert

    2014-08-01

    Incubation of Norway spruce with Physisporinus vitreus and sycamore with Xylaria longipes results in reduction in density of these wood species that are traditionally used for the top and bottom plate of a violin, which follows by enhanced acoustic properties. We used Synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography, to study the three-dimensional structure of wood at the micro-scale level and the alterations of the density distribution after incubation with two white-rot fungi. Micro-tomography data from wood treated at different incubation periods are analyzed and compared with untreated (control) specimens to determine the wood density map and changes at the cell-wall level. Differences between the density of early- and latewood, xylem ray and around bordered pits in both Norway spruce and sycamore are studied. Three-dimensional hyphal networks of the P.vitreus and Xylaria longipes hyphae are visualized inside the cell lumina and their significance on the density of the early- and latewood cells after different incubation periods are discussed. The study illustrates the utility of X-ray micro-tomography for both qualitative and quantitative studies of a wide variety of biological systems and due to its high sensitivity, small structural changes can be quantified. PMID:24964385

  10. Extracellular Matrix Assembly in Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) (I. A Model of Adhesives Based on Chemical Characterization and Localization of Polysaccharides from the Marine Diatom Achnanthes longipes and Other Diatoms).

    PubMed Central

    Wustman, B. A.; Gretz, M. R.; Hoagland, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Extracellular adhesives from the diatoms Achnanthes longipes, Amphora coffeaeformis, Cymbella cistula, and Cymbella mexicana were characterized by monosaccharide and methylation analysis, lectin-fluorescein isothiocyanate localization, and cytochemical staining. Polysaccharide was the major component of adhesives formed during cell motility, synthesis of a basal pad, and/or production of a highly organized shaft. Hot water-insoluble/hot 0.5 M NaHCO3-soluble anionic polysaccharides from A. longipes and A. coffeaeformis adhesives were primarily composed of galactosyl (64-70%) and fucosyl (32-42%) residues. In A. longipes polymers, 2,3-, t-, 3-, and 4-linked/substituted galactosyl, t-, 3-, 4-, and 2-linked fucosyl, and t- and 2-linked glucuronic acid residues predominated. Adhesive polysaccharides from C. cistula were EDTA-soluble, sulfated, consisted of 83% galactosyl (4-, 4,6-, and 3,4-linked/substituted) and 13% xylosyl (t-, 4f/5p-, and 3p-linked/substituted) residues, and contained no uronosyl residues. Ulex europaeus agglutinin uniformly localized [alpha](1,2)-L-fucose units in C. cistula and Achnanthes adhesives formed during motility and in the pads of A. longipes. D-Galactose residues were localized throughout the shafts of C. cistula and capsules of A. coffeaeformis. D-Mannose and/or D-glucose, D-galactose, and [alpha](t)-L-fucose residues were uniformly localized in the outer layers of A. longipes shafts by Cancavalia ensiformis, Abrus precatorius, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, respectively. A model for diatom cell adhesive structure was developed from chemical characterization, localization, and microscopic observation of extracellular adhesive components formed during the diatom cell-attachment process. PMID:12223660

  11. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-05-12

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation.

  12. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation. PMID:27394893

  13. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida). Part 2: Laniatores – Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Daniele R.; Pérez-González, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Including more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. This database is part 2 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones, and it includes the members of the suborder Laniatores, infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the genera currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). In this Part 2, a total of 556 species and subspecies are listed. PMID:26752965

  14. Biotransformation of the Antibiotic Danofloxacin by Xylaria longipes Leads to an Efficient Reduction of Its Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Marina; Kauschat, Annika; Spielmeyer, Astrid; Römpp, Andreas; Hausmann, Heike; Zorn, Holger; Hamscher, Gerd

    2015-08-12

    Fluoroquinolones are considered as critically important antibiotics. However, they are used in appreciable quantities in veterinary medicine. Liquid manure and feces can contain substantial amounts of unmetabolized antibiotics and, thus, antibiotics can enter the environment if manure is used for soil fertilization. In this study, the microbial biotransformation of the synthetic veterinary fluoroquinolone danofloxacin by the ascomycete Xylaria longipes was investigated. Fungal submerged cultures led to a regioselective and almost quantitative formation of a single metabolite within 3 days. The metabolite was unequivocally identified as danofloxacin N-oxide by high-resolution mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. An oxidation of the terminal nitrogen of the substituted piperazine moiety of the substance led to a remarkable reduction of 80% of the initial antibacterial activity. Thus, fungal enzymes involved in the biotransformation process might possess the potential to reduce the entrance of antibiotics via biotransformation of these compounds. PMID:26189577

  15. Relative quantity judgments between discrete spatial arrays by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Beran, Michael J; McIntyre, Joseph; Low, Jason

    2014-08-01

    Quantity discrimination for items spread across spatial arrays was investigated in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and North Island New Zealand robins (Petroica longipes), with the aim of examining the role of spatial separation on the ability of these 2 species to sum and compare nonvisible quantities which are both temporally and spatially separated, and to assess the likely mechanism supporting such summation performance. Birds and chimpanzees compared 2 sets of discrete quantities of items that differed in number. Six quantity comparisons were presented to both species: 1v2, 1v3, 1v5, 2v3, 2v4, and 2v5. Each was distributed 1 at a time across 2 7-location arrays. Every individual item was viewed 1 at a time and hidden, with no more than a single item in each location of an array, in contrast to a format where all items were placed together into 2 single locations. Subjects responded by selecting 1 of the 2 arrays and received the entire quantity of food items hidden within that array. Both species performed better than chance levels. The ratio of items between sets was a significant predictor of performance in the chimpanzees, but it was not significant for robins. Instead, the absolute value of the smaller quantity of items presented was the significant factor in robin responses. These results suggest a species difference for this task when considering various dimensions such as ratio or total number of items in quantity comparisons distributed across discrete 7-location arrays.

  16. Characterization of mutations in AlHK1 gene from Alternaria longipes: implication of limited function of two-component histidine kinase on conferring dicarboximide resistance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiyong; Yang, Jinkui; Zhu, Mingliang; Yan, Jinping; Mo, Minghe; Zhqng, Keqin

    2008-01-01

    Four series (S, M, R, and W) of Alternaria longipes isolates were obtained based on consecutive induction with Dimethachlon (Dim) and ultraviolet irradiation. These isolates were then characterized according to their tolerance to Dim, sensitivity to osmotic stress, and phenotypic properties. All the induced Dim-resistant isolates showed a higher osmosensitivity than the parental strains, and the last generation was more resistant than the first generation in the M, R, and W series. In addition, the changes in the Dim resistance and osmotic sensitivity were not found to be directly correlated, and no distinct morphologic characteristics were found among the resistant and sensitive isolates, with the exception of the resistant isolate K-11. Thus, to investigate the molecular basis of the fungicide resistance, a group III two-component histidine kinase (HK) gene, AlHK1, was cloned from nineteen A. longipes isolates. AlHK1p was found to be comprised of a six 92- amino-acid repeat domain (AARD), HK domain, and response regulator domain, similar to the Os-1p from Neurospora crassa. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the AlHK1 gene from the Dim-sensitive and -resistant isolates revealed that all the resistant isolates contained a single-point mutation in the AARD of AlHK1p, with the exception of isolate K-11, where the AlHK1p contained a deletion of 107 amino acids. Moreover, the AlHK1p mutations in the isolates of each respective series involved the same amino acid substitution at the same site, although the resistance levels differed significantly in each series. Therefore, these findings suggested that a mutation in the AARD of AlHK1p was not the sole factor responsible for A. longipes resistance to dicarboximide fungicides.

  17. The regulation of cell wall extensibility during shade avoidance: a study using two contrasting ecotypes of Stellaria longipes.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Chinnappa, C C; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2008-11-01

    Shade avoidance in plants involves rapid shoot elongation to grow toward the light. Cell wall-modifying mechanisms are vital regulatory points for control of these elongation responses. Two protein families involved in cell wall modification are expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases. We used an alpine and a prairie ecotype of Stellaria longipes differing in their response to shade to study the regulation of cell wall extensibility in response to low red to far-red ratio (R/FR), an early neighbor detection signal, and dense canopy shade (green shade: low R/FR, blue, and total light intensity). Alpine plants were nonresponsive to low R/FR, while prairie plants elongated rapidly. These responses reflect adaptation to the dense vegetation of the prairie habitat, unlike the alpine plants, which almost never encounter shade. Under green shade, both ecotypes rapidly elongate, showing that alpine plants can react only to a deep shade treatment. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase activity was strongly regulated by green shade and low blue light conditions but not by low R/FR. Expansin activity, expressed as acid-induced extension, correlated with growth responses to all light changes. Expansin genes cloned from the internodes of the two ecotypes showed differential regulation in response to the light manipulations. This regulation was ecotype and light signal specific and correlated with the growth responses. Our results imply that elongation responses to shade require the regulation of cell wall extensibility via the control of expansin gene expression. Ecotypic differences demonstrate how responses to environmental stimuli are differently regulated to survive a particular habitat.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of sun and shade ecotypes of Stellaria longipes in response to light quality signaling, gibberellins and auxin.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Neil Emery, R J; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C

    2015-09-01

    Stellaria longipes plant communities (ecotypes) occur in several environmentally distinct habitats along the eastern slopes of southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. One ecotype occurs in a prairie habitat at ∼1000 m elevation where Stellaria plants grow in an environment in which the light is filtered by taller neighbouring vegetation, i.e. sunlight with a low red to far-red (R/FR) ratio. This ecotype exhibits a high degree of phenotypic plasticity by increasing stem elongation in response to the low R/FR ratio light signal. Another Stellaria ecotype occurs nearby at ∼2400 m elevation in a much cooler alpine habitat, one where plants rarely experience low R/FR ratio shade light. Stem elongation of plants is largely regulated by gibberellins (GAs) and auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Shoots of the prairie ecotype plants show increased IAA levels under low R/FR ratio light and they also increase their stem growth in response to applied IAA. The alpine ecotype plants show neither response. Plants from both ecotypes produce high levels of growth-active GA1 under low R/FR ratio light, though they differ appreciably in their catabolism of GA1. The alpine ecotype plants exhibit very high levels of GA8, the inactive product of GA1 metabolism, under both normal and low R/FR ratio light. Alpine origin plants may de-activate GA1 by conversion to GA8 via a constitutively high level of expression of the GA2ox gene, thereby maintaining their dwarf phenotype and exhibiting a reduced phenotypic plasticity in terms of shoot elongation. In contrast, prairie plants exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, using low R/FR ratio light-mediated changes in GA and IAA concentrations to increase shoot elongation, thereby accessing direct sunlight to optimize photosynthesis. There thus appear to be complex adaptation strategies for the two ecotypes, ones which involve modifications in the homeostasis of endogenous hormones.

  19. The architecture of the anterior appendage in the egg of the assassin bug, Zelus longipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Wolf, K W; Reid, W

    2000-01-01

    The eggshell of Zelus longipes, a Hemiptera species of the family Reduviidae (assassin bugs), has been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The emphasis was on the architecture of an anterior appendage connected to the main eggshell of both ovarian and deposited eggs. The analysis of eggs fractured at various angles and levels reveals a relatively complex organization of this appendage. There is a cylindrical outer layer, the veil, of roughly the same diameter as, and continuous with, the main eggshell. At its anterior pole, the veil folds inwards and forms an hourglass-shaped tube that is attached through slender extensions to a curved plate oriented at right angles to the long axis of the egg and spanning the internal diameter of the veil. The plate is solid at the center, shows honeycomb-shaped perforations in its mid-section and contains a very delicate meshwork along its circumference. Underneath the plate lies a hollow cylinder oriented at right angles to the long axis of the egg and attached to the anterior plate of the egg, the operculum. The outer openings of aeropyles lie at the inner face of the veil and at its base. While the outer surface of the entire eggshell appears smooth, the inner face of the anterior appendage is highly and diversely sculptured. The eggs are deposited in batches of at least 15 and completely surrounded by viscous secretion. This substance does not encroach on the anterior appendage. The major function of this appendage may lie in the protection of the aeropyles and particularly in preventing their being clogged by the viscous material. PMID:18088938

  20. Different feeding behaviors in a single predatory mite species. 1. Comparative life histories of three populations of Phytoseiulus longipes (Acari: Phytoseiidae) depending on prey species and plant substrate.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, M; Tixier, M S; Kreiter, S

    2014-03-01

    The spider mites Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae are key pests of tomato crops, for which no sustainable practical control strategy is available yet. A Brazilian (B) and an Argentinean (A) population of a phytoseiid predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus longipes, are able to develop and reproduce on T. evansi on tomato, whereas a Chilean (C) population is not. In order to better characterize the two distinct feeding behaviours of these three populations, life table data were assessed when the predator was offered T. evansi or T. urticae as prey on bean or tomato leaves. No effect of the prey offered nor the plant substrate was demonstrated on development durations of the three populations. However, immature mortality was low for the Argentinean and the Brazilian populations whatever the prey or plant substrate, whereas 89 % of P. longipes from Chile died before reaching adulthood when fed T. evansi on tomato. No difference in effect on female longevity was detected among the three populations. Finally, the demographic parameters of all populations were lower in presence of tomato compared to beans. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudocellus pearsei (Chelicerata: Ricinulei) and a comparison of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in Arachnida

    PubMed Central

    Fahrein, Kathrin; Talarico, Giovanni; Braband, Anke; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are widely utilized for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses among animals. In addition to sequence data the mitochondrial gene order and RNA secondary structure data are used in phylogenetic analyses. Arachnid phylogeny is still highly debated and there is a lack of sufficient sequence data for many taxa. Ricinulei (hooded tickspiders) are a morphologically distinct clade of arachnids with uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Results The first complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a member of the Ricinulei, Pseudocellus pearsei (Arachnida: Ricinulei) was sequenced using a PCR-based approach. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular duplex DNA molecule with a size of 15,099 bp, showing the complete set of genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. Five tRNA genes (trnW, trnY, trnN, trnL(CUN), trnV) show different relative positions compared to other Chelicerata (e.g. Limulus polyphemus, Ixodes spp.). We propose that two events led to this derived gene order: (1) a tandem duplication followed by random deletion and (2) an independent translocation of trnN. Most of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern except tRNA-Glu where the TψC-arm is missing. In phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference) using concatenated amino acid and nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes the basal relationships of arachnid orders remain unresolved. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses (ML, MP, BI) of arachnid mitochondrial genomes fail to resolve interordinal relationships of Arachnida and remain in a preliminary stage because there is still a lack of mitogenomic data from important taxa such as Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. Gene order varies considerably within Arachnida – only eight out of 23 species have retained the putative arthropod ground pattern. Some gene order changes are valuable characters in phylogenetic analysis of intraordinal

  2. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets.

  3. Comparative morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in Uropygi and Amblypygi (Arachnida): Complex correspondences support Arachnopulmonata.

    PubMed

    Klußmann-Fricke, B-J; Wirkner, C S

    2016-08-01

    Although the circulatory system of arthropods has long been considered as rather simple, recent studies have demonstrated that in certain arthropod taxa, such as Malacostraca, some Chilopoda and also many Chelicerata, the vascular systems in particular are rather complex. Furthermore, a recent study has revealed that the prosomal ganglion of scorpions and spiders is supplied by an intricate network of arteries, the complexity of which bears a close resemblance to that of vertebrate capillary systems. In this study, we analyzed the hemolymph vascular systems of various species of Pedipalpi (i.e., Amblypygi and Uropygi). By combining modern techniques, such as MicroCT and cLSM, with computer-based 3D-reconstruction, we were able to produce comprehensive visualizations and descriptions of the vascular systems. Despite the lack of well-corroborated phylogenetic hypotheses on arachnid relationships and the controversial assertion of relationships between the pulmonate arachnids, we aim to elucidate the evolution of complex vascular systems in Arachnida. By comparing these highly complex vascular systems not only with each other, but also with other pulmonate arachnids, we found numerous detailed correspondences in the general branching pattern as well as in the supply patterns of the prosomal ganglion. We argue that these numerous and detailed correspondences by their absence in other arachnids i.e. aplumonates, support Arachnopulmonata. J. Morphol. 277:1084-1103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354144

  4. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  5. Phylogeographic Study of Whip Scorpions (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Thelyphonida) in Japan and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Shigenori; Nagata, Satomi; Aoki, Jun-ichi; Yahata, Kensuke; Honda, Masanao

    2015-08-01

    Whip scorpions (Thelyphonida), comprising an order in the class Arachnida, are distributed from tropical to temperate zones. Two species occur exclusively in Japan and Taiwan, but the border of their distributional ranges is ambiguous in the Central Ryukyus (Japan). We collected new specimens from the Central Ryukyus and revealed that the border of distribution of the two species lies between the Central and Southern Ryukyus, i.e., the Kerama Gap. Moreover, the estimated divergence time (15.8 Mya) of the two species, based on the mitochondrial COI gene, was older than the recently estimated time (1.55 Mya) of formation of the Kerama Gap. These results highlight the risks of a priori assumption solely on the basis of geological data for applying it as a calibration point to some terrestrial animals in this region. Typopeltis stimpsonii was genetically divided into four lineages, two of which turned out to be endemic to the Okinawa Islands. All specimens from the main island of Japan and Shikoku were in one lineage, which was also found in the Amami Islands and Hachijojima Island. This suggests that these specimens may have been dispersed by human activity. Typopeltis crucifer included five genetic lineages. Species collected from Ishigakijima and Iriomotejima Islands were genetically diversified not between the borders of these islands but within Ishigakijima Island. This study also suggests that phylogenetic diversity of the species in the Southern Ryukyus have increased through two times of invasions from Taiwan. PMID:26245222

  6. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Cally, Sébastien; Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette; Murienne, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  7. Tactile learning by a whip spider, Phrynus marginemaculatus C.L. Koch (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    PubMed

    Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A

    2009-04-01

    The ability of animals to learn and remember underpins many behavioural actions and can be crucial for survival in certain contexts, for example in finding and recognising a habitual refuge. The sensory cues that an animal learns in such situations are to an extent determined by its own sensory specialisations. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) are nocturnal and possess uniquely specialised sensory systems that include elongated 'antenniform' forelegs specialised for use as chemo- and mechanosensory feelers. We tested the tactile learning abilities of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus in a maze learning task with two tactile cues of different texture--one associated with an accessible refuge, and the other with an inaccessible refuge. Over ten training trials, whip spiders got faster and more accurate at finding the accessible refuge. During a subsequent test trial where both refuges were inaccessible, whip spiders searched for significantly longer at the tactile cue previously associated with the accessible refuge. Using high-speed cinematography, we describe three distinct antenniform leg movements used by whip spiders during tactile examination. We discuss the potential importance of tactile learning in whip spider behaviour and a possible role for their unique giant sensory neurons in accessing tactile information. PMID:19198849

  8. Phenotypic plasticity of sun and shade ecotypes of Stellaria longipes in response to light quality signaling, gibberellins and auxin.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Neil Emery, R J; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C

    2015-09-01

    Stellaria longipes plant communities (ecotypes) occur in several environmentally distinct habitats along the eastern slopes of southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. One ecotype occurs in a prairie habitat at ∼1000 m elevation where Stellaria plants grow in an environment in which the light is filtered by taller neighbouring vegetation, i.e. sunlight with a low red to far-red (R/FR) ratio. This ecotype exhibits a high degree of phenotypic plasticity by increasing stem elongation in response to the low R/FR ratio light signal. Another Stellaria ecotype occurs nearby at ∼2400 m elevation in a much cooler alpine habitat, one where plants rarely experience low R/FR ratio shade light. Stem elongation of plants is largely regulated by gibberellins (GAs) and auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Shoots of the prairie ecotype plants show increased IAA levels under low R/FR ratio light and they also increase their stem growth in response to applied IAA. The alpine ecotype plants show neither response. Plants from both ecotypes produce high levels of growth-active GA1 under low R/FR ratio light, though they differ appreciably in their catabolism of GA1. The alpine ecotype plants exhibit very high levels of GA8, the inactive product of GA1 metabolism, under both normal and low R/FR ratio light. Alpine origin plants may de-activate GA1 by conversion to GA8 via a constitutively high level of expression of the GA2ox gene, thereby maintaining their dwarf phenotype and exhibiting a reduced phenotypic plasticity in terms of shoot elongation. In contrast, prairie plants exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, using low R/FR ratio light-mediated changes in GA and IAA concentrations to increase shoot elongation, thereby accessing direct sunlight to optimize photosynthesis. There thus appear to be complex adaptation strategies for the two ecotypes, ones which involve modifications in the homeostasis of endogenous hormones. PMID:26113156

  9. Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogawa, Sayaka; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Saito, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimode, Shinji; Kikuchi, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest

  10. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida). Part 1: Laniatores – Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Amanda Cruz; Souza, Daniele R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3). All of them only became available when Staręga (1992) designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae), not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies) is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the Travuniidae Travuniinae. Nuncia ovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyx cockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954), but with inverted precedence) is here combined as Nuncia coriacea ovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of

  11. Radiocesium contamination of the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida) 1.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in a large web spider, Nephila clavata L. Koch (Nephilidae: Arachnida), collected at three sites at different distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant about 1.5 y after the accident in March 2011. The radiocesium concentrations in spiders were highest in a streamside secondary forest 33 km northwest of the power plant: mean ± a standard deviation of 2.401 ± 1.197 Bq g(-1) dry for (134)Cs and 3.955 ± 1.756 Bq g(-1) dry for (137)Cs. In a hillside secondary forest 37 km northwest of the power plant, the mean concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.825 ± 0.247 Bq g(-1) dry and 1.470 ± 0.454 Bq g(-1) dry, respectively. In a pine forest 62 km west of the power plant, very low radiocesium concentrations were detected, but in only a few individuals. The concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in spiders collected at each site tended to be correlated with the air radiation dose rate at each site. Since spiders are key components of food webs in forests, the high concentrations in this species at contaminated sites suggested that the radiocesium from the accident has transferred through food chains and reached to higher trophic level of the food chains.

  12. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  13. The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Griswold, Charles E.; Scharff, Nikolaj; Řezáč, Milan; Szűts, Tamás; Marhabaie, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureedia gen. n., ParadoneaLawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A key to all genera and major lineages is provided along with corresponding diagnoses, as well as descriptions of selected species. These are documented with collections of photographs, scanning electron micrographs, and illustrations. A new phylogeny of Eresidae based on molecular sequence data expands on a previously published analysis. A species of the genus Paradonea Lawrence, 1968 is sequenced and placed phylogenetically for the first time. New sequences from twenty Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967 specimens were added to investigate species limits within the genus. The genus Loureedia gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Eresus annulipes Lucas, 1857. Two species, Eresus semicanus Simon, 1908 and Eresus jerbae El-Hennawy, 2005, are synonymized with Loureedia annulipes comb. n. One new species, Paradonea presleyi sp. n. is described. Eresus algericus El-Hennawy, 2004 is transferred to Adonea Simon, 1873. The female of Dorceus fastuosus C. L. Koch, 1846 is described for the first time. The first figures depicting Paradonea splendens (Lawrence, 1936) are presented. PMID:22679386

  14. On the identity of Flirtea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    PubMed

    Kury, Adriano B; García, Andrés F

    2016-01-01

    Flirtea C.L. Koch, 1839, is one of the oldest genera described in Cosmetidae, currently including 30 species mostly from the Andes. Its type species, Cosmetus pictus Perty, 1833, from Brazil, the type material of which is long lost, has since long been misidentified in the literature due to a redescription based on another unrelated species, while the true F. picta was widely known as Flirtea phalerata C.L. Koch, 1840. This unrelated species is here described as Cynorta pictoides sp. nov. Flirtea picta is here redescribed based on abundant material collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome from Bahia state, and a neotype is designated for its type species. Here, we propose a particular pattern of a white mask blot on the dorsal scutum be called "scaramuccia", and variation in this pattern is described. Genital morphology of Flirtea picta is described for the first time. Flirtea is rediagnosed and most species currently assigned to Flirtea are suggested to belong to other genera. Cynorta valida Roewer, 1928 and Paecilaema batman Pinto-da-Rocha & Yamaguti, 2013 are newly transferred to Flirtea, yielding the new combinations Flirtea valida and Flirtea batman. PMID:27394492

  15. New systematic assignments in Gonyleptoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Benedetti, Alípio Rezende; de Vasconcelos, Eduardo Gomes; Hara, Marcos Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract As part of an ongoing revision of the family Gonyleptidae, we have identified many species that are synonyms of previously described species or misplaced in this family. This article summarizes these findings, adding previously unavailable information or correcting imprecise observations to justify the presented taxonomic changes. The following new familial or subfamilial assignments are proposed: Nemastygnus Roewer, 1929 and Taulisa Roewer, 1956 are transferred to Agoristenidae, Agoristeninae; Napostygnus Roewer, 1929 to Cranaidae; Ceropachylinus peruvianus Roewer, 1956 and Pirunipygus Roewer, 1936 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Ampycinae; Gyndesops Roewer, 1943, Haversia Roewer, 1913 and Oxapampeus Roewer, 1963 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. The following generic synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes Mello-Leitão, 1922 = Centroleptes Roewer, 1943; Acrographinotus Roewer, 1929 = Unduavius Roewer, 1929; Gonyleptes Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium Bertkau, 1880; Mischonyx Bertkau, 1880 = Eugonyleptes Roewer, 1913 and Gonazula Roewer, 1930; Parampheres Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides Roewer, 1917; Pseudopucrolia Roewer, 1912 = Meteusarcus Roewer, 1913; Haversia Roewer, 1913 = Hoggellula Roewer, 1930. The following specific synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935) = Centroleptes flavus Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Geraeocormobius sylvarum Holmberg, 1887 = Discocyrtus serrifemur Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884) = Gonyleptes cancellatus Roewer,1917, syn. n.; Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Weyhia brieni Giltay, 1928, syn. n.; Gonyleptes fragilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Gonyleptes banana Kury, 2003, syn. n.; Gonyleptes horridus Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium bicuspidatum Bertkau, 1880, syn. n., Gonyleptes borgmeyeri Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Gonyleptes curvicornis Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Metagonyleptes hamatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. and Paragonyleptes simoni Roewer, 1930, syn. n.; Gonyleptes pustulatus Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes guttatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Haversia defensa (Butler, 1876) = Sadocus vallentini Hogg, 1913, syn. n.; Liogonyleptoides minensis (Piza, 1946) = Currala bahiensis Soares, 1972, syn. n.; Megapachylus grandis Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides almeidai Soares & Soares, 1946, syn. n.; Mischonyx cuspidatus (Roewer, 1913) = Gonazula gibbosa Roewer, 1930 syn. n.; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819) = Xundarava holacantha Mello-Leitão, 1927, syn. n.; Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 = Metapachyloides rugosus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Parapachyloides uncinatus (Sørensen, 1879) = Goyazella armata Mello-Leitão, 1931, syn. n.; Pseudopucrolia mutica (Perty, 1833) = Meteusarcus armatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Acrographinotus ornatus (Roewer, 1929), comb. n. (ex Unduavius); Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884),comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes);Gonyleptes perlatus (Mello-Leitão, 1935), comb. n. (exMoojenia);Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819), comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes); and Neopachyloides peruvianus (Roewer, 1956), comb. n. (ex Ceropachylus). The following species of Gonyleptidae, Gonyleptinae are revalidated: Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Gonyleptes curvicornis (Roewer, 1913). PMID:22707905

  16. [Obtention of an antivenom against Phoneutria nigriventer (arachnida; ctenidae) venom].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Gutiérrez, Luis R; Rufino Caro, Roberto; Lago, Néstor R; Montenegro, José L

    2011-02-01

    Envenomation by spiders of the genus Phoneutria ("banana spider") may be lethal, especially in children. The only available specific treatment is the use of antivenom, which is produced by only one laboratory in the world. In this study we report the development of an equine F (ab')2 experimental antivenom raised against the venom of Phoneutria nigriventer. The antivenom neutralized the venom of spiders from different regions of Argentina (Misiones and Jujuy), the development of envenomation symptoms in experimental animals was totally inhibited. These results show that local production of this type of antivenom is possible. Independence of production is important since international acquisition is always conditioned by the availability of stock surplus from the sole producer. PMID:21283947

  17. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  18. On the identity of Flirtea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    PubMed

    Kury, Adriano B; García, Andrés F

    2016-03-21

    Flirtea C.L. Koch, 1839, is one of the oldest genera described in Cosmetidae, currently including 30 species mostly from the Andes. Its type species, Cosmetus pictus Perty, 1833, from Brazil, the type material of which is long lost, has since long been misidentified in the literature due to a redescription based on another unrelated species, while the true F. picta was widely known as Flirtea phalerata C.L. Koch, 1840. This unrelated species is here described as Cynorta pictoides sp. nov. Flirtea picta is here redescribed based on abundant material collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome from Bahia state, and a neotype is designated for its type species. Here, we propose a particular pattern of a white mask blot on the dorsal scutum be called "scaramuccia", and variation in this pattern is described. Genital morphology of Flirtea picta is described for the first time. Flirtea is rediagnosed and most species currently assigned to Flirtea are suggested to belong to other genera. Cynorta valida Roewer, 1928 and Paecilaema batman Pinto-da-Rocha & Yamaguti, 2013 are newly transferred to Flirtea, yielding the new combinations Flirtea valida and Flirtea batman.

  19. Mysmenidae, a spider family newly recorded from Tibet (Arachnida, Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yucheng; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The spider family Mysmenidae is reported from Tibet for the first time. Two new species, Chanea voluta sp. n. (male and female) and Mysmena lulanga sp. n. (male and female) are found in eastern Tibet in high altitude. Morphological descriptions, diagnoses and comparative photos are provided for the two new species. PMID:26843831

  20. Catalogue of Opiliones (Arachnida) types deposited in the Arachnida and Myriapoda collection of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coronato-Ribeiro, Amanda; Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Rheims, Cristina Anne

    2013-01-01

    A catalogue of the Opiliones types of the "Instituto Butantan", São Paulo, Brazil is given, surveying the collection after severe fire damaged in 2010. Of a total of 91 species with type material listed for the collection, 69 could be located, and 22 are considered lost. The species are arranged according to their families and genera. The collection of Salvador de Toledo Piza Jr., housed at the Museu de Zoologia "Luiz de Queiroz", was donated to the Instituto Butantan in 2009. These types received a new accession number and are listed under this new affiliation for the first time.

  1. Territoriality evidenced by asymmetric intruder-holder motivation in an amblypygid.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Kenneth James; Hill-Lindsay, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    Territoriality has an extensive and thorough history of research, but has been difficult to impossible to test empirically in most species. We offer a method for testing for territoriality by measuring the motivation of territory intruders to win contests in controlled trials. We demonstrated this approach by staging paired trials of the Amblypygi Phrynus longipes (Chelicerata: Arachnida). Amblypygids engaged in agonistic interactions after the opportunity to establish a putative territory on one side of an arena. We found that intruders of putative territories had lower motivation to win contests, thus evidencing territoriality. Physical components of individuals (i.e. energy stores) increased the probability of winning the contest for holders but not intruders, thereby providing insight into the differing decision rules opponents use in territory contests. We discuss why alternative hypotheses, including loser-initiator covariation and home field bourgeois advantage, fail empirical tests. We demonstrated that analyzing animal motivation in territorial contests is tractable even for animals where territories are inconspicuous and cues are outside the normal perceptions of researchers.

  2. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the endemic North American camel spider family Eremobatidae (Arachnida: Solifugae).

    PubMed

    Cushing, Paula E; Graham, Matthew R; Prendini, Lorenzo; Brookhart, Jack O

    2015-11-01

    Camel spiders (Solifugae) are a diverse but poorly studied order of arachnids. No robust phylogenetic analysis has ever been carried out for the order or for any family within the Solifugae. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the endemic North American family Eremobatidae Kraepelin, 1899, the first such analysis of a family of Solifugae. We use a multi-locus exemplar approach using DNA sequences from partial nuclear (28S rDNA and Histone H3) and mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase I) gene loci for 81 ingroup exemplars representing all genera of Eremobatidae and most species groups within the genera Eremobates Banks, 1900, Eremochelis Roewer, 1934, and Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903. Maximum Likelihood and two Bayesian analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eremobatidae, Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 and Eremothera Muma, 1951 along with a group comprising all subfamily Eremobatinae Kraepelin, 1901 exemplars except Horribates bantai Muma, 1989 and a group comprising all Eremocosta Roewer, 1934 exemplars except Eremocosta acuitalpanensis (Vasquez and Gavin, 2000). The subfamily Therobatinae Muma, 1951 and the genera Chanbria Muma, 1951, Hemerotrecha, Eremochelis, and Eremobates were polyphyletic or paraphyletic. Only the banksi group of Hemerotrecha was monophyletic; the other species groups recognized within Eremobates, Eremochelis, and Hemerotrecha were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. We found no support for the monophyly of the subfamily Therobatinae. A time-calibrated phylogeny dated the most recent common ancestor of extant eremobatids to the late Eocene to early Miocene, with a mean estimate in the late Oligocene (32.2 Ma). PMID:26163941

  3. First evidence of neurons in the male copulatory organ of a spider (Arachnida, Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    Lipke, Elisabeth; Hammel, Jörg U.; Michalik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spider males have evolved a remarkable way of transferring sperm by using a modified part of their pedipalps, the so-called palpal organ. The palpal organ is ontogenetically derived from tarsal claws; however, no nerves, sensory organs or muscles have been detected in the palpal bulb so far, suggesting that the spider male copulatory organ is numb and sensorily blind. Here, we document the presence of neurons and a nerve inside the male palpal organ of a spider for the first time. Several neurons that are located in the embolus are attached to the surrounding cuticle where stresses and strains lead to a deformation (stretching) of the palpal cuticle on a local scale, suggesting a putative proprioreceptive function. Consequently, the male copulatory organ of this species is not just a numb structure but likely able to directly perceive sensory input during sperm transfer. In addition, we identified two glands in the palpal organ, one of which is located in the embolus (embolus gland). The embolus gland appears to be directly innervated, which could allow for rapid modulation of secretory activity. Thus, we hypothesize that the transferred seminal fluid can be modulated to influence female processes. PMID:26156131

  4. Description of a new troglomorphic species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from Brazil (Arachnida, Amblypygi, Charinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Charinus taboa sp. n. comprises the twenty-second species of the genus described for Brazil. The new species belongs to the eastern Brazilian group, in which all species have sucker-like gonopods. Charinus taboa sp. n. has a marked sexual dimorphism in the pedipalps as do other members of the genus in the country. The description of Charinus taboa sp. n. offers an opportunity to discuss some aspects of ecology, troglomorphism and conservation within the genus. A key to the eastern Brazilian species of Charinus is provided. PMID:27408599

  5. Venom proteomic and venomous glands transcriptomic analysis of the Egyptian scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus (Arachnida: Scorpionidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A; Quintero-Hernandez, Veronica; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-11-01

    Proteomic analysis of the scorpion venom Scorpio maurus palmatus was performed using reverse-phase HPLC separation followed by mass spectrometry determination. Sixty five components were identified with molecular masses varying from 413 to 14,009 Da. The high percentage of peptides (41.5%) was from 3 to 5 KDa which may represent linear antimicrobial peptides and KScTxs. Also, 155 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed through construction the cDNA library prepared from a pair of venomous gland. About 77% of the ESTs correspond to toxin-like peptides and proteins with definite open reading frames. The cDNA sequencing results also show the presence of sequences whose putative products have sequence similarity with antimicrobial peptides (24%), insecticidal toxins, β-NaScTxs, κ-KScTxs, α-KScTxs, calcines and La1-like peptides. Also, we have obtained 23 atypical types of venom molecules not recorded in other scorpion species. Moreover, 9% of the total ESTs revealed significant similarities with proteins involved in the cellular processes of these scorpion venomous glands. This is the first set of molecular masses and transcripts described from this species, in which various venom molecules have been identified. They belong to either known or unassigned types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins, and provide valuable information for evolutionary analysis and venomics.

  6. Venom-spraying behavior of the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus (Arachnida: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Nisani, Zia; Hayes, William K

    2015-06-01

    Many animals use chemical squirting or spraying behavior as a defensive response. Some members of the scorpion genus Parabuthus (family Buthidae) can spray their venom. We examined the stimulus control and characteristics of venom spraying by Parabuthus transvaalicus to better understand the behavioral context for its use. Venom spraying occurred mostly, but not always, when the metasoma (tail) was contacted (usually grasped by forceps), and was absent during stinging-like thrusts of the metasoma apart from contact. Scorpions were significantly more likely to spray when contact was also accompanied by airborne stimuli. Sprays happened almost instantaneously following grasping by forceps (median=0.23s) as a brief (0.07-0.30s, mean=0.18s), fine stream (<5° arc) that was not directed toward the stimulus source; however, rapid independent movements of the metasoma and/or telson (stinger) often created a more diffuse spray, increasing the possibility of venom contact with the sensitive eyes of potential scorpion predators. Successive venom sprays varied considerably in duration and velocity. Collectively, these results suggest that venom spraying might be useful as an antipredator function and can be modulated based on threat.

  7. Venom-spraying behavior of the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus (Arachnida: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Nisani, Zia; Hayes, William K

    2015-06-01

    Many animals use chemical squirting or spraying behavior as a defensive response. Some members of the scorpion genus Parabuthus (family Buthidae) can spray their venom. We examined the stimulus control and characteristics of venom spraying by Parabuthus transvaalicus to better understand the behavioral context for its use. Venom spraying occurred mostly, but not always, when the metasoma (tail) was contacted (usually grasped by forceps), and was absent during stinging-like thrusts of the metasoma apart from contact. Scorpions were significantly more likely to spray when contact was also accompanied by airborne stimuli. Sprays happened almost instantaneously following grasping by forceps (median=0.23s) as a brief (0.07-0.30s, mean=0.18s), fine stream (<5° arc) that was not directed toward the stimulus source; however, rapid independent movements of the metasoma and/or telson (stinger) often created a more diffuse spray, increasing the possibility of venom contact with the sensitive eyes of potential scorpion predators. Successive venom sprays varied considerably in duration and velocity. Collectively, these results suggest that venom spraying might be useful as an antipredator function and can be modulated based on threat. PMID:25748565

  8. Opiliones are no longer the same--on suprafamilial groups in harvestmen (Arthropoda: Arachnida).

    PubMed

    Kury, Adriano B

    2015-01-01

    A review of the names used in the arachnid order Opiliones above superfamily level is presented. Many historical branching patterns of Opiliones (for five terminals), of Laniatores (for six terminals), and of Cyphophthalmi (for six terminals) are extrapolated, compared and graphically displayed. For the first time a historical review is made of the circumscriptions of those names and comparisons are drawn to current usage. Critical clades are used as terminals and represented by the oldest valid generic name of each. Comments are made on the variant usage for 25 suprafamilial names from the literature. Cladistic definitions are provided for these names under relevant hypotheses of phylogeny. It is noted that virtually all important suprafamilial names in Opiliones changed concept over time, and the purpose of this project is to clarify the original usage compared to current, and to add historical perspective. Two options are considered for higher-level nomenclature in Opiliones: (1) a circumscriptional option, sticking to the original inclusion of the names; (2) an inertial option, where no name has priority, and follows recent use in the literature. As there is no priority for names not regulated by ICZN, option 2 prevails, because it entails massive momentum. The following new names are introduced as unranked taxa to define clades under different hypotheses of phylogeny: Tricospilata (= Triaenonychidae + Grassatores), Lomaniatores (Laniatores in the restricted sense used by Loman/Pocock), and Eulaniatores (Laniatores excluding the bizarre Synthetonychiidae). Some of the hypotheses implied by these names are conflicting and mutually exclusive, but the state of knowledge of harvestman taxonomy is quickly changing, and no hypothesis that clearly supersedes the others can be detected.

  9. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  10. Whip spiders (Amblypygi, Arachnida) of the Western Palaearctic-a review.

    PubMed

    Blick, Theo; Seiter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    All records of the two amblypygid species occurring in the Western Palaearctic are mapped and both species (Charinus ioanniticus and Musicodamon atlanteus) are discussed. Charinus ioanniticus is known from the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) from 10 localities and Musicodamon atlanteus is known from the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria) from three localities. All records are mapped.

  11. [Diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-de La Cruz, Manuel; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Ortíz-García, Carlos F; Zapata-Mata, Raúl; Cruz-Pérez, Aracely de la

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to know the diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders in a plantation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) of 6 ha in the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The study was carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 by means biweekly samples of the insects captured on the spiders webs. The total of 3,041 webs of 54 species of spiders belonging to seven families (Araneidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae, Pholcidae, Dyctinidae and Linyphiidae) were revised. We found 1,749 specimens belonging to 10 orders of insects, represented by 93 families, the majority of Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera that constituted 74% of the identified families. The biggest number of specimens of all orders was captured by Araneidae, except of Isoptera, whose specimens were captured mainly by the family Theridiidae. The index of diversity (H'), evenness (J') and similarity (Is), applied to know the diversity of families of insects captured among families of spiders, varied from 0.00 to 3.24, 0.00 to 0.81, and 0.04 to 0.522, respectively. We conclude that there is a wide diversity of insects predated by the weaver spiders in the cocoa agroecosystem, and that there are species that can be promising for the biological control of pests.

  12. Review of terminology for the outline of dorsal scutum in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Kury, Adriano B; Medrano, Miguel

    2016-03-29

    In many Opiliones (notably the Laniatores) the five most anterior opisthosomal tergites are fused with the carapace forming the so called dorsal scutum (DS) (Latreille 1804; Simon 1879; Hadži 1942) with a highly variable shape arising from multiple factors, such as differential development of musculature (especially of coxa IV), internal organs and influence of appendages (Loman 1903; Winkler 1957). The different degrees of fusion of the tergites were first studied by Hadži (1942), who proposed a terminology for them. This terminology was adopted and enhanced by Kratochvíl (1958) and Martens (1978). A shield formed by the fusion of the carapace with abdominal tergites I to V is called scutum magnum (Hadži 1942). The shield formed by the fusion of carapace with abdominal tergites I to VII is called scutum complexum (Kratochvíl 1958) and occurs in the males of Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994 (Kury 1994) and Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958 (Kratochvíl 1958). Finally, the scutum completum (Hadži 1942) is formed by the complete fusion of the carapace and abdominal scutum, formed by tergites I to VIII, and occurs in the Sandokanidae (Martens 1978). In this paper we focus on the different forms of the scutum magnum.

  13. Review of terminology for the outline of dorsal scutum in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Kury, Adriano B; Medrano, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In many Opiliones (notably the Laniatores) the five most anterior opisthosomal tergites are fused with the carapace forming the so called dorsal scutum (DS) (Latreille 1804; Simon 1879; Hadži 1942) with a highly variable shape arising from multiple factors, such as differential development of musculature (especially of coxa IV), internal organs and influence of appendages (Loman 1903; Winkler 1957). The different degrees of fusion of the tergites were first studied by Hadži (1942), who proposed a terminology for them. This terminology was adopted and enhanced by Kratochvíl (1958) and Martens (1978). A shield formed by the fusion of the carapace with abdominal tergites I to V is called scutum magnum (Hadži 1942). The shield formed by the fusion of carapace with abdominal tergites I to VII is called scutum complexum (Kratochvíl 1958) and occurs in the males of Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994 (Kury 1994) and Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958 (Kratochvíl 1958). Finally, the scutum completum (Hadži 1942) is formed by the complete fusion of the carapace and abdominal scutum, formed by tergites I to VIII, and occurs in the Sandokanidae (Martens 1978). In this paper we focus on the different forms of the scutum magnum. PMID:27394531

  14. Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI) from the Class Arachnida

    PubMed Central

    Young, Monica R; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625). It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels—among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10–0.39), while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07–0.35). BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is ‘locked down’ in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in ‘locked down’ taxa. PMID:26308206

  15. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae) in Australasia and the Oriental Region

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Sarah C.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We relimit and revise the family Selenopidae to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and the Oriental Region. The family is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul & Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous inconsistencies in the diagnoses and definitions of the aforementioned genera. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: Selenops bursarius Karsch 1879, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, Selenops ollarius Zhu, Sha, & Chen 1990, and Selenops radiatus Latreille 1819, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha & Chen syn. n. is recognized as a junior synonym of Selenops radiatus. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with Amamanganops baginawa sp. n. (♀; from the Philippines). Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with Godumops caritus sp. n. (♂; from Papua New Guinea). Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and includes 24 species. A new combination is proposed for Karaops australiensis (L. Koch 1875) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), and the new species: Karaops gangarie sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops monteithi sp. n. (♀), Karaops alanlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops keithlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops larryoo sp. n. (♂), Karaops jarrit sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops marrayagong sp. n. (♀), Karaops raveni sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops badgeradda sp. n. (♀), Karaops burbidgei sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops karrawarla sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops julianneae sp. n. (♀), Karaops martamarta sp. n. (♀), Karaops manaayn sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops vadlaadambara sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops pilkingtoni sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops deserticola sp. n. (♀), Karaops ngarutjaranya sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops francesae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops toolbrunup sp. n. (♀, ♂), the type species Karaops ellenae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops jenniferae sp. n. (♀), and Karaops dawara sp. n. (♀).The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal. A new combination is proposed for Makdiops agumbensis (Tikader 1969), comb. n., Makdiops montigenus (Simon 1889), comb. n., Makdiops nilgirensis (Reimoser 1934) comb. n.,(ex. Selenops). Also, there are two new species the type of the genus Makdiops mahishasura sp. n. (♀; from India), and Makdiops shiva sp. n. (♀). The genus Pakawops gen. n. is monotypic. A new combination is proposed for Pakawops formosanus (Kayashima 1943) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), known only from Taiwan. A new combination is proposed for Siamspinops aculeatus (Simon)comb. n. (ex. Selenops). The distribution and diversity of the studied selenopid fauna is discussed. Finally, keys are provided to all of the selenopid genera and to the species of Karaops gen. n.and Makdiops gen. n. PMID:21738435

  16. Unnoticed in the tropics: phylogenomic resolution of the poorly known arachnid order Ricinulei (Arachnida)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Rosa; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Ricinulei are among the most obscure and cryptic arachnid orders, constituting a micro-diverse group with extreme endemism. The 76 extant species described to date are grouped in three genera: Ricinoides, from tropical Western and Central Africa, and the two Neotropical genera Cryptocellus and Pseudocellus. Until now, a single molecular phylogeny of Ricinulei has been published, recovering the African Ricinoides as the sister group of the American Pseudocellus and providing evidence for the diversification of the order pre-dating the fragmentation of Gondwana. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first phylogenomic study of this neglected arachnid order based on data from five transcriptomes obtained from the five major mitochondrial lineages of Ricinulei. Our results, based on up to more than 2000 genes, strongly support a clade containing Pseudocellus and Cryptocellus, constituting the American group of Ricinulei, with the African Ricinoides nesting outside. Our dating of the diversification of the African and American clades using a 76 gene data matrix with 90% gene occupancy indicates that this arachnid lineage was distributed in the South American, North American and African plates of Gondwana and that its diversification is concordant with a biogeographic scenario (both for pattern and tempo) of Gondwanan vicariance. PMID:26543583

  17. Redescription of Platygyndes Roewer 1943, a false Gonyleptidae, (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Hara, Marcos Ryotaro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Praelibitia Roewer, 1956 and its type species, Praelibitia titicaca Roewer, 1956, are respectively synonymized with Platygyndes Roewer, 1943 and its type species Platygyndes titicaca Roewer, 1943, and furthermore the genus is transferred from the Gonyleptidae to the Cosmetidae. On the basis of domed and unarmed ocularium, increased number of granules on scutal areas, unarmed dorsal scutum and general body shape, Platygyndes seems to be closely related to Moselabius Roewer, 1956 and Caracarana Roewer, 1956. External morphological characters that are useful to revealing relationships among cosmetid genera are discussed. PMID:22144863

  18. Taxonomic notes on the genus Eupoa Żabka, 1985 (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Logunov, Dmitri V; Marusik, Yuri M

    2014-01-01

    The south-east Asian genus Eupoa is redescribed and diagnosed. Seven new species are diagnosed, described and illustrated: E. daklak sp. n. (♀) from Viet-Nam; E. lehtineni sp. n. (♂♀) from India, Thailand and Viet-Nam; E. lobli sp. n. (♂) from Malaysia; E. pappi sp. n. (♂) from Thailand; E. pulchella sp. n.(♂) from Thailand; E. schwendingeri sp. n. (♂♀) from Thailand; and E. thailandica sp. n. (♂♀) from Thailand. Eupoa prima Żabka, 1985 and E. yunnanensis Peng & Kim, 1997 are redescribed and illustrated on the basis of type and/or newly collected materials. The female of E. yunnanensis Peng & Kim, 1997 is found and described for the first time. PMID:24899850

  19. History of study, updated checklist, distribution and key of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from China.

    PubMed

    Di, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zi-Zhong; Yin, Shi-Jin; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided.

  20. A novel fluid-feeding mechanism for microbivory in the Acariformes (Arachnida: Acari).

    PubMed

    Bolton, Samuel J; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Klompen, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) has revealed anatomical details suggesting that Osperalycus and Gordialycus (Acariformes: Nematalycidae) have an unusual feeding apparatus that is hypothesized to be specialized for feeding on the fluid contents of small microorganisms (diameter<5 μm). Both mite genera have a feeding strategy that appears to involve picking up small microorganisms and placing them onto the subcapitulum for puncturing. However, they have slightly different variants of the same basic rupturing mechanism. Whereas Gordialycus has evolved expansive and convergent rutella to hold the microorganisms in place while pushing chelicerae into them, Osperalycus has evolved a pouch into which a microorganism is inserted. The rutella reinforce this pouch while the chelicerae break up the microorganism. Both types of mouthpart apparatus seem to be adapted to minimize waste, an appropriate specialization given the organically impoverished habitats in which these mites live.

  1. History of study, updated checklist, distribution and key of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from China

    PubMed Central

    DI, Zhi-Yong; YANG, Zi-Zhong; YIN, Shi-Jin; CAO, Zhi-Jian; LI, Wen-Xin

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided. PMID:24470450

  2. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  3. Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

    2002-05-01

    Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

  4. Whip spiders (Amblypygi, Arachnida) of the Western Palaearctic-a review.

    PubMed

    Blick, Theo; Seiter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    All records of the two amblypygid species occurring in the Western Palaearctic are mapped and both species (Charinus ioanniticus and Musicodamon atlanteus) are discussed. Charinus ioanniticus is known from the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) from 10 localities and Musicodamon atlanteus is known from the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria) from three localities. All records are mapped. PMID:27615955

  5. Infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to female ticks of Boophilus annulatus (Arachnida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Glazer, I

    1992-07-01

    Exposing Boophilus annulatus (Say) to different concentrations of Steinernema carpocapsae (Filipjev) infective juveniles in petri dishes (50-10,000 nematodes per dish) resulted in high mortality (greater than 90%) at nematode concentrations as low as 500 nematodes per dish within 8 d. At a concentration of 10,000 nematodes per dish, 100% of the ticks died within 2 d after infestation. After exposure to 500 nematodes per dish, complete mortality was achieved with the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain 'HP88' within 4 d. During the same period, only 15 and 40% mortality were recorded with the 'Mexican' and 'All' strains of S. carpocapsae, respectively. In a lethal dose analysis, S. carpocapsae strain 'DT' was the most infective strain with the lowest LD50 and LD90 values (15 and 165 infective juveniles per tick, respectively). The 'All' strain of S. carpocapsae was the least infective of the four strains tested, with LD50 and LD90 values of 372 and 9,251 infective juveniles/tick, respectively. Optimal temperature for tick control by the nematodes was between 22 and 26 degrees C. Mortality rate was reduced at 18 and 30 degrees C. The susceptibility of fully engorged ticks was not influenced by the weight of the replete females. Nematode infection did not have an adverse effect on egg laying by surviving ticks. PMID:1495070

  6. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts. PMID:25185669

  7. A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 occurs in both the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics and contains nearly half of the species in the family Selenopidae Simon, 1897. In this paper the members of the genus Selenops found in North America, Central America, and on islands of the Caribbean are revised, excluding Cuban endemics. No taxonomic changes are currently made to the species from the southwestern United States. In total, 21 new species are described, including Selenops arikok sp. n., Selenops chamela sp. n., Selenops amona sp. n., Selenops baweka sp. n., Selenops bocacanadensis sp. n., Selenops enriquillo sp. n, Selenops ixchel sp. n., Selenops huetocatl sp. n., Selenops kalinago sp. n., Selenops oviedo sp. n., Selenops morro sp. n., Selenops denia sp. n., Selenops duan sp. n., Selenops malinalxochitl sp. n., Selenops oricuajo sp. n., Selenops petenajtoy sp. n., Selenops guerrero sp. n., Selenops makimaki sp. n., Selenops souliga sp. n., Selenops wilmotorum sp. n., and Selenops wilsoni sp. n. Six species names were synonymized: Selenops lunatus Muma, 1953 syn. n. = Selenops candidus Muma, 1953; Selenops tehuacanus Muma 1953 syn. n., Selenops galapagoensis Banks, 1902 syn. n. and Selenops vagabundus Kraus, 1955 syn. n. = Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880; Selenops santibanezi Valdez-Mondragón, 2010 syn. n. = Selenops nigromaculatus Keyserling, 1880; and Selenops salvadoranus Chamberlin, 1925 syn. n. = Selenops bifurcatus Banks, 1909. Lectotypes are designated for the following three species: Selenops marginalis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 (♂), Selenops morosus Banks, 1898 (♂), and Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880 (♀). The female neotype is designated for Selenops aissus Walckenaer, 1837. The males of Selenops bani Alayón-García, 1992 and Selenops marcanoi Alayón-García, 1992 are described for the first time, and the females of Selenops phaselus Muma, 1953 and Selenops geraldinae Corronca, 1996 are described for the first time. Almost all species are redescribed, barring Cuban endemics and a few species recently described. New illustrations are provided, including those of the internal female copulatory organs, many of which are illustrated for the first time. A key to species is also provided as are new distributional records. PMID:21852919

  8. Phylogenomic resolution of paleozoic divergences in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) via analysis of next-generation transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Marshal; Starrett, James; Akhter, Sajia; Schönhofer, Axel L; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are rapidly transforming molecular systematic studies of non-model animal taxa. The arachnid order Opiliones (commonly known as "harvestmen") includes more than 6,400 described species placed into four well-supported lineages (suborders). Fossil plus molecular clock evidence indicates that these lineages were diverging in the late Silurian to mid-Carboniferous, with some fossil harvestmen representing the earliest known land animals. Perhaps because of this ancient divergence, phylogenetic resolution of subordinal interrelationships within Opiliones has been difficult. We present the first phylogenomics analysis for harvestmen, derived from comparative RNA-Seq data for eight species representing all suborders. Over 30 gigabases of original Illumina short-read data were used in de novo assemblies, resulting in 50-80,000 transcripts per taxon. Transcripts were compared to published scorpion and tick genomics data, and a stringent filtering process was used to identify over 350 putatively single-copy, orthologous protein-coding genes shared among taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using various partitioning strategies, data coding schemes, and analytical methods overwhelmingly support the "classical" hypothesis of Opiliones relationships, including the higher-level clades Palpatores and Phalangida. Relaxed molecular clock analyses using multiple alternative fossil calibration strategies corroborate ancient divergences within Opiliones that are possibly deeper than the recorded fossil record indicates. The assembled data matrices, comprising genes that are conserved, highly expressed, and varying in length and phylogenetic informativeness, represent an important resource for future molecular systematic studies of Opiliones and other arachnid groups. PMID:22936998

  9. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  10. Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae) in Atlantic Forest areas at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. New information This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed. PMID:26929710

  11. Two new species of Heterophrynus Pocock, 1894 from Colombia with distribution notes and a new synonymy (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Phrynidae).

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano B

    2013-01-01

    The genus Heterophrynus is for the first time recorded from Transandean areas. Heterophrynus boterorum sp. nov. and Heterophrynus silviae sp. nov. are described respectively from Tolima and Valle del Cauca departments, Colombia, based on material from the 2006 Arachnological Expedition of Museu Nacional to Colombia. Heterophrynus nicefori Amado & Morales, 1986, from Meta department is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Phrynus batesii Butler, 1873 (currently in Heterophrynus). Heterophrynus is currently known from Amazon forest, Brazilian Cerrado, Littoral Ridge of Venezuela and Andean forests. A revised terminology is proposed for the constituent parts of male and female gonopods of Heterophrynus.

  12. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts.

  13. A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic revision and a key to the species of the subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) Beier, 1930 from Italy, Corsica and the Swiss Canton of Ticino are provided. The species are arranged in two species-groups (tetrachelatus group and fuscimanus group) on the basis of the shape of pedipalpal hand and of the type of dentition of the fixed and movable chelal fingers. The following new species are described: i) in the tetrachelatus group: Chthonius (E.) altamurae n. sp. (♀, loc. typ.: Apulia, Bari Prov., Altamura, Grotta Lamalunga 1295 Pu/BA), C. (E.) elymus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Sicily, Trapani Prov., Custonaci, Abisso del Purgatorio 8064 Si/TP), Chthonius (E.) messapicus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Apulia, Brindisi Prov., San Pietro Vernotico, Cerano); ii) in the fuscimanus group: C. (E.) aeneae n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Sestri Levante, Punta Manara), C. (E.) etruscus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Tuscany, Grosseto Prov., Semproniano, Grotta di Montecchio 254 To/GR), C. (E.) gallii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Savona Prov., Bergeggi), C. (E.) intemelius n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., Apricale, Mt Cianela), C. (E.) latellai n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Latium, Latina Prov., Bassiano, Grotta di Fiume Coperto 1361 La/LT), C. (E.) ligur n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., near Baiardo), C. (E.) magrinii n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Latium, Frosinone Prov., San Giovanni Incarico, Grotta sulla strada per il Santuario della Madonna della Guardia n. c. La/FR), C. (E.) monguzzii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Lombardia, Brescia Prov., Sulzano, Oricina de la Pofa del Giardì 438 Lo/BS), C. (E.) sulphureus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Marche, Ancona Prov., Genga, Grotta di Frasassi 1 Ma/AN), C. (E.) tyrrhenicus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Genoa, Quinto al Mare, Mt Moro). The following new synonymies are proposed: Chthonius (E.) bauneensis Callaini, 1983 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E.) berninii Callaini, 1983 (n. syn.), C. (E.) aegatensis Callaini, 1989 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E.) berninii Callaini, 1983 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) maltensis Mahnert, 1975 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) concii Beier, 1953 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) bartolii Gardini, 1976 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) concii Beier, 1953 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) elbanus Beier, 1963 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) nanus Beier, 1953 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) cavicola Gardini, 1990 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) troglophilus Beier, 1930 (n. syn.). Thirty-nine species of Ephippiochthonius are known at present from the above-mentioned areas, of which one is presumably endemic to Sicily, four to Sardinia and four to Corsica. C. (E.) gibbus Beier, 1953 is excluded from the Ital-ian fauna and C. (E.) vachoni Heurtault-Rossi, 1963 is newly recorded from Italy. Chthonius (E.) poeninus Mahnert, 1979 is transferred to the subgenus Globochthonius Beier, 1931.

  14. Gross morphology, histology, and ultrastructure of the alimentary system of Ricinulei (Arachnida) with emphasis on functional and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Talarico, Giovanni; Lipke, Elisabeth; Alberti, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Ricinuleid functional mouthparts are the cucullus, the chelicerae, the pedipalps, and the labrum. These structures are movably jointed to the rest of the prosoma, most likely protruded upon hydrostatic hemolymph pressure and retracted by prosomal muscles. Seta-like protrusions from the labrum and the pedipalpal coxae form a sieve-like filter inside the preoral cavity and the mouth. Although the tip of the labrum can be elevated upon muscle constriction, ingestion of large, solid food particles is unlikely. The mouth has a crescent-shaped cross section. The cuticle-lined, also crescent-shaped pharynx is equipped with a large dilator muscle but lacks antagonistic constrictor muscles. It represents a precerebral sucking pump. The triangular to Y-shaped, cuticle-lined esophagus is equipped with constrictor and dilator muscles. Its posterior part represents a postcerebral sucking pump. Four blind ending diverticula ramify from the anterior prosomal part of the entodermal midgut tube. Two of these diverticula remain inside the prosoma and form few short branches. The other two extend through the pedicel into the opisthosoma and ramify and coil there. A stercoral pocket protrudes ventrally out of the midgut tube. The most distal part of the midgut tube is modified into a contractile rectal gland. Its secretions may have defensive or physiological functions. A short anal atrium is formed by the cuticle-lined ectodermal hindgut which opens at the end of the three-segmented metasoma. The telescoping segments of the metasoma are protruded by hemolymph pressure and retracted by muscles.

  15. Characterization of Platymessa with redescription of the type species and a new generic synonymy (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    PubMed

    Medrano, Miguel; Kury, Adriano B

    2016-03-01

    The genus Platymessa was originally described by Mello-Leitão and diagnosed following the Roewerian system. It originally included two species from the Colombian Andes. Subsequently, a third species was described: Platymessa transversalis Roewer, 1963, which is herein transferred to the genus Chusgonobius Roewer, 1952, forming the new combination Chusgonobius transversalis. Herein, an emended diagnosis is given to Platymessa, the type species, Platymessa h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941, is redescribed and P. nigrolimbata Mello-Leitão, 1941 is considered its junior subjective synonym. Brachylibitia Mello-Leitão, 1941, is herein considered a junior subjective synonym of Platymessa and its type species, Brachylibitia ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941, considered a species inquirenda, forming the new combination Platymessa ectroxantha. Genital morphology of Platymessa h-inscriptum is described and some characters are discussed regarding their importance in cosmetid taxonomy. Novel forms of sexual dimorphism are described in coxa IV.

  16. Characterization of Platymessa with redescription of the type species and a new generic synonymy (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    PubMed

    Medrano, Miguel; Kury, Adriano B

    2016-01-01

    The genus Platymessa was originally described by Mello-Leitão and diagnosed following the Roewerian system. It originally included two species from the Colombian Andes. Subsequently, a third species was described: Platymessa transversalis Roewer, 1963, which is herein transferred to the genus Chusgonobius Roewer, 1952, forming the new combination Chusgonobius transversalis. Herein, an emended diagnosis is given to Platymessa, the type species, Platymessa h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941, is redescribed and P. nigrolimbata Mello-Leitão, 1941 is considered its junior subjective synonym. Brachylibitia Mello-Leitão, 1941, is herein considered a junior subjective synonym of Platymessa and its type species, Brachylibitia ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941, considered a species inquirenda, forming the new combination Platymessa ectroxantha. Genital morphology of Platymessa h-inscriptum is described and some characters are discussed regarding their importance in cosmetid taxonomy. Novel forms of sexual dimorphism are described in coxa IV. PMID:27394288

  17. Many unique characteristics revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Lutz e Mello 1922) (Chelicerata; Arachnida).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Chagas, Aline Torres de Azevedo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-09-01

    This is the first complete mitochondrial genome of a Tityus species, although it is the most medically important genus in South America. Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian yellow scorpion) mtDNA revealed the same gene arrangement of three out of four other mitogenomes published by now for the same family (Centruroides limpidus, Mesobuthus gibbosus, M. martensii and Buthus occitanus). However, it presented many unique characteristics such as possession of Cox1 gene, different from all other protein-coding genes of scorpion mtDNA, starts with an atypical start codon (CTG). Moreover, no tRNA gene have complete typical secondary structure and the Tytius genome presented three non-coding regions longer than 100bp. Also, it contains the smallest scorpion 16S gene reported by now. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated homologous genes confirmed Buthidae as a monophyletic clade and supports a monophyletic group including T. serrulatus and the other American species, C. limpidus.

  18. Metabolic rates during rest and activity in differently tracheated spiders (Arachnida, Araneae): Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) and Marpissa muscosa (Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Anke

    2004-10-01

    With flow-through respirometry under video tracking, the CO(2) release of adult male and female Pardosa lugubris (wolf spider) and Marpissa muscosa (jumping spider) was measured during rest and activity. Activity metabolism was measured in phases in which the animals were spontaneously active and during forced exercise. Standard metabolic rates (V(CO2)/ t) were 1.43 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in M. muscosa and 1.7-1.8 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in P. lugubris. Egg production caused higher resting rates in females compared with the males in P. lugubris. Maximum mass-specific CO(2) release, the additional amount of CO(2 )released after activity and the factorial aerobic scope were higher in M. muscosa. Additionally, half-time recovery and the lag between end of activity and maximum CO(2) release were lower in the jumping spider. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the well-developed tracheal system in jumping spiders increases the efficiency of the respiratory system in comparison with wolf spiders, which possess similarly developed lungs but only a simple tracheal system that is restricted to the opisthosoma.

  19. Respiratory organs in wolf spiders: morphometric analysis of lungs and tracheae in Pardosa lugubris (L.) (Arachnida, Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Anke; Perry, Steven F

    2002-12-01

    The respiratory system of the wolf spider Pardosa lugubris consists of a pair of well-developed lungs and four unbranched tube tracheae. We used stereological morphometric methods to investigate the morphological diffusing capacity of the lungs and of the walls of the tracheae ('lateral diffusing capacity'). We examined three groups of female P. lugubris with different mean body masses. The barrier thickness of the gas-exchange epithelium of the lungs was 0.17 microm for the total diffusion barrier and the calculated oxygen diffusing capacity (D(O2)) for the lungs was between 12.9 and 13.4 microl min(-1)g(-1)kPa(-1). Measured metabolic rates compared with the D(O2) of the lungs result in necessary oxygen partial pressure differences of 0.2 kPa during rest and 2.1 kPa during maximum measured activity. The diffusion barrier of the entire tracheal walls was 0.31-0.50 microm and the calculated lateral D(O2) was 0.05-0.2 microl min(-1)g(-1)kPa(-1). Therefore, tracheae are of no importance for the overall oxygen exchange. However, they might be of some importance in local oxygen supply or in overall carbon dioxide release. The comparison with the respiratory system of the jumping spider Salticus scenicus reveals that the lungs have very similar mass-specific D(O2) in both species, and that, in addition, jumping spiders possess a much better developed tracheal system. PMID:18088982

  20. Relationship between radiocesium contamination and the contents of various elements in the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida).

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant seriously contaminated a large area in northeast Japan with a large amount of radioactive material. Consequently, various organisms, including arthropods, in the ecosystem have been contaminated with radiocesium ((137)Cs) through the food chain. We previously showed that the web spider Nephila clavata was contaminated with (137)Cs and that the level of contamination, which varied among spider individuals, was independent of the amount of prey consumed. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms that could determine the level of (137)Cs contamination in N. clavata. We first demonstrated the patterns of contents of over 30 elements in N. clavata that were collected at two forest sites (PS and ES) in Fukushima and then focused on the relationships between the contents of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, and Rb and the accumulation of (137)Cs in the spiders; Cs is an alkali metal and is expected to act similarly to Li, Na, K, and Rb. We also focused on the content of the non-alkali element, Cu, which is an essential element for oxygen transport in spiders. We found that Na content correlated positively with (137)Cs accumulation at both sites, which suggested that (137)Cs accumulation in N. clavata was related with the dynamics of Na. The K-, Rb-, and Cu-(137)Cs relationships were site specific; the relationships were significant at site PS, but not significant at site ES. Factors causing the site specific relationships and the probable pathway for (137)Cs transfer from soil to plants and then to higher trophic levels are discussed in terms of the transfer processes of the alkali metals.

  1. Relationship between radiocesium contamination and the contents of various elements in the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida).

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant seriously contaminated a large area in northeast Japan with a large amount of radioactive material. Consequently, various organisms, including arthropods, in the ecosystem have been contaminated with radiocesium ((137)Cs) through the food chain. We previously showed that the web spider Nephila clavata was contaminated with (137)Cs and that the level of contamination, which varied among spider individuals, was independent of the amount of prey consumed. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms that could determine the level of (137)Cs contamination in N. clavata. We first demonstrated the patterns of contents of over 30 elements in N. clavata that were collected at two forest sites (PS and ES) in Fukushima and then focused on the relationships between the contents of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, and Rb and the accumulation of (137)Cs in the spiders; Cs is an alkali metal and is expected to act similarly to Li, Na, K, and Rb. We also focused on the content of the non-alkali element, Cu, which is an essential element for oxygen transport in spiders. We found that Na content correlated positively with (137)Cs accumulation at both sites, which suggested that (137)Cs accumulation in N. clavata was related with the dynamics of Na. The K-, Rb-, and Cu-(137)Cs relationships were site specific; the relationships were significant at site PS, but not significant at site ES. Factors causing the site specific relationships and the probable pathway for (137)Cs transfer from soil to plants and then to higher trophic levels are discussed in terms of the transfer processes of the alkali metals. PMID:26378957

  2. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented.

  3. Description of two new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from Brazilian caves with remarks on conservation (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Ferreir, Rodrigo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    The genus Charinus comprises eleven described species in Brazil. Herein we describe two new species, Charinus caatingae sp n. and Charinus iuiu sp n., from caves of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Charinus caatingae is threatened, requiring special attention to its conservation. Furthermore, we present an updated identification key and a table of characters for the genus in the country. PMID:27395918

  4. Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Eraldo M Costa

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055

  5. First record of the family Pseudochiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from continental South America--a Pseudochiridium from a Brazilian cave.

    PubMed

    Von Schimonsky, Diego Monteiro; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Mahnert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America. 

  6. Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2014-06-09

    Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20 million years ago.

  7. Two new species of Piaroa (Arachnida: Schizomida, Hubbardiidae) from Colombia, with comments on the genus taxonomy and the flagellar setae pattern of Hubbardiinae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, Jairo A; Delgado-Santa, Leonardo; De Armas, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008, P. escalerete sp. nov. and P. bacata sp. nov. are described from Valle del Cauca, and Cundinamarca departments, Colombia, respectively. The female flagellum is fully illustrated for a Piaroa species for the first time; the generic diagnosis is also emended and the relationships of the new species with those previously described are discussed. New characters for Piaroa species, a new nomenclature for the chitinized arch and a reinterpretation of the Hubbardiinae flagellar setae pattern are proposed. A distribution map of the known species of Piaroa is provided.  PMID:25284395

  8. A new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from northeastern Brazil with comments on the potential distribution of the genus in Central and South Americas (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Charinus Simon, 1892 is described from caves in the Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the first record of the genus for the state. This paper presents a map of the Charinus species distribution in Brazil with new records and a map of potential distribution of the genus in South and Central Americas. An updated key for Charinus species from Brazil is also presented.

  9. Two new species of Piaroa (Arachnida: Schizomida, Hubbardiidae) from Colombia, with comments on the genus taxonomy and the flagellar setae pattern of Hubbardiinae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, Jairo A; Delgado-Santa, Leonardo; De Armas, Luis F

    2014-08-14

    Two new species of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008, P. escalerete sp. nov. and P. bacata sp. nov. are described from Valle del Cauca, and Cundinamarca departments, Colombia, respectively. The female flagellum is fully illustrated for a Piaroa species for the first time; the generic diagnosis is also emended and the relationships of the new species with those previously described are discussed. New characters for Piaroa species, a new nomenclature for the chitinized arch and a reinterpretation of the Hubbardiinae flagellar setae pattern are proposed. A distribution map of the known species of Piaroa is provided. 

  10. A remarkable new species of the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei) from Ecuador, with observations on the taxonomy of the New World genera.

    PubMed

    Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A new ricinuleid species, Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov., is described based on a male specimen from Northwest Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul, Estación Biológica Bilsa). This species is unique among all Cryptocellus in having very large longitudinal carapacial translucent areas together with a markedly incrassate femur of leg II. Representing only the second species of the order described from Ecuador, C. chimaera sp. nov. is assigned to the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874. Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov. is remarkable, for its morphology resembles that of Cryptocellus magnus Ewing, 1929, especially with regard to the male copulatory apparatus, although both resemble Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980, due to the presence of diffuse longitudinal carapacial translucent areas. Along with the new species description, a comparative diagnosis and supplementary images are provided for C. magnus. Based on direct observations of some species belonging to the five species-groups of Cryptocellus, we discuss on the occurrence of different morphologies of carapacial translucent areas within the genus. We deem it important to continue the survey of morphological characters, especially within Cryptocellus, in order to increase our understanding of the species-groups and to unravel their relationships. PMID:27394823

  11. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  12. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia’s Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  13. Neuropeptide discovery in the Araneae (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Arachnida): elucidation of true spider peptidomes using that of the Western black widow as a reference.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-03-01

    The public deposition of large transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) datasets for the Araneae (true spiders) provides a resource for determining the structures of the native neuropeptides present in members of this chelicerate order. Here, the Araneae TSA data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts using the recently deduced neuropeptide precursors from the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus as query templates. Neuropeptide-encoding transcripts from five spiders, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Stegodyphus mimosarum, Stegodyphus lineatus, Stegodyphus tentoriicola and Acanthoscurria geniculata, were identified, including ones encoding members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. A total of 156 distinct peptides were predicted from the precursor proteins deduced from the S. mimosarum transcripts, with 65, 26, 21 and 12 peptides predicted from those deduced from the A. geniculata, L. tredecimguttatus, S. lineatus and S. tentoriicola sequences, respectively. Among the peptides identified were variant isoforms of FLP, orcokinin and TRP, peptides whose structures are similar to ones previously identified from L. hesperus. The prediction of these atypical peptides from multiple spiders suggests that they may be broadly conserved within the Araneae rather than being species-specific variants. Taken collectively, the data described here greatly expand the number of known Araneae neuropeptides, providing a foundation for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in this important Chelicerate order.

  14. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

  15. Taxonomic revision of the crab spider genus Epicadus Simon, 1895 (Arachnida: Araneae: Thomisidae) with notes on related genera of Stephanopinae Simon, 1895.

    PubMed

    Silva-Moreira, Thiago Da; Machado, Miguel

    2016-08-04

    All species of Epicadus Simon, 1895 are reviewed and redescribed, including the previously unknown males of E. rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924 and E. planus Mello-Leitão, 1932. A new diagnosis based on morphological characters is proposed for the genus. Three valid species of Epicadus are recognized: E. heterogaster (Guérin-Méneville, 1829); E. rubripes and E. planus. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: E. granulatus Banks, 1909 is considered incertae sedis, most likely belonging to a new genus; E. h. scholagriculae Piza, 1933 is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. heterogaster; E. pallidus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924; E. nigronotatus Mello-Leitão, 1940 is considered junior subjective synonym of E. planus Mello-Leitão, 1932. Species distributions were updated with new records in the Neotropics, including Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela, which makes Epicadus a genus of Neotropical distribution.

  16. Two New Cave-Dwelling Species of the Short-Tailed Whipscorpion Genus Rowlandius (Arachnida: Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Northeastern Brazil, with Comments on Male Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adalberto J.; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes; Buzatto, Bruno A.

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the arachnid order Schizomida, Rowlandius ubajara sp.nov. and Rowlandius potiguar sp.nov., are described based on both male and female specimens collected in caves from northeastern Brazil. Rowlandius ubajara is known only from the Ubajara Cave, in the state of Ceará; R. potiguar is recorded from 20 caves of the Apodi Limestone Group, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. A remarkable dimorphism in male pedipalp length is described and analyzed in R. potiguar. The distribution of male pedipalp length is clearly bimodal in the species, but the two male morphs (homeomorphic and heteromorphic) present some overlap in the sizes of this structure. Moreover, males show a steeper allometry in pedipalp length than females, indicating that this trait is under a different selective regime in males and in females. PMID:23723989

  17. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  18. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.

  19. Taxonomic revision of the crab spider genus Epicadus Simon, 1895 (Arachnida: Araneae: Thomisidae) with notes on related genera of Stephanopinae Simon, 1895.

    PubMed

    Silva-Moreira, Thiago Da; Machado, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    All species of Epicadus Simon, 1895 are reviewed and redescribed, including the previously unknown males of E. rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924 and E. planus Mello-Leitão, 1932. A new diagnosis based on morphological characters is proposed for the genus. Three valid species of Epicadus are recognized: E. heterogaster (Guérin-Méneville, 1829); E. rubripes and E. planus. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: E. granulatus Banks, 1909 is considered incertae sedis, most likely belonging to a new genus; E. h. scholagriculae Piza, 1933 is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. heterogaster; E. pallidus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924; E. nigronotatus Mello-Leitão, 1940 is considered junior subjective synonym of E. planus Mello-Leitão, 1932. Species distributions were updated with new records in the Neotropics, including Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela, which makes Epicadus a genus of Neotropical distribution. PMID:27515619

  20. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  1. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods. PMID:25077523

  2. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) collected on rubber trees Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. in Santana, Amapá state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Souza, M S M; Mineiro, J L C; Adaime, R; Santos, R S

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X(®)), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species.

  3. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  4. Notes on the scorpions (Arachnida, Scorpiones) from Xizang with the redescription of Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 2000 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from Yunnan (China)

    PubMed Central

    Di, Zhiyong; Xu, Xiaobo; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Until now, there are 26 scorpion species of 7 genera of 5 families recorded in Xizang (China). Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) is the scorpion biodiversity richest area in China (53 scorpion species of 12 genera of 5 families), also the highest altitude habitat of scorpions in the world. We present information of type specimens, an identification key of the scorpion species from Xizang, the distribution, updated feature pictures, and discussion on the disputed species. The redescriptions of Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 2000 (Yunnan) and Scorpiops tibetanus Hirst, 1911 (Xizang), comments and feature figures of species of genus Scorpiops are provided for identification. PMID:23794894

  5. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) collected on rubber trees Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. in Santana, Amapá state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Souza, M S M; Mineiro, J L C; Adaime, R; Santos, R S

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X(®)), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species. PMID:23295522

  6. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  7. First Canadian record of the water mite Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 (Arachnida: Acariformes: Hydrachnidiae: Thermacaridae) from hot springs in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 is an uncommonly collected mite associated with hot spring environments in the western United States. Information on its distribution and ecology are incomplete. New information In this paper, we report Thermacarus nevadensis from northern British Columbia. These records represent the first of Thermacaridae from Canada, the most northern records of this species in North America, and the most northern records for the family globally. We also provide short notes and images of the habitats in which specimens have been collected in Canada.

  8. First Canadian record of the water mite Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 (Arachnida: Acariformes: Hydrachnidiae: Thermacaridae) from hot springs in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 is an uncommonly collected mite associated with hot spring environments in the western United States. Information on its distribution and ecology are incomplete. New information In this paper, we report Thermacarus nevadensis from northern British Columbia. These records represent the first of Thermacaridae from Canada, the most northern records of this species in North America, and the most northern records for the family globally. We also provide short notes and images of the habitats in which specimens have been collected in Canada. PMID:27660534

  9. A remarkable new species of the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei) from Ecuador, with observations on the taxonomy of the New World genera.

    PubMed

    Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro

    2016-05-03

    A new ricinuleid species, Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov., is described based on a male specimen from Northwest Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul, Estación Biológica Bilsa). This species is unique among all Cryptocellus in having very large longitudinal carapacial translucent areas together with a markedly incrassate femur of leg II. Representing only the second species of the order described from Ecuador, C. chimaera sp. nov. is assigned to the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874. Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov. is remarkable, for its morphology resembles that of Cryptocellus magnus Ewing, 1929, especially with regard to the male copulatory apparatus, although both resemble Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980, due to the presence of diffuse longitudinal carapacial translucent areas. Along with the new species description, a comparative diagnosis and supplementary images are provided for C. magnus. Based on direct observations of some species belonging to the five species-groups of Cryptocellus, we discuss on the occurrence of different morphologies of carapacial translucent areas within the genus. We deem it important to continue the survey of morphological characters, especially within Cryptocellus, in order to increase our understanding of the species-groups and to unravel their relationships.

  10. A new Amazonian species of Cryptocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei), with descriptions of its integumental structures and all free-living life stages.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy França; Salvatierra, Lidianne

    2014-06-06

    A new species of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874 is described, based on males, females and all free-living immature stages. Cryptocellus muiraquitan sp. nov. from Juruti, Pará, Brazil, is a member of the foedus group of species and probably closely related to Cryptocellus icamiabas Tourinho & Azevedo, 2007, C. abaporu Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha, 2003 and C. simonis Hansen & Sørensen, 1904. The new species is illustrated using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The large diversity of integumental structures of the new species is described and compared to that of previously studied species of Cryptocellus and Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980.

  11. A companion to Part 2 of the World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida): Laniatores – Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A series of databases is being prepared to list the valid species of Opiliones worldwide. This paper containing nomenclatural acts is meant to accompany Part 2, which includes the members of the infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the Grassatores currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). New information The following 32 taxonomic changes are proposed here: (1-3) The Afrotropical genera Hovanoceros Lawrence, 1959, Malgaceros Lawrence, 1959 and Tetebius Roewer, 1949 (all currently in Samoidae) are all newly transferred to Biantidae. (4-5) Microminua soerenseni Soares & Soares, 1954, from Brazil is newly transferred to Tibangara (Gonyleptoidea: Cryptogeobiidae), newly combined as Tibangara soerenseni new comb., new familial allocation for the species. (6-7) The new genus Llaguenia Gen. nov is erected for the South American species Zamora peruviana Roewer, 1956, newly combined as Llaguenia peruviana new comb., and newly placed in Gonyleptoidea: Cranaidae (Prostygninae). (8) Bebedoura Roewer, 1949, known from a single Brazilian species, is transferred from Tricommatinae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (9) Microconomma Roewer, 1915, known from a single Cameroonian species, is transferred from Samoidae to Grassatores incertae sedis. (10) Stygnomimus Roewer, 1927, with two Indomalayan species and hitherto included in the Stygnommatidae, is here formally considered Grassatores incertae sedis. (11) Bichito González-Sponga, 1998, known from a single Venezuelan species, originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Samoidae. (12) The Neotropical genus Microminua Sørensen, 1932, currently with two species, is newly transferred from Kimulidae to Samoidae. (13-14) Cornigera González-Sponga, 1987 (currently in Samoidae), is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Microminua, and its single species is combined under Microminua as Microminua flava (González-Sponga, 1987) new comb. (15) Niquitaia González-Sponga, 1999 (originally in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, currently in Zalmoxidae), monotypic from Venezuela, is newly transferred to Samoidae. (16) Heteroscotolemon Roewer, 1912 originally described in Phalangodidae: Phalangodinae, and currently in Grassatores incertae sedis is transferred to Zalmoxidae. (17) While the Australasian genus Zalmoxista Roewer, 1949 is currently in Samoidae and some of its former species have been transferred to Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886, Zalmoxista americana Roewer, 1952 from Peru, is here newly transferred to Zalmoxidae into Minuides Sørensen, 1932, forming the combination Minuides americanus (Roewer, 1952) new comb. (specific name inflected to match the masculine gender). (18) Neobabrius Roewer, 1949 (currently in Phalangodidae), monotypic from Indonesia, is newly transferred to Zalmoxidae. (19) While Crosbyella Roewer, 1927, belongs to Phalangodidae, Crosbyella roraima Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943 (originally Phalangodinae, but currently Zalmoxidae without generic assignment) is here transferred to Soledadiella González-Sponga, 1987, as Soledadiella roraima new comb. (Zalmoxoidea: Zalmoxidae). (20) Zalmoxissus Roewer, 1949 is newly synonymized with Zalmoxis Sørensen, 1886 (Zalmoxidae). (21) The original spelling Zalmoxis sorenseni Simon, 1892 is restored from the unjustified emendation soerenseni. (22) The Neotropical genus Phalangodella Roewer, 1912 (originally in Phalangodidae: Tricommatinae, but currently in Grassatores incertae sedis) is newly transferred to Zalmoxoidea incertae sedis and (23-26) four other genera are newly synonymized with it: Phalangodella Roewer, 1912 = Exlineia Mello-Leitão, 1942 = Langodinus Mello-Leitão, 1949 = Cochirapha Roewer, 1949 = Phalpuna Roewer, 1949, generating the following new combinations (27-32): Phalangodella fulvescens (Mello-Leitão, 1943) new comb., Phalangodella milagroi (Mello-Leitão, 1942) new comb., Phalangodella rhinoceros (Mello-Leitão, 1945) new comb., Phalangodella flavipes (Mello-Leitão, 1949) new comb., Phalangodella rugipes (Roewer, 1949) new comb. and Phalangodella urarmata (Roewer, 1949) new comb. PMID:26752966

  12. Population genomic evidence for multiple Pliocene refugia in a montane-restricted harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones, Sclerobunus robustus) from the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Derkarabetian, Shahan; Burns, Mercedes; Starrett, James; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-09-01

    The integration of ecological niche modelling into phylogeographic analyses has allowed for the identification and testing of potential refugia under a hypothesis-based framework, where the expected patterns of higher genetic diversity in refugial populations and evidence of range expansion of nonrefugial populations are corroborated with empirical data. In this study, we focus on a montane-restricted cryophilic harvestman, Sclerobunus robustus, distributed throughout the heterogeneous Southern Rocky Mountains and Intermontane Plateau of southwestern North America. We identified hypothetical refugia using ecological niche models (ENMs) across three time periods, corroborated these refugia with population genetic methods using double-digest RAD-seq data and conducted population-level phylogenetic and divergence dating analyses. ENMs identify two large temporally persistent regions in the mid-latitude highlands. Genetic patterns support these two hypothesized refugia with higher genetic diversity within refugial populations and evidence for range expansion in populations found outside hypothesized refugia. Phylogenetic analyses identify five to six genetically divergent, geographically cohesive clades of S. robustus. Divergence dating analyses suggest that these separate refugia date to the Pliocene and that divergence between clades pre-dates the late Pleistocene glacial cycles, while diversification within clades was likely driven by these cycles. Population genetic analyses reveal effects of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE), with IBD more important in the continuous mountainous portion of the distribution, while IBE was stronger in the populations inhabiting the isolated sky islands of the south. Using model-based coalescent approaches, we find support for postdivergence migration between clades from separate refugia. PMID:27483047

  13. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics - dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  14. Revision of the key characters for the Thricops nigrifrons species-group (Diptera, Muscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vikhrev, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An analysis of key characters for the separation of Thricops nigrifrons and Thricops longipes (Diptera, Muscidae) is given. A revised key for Thricops nigrifrons and related species, including two species recently described from the Caucasus, is proposed. PMID:21594046

  15. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-07-07

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

  16. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles. PMID:27395727

  17. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurilluslesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Pothalil A; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Joseph, Mathew M

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, Stenaelurillusalbus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of Stenaelurilluslesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported. PMID:25878537

  18. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Pothalil A.; Sankaran, Pradeep M.; Malamel, Jobi J.; Joseph, Mathew M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, Stenaelurillus albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported. PMID:25878537

  19. First record of the mygalomorph spider family Paratropididae (Arachnida, Araneae) in North America with the description of a new species of Paratropis Simon from Mexico, and with new ultramorphological data for the family

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro; Mendoza, Jorge I.; Francke, Oscar F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Paratropis is described from North America: Paratropis tuxtlensis sp. n., from a tropical rainforest in Veracruz, Mexico. This is the fifth Paratropis and the tenth paratropidid species described and the first North American record of this Neotropical family. The species is described based on adult males and females, and juveniles. The juveniles show ontogenetic variation in the number of cuspules on the labium and endites, and in the number and position of leg trichobothria. This is the second Paratropis species, and the third paratropidid known from both sexes. The scanning electron photographs (SEM) reveal new morphological data and contribute to the knowledge of the family. PMID:25061343

  20. Phlebotomine sandflies of Kenya (Diptera: Psychodidae). IV. The armature in the genital atrium of female Larroussius as a means of identification.

    PubMed

    Killick-Kendrick, R; Tang, Y; Killick-Kendrick, M

    1994-08-01

    Descriptions are given of armatures in the genital atria of the six known Kenyan species of phlebotomine sandflies of the subgenus, Larroussius, namely Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. elgonensis, P. guggisbergi, P. longipes, P. orientalis and P. pedifer. Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. longipes and P. pedifer can be recognized by the shapes of their armatures. Differences in the length and arrangement of the spines in the armature of P. elgonensis and P. longipes are diagnostic features. The distinguishing feature of P. guggisbergi is a wide variation in spine thickness. The most notable feature of P. orientalis is the angle at which the spines lie. The appearance of the base of the spermathecal duct remains the method of choice for the identification of all six but, if this feature is not well displayed in dissected females, they can be distinguished by the armature. It is suggested that descriptions of new species should include an illustration of the armature in the genital atrium.

  1. Replacement names for two preoccupied generic names in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Lorena; Silva, Juliana Paulo Da; Filho, Arlindo Serpa; Freitas, Joelcio

    2016-03-29

    The genus Ransonia Blandin, 1979 (Arachnida: Araneae) was established with description of a new species, Ransonia mahasoana of the family Pisauridae (Arachnida: Araneae) endemic from Mahasoa, Madagascar. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Ransonia Kramp, 1947, a genus of the family Rhopalonematidae (Hydrozoa: Trachymedusae) with only one species, Ransonia (Aglantha) krampi Ranson (1932), from Gibraltar, Mediterranean. According to article 60 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature a new substitute name is necessary, since Ransonia Blandin, 1979 does not have a junior synonym applicable and is a junior homonym of another genus. Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the spider genus as follows.

  2. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  3. Two new species of Microvelia Westwood, 1834 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gil, Dora N; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Only six species of Microvelia have been recorded from Colombia up to the present, namely M. ancona, M. hinei, M. leucothea, M. longipes, M. panamensis, and M. pulchella. Microvelia inguapi sp. n. and M. piedrancha sp. n. are herein described and compared with similar species. An identification key to the Colombian species of Microvelia is presented.  PMID:25113373

  4. On the genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae), with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tin-Yam; Cleva, Régis; Chu, Ka Hou

    2016-01-01

    The penaeid genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934a is revised with the aid of sequence data on the 12S and 16S rRNA genes. The species generally reported as "T. longipes" in recent literature was found to be not the true T. longipes (Paul'son, 1875) but a new species, herein named T. dentata sp. nov. To fix the identity of T. longipes, a neotype is selected and this action effectively synonymizes T. villaluzi (Muthu & Motoh, 1979) with T. longipes. Moreover, T. fulva (Dall, 1957) is synonymized with T. malaiana (Balss, 1933) while T. starobogatovi (Ivanov & Hassan, 1976) is confirmed to be a valid species. Two more new species are discovered, with T. parvispina sp. nov., widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, and T. crosnieri sp. nov., restricted to Australia. Altogether 12 species are recognized in Trachyalambria. The other valid species in this genus are T. curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860), T. aspera (Alcock, 1905), T. palaestinensis (Steinitz, 1932), T. brevisuturae (Burkenroad, 1934a), T. albicoma (Haysahi & Toriyama, 1980), and T. nansei Sakaji & Hayashi, 2003. Most characters previously used for separating the species of this genus are rather variable and their distinguishing characters are redefined. PMID:27515656

  5. Four new species of the spider genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980 from Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and the first description of the male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 with a proposed new diagnostic character for the family Nesticidae Simon, 1894 (Arachnida, Araneae).

    PubMed

    Grall, Elena; Jäger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    During various expeditions to Laos between 2003 and 2012 and one expedition to Myanmar in 2014, spiders of the family Nesticidae were collected inside and outside of caves. This was the first time this family was encountered in Laos. All specimens belong to the genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980. Four species have been recognized as being new to science, which are described in this paper: Nesticella beccus n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province, Luang Prabang Province, Huaphan Province, Khammouan Province, THAILAND: Mae Hong Son Province), Nesticella laotica n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Vientiane Province, Huaphan Province, Luang Prabang Province, Bolikhamsay Province), Nesticella foelixi n. sp. (male; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province) and Nesticella michaliki n. sp. (male, female; MYANMAR: Chin State). The male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 is described for the first time and it is the first record for Laos. Results from a first micro-computed tomography analysis of a female copulatory organ for this genus are provided. This analysis proves that female Nesticella exhibit a complex functional receptaculum, which is highly complex within the genus. The presence of a special type of leg setae (pipette setae) in males is proposed as diagnostic for the family Nesticidae. PMID:27394301

  6. Islands beneath islands: phylogeography of a groundwater amphipod crustacean in the Balearic archipelago

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) is an enigmatic continental subterranean water family of marine origin (thalassoid). One of the species in the genus, Metacrangonyx longipes, is endemic to the Balearic islands of Mallorca and Menorca (W Mediterranean). It has been suggested that the origin and distribution of thalassoid crustaceans could be explained by one of two alternative hypotheses: (1) active colonization of inland freshwater aquifers by a marine ancestor, followed by an adaptative shift; or (2) passive colonization by stranding of ancestral marine populations in coastal aquifers during marine regressions. A comparison of phylogenies, phylogeographic patterns and age estimations of clades should discriminate in favour of one of these two proposals. Results Phylogenetic relationships within M. longipes based on three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and one nuclear marker revealed five genetically divergent and geographically structured clades. Analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA data showed the occurrence of a high geographic population subdivision in both islands, with current gene flow occurring exclusively between sites located in close proximity. Molecular-clock estimations dated the origin of M. longipes previous to about 6 Ma, whereas major cladogenetic events within the species took place between 4.2 and 2.0 Ma. Conclusions M. longipes displayed a surprisingly old and highly fragmented population structure, with major episodes of cladogenesis within the species roughly correlating with some of the major marine transgression-regression episodes that affected the region during the last 6 Ma. Eustatic changes (vicariant events) -not active range expansion of marine littoral ancestors colonizing desalinated habitats-explain the phylogeographic pattern observed in M. longipes. PMID:21791038

  7. Using hand proportions to test taxonomic boundaries within the Tupaia glis species complex (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargos, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    Treeshrews (order Scandentia) comprise 2 families of squirrel-sized terrestrial, arboreal, and scansorial mammals distributed throughout much of tropical South and Southeast Asia. The last comprehensive taxonomic revision of treeshrews was published in 1913, and a well-supported phylogeny clarifying relationships among all currently recognized extant species within the order has only recently been published. Within the family Tupaiidae, 2 widely distributed species, the northern treeshrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner, 1841), and the common treeshrew, T. glis (Diard, 1820), represent a particularly vexing taxonomic complex. These 2 species are currently distinguished primarily based on their respective distributions north and south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and on their different mammae counts. This problematic species complex includes 54 published synonyms, many of which represent putative island endemics. The widespread T. glis and T. belangeri collectively comprise a monophyletic assemblage representing the sister lineage to a clade composed of the golden-bellied treeshrew, T. chrysogaster Miller, 1903 (Mentawai Islands), and the long-footed treeshrew, T. longipes (Thomas, 1893) (Borneo). As part of a morphological investigation of the T. glis–T. belangeri complex, we studied the proportions of hand bones, which have previously been shown to be useful in discriminating species of soricids (true shrews). We measured 38 variables from digital X-ray images of 148 museum study skins representing several subspecies of T. glis, T. belangeri, T. chrysogaster, and T. longipes and analyzed these data using principal components and cluster analyses. Manus proportions among these 4 species readily distinguish them, particularly in the cases of T. chrysogaster and T. longipes. We then tested the distinctiveness of several of the populations comprising T. glis and T. longipes. T. longipes longipes and T. l. salatana Lyon, 1913, are distinguishable from each

  8. Abundance and Diversity of Soil Arthropods in the Olive Grove Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  9. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.

  10. Reflecting optics in the diverticular eye of a deep-sea barreleye fish (Rhynchohyalus natalensis).

    PubMed

    Partridge, J C; Douglas, R H; Marshall, N J; Chung, W-S; Jordan, T M; Wagner, H-J

    2014-05-01

    We describe the bi-directed eyes of a mesopelagic teleost fish, Rhynchohyalus natalensis, that possesses an extensive lateral diverticulum to each tubular eye. Each diverticulum contains a mirror that focuses light from the ventro-lateral visual field. This species can thereby visualize both downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence over a wide field of view. Modelling shows that the mirror is very likely to be capable of producing a bright, well focused image. After Dolichopteryx longipes, this is only the second description of an eye in a vertebrate having both reflective and refractive optics. Although superficially similar, the optics of the diverticular eyes of these two species of fish differ in some important respects. Firstly, the reflective crystals in the D. longipes mirror are derived from a tapetum within the retinal pigment epithelium, whereas in R. natalensis they develop from the choroidal argentea. Secondly, in D. longipes the angle of the reflective crystals varies depending on their position within the mirror, forming a Fresnel-type reflector, but in R. natalensis the crystals are orientated almost parallel to the mirror's surface and image formation is dependent on the gross morphology of the diverticular mirror. Two remarkably different developmental solutions have thus evolved in these two closely related species of opisthoproctid teleosts to extend the restricted visual field of a tubular eye and provide a well-focused image with reflective optics.

  11. Reflecting optics in the diverticular eye of a deep-sea barreleye fish (Rhynchohyalus natalensis).

    PubMed

    Partridge, J C; Douglas, R H; Marshall, N J; Chung, W-S; Jordan, T M; Wagner, H-J

    2014-05-01

    We describe the bi-directed eyes of a mesopelagic teleost fish, Rhynchohyalus natalensis, that possesses an extensive lateral diverticulum to each tubular eye. Each diverticulum contains a mirror that focuses light from the ventro-lateral visual field. This species can thereby visualize both downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence over a wide field of view. Modelling shows that the mirror is very likely to be capable of producing a bright, well focused image. After Dolichopteryx longipes, this is only the second description of an eye in a vertebrate having both reflective and refractive optics. Although superficially similar, the optics of the diverticular eyes of these two species of fish differ in some important respects. Firstly, the reflective crystals in the D. longipes mirror are derived from a tapetum within the retinal pigment epithelium, whereas in R. natalensis they develop from the choroidal argentea. Secondly, in D. longipes the angle of the reflective crystals varies depending on their position within the mirror, forming a Fresnel-type reflector, but in R. natalensis the crystals are orientated almost parallel to the mirror's surface and image formation is dependent on the gross morphology of the diverticular mirror. Two remarkably different developmental solutions have thus evolved in these two closely related species of opisthoproctid teleosts to extend the restricted visual field of a tubular eye and provide a well-focused image with reflective optics. PMID:24648222

  12. Reflecting optics in the diverticular eye of a deep-sea barreleye fish (Rhynchohyalus natalensis)

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, J. C.; Douglas, R. H.; Marshall, N. J.; Chung, W.-S.; Jordan, T. M.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the bi-directed eyes of a mesopelagic teleost fish, Rhynchohyalus natalensis, that possesses an extensive lateral diverticulum to each tubular eye. Each diverticulum contains a mirror that focuses light from the ventro-lateral visual field. This species can thereby visualize both downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence over a wide field of view. Modelling shows that the mirror is very likely to be capable of producing a bright, well focused image. After Dolichopteryx longipes, this is only the second description of an eye in a vertebrate having both reflective and refractive optics. Although superficially similar, the optics of the diverticular eyes of these two species of fish differ in some important respects. Firstly, the reflective crystals in the D. longipes mirror are derived from a tapetum within the retinal pigment epithelium, whereas in R. natalensis they develop from the choroidal argentea. Secondly, in D. longipes the angle of the reflective crystals varies depending on their position within the mirror, forming a Fresnel-type reflector, but in R. natalensis the crystals are orientated almost parallel to the mirror's surface and image formation is dependent on the gross morphology of the diverticular mirror. Two remarkably different developmental solutions have thus evolved in these two closely related species of opisthoproctid teleosts to extend the restricted visual field of a tubular eye and provide a well-focused image with reflective optics. PMID:24648222

  13. Looking like Limulus? – Retinula axons and visual neuropils of the median and lateral eyes of scorpions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing interest in the neurophysiology of visual systems in scorpions, aspects of their neuroanatomy have received little attention. Lately sets of neuroanatomical characters have contributed important arguments to the discussion of arthropod ground patterns and phylogeny. In various attempts to reconstruct phylogeny (from morphological, morphological + molecular, or molecular data) scorpions were placed either as basalmost Arachnida, or within Arachnida with changing sister-group relationships, or grouped with the extinct Eurypterida and Xiphosura inside the Merostomata. Thus, the position of scorpions is a key to understanding chelicerate evolution. To shed more light on this, the present study for the first time combines various techniques (Cobalt fills, DiI / DiO labelling, osmium-ethyl gallate procedure, and AMIRA 3D-reconstruction) to explore central projections and visual neuropils of median and lateral eyes in Euscorpius italicus (Herbst, 1800) and E. hadzii Di Caporiacco, 1950. Results Scorpion median eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil, while some fibres additionally connect the median eyes with the arcuate body. The lateral eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil as well, with the second neuropil being partly shared by projections from both eyes. Conclusions Comparing these results to previous studies on the visual systems of scorpions and other chelicerates, we found striking similarities to the innervation pattern in Limulus polyphemus for both median and lateral eyes. This supports from a visual system point of view at least a phylogenetically basal position of Scorpiones in Arachnida, or even a close relationship to Xiphosura. In addition, we propose a ground pattern for the central projections of chelicerate median eyes. PMID:23842208

  14. Sensitivity and response time of three common Antarctic marine copepods to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lara Marcus; King, Catherine K; Payne, Sarah J; Virtue, Patti

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of Antarctic marine organisms to metals is essential in order to manage environmental contamination risks. To date toxicity studies conducted on Antarctic marine species are limited. This study is the first to examine the acute effects of copper and cadmium on three common coastal Antarctic copepods: the calanoids Paralabidocera antarctica and Stephos longipes, and the cyclopoid Oncaea curvata. These copepods responded slowly to metal exposure (4-7d) emphasising that the exposure period of 48-96 h commonly used in toxicity tests with temperate and tropical species is not appropriate for polar organisms. We found that a longer 7 d exposure period was the minimum duration appropriate for Antarctic copepods. Although sensitivity to metal exposure varied between species, copper was more toxic than cadmium in all three species. P.antarctica was the most sensitive with 7d LC50 values for copper and cadmium of 20 μg L(-1) and 237 μg L(-1) respectively. Sensitivities to copper were similar for both O. curvata (LC50=64 μg L(-1)) and S. longipes (LC50=56 μg L(-1)), while O. curvata was more sensitive to cadmium (LC50=901 μg L(-1)) than S. longipes (LC50=1250 μg L(-1)). In comparison to copepods from lower latitudes, Antarctic copepods were more sensitive to copper and of similar sensitivity or less sensitive to cadmium. This study highlights the need for longer exposure periods in toxicity tests with slow responding Antarctic biota in order to generate relevant sensitivity data for inclusion in site-specific environmental quality guidelines for Antarctica.

  15. Venomous and poisonous arthropods: identification, clinical manifestations of envenomation, and treatments used in human injuries.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Amorim, Paulo Cezar Haddad de; Haddad Junior, William Teixeira; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil); the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes); and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas), Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees), and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

  16. Kuznetsovia, a new generic replacement name for Aenigma Kuznetsova, 1957 (Ostracoda) non Newman, 1836 (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The generic name Aenigma was proposed by Kuznetsova (1957: 68; type species A. jucunda Kuznetsova, by original designation) for a new fossil ostracod genus from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) of Tegchaj, North-Eastern Azerbaijan, former USSR (Transcaucasia). However, this name is already preoccupied by a marine gastropod molluscan generic name Aenigma Newman (1836: 499), which is in active current use in zoology (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Besides this earliest generic name, a few homonyms were also known: Aenigma Amsel (1956: 288) [Lepidoptera], Aenigma Koch (in Martin & Chemnitz 1846: 1, unpaginated) [Mollusca], Aenigma Karsch (1878: 825) [Arachnida], Aenigma Strecker (1876: 122) [Lepidoptera]. PMID:27395148

  17. Venomous and poisonous arthropods: identification, clinical manifestations of envenomation, and treatments used in human injuries.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Amorim, Paulo Cezar Haddad de; Haddad Junior, William Teixeira; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil); the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes); and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas), Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees), and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). PMID:26676488

  18. Phylogenetic position of Cryothecomonas inferred from nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Lange, M; Medlin, L K

    2000-12-01

    The systematic position of the genus Cryothecomonas has been determined from an analysis of the nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Cryothecomonas longipes and two strains of Cryothecomonas aestivalis. Our phylogenetic trees inferred from maximum likelihood, distance and maximum parsimony methods robustly show that the genus Cryothecomonas clusters within the phylum Cercozoa, and is related to the sarcomonad flagellate Heteromita globosa. Morphological data supporting the taxonomic placement of Cryothecomonas near the sarcomonad flagellates has been compiled from the literature. The high number of nucleotide substitutions found between two morphologically indistinguishable strains of Cryothecomonas aestivalis suggests the possibility of cryptic species within Cryothecomonas aestivalis. PMID:11212894

  19. [Analysis phylogenetic relationship of Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-shuang; Li, Hai-tao; Wang, Zhou-yong; Cui, Zhan-hu; Yu, Li-ying

    2015-05-01

    The sequences of ITS, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH of 9 Gynostemma species or variety including 38 samples were compared and analyzed by molecular phylogeny method. Hemsleya macrosperma was designated as outgroup. The MP and NJ phylogenetic tree of Gynostemma was built based on ITS sequence, the results of PAUP phylogenetic analysis showed the following results: (1) The eight individuals of G. pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum were not supported as monophyletic in the strict consensus trees and NJ trees. (2) It is suspected whether G. longipes and G. laxum should be classified as the independent species. (3)The classification of subgenus units of Gynostemma plants is supported.

  20. Identification and sequence determination of a novel double-stranded RNA mycovirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Sipkova, Jana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2015-03-01

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was found to contain five double-stranded (ds) RNA elements ranging from 1.5 to more than 3 kbp. The complete sequence of the largest dsRNA element is described here. Analysis of the RdRp nucleotide sequence reveals its similarity to unclassified dsRNA elements, such as Alternaria longipes dsRNA virus 1, and its distant relationship to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of members of the family Partitiviridae. PMID:25577168

  1. Sperm carriers in Silurian sea scorpions.

    PubMed

    Kamenz, Carsten; Staude, Andreas; Dunlop, Jason A

    2011-10-01

    Invasion of the land by arachnids required adaptations of numerous organs, such as gills evolving into lungs, as well as mechanisms facilitating sperm transfer in a terrestrial environment. Many modern arachnids use spermatophores for this purpose, i.e. sperm transmitters detached from the body. Exceptionally preserved Silurian (423 Ma) fossils of Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus Fischer, 1839 (Chelicerata: Eurypterida) preserve so-called 'horn organs' which we here demonstrate as being equivalent to the spermatophore-producing parts of the genital tract in certain modern arachnids. This clarifies a long-running debate about sexing eurypterids based on the shape of the median abdominal (or genital) appendage. To our knowledge this is also the oldest direct evidence for spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer in the fossil record and suggests that eurypterids had evolved mating techniques using spermatophores as early as the Silurian, a valuable prerequisite for life on land. Spermatophores are absent in sea spiders (Pycnogonida) and horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura); thus the shared presence of sclerotized sperm-transfer devices in eurypterids and arachnids is a novel character, newly elucidated here, which offers explicit support for (Eurypterida + Arachnida). For this clade the name Sclerophorata n. nov. is proposed. Arachnida can be further defined by fusion of the originally paired genital opening. PMID:21892606

  2. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R; Puttick, Mark N; Blaxter, Mark; Vinther, Jakob; Olesen, Jørgen; Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Pisani, Davide

    2016-07-19

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325830

  3. Sperm carriers in Silurian sea scorpions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenz, Carsten; Staude, Andreas; Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-10-01

    Invasion of the land by arachnids required adaptations of numerous organs, such as gills evolving into lungs, as well as mechanisms facilitating sperm transfer in a terrestrial environment. Many modern arachnids use spermatophores for this purpose, i.e. sperm transmitters detached from the body. Exceptionally preserved Silurian (423 Ma) fossils of Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus Fischer, 1839 (Chelicerata: Eurypterida) preserve so-called `horn organs' which we here demonstrate as being equivalent to the spermatophore-producing parts of the genital tract in certain modern arachnids. This clarifies a long-running debate about sexing eurypterids based on the shape of the median abdominal (or genital) appendage. To our knowledge this is also the oldest direct evidence for spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer in the fossil record and suggests that eurypterids had evolved mating techniques using spermatophores as early as the Silurian, a valuable prerequisite for life on land. Spermatophores are absent in sea spiders (Pycnogonida) and horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura); thus the shared presence of sclerotized sperm-transfer devices in eurypterids and arachnids is a novel character, newly elucidated here, which offers explicit support for (Eurypterida + Arachnida). For this clade the name Sclerophorata n. nov. is proposed. Arachnida can be further defined by fusion of the originally paired genital opening.

  4. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    PubMed Central

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  5. [Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil: infestation rates and the host-parasite association].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ciro L C; Dias, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Fernanda S; Lobato, Keliane S; Rosa, Luciana C; Oliveira, Tadeu G; Rebêlo, José M M

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first records of the parasitism rates of the association among ectoparasitic flies of the family Streblidae found in phyllostomid bats in the state of Maranhão. Specimens were collected in patches of secondary forest and borders of mangrove in the village of Quebra Pote, located in the south portion of the island of São Luís. A total of 201 flies of 15 species and eight genera [Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, A. phyllostomatis (Perty), Mastoptera minuta Costa Lima, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Séguy), Speiseria ambigua Kessel, Stizostrebla longirotris Jobling, Strebla guajiro (García & Casal), S. hertigi Wenzel, Trichobioides perspicillatus (Pessôa & Galvão), Trichobius costalimai Guimarães, T. dugesii Townsend, T. dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, T. joblingi Wenzel and T. longipes (Rudow)] were collected from 50 individuals of nine species of phyllostomid bats [Artibeus lituratus (Olfers), A. obscurus Schinz, Carollia perspicillata L., Glossophaga soricina Pallas, Lophostoma carrikeri J A Allen, Micronycteris minuta Gervais, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, P.hastatus Pallas and Sturnira lilium E Geoffroy)]. Mastoptera minuta, T. costalimai, T. longipes, A. falcata and S. longirostris, were the most frequently found ectoparasites, present in at least 50% of the infected bats. Two species of bats, C. perspicillata e P. discolor, showed the highest richness of ectoparasites, with four species of flies each, and an infection rate of 46% and 100%, respectively.

  6. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  7. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of two extinct potoroid marsupials, Potorous platyops and Caloprymnus campestris (Potoroinae: Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Westerman, M; Loke, S; Springer, M S

    2004-05-01

    Complete 12S rRNA and partial cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences have been obtained from museum samples of two recently extinct potoroids-Potorous platyops and Caloprymnus campestris. Phylogenetic analyses based on these mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest that the broad-faced potoroo (P. platyops) was a close relative of the recently discovered Potorous longipes and the recently re-discovered Potorous gilberti. Although the extinct desert rat-kangaroo (C. campestris) was clearly resolved as a member of the subfamily Potoroinae, its precise relationships vis a vis other living potoroines are unclear. We confirmed that the rufous rat-kangaroo (Aepyprymnus rufescens) is sister to all living Bettongia species, but the molecular data provide no support for a sister relationship between A. rufescens and C. campestris as suggested by on the basis of four shared morphological characters. Molecular dating analyses suggest that the initial radiation of potoroinae seems to have occurred soon after its origin in the early Miocene. Within Potoroinae, C. campestris diverged from other taxa approximately 16 million years ago. P. platyops diverged from P. longipes+P. gilberti approximately 14-15 million years ago.

  8. Identification and Characterization of an Antifungal Protein, AfAFPR9, Produced by Marine-Derived Aspergillus fumigatus R9.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qi; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    A fungal strain, R9, was isolated from the South Atlantic sediment sample and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. An antifungal protein, AfAFPR9, was purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus R9. AfAFPR9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. AfAFPR9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria longipes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.6, 0.6, 1.2, 1.2, and 2.4 μg/disc, respectively. Moreover, AfAFPR9 exhibited a certain extent of thermostability, and metal ion and denaturant tolerance. The iodoacetamide assay showed that the disulfide bridge in AfAFPR9 was indispensable for its antifungal action. The cDNA encoding for AfAFPR9 was cloned from A. fumigatus R9 by RTPCR and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant AfAFPR9 protein exhibited obvious antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, T. viride, and A. longipes. These results reveal the antifungal properties of a RIP member (AfAFPR9) from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus and indicated its potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:25394604

  9. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has been the avoidance of patches with high predation risk. Less attention has been given to the dense web produced by spider mites, which is a complex structure of silken threads that is thought to hinder predators. Here, we investigate the effects of the web produced by the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, on its interactions with the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes Evans. We tested whether female spider mites recognize predator cues and whether these can induce the spider mites to produce denser web. We found that the prey did not produce denser web in response to such cues, but laid more eggs suspended in the web, away from the leaf surface. These suspended eggs suffered less from predation by P. longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring.

  10. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by natural extracts used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, María T; Jimenez, Nuria; Garrido, Gabino; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Menendez, Roberto; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, María J

    2009-02-01

    Different medicinal plants are widely used in Cuba and Mexico to treat several disorders. This paper reports in vitro inhibitory effects on the P450 system of herbal products commonly used by people in Cuba and Mexico in traditional medicine for decades. Experiments were conducted in human liver microsomes. The catalytic activities of CYP1A1/2, 2D6, and 3A4 were measured using specific probe substrates. The Heliopsis longipes extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the three enzymes, and similar effects were produced by affinin (an alkamide isolated from the H. longipes extract) and two catalytically reduced alkamides. Mangifera indica L. and Thalassia testudinum extracts, two natural polyphenol-rich extracts, diminished CYP1A1/2 and 3A4 activities, but not the CYP2D6 activity. These results suggest that these herbs inhibit the major human P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and could induce potential herbal-drug interactions.

  11. Temporal changes in the sensitivity of coastal Antarctic zooplankton communities to diesel fuel: a comparison between single- and multi-species toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah J; King, Catherine K; Zamora, Lara Marcus; Virtue, Patti

    2014-04-01

    Despite increasing human activity and risk of fuel spills in Antarctica, little is known about the impact of fuel on Antarctic marine fauna. The authors performed both single- and multi-species (whole community) acute toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of an Antarctic coastal zooplankton community to the water-accommodated fraction of Special Antarctic Blend diesel. Single-species tests using abundant copepods Oncaea curvata, Oithona similis, and Stephos longipes allowed comparisons of sensitivity of key taxa and of sensitivity estimates obtained from traditional single-species and more novel multi-species tests. Special Antarctic Blend diesel caused significant mortality and species compositional change in the zooplankton community within 4 d to 7 d. The sensitivity of the community also increased across the summer sampling period, with decreasing 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 1091 µg TPH/L in early January 2011, 353 µg TPH/L in mid January 2011, and 186 µg TPH/L in early February 2011. Copepods showed similar sensitivities to Special Antarctic Blend diesel in single-species tests (7-d LC50s: O. curvata, 158 µg TPH/L; O. similis, 176 µg TPH/L; S. longipes, 188 µg TPH/L). The combined use of single- and multi-species toxicity tests is a holistic approach to assessing the sensitivity of key species and the interactions and interdependence between species, enabling a broader understanding of the effects of fuel exposure on the whole zooplankton community.

  12. Proteomic-Based Insight into Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi-ping; Yi, Qi-ying; Hu, Cui-mei; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qing-you; Zhao, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) and Absolute protein expression (APEX) analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera. PMID:24098719

  13. First Biosynthetic pathway of 1-hepten-3-one in Iporangaia pustulosa (Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Daniele F. O.; Wouters, Felipe C.; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J.

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods produce a great variety of natural compounds, many of which have unexplored biosynthesis. Among the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the suborder Laniatores, the defensive gland exudates contain vinyl ketones and other constituents of supposed polyketide origin. We have studied the biosynthesis of 1-hepten-3-one in the Neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa by feeding individuals with 13C-labeled precursors, demonstrating its mixed acetate/propionate origin. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed an unusual labeling pattern suggesting different propionate sources for starting and extender units. Our analysis also indicates the presence of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, converting acetate into propionyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA, together with other C3 unit routes. This is the first biosynthetic study of alkyl vinyl ketones in arthropods. Our results shed light on the origin and diversification of chemical compounds in a major arthropod group. PMID:24193576

  14. Circular dichroism study of the hemocyanin thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova Georgieva, Dessislava; Stoeva, Stanka; Abid Ali, Syed; Abbasi, Atiya; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to investigate the thermostability of six arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs), representatives of the subphyla Crustacea (infraorder Brachyura) and Chelicerate (infraorders Xiphosura and Arachnida), and three molluscan Hcs from gastropod organisms. Melting points ( Tm) are determined from the temperature dependence of ellipticity of dioxygen-binding proteins from Maia squinado, Callinectes sapidus, Carcinus maenas, Limulus polyphemus, Buthus sindicus, Androctonus australis, Megathura crenulata, Haliotis tuberculata, and Rapana thomasiana. Both, arthropod and molluscan Hcs, are thermostable proteins with melting temperatures in the region 68-91°C. Binuclear dioxygen-binding sites contribute significantly to the thermostability and increase the Tm values of the apo-forms by 3-16°C. An elevated thermostability is observed in the case of the Limulus polyphemus Hc. One of the reasons is the high degree of hemocyanin oligomerization.

  15. First Biosynthetic pathway of 1-hepten-3-one in Iporangaia pustulosa (Opiliones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Daniele F. O.; Wouters, Felipe C.; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J.

    2013-11-01

    Arthropods produce a great variety of natural compounds, many of which have unexplored biosynthesis. Among the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the suborder Laniatores, the defensive gland exudates contain vinyl ketones and other constituents of supposed polyketide origin. We have studied the biosynthesis of 1-hepten-3-one in the Neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa by feeding individuals with 13C-labeled precursors, demonstrating its mixed acetate/propionate origin. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed an unusual labeling pattern suggesting different propionate sources for starting and extender units. Our analysis also indicates the presence of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, converting acetate into propionyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA, together with other C3 unit routes. This is the first biosynthetic study of alkyl vinyl ketones in arthropods. Our results shed light on the origin and diversification of chemical compounds in a major arthropod group.

  16. Entomofauna of Ziban Oasis, Biskra, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Deghiche-Diab, Nassima; Porcelli, Francisco; Belhamra, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    An inventory was carried out at five stations in the oasis of Ziban, an oasis that is characterized by its high-quality dates, in order to study the relationships between the oasis ecosystem and its insect fauna. Specimens were sampled using pitfall traps containing ethylene glycol as a preservative. In total, 115 arthropod species were collected during 5 months of survey. These species belonged to 61 families, 17 orders, and 4 classes (12 orders from Insecta, 3 from Arachnida, 1 from Chilopoda, and 1 from Malocostraca). The most represented insect orders were Coleoptera (44.42%), Hymenoptera (20.86%), and Lepidoptera (7.87%). Represented in the collections were phytophagous, omnivorous, and predator/parasite species. Given the large number of species collected, and the largely unknown relationships existing between the various ecological groups, this study is a first step in the description of the oasis entomofauna. PMID:25855607

  17. Intrinsic resistance to the lethal effects of x-irradiation in insect and arachnid cells

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve cell lines representing 10 genera of three orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera) of the class Insecta and one cell line (Acarina) from the class Arachnida were examined to discern their sensitivity to the lethal effects of x-irradiation. Radiosensitivity was measured by a combination of colony formation and population growth curve techniques. Each of these arthropod cell lines is significantly more radioresistant than mammalian cells, though the degree of resistance varies greatly with order. Dipteran cells are 3 to 9 times and lepidopteran cells 52 to 104 times more radioresistant than mammalian cells. Orthopteran and acarine cells are intermediate in radiosensitivity between dipteran and lepidopteran cells. These cells, especially the lepidopteran, should be valuable in determining the molecular nature of repair mechanisms that result in resistance to ionizing radiation. PMID:16593348

  18. High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids

    PubMed Central

    Garwood, Russell; Dunlop, Jason A.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to maximize data recovery from siderite-hosted fossils is presented. Late Carboniferous trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) from Coseley, UK, were chosen to assess the potential of high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (XMT). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction visualizes the animals at 20 µm or better resolution, resolving subtle and previously unseen details. Novel data recovered includes (possibly plesiomorphic) retention of endites on leg coxae of Cryptomartus hindi (Anthracomartidae) and highlights further similarities between this family and the Devonian Palaeocharinidae. Also revealed is a flattened body with robust anterior limbs, implying a hunting stance similar to modern crab spiders (Thomisidae). Eophrynus prestvicii (Eophrynidae) had more gracile limbs but a heavily ornamented body, with newly identified upward-pointing marginal spines on the opisthosoma. Its habitus is comparable with certain modern laniatorid harvestmen (Opiliones). These findings demonstrate the potential of XMT to revolutionize the study of siderite-hosted Coal Measures fossils. PMID:19656861

  19. Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate.

  20. Proposal to replace the illegitimate genus name Bryantella Wolin et al. 2004VP with the genus name Marvinbryantia gen. nov. and to replace the illegitimate combination Bryantella formatexigens Wolin et al. 2004VP with Marvinbryantia formatexigens comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Wolin, Meyer J; Miller, Terry L; Lawson, Paul A

    2008-03-01

    The prokaryote generic name Bryantella Wolin et al. 2004(VP) is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of Bryantella Chickering, 1946 (Animalia, Arthropoda, Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae, Dendryphantinae, Dendryphantini) and a later homonym of Bryantella Britton, 1957 (Animalia, Arthropoda, Scarabaeoidea, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae) [Principle 2, Rule 51b(4) of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)]. Bryantella represents a genus of jumping spiders within the family Salticidae and a genus of melolonthine scarab beetles within the family Scarabaeidae. Therefore, a new genus name, Marvinbryantia gen. nov., is proposed for this taxon. As a result, a new combination, Marvinbryantia formatexigens comb. nov., is required for the type species to replace the illegitimate combination Bryantella formatexigens Wolin et al. 2004(VP). PMID:18319487

  1. Conditions for the invasion of male-haploidy in diploid populations.

    PubMed

    Kidner, J; Moritz, R F A

    2016-09-01

    Male-haploidy has independently evolved several times in different phylogenetic groups and has led to various extant lineages in the insects, Arachnida and Rotifera. Although the stability of male-haploidy as an evolutionary strategy is not well understood, various theories address the invasion of male-haploidy in diploid populations. Here two of these theories: (i) the maternal transmission hypothesis (MTH) and (ii) the deleterious mutation hypothesis (DMH), are re-investigated with an agent-based model to understand the role of genetic drift as a mechanism facilitating the spread of male-haploidy. These two hypotheses are analysed separately and comparatively, and the results suggest dominance of the MTH. In addition, comparison of the stochastic results to deterministic results using the same model structure shows how genetic drift can enhance the parameter space where male-haploidy can be expected to invade.

  2. Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jonas O.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate. PMID:23346358

  3. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  4. Response of amphipod assemblages to desalination brine discharge: Impact and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Loya-Fernández, A.; Ferrero-Vicente, L. M.; Marco-Méndez, C.; Martinez-Garcia, E.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    Desalination has become an important industry whose dense, high-salinity effluent has an impact on marine communities. Without adequate dilution, brine remains on the bottom increasing bottom salinity and affecting benthic communities. Amphipods showed high sensitivity to increased salinity produced by desalination brine discharge. A decrease in abundance and diversity of amphipods was detected at the station closest to the outfall, where salinity values reached 53. This salinity was later reduced by including a diffuser at the end of the pipeline. Six months after diffuser installation, amphipod abundance increased. During the first stage of this recovery, species such as Photis longipes recovered their abundance, others such as Microdeutopus versiculatus displayed opportunistic patterns, while others needed more time for recovery, e.g. Harpinia pectinata. These differences may be dependent on the organism living habits.

  5. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Sundathelphusa Bott, 1969 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from caves in Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Husana, Daniel Edison M; Yamamuro, Masumi; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-17

    Two cave species of Sundathelphusa are described from a karst area in southern Luzon, Philippines. Both species have elongated ambulatory legs but the eyes and carapace pigmentation are well developed, indicating they are not troglobites. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is superficially more similar to S. longipes (Balss, 1937) than to S. holthuisi Ng, 2010, which was described from the same locality. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is distinguished from its closest congeners by its strongly convex anterolateral margin, more swollen branchial regions, possession of a complete frontal median triangle, laterally inflated subbranchial region and the more slender ambulatory legs. Sundathelphusa vienae sp. nov. is unusual among Sundathelphusa species in that its carapace is more quadrate, with the slender and almost straight male first gonopod tapered and having a pointed terminal segment. 

  6. Identification and antifungal assay of a wheat beta-1,3-glucanase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoye; Lu, Yan; Xin, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zengyan

    2009-07-01

    A wheat beta-1,3-glucanase gene (TaGluD) was identified as a fungal defense candidate. Its transcript induction was more than 60-fold higher in a resistant wheat line, Shannong0431, than in a susceptible wheat line, Wenmai6, after infection with Rhizoctonia cerealis. The TaGluD protein was overexpressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After refolding and purification, TaGluD with 1 unit of beta-1,3-glucanase showed antifungal activity in vitro against Rhizoctonia solani, R. cerealis, Phytophthora capsici and Alternaria longipes with inhibition rates of 42%, 43%, 32% and 30%, respectively. Thus TaGluD may be useful for enhancing fungal resistance in several crop species.

  7. Breaking and entering: predators invade the shelter of their prey and gain protection.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Venzon, Madelaine; Janssen, Arne

    2015-10-01

    Many herbivorous arthropods construct shelters on their host plant that offer protection against natural enemies. This has resulted in selection on natural enemies to enter these shelters, where they can feed on prey that are inaccessible for competing predators and parasitoids. The spider mite Tetranychus evansi produces a shelter consisting of a dense web that is impenetrable for most predators; the only known natural enemy that can penetrate the web and can forage efficiently on this pest is Phytoseiulus longipes. We show that this predator preferentially foraged and oviposited in the web of its prey. Moreover, intraguild predation on juveniles of these predators was significantly higher outside this web and in the less dense web of a closely related prey species (T. urticae) than inside the web of T. evansi. Although the production of shelters by herbivores may be profitable at first, their adapted natural enemies may reap the benefit in the end. PMID:26188859

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sexual oribatid mite Steganacarus magnus: genome rearrangements and loss of tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Katja; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Cameron, Stephen L

    2008-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes and the gene rearrangements therein are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships, especially for elucidating deep splits. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of arthropods, especially Arachnida, available so far, we provide the first complete mt genome of a sarcoptiform mite species, the sexually reproducing oribatid mite Steganacarus magnus (Acari, Oribatida) which was determined by sequencing of long PCR products. Results The mt genome of S. magnus lacks 16 tRNAs, only those for leucine, histidine, proline, tryptophan, glutamine and serine are present. Within those tRNAs only tRNA-His and tRNA-Pro have kept their original position, the others are translocated. Furthermore, the mt genome of S. magnus consists of 13,818 bp and it is composed of 13 protein-coding genes and two genes for the ribosomal RNA subunits that are typically found in metazoan mt genomes. The gene order in S. magnus differs from the hypothetical ancestral chelicerate arrangement as conserved in Limulus polyphemus: instead of nad1-rrnL-rrnS-LNR-nad2 (tRNAs excluded) S. magnus is nad2-rrnL-nad1-rrnS-LNR. Phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated amino acid dataset of all mt protein-coding genes of 28 arthropod species suggest a sister-group relationship of sarcoptiform and prostigmatid mites (S. magnus and Leptotrombidium). Conclusion The mt gene arrangement of S. magnus differs from the hypothetical ground plan of arthropods and from that of other mites further contributing to the variety of mt gene arrangements found in Arachnida. The unexpected lack of tRNAs is enigmatic, probably showing that the loss of mt genes is an ongoing evolutionary process. For solving phylogenetic relationships of oribatid mite lineages and their position within Acari further complete mt genomes are needed. PMID:18992147

  9. Extensive Acclimation in Ectotherms Conceals Interspecific Variation in Thermal Tolerance Limits

    PubMed Central

    Pintor, Anna F. V.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    Species’ tolerance limits determine their capacity to tolerate climatic extremes and limit their potential distributions. Interspecific variation in thermal tolerances is often proposed to indicate climatic vulnerability and is, therefore, the subject of many recent meta-studies on differential capacities of species from climatically different habitats to deal with climate change. Most studies on thermal tolerances do not acclimate animals or use inconsistent, and insufficient, acclimation times, limiting our knowledge of the shape, duration and extent of acclimation responses. Consequently patterns in thermal tolerances observed in meta-analyses, based on data from the literature are based on inconsistent, partial acclimation and true trends may be obscured. In this study we describe time-course of complete acclimation of critical thermal minima in the tropical ectotherm Carlia longipes and compare it to the average acclimation response of other reptiles, estimated from published data, to assess how much acclimation time may contribute to observed differences in thermal limits. Carlia longipes decreased their lower critical thermal limits by 2.4°C and completed 95% of acclimation in 17 weeks. Wild populations did not mirror this acclimation process over the winter. Other reptiles appear to decrease cold tolerance more quickly (95% in 7 weeks) and to a greater extent, with an estimated average acclimation response of 6.1°C. However, without data on tolerances after longer acclimation times available, our capacity to estimate final acclimation state is very limited. Based on the subset of data available for meta-analysis, much of the variation in cold tolerance observed in the literature can be attributed to acclimation time. Our results indicate that (i) acclimation responses can be slow and substantial, even in tropical species, and (ii) interspecific differences in acclimation speed and extent may obscure trends assessed in some meta-studies. Cold tolerances

  10. Cystacanths of Acanthocephala in notothenioid fish from the Beagle Channel (sub-Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jezewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    The morphology of relaxed cystacanths of polymorphid acanthocephalans collected from notothenioid fishes in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion of sub-Antarctica) is described. A parasite of birds, Andracantha baylisi (Zdzitowiecki, 1986), was found in Patagonotothen longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.82-0.89 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-5 basal hooks; distal hooks with the longest blades; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; large somatic spines arranged in two zones separated by a zone of small, loosely dispersed spines; and only the anterior 36-40% of ventral side of the trunk is covered with spines. One male specimen of Corynosoma sp. was found in Patagonotothen tessellata. It differs from A. baylisi in that the distal proboscis hooks are similar in length to the prebasal hooks, it has a smaller proboscis (0.77 mm) and in the distribution of the somatic spines, which are contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of the trunk and lack a zone of small spines between zones of larger spines. A parasite of seals and fur seals, Corynosoma evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984, was found in P. longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.61-0.78 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 20-22 rows of 12-13, including 3/4-4 basal hooks; prebasal hooks with the longest blades; a trunk divided into fore-trunk and hind-trunk; somatic spines covering the anterior 64-74% of the ventral side of the trunk; genital spines present only in males; and a terminal genital opening in both sexes. Corynosoma beaglense n. sp. was found in Champsocephalus esox. It has: an almost cylindrical proboscis (length 0.52-0.56 mm); a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-4/5 basal hooks; distal hooks shorter than the prebasal hooks; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; somatic spines contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of

  11. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Wheeler, Ward C; Babbitt, Courtney

    2002-02-01

    The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. PMID:14552352

  12. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  13. An evolutionary comparison of leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors reveals a novel LGR subtype.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Van Loy, Tom; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2012-03-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors or LGRs are receptors with important functions in development and reproduction. Belonging to this evolutionarily conserved group of receptors are the well-studied glycoprotein hormone receptors and relaxin receptors in mammals, as well as the bursicon receptor, which triggers cuticle hardening and tanning in freshly enclosed insects. In this study, the numerous LGR sequences in different animal phyla are analyzed and compared. Based on these data a phylogenetic tree was generated. This information sheds new light on structural and evolutionary aspects regarding this receptor group. Apart from vertebrates and insects, LGRs are also present in early chordates (Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Hyperoartia) and other arthropods (Arachnida and Branchiopoda) as well as in Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Nematoda, and even in ancient animal life forms, such as Cnidaria and Placozoa. Three distinct types of LGR exist, distinguishable by their number of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), their type-specific hinge region and the presence or absence of an LDLa motif. Type C LGRs containing only one LDLa (C1 subtype) appear to be present in nearly all animal phyla. We here describe a second subtype, C2, containing multiple LDLa motifs, which was discovered in echinoderms, mollusks and in one insect species (Pediculus humanis corporis). In addition, eight putative LGRs can be predicted from the genome data of the placozoan species Trichoplax adhaerens. They may represent an ancient form of the LGRs, however, more genomic data will be required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22100731

  14. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Selden, Paul A; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  15. A 454 sequencing approach for large scale phylogenomic analysis of the common emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator).

    PubMed

    Roeding, Falko; Borner, Janus; Kube, Michael; Klages, Sven; Reinhardt, Richard; Burmester, Thorsten

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, phylogenetic tree reconstructions that rely on multiple gene alignments that had been deduced from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have become a popular method in molecular systematics. Here, we present a 454 pyrosequencing approach to infer the transcriptome of the Emperor scorpion Pandinus imperator. We obtained 428,844 high-quality reads (mean length=223+/-50 b) from total cDNA, which were assembled into 8334 contigs (mean length 422+/-313 bp) and 26,147 singletons. About 1200 contigs were successfully annotated by BLAST and orthology search. Specific analyses of eight distinct hemocyanin sequences provided further proof for the quality of the 454 reads and the assembly process. The P. imperator sequences were included in a concatenated alignment of 149 orthologous genes of 67 metazoan taxa that covers 39,842 amino acids. After removal of low-quality regions, 11,168 positions were employed for phylogenetic reconstructions. Using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, we obtained strongly supported monophyletic Ecdysozoa, Arthropoda (excluding Tardigrada), Euarthropoda, Pancrustacea and Hexapoda. We also recovered the Myriochelata (Chelicerata+Myriapoda). Within the chelicerates, Pycnogonida form the sister group of Euchelicerata. However, Arachnida were found paraphyletic because the Acari (mites and ticks) were recovered as sister group of a clade comprising Xiphosura, Scorpiones and Araneae. In summary, we have shown that 454 pyrosequencing is a cost-effective method that provides sufficient data and coverage depth for gene detection and multigene-based phylogenetic analyses. PMID:19695333

  16. Novel technique for quantifying adhesion of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia to the tick cuticle.

    PubMed

    Ment, Dana; Gindin, Galina; Rot, Asael; Soroker, Victoria; Glazer, Itamar; Barel, Shimon; Samish, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The present study describes an accurate quantitative method for quantifying the adherence of conidia to the arthropod cuticle and the dynamics of conidial germination on the host. The method was developed using conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and engorged Rhipicephalus annulatus (Say) (Arachnida: Ixodidae) females and was also verified for M. anisopliae var. acridum Driver et Milner (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae. This novel method is based on using an organic solvent (dichloromethane [DCM]) to remove the adhered conidia from the tick cuticle, suspending the conidia in a detergent solution, and then counting them using a hemocytometer. To confirm the efficacy of the method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the conidial adherence to and removal from the tick cuticle. As the concentration of conidia in the suspension increased, there were correlating increases in both the number of conidia adhering to engorged female R. annulatus and tick mortality. However, no correlation was observed between a tick's susceptibility to fungal infection and the amount of adhered conidia. These findings support the commonly accepted understanding of the nature of the adhesion process. The mechanism enabling the removal of the adhered conidia from the host cuticle is discussed. PMID:20363785

  17. First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade.

    PubMed

    Giribet, G; Carranza, S; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M; Ribera, C

    1996-01-01

    The complete 18S rDNA gene sequence of Macrobiotus group hufelandi (Tardigrada) was obtained and aligned with 18S rDNA and rRNA gene sequences of 24 metazoans (mainly protostomes). Discrete character (maximum-parsimony) and distance (neighbor-joining) methods were used to infer their phylogeny. The evolution of bootstrap proportions with sequence length (pattern of resolved nodes, PRN) was studied to test the resolution of the nodes in neighbor-joining trees. The results show that arthropods are monophyletic. Tardigrades represent the sister group of arthropods (in parsimony analyses) or they are related with crustaceans (distance analysis and PRN). Arthropoda are divided into two main evolutionary lines, the Hexapoda + Crustacea line (weakly supported), and the Myriapoda + Chelicerata line. The Hexapoda + Crustacea line includes Pentastomida, but the internal resolution is far from clear. The Insecta (Ectognatha) are monophyletic, but no evidence for the monophyly of Hexapoda is found. The Chelicerata are a monophyletic group and the Myriapoda cluster close to Arachnida. Overall, the results obtained represent the first molecular evidence for a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade. In addition, the congruence between molecular phylogenies of the Arthropoda from other authors and this obtained here indicates the need to review those obtained solely on morphological characters.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes from Mesobuthus martensii reveals Hox gene duplication in scorpions.

    PubMed

    Di, Zhiyong; Yu, Yao; Wu, Yingliang; Hao, Pei; He, Yawen; Zhao, Huabin; Li, Yixue; Zhao, Guoping; Li, Xuan; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-06-01

    Homeobox genes belong to a large gene group, which encodes the famous DNA-binding homeodomain that plays a key role in development and cellular differentiation during embryogenesis in animals. Here, one hundred forty-nine homeobox genes were identified from the Asian scorpion, Mesobuthus martensii (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Scorpiones: Buthidae) based on our newly assembled genome sequence with approximately 248 × coverage. The identified homeobox genes were categorized into eight classes including 82 families: 67 ANTP class genes, 33 PRD genes, 11 LIM genes, five POU genes, six SINE genes, 14 TALE genes, five CUT genes, two ZF genes and six unclassified genes. Transcriptome data confirmed that more than half of the genes were expressed in adults. The homeobox gene diversity of the eight classes is similar to the previously analyzed Mandibulata arthropods. Interestingly, it is hypothesized that the scorpion M. martensii may have two Hox clusters. The first complete genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes in Chelicerata not only reveals the repertoire of scorpion, arachnid and chelicerate homeobox genes, but also shows some insights into the evolution of arthropod homeobox genes.

  19. A sodium channel inhibitor ISTX-I with a novel structure provides a new hint at the evolutionary link between two toxin folds

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Gan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Kaifeng; Lai, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6 μM for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:27407029

  20. Arachnids of medical importance in Brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Francielle A; Amorim, Fernanda G; Anjolette, Fernando A P; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). Many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. These animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. Several protein and non-protein compounds present in the venom and saliva of these animals are responsible for symptoms observed in envenoming, exhibiting neurotoxic, dermonecrotic and hemorrhagic activities. The phylogenomic analysis from the complementary DNA of single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes shows that these animals share some common protein families known as neurotoxins, defensins, hyaluronidase, antimicrobial peptides, phospholipases and proteinases. This indicates that the venoms from these animals may present components with functional and structural similarities. Therefore, we described in this review the main components present in spider and scorpion venom as well as in tick saliva, since they have similar components. These three arachnids are responsible for many accidents of medical relevance in Brazil. Additionally, this study shows potential biotechnological applications of some components with important biological activities, which may motivate the conducting of further research studies on their action mechanisms.

  1. Computed tomography recovers data from historical amber: an example from huntsman spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Penney, David; Dalüge, Natalie; Jäger, Peter; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2011-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) methods were applied to a problematic fossil spider (Arachnida: Araneae) from the historical Berendt collection of Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. The original specimens of Ocypete crassipes Koch and Berendt 1854 are in dark, oxidised amber and the published descriptions lack detail. Despite this, they were subsequently assigned to the living Pantropical genus Heteropoda Latreille, 1804 and are ostensibly the oldest records of huntsman spiders (Sparassidae) in general. Given their normally large size, and presumptive ability to free themselves more easily from resin, it would be surprising to find a sparassid in amber and traditional (optical) methods of study would likely have left O. crassipes as an equivocal record—probably a nomen dubium. However, phase contrast enhanced X-ray CT revealed exquisite morphological detail and thus `saved' this historical name by revealing characters which confirm that it's a bona fide member both of Sparassidae and the subfamily Eusparassinae. We demonstrate here that CT studies facilitate taxonomic equivalence even between recent spiders and unpromising fossils described in older monographs. In our case, fine structural details such as eye arrangement, cheliceral dentition, and leg characters like a trilobate membrane, spination and claws, allow a precise referral of this fossil to an extant genus as Eusparassus crassipes (Koch and Berendt 1854) comb. nov.

  2. A sodium channel inhibitor ISTX-I with a novel structure provides a new hint at the evolutionary link between two toxin folds.

    PubMed

    Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Jiangxin; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Gan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Kaifeng; Lai, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6 μM for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:27407029

  3. Identification of immune inducible genes from the velvet worm Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Onychophora are the next relatives of Arthropoda and, hence, represent an important taxon to unravel relationships among Insecta, Crustacea, Arachnida, and Myriapoda. Here, we screened for immune inducible genes from the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae) by injecting crude bacterial LPS and applying the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. Our analysis of 288 cDNAs resulted in identification of 36 novel genes in E. biolleyi whose potential homologues from other animals are known to mediate immune-related signaling (e.g. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein), to be involved in cellular processes (e.g. perilipin and myosin light chain), or to act as immune effector molecules (e.g. lysosomal beta-galactosidase, a putative antimicrobial peptide and a potential thiolester containing protein). Comparisons with homologous genes from other animals including the two most favored ecdysozoan model organisms of innate immunity research, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, provide further insights into the origin and evolution of Arthropoda immunity. PMID:18598713

  4. The effect of ageing on the mechanical properties of the silk of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757)

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Emiliano; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk is regarded as one of the best natural polymer fibers especially in terms of low density, high tensile strength and high elongation until breaking. Since only a few bio-engineering studies have been focused on spider silk ageing, we conducted nano-tensile tests on the vertical naturally spun silk fibers of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Arachnida, Araneae) to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the silk (ultimate stress and strain, Young’s modulus, toughness) over time. We studied the natural process of silk ageing at different time intervals from spinning (20 seconds up to one month), comparing silk fibers spun from adult spiders collected in the field. Data were analyzed using Linear Mixed Models. We detected a positive trend versus time for the Young’s modulus, indicating that aged silks are stiffer and possibly less effective in catching prey. Moreover, we observed a negative trend for the ultimate strain versus time, attesting a general decrement of the resistance force. These trends are interpreted as being due to the drying of the silk protein chains and the reorientation among the fibers. PMID:27156712

  5. Geological history and phylogeny of Chelicerata.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A

    2010-01-01

    Chelicerata probably appeared during the Cambrian period. Their precise origins remain unclear, but may lie among the so-called great appendage arthropods. By the late Cambrian there is evidence for both Pycnogonida and Euchelicerata. Relationships between the principal euchelicerate lineages are unresolved, but Xiphosura, Eurypterida and Chasmataspidida (the last two extinct), are all known as body fossils from the Ordovician. The fourth group, Arachnida, was found monophyletic in most recent studies. Arachnids are known unequivocally from the Silurian (a putative Ordovician mite remains controversial), and the balance of evidence favours a common, terrestrial ancestor. Recent work recognises four principal arachnid clades: Stethostomata, Haplocnemata, Acaromorpha and Pantetrapulmonata, of which the pantetrapulmonates (spiders and their relatives) are probably the most robust grouping. Stethostomata includes Scorpiones (Silurian-Recent) and Opiliones (Devonian-Recent), while Haplocnemata includes Pseudoscorpiones (Devonian-Recent) and Solifugae (Carboniferous-Recent). Recent works increasingly favour diphyletic mite origins, whereby Acaromorpha comprises Actinotrichida (Devonian-Recent), Anactinotrichida (Cretaceous-Recent) and Ricinulei (Carboniferous-Recent). The positions of the Phalangiotarbida (Devonian-Permian) and Palpigradi (Neogene-Recent) are poorly resolved. Finally, Pantetrapulmonata includes the following groups (listed here in their most widely recovered phylogenetic sequence): Trigonotarbida (Silurian-Permian), Uraraneida (Devonian-Permian), Araneae (Carboniferous-Recent), Haptopoda (Carboniferous), Amblypygi (?Devonian-Recent), Thelyphonida (Carboniferous-Recent) and Schizomida (Paleogene-Recent).

  6. Towards a better understanding of Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor microbiomes: introducing 'phyloh' as a novel phylogenetic diversity analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Sandionigi, A; Vicario, S; Prosdocimi, E M; Galimberti, A; Ferri, E; Bruno, A; Balech, B; Mezzasalma, V; Casiraghi, M

    2015-07-01

    The study of diversity in biological communities is an intriguing field. Huge amount of data are nowadays available (provided by the innovative DNA sequencing techniques), and management, analysis and display of results are not trivial. Here, we propose for the first time the use of phylogenetic entropy as a measure of bacterial diversity in studies of microbial community structure. We then compared our new method (i.e. the web tool phyloh) for partitioning phylogenetic diversity with the traditional approach in diversity analyses of bacteria communities. We tested phyloh to characterize microbiome in the honeybee (Apis mellifera, Insecta: Hymenoptera) and its parasitic mite varroa (Varroa destructor, Arachnida: Parasitiformes). The rationale is that the comparative analysis of honeybee and varroa microbiomes could open new perspectives concerning the role of the parasites on honeybee colonies health. Our results showed a dramatic change of the honeybee microbiome when varroa occurs, suggesting that this parasite is able to influence host microbiome. Among the different approaches used, only the entropy method, in conjunction with phylogenetic constraint as implemented in phyloh, was able to discriminate varroa microbiome from that of parasitized honeybees. In conclusion, we foresee that the use of phylogenetic entropy could become a new standard in the analyses of community structure, in particular to prove the contribution of each biological entity to the overall diversity.

  7. The effect of ageing on the mechanical properties of the silk of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757).

    PubMed

    Lepore, Emiliano; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-05-09

    Spider silk is regarded as one of the best natural polymer fibers especially in terms of low density, high tensile strength and high elongation until breaking. Since only a few bio-engineering studies have been focused on spider silk ageing, we conducted nano-tensile tests on the vertical naturally spun silk fibers of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Arachnida, Araneae) to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the silk (ultimate stress and strain, Young's modulus, toughness) over time. We studied the natural process of silk ageing at different time intervals from spinning (20 seconds up to one month), comparing silk fibers spun from adult spiders collected in the field. Data were analyzed using Linear Mixed Models. We detected a positive trend versus time for the Young's modulus, indicating that aged silks are stiffer and possibly less effective in catching prey. Moreover, we observed a negative trend for the ultimate strain versus time, attesting a general decrement of the resistance force. These trends are interpreted as being due to the drying of the silk protein chains and the reorientation among the fibers.

  8. Bilaterian phylogeny based on analyses of a region of the sodium-potassium ATPase beta-subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Frank E; Córdoba, Alonso J; Thollesson, Mikael

    2004-03-01

    Molecular investigations of deep-level relationships within and among the animal phyla have been hampered by a lack of slowly evolving genes that are amenable to study by molecular systematists. To provide new data for use in deep-level metazoan phylogenetic studies, primers were developed to amplify a 1.3-kb region of the alpha subunit of the nuclear-encoded sodium-potassium ATPase gene from 31 bilaterians representing several phyla. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of these sequences (combined with ATPase sequences for 23 taxa downloaded from GenBank) yield congruent trees that corroborate recent findings based on analyses of other data sets (e.g., the 18S ribosomal RNA gene). The ATPase-based trees support monophyly for several clades (including Lophotrochozoa, a form of Ecdysozoa, Vertebrata, Mollusca, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Arachnida, Hexapoda, Coleoptera, and Diptera) but do not support monophyly for Deuterostomia, Arthropoda, or Nemertea. Parametric bootstrapping tests reject monophyly for Arthropoda and Nemertea but are unable to reject deuterostome monophyly. Overall, the sodium-potassium ATPase alpha-subunit gene appears to be useful for deep-level studies of metazoan phylogeny.

  9. Parasite fauna of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) in an urban region of Germany: reservoir host of zoonotic metazoan parasites?

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Förster, Maike; Schmahl, Günter

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, 29 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied for their endo- and ectoparasite fauna. The rodents were trapped in Dormagen, a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of ten different parasite species were identified: four endoparasite (four Nematoda) and six ectoparasite (three Insecta, three Arachnida) species. The predominant endoparasite was the nematode Aonchotheca murissylvatici, followed by the nematode Heligmosomum costellatum, while the flea Ctenophthalmus agyrtes was the dominant ectoparasite. C. glareolus usually carried one to five different parasite species (mean 2.2). The bank voles were infected only by Nematoda, while Digenea or Cestoda species were not detected. The present findings are in clear contrast to the results obtained in other geographical regions of Germany and Europe, where eight different Cestoda species constituted the main part of the helminth parasites in C. glareolus. In the area investigated, the bank voles harbored no zoonotic parasites, and therefore, they play not a role as potential reservoir host for these parasite species.

  10. Efficacy of water- and oil-in-water-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus eggs and eclosing larvae.

    PubMed

    Luz, Christian; D'Alessandro, Walmirton Bezerra; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton Kort Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were assessed against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Arachnida: Ixodidae) eggs under laboratory conditions. Clusters of 25 eggs were applied either directly with the fungal conidial formulations or set on previously fungus-treated filter paper. Treatments consisted of conidia formulated in water or an oil-in-water emulsion at final concentrations of 3.3 × 10(3), 10(4), 3.3 × 10(4), 10(5), or 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/cm(2). The development of mycelium and new conidia on egg clusters incubated at 25 °C and humidity close to saturation depended on conidial concentration, formulation, and application technique. No larvae eclosed from eggs after direct applications of conidia regardless of the formulation. The eclosion and survival of larvae from indirectly treated egg clusters depended on the type of formulation and conidial concentration applied. Oil-in-water formulations of conidia demonstrated the highest activity against eggs of R. sanguineus.

  11. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  12. Identification of immune inducible genes from the velvet worm Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Onychophora are the next relatives of Arthropoda and, hence, represent an important taxon to unravel relationships among Insecta, Crustacea, Arachnida, and Myriapoda. Here, we screened for immune inducible genes from the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae) by injecting crude bacterial LPS and applying the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. Our analysis of 288 cDNAs resulted in identification of 36 novel genes in E. biolleyi whose potential homologues from other animals are known to mediate immune-related signaling (e.g. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein), to be involved in cellular processes (e.g. perilipin and myosin light chain), or to act as immune effector molecules (e.g. lysosomal beta-galactosidase, a putative antimicrobial peptide and a potential thiolester containing protein). Comparisons with homologous genes from other animals including the two most favored ecdysozoan model organisms of innate immunity research, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, provide further insights into the origin and evolution of Arthropoda immunity.

  13. The effect of ageing on the mechanical properties of the silk of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Emiliano; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Spider silk is regarded as one of the best natural polymer fibers especially in terms of low density, high tensile strength and high elongation until breaking. Since only a few bio-engineering studies have been focused on spider silk ageing, we conducted nano-tensile tests on the vertical naturally spun silk fibers of the bridge spider Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Arachnida, Araneae) to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the silk (ultimate stress and strain, Young’s modulus, toughness) over time. We studied the natural process of silk ageing at different time intervals from spinning (20 seconds up to one month), comparing silk fibers spun from adult spiders collected in the field. Data were analyzed using Linear Mixed Models. We detected a positive trend versus time for the Young’s modulus, indicating that aged silks are stiffer and possibly less effective in catching prey. Moreover, we observed a negative trend for the ultimate strain versus time, attesting a general decrement of the resistance force. These trends are interpreted as being due to the drying of the silk protein chains and the reorientation among the fibers.

  14. The meaning of predatory specialization as illustrated by Aelurillus m-nigrum, an ant-eating jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Huseynov, Elchin F; Jackson, Robert R; Cross, Fiona R

    2008-03-01

    The distinctions between a predator's diet, its prey-choice behaviour and its preference are illustrated in a study of Aelurillus m-nigrum Kulczyn'ski, a salticid spider from Azerbaijan. The natural diet of A. m-nigrum was determined from records of individuals feeding in the field (N=58). Ten arthropod orders were represented. Nine were from the class Insecta (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera) and one from the class Arachnida (Araneae). Of 50 insects among the prey, 21 (42%) were Hymenoptera, with ants (family Formicidae) alone accounting for 31% of all prey records. Although the majority (69%) of the natural prey were not ants, results from prey-choice testing in the laboratory implied that A. m-nigrum preferred ants as prey. However, this preference was evident only when the testing environment included sand and a small stone. Our findings illustrate the importance of not conflating the concept of a predator's preference with the concept of a predator's natural diet and illustrate that physical features of a predator's habitat may be an important factor in influencing how strongly preference is expressed. PMID:18178038

  15. An evolutionary comparison of leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors reveals a novel LGR subtype.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Van Loy, Tom; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2012-03-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors or LGRs are receptors with important functions in development and reproduction. Belonging to this evolutionarily conserved group of receptors are the well-studied glycoprotein hormone receptors and relaxin receptors in mammals, as well as the bursicon receptor, which triggers cuticle hardening and tanning in freshly enclosed insects. In this study, the numerous LGR sequences in different animal phyla are analyzed and compared. Based on these data a phylogenetic tree was generated. This information sheds new light on structural and evolutionary aspects regarding this receptor group. Apart from vertebrates and insects, LGRs are also present in early chordates (Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Hyperoartia) and other arthropods (Arachnida and Branchiopoda) as well as in Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Nematoda, and even in ancient animal life forms, such as Cnidaria and Placozoa. Three distinct types of LGR exist, distinguishable by their number of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), their type-specific hinge region and the presence or absence of an LDLa motif. Type C LGRs containing only one LDLa (C1 subtype) appear to be present in nearly all animal phyla. We here describe a second subtype, C2, containing multiple LDLa motifs, which was discovered in echinoderms, mollusks and in one insect species (Pediculus humanis corporis). In addition, eight putative LGRs can be predicted from the genome data of the placozoan species Trichoplax adhaerens. They may represent an ancient form of the LGRs, however, more genomic data will be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. New replacement name Kuznetsoviella (Ostracoda): a correction.

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was found (Doweld 2016) that the generic name Aenigma Kuznetsova (1957: 68; type species A. jucunda Kuznetsova, by original designation) of fossil Ostracoda from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) of Tegchaj, North-Eastern Azerbaijan, former USSR (Transcaucasia), is already preoccupied by a marine gastropod molluscan generic name Aenigma Newman (1836: 499), which is in active current use in zoology (Coleoptera: Carabidae), along with a few other known homonyms, Aenigma Amsel (1956: 288) [Lepidoptera], Aenigma Koch (in Martini & Chemnitz 1846: 1, unpaginated) [Mollusca], Aenigma Karsch (1878: 825) [Arachnida], Aenigma Strecker (1876: 122) [Lepidoptera]. Therefore, a new replacement name was proposed, Kuznetsovia Doweld (2016: 68). However, it was overlooked that this generic name is already preoccupied by Kuznetsovia Kammerer (2006: 269) [Arthropoda], escaped from Nomenclator Zoologicus and Zoobank. In this connection, to resolve unexpected homonymy with an arthropod generic name, in accordance with article 60 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), a new replacement name is proposed for the fossil Ostracoda genus:. PMID:27470720

  17. Estimation of the genome sizes of the chigger mites Leptotrombidium pallidum and Leptotrombidium scutellare based on quantitative PCR and k-mer analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptotrombidium pallidum and Leptotrombidium scutellare are the major vector mites for Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus. Before these organisms can be subjected to whole-genome sequencing, it is necessary to estimate their genome sizes to obtain basic information for establishing the strategies that should be used for genome sequencing and assembly. Method The genome sizes of L. pallidum and L. scutellare were estimated by a method based on quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, a k-mer analysis of the whole-genome sequences obtained through Illumina sequencing was conducted to verify the mutual compatibility and reliability of the results. Results The genome sizes estimated using qPCR were 191 ± 7 Mb for L. pallidum and 262 ± 13 Mb for L. scutellare. The k-mer analysis-based genome lengths were estimated to be 175 Mb for L. pallidum and 286 Mb for L. scutellare. The estimates from these two independent methods were mutually complementary and within a similar range to those of other Acariform mites. Conclusions The estimation method based on qPCR appears to be a useful alternative when the standard methods, such as flow cytometry, are impractical. The relatively small estimated genome sizes should facilitate whole-genome analysis, which could contribute to our understanding of Arachnida genome evolution and provide key information for scrub typhus prevention and mite vector competence. PMID:24947244

  18. Complex high-frequency technology for protection of grain against pests.

    PubMed

    Mishenko, A A; Malinin, O A; Rashkovan, V M; Basteev, A V; Bazyma, L A; Mazalov YuP; Kutovoy, V A

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of physical methods are presented for suppressing of biological activity of grain and grain product pests: harmful insects at each developmental stage except eggs (Insecta), mites (Arachnida, Acariformes) and microscopic fungi and bacteria. The technologies under development for disinfestation and disinfection of grain are based on irradiation of grain by modulated pulses of high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic fields and on simultaneous action of a complex of factors: vacuum and HF-field induced plasma. The threshold value of the electric field intensity for total insect mortality was found to be E = 4.0-5.0 kV/cm in the pulse mode at the base frequency of 47.5 MHz. When the combined technology is used, conditions are created in the irradiation chamber for HF-discharge and plasma formation, which are very strong factors influencing the biological organisms. These raise the energy (and cost) efficiency (approximately $2-3 per tonne of grain) of the combined technology for destruction of grain pests with complete environmental safety. PMID:11098443

  19. Geological history and phylogeny of Chelicerata.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A

    2010-01-01

    Chelicerata probably appeared during the Cambrian period. Their precise origins remain unclear, but may lie among the so-called great appendage arthropods. By the late Cambrian there is evidence for both Pycnogonida and Euchelicerata. Relationships between the principal euchelicerate lineages are unresolved, but Xiphosura, Eurypterida and Chasmataspidida (the last two extinct), are all known as body fossils from the Ordovician. The fourth group, Arachnida, was found monophyletic in most recent studies. Arachnids are known unequivocally from the Silurian (a putative Ordovician mite remains controversial), and the balance of evidence favours a common, terrestrial ancestor. Recent work recognises four principal arachnid clades: Stethostomata, Haplocnemata, Acaromorpha and Pantetrapulmonata, of which the pantetrapulmonates (spiders and their relatives) are probably the most robust grouping. Stethostomata includes Scorpiones (Silurian-Recent) and Opiliones (Devonian-Recent), while Haplocnemata includes Pseudoscorpiones (Devonian-Recent) and Solifugae (Carboniferous-Recent). Recent works increasingly favour diphyletic mite origins, whereby Acaromorpha comprises Actinotrichida (Devonian-Recent), Anactinotrichida (Cretaceous-Recent) and Ricinulei (Carboniferous-Recent). The positions of the Phalangiotarbida (Devonian-Permian) and Palpigradi (Neogene-Recent) are poorly resolved. Finally, Pantetrapulmonata includes the following groups (listed here in their most widely recovered phylogenetic sequence): Trigonotarbida (Silurian-Permian), Uraraneida (Devonian-Permian), Araneae (Carboniferous-Recent), Haptopoda (Carboniferous), Amblypygi (?Devonian-Recent), Thelyphonida (Carboniferous-Recent) and Schizomida (Paleogene-Recent). PMID:20093195

  20. Induction and suppression of tick cell antiviral RNAi responses by tick-borne flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schnettler, Esther; Tykalová, Hana; Watson, Mick; Sharma, Mayuri; Sterken, Mark G.; Obbard, Darren J.; Lewis, Samuel H.; McFarlane, Melanie; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Barry, Gerald; Weisheit, Sabine; Best, Sonja M.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gould, Ernest A.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by distantly related arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes (class Insecta) and ticks (class Arachnida). RNA interference (RNAi) is the major antiviral mechanism in arthropods against arboviruses. Unlike in mosquitoes, tick antiviral RNAi is not understood, although this information is important to compare arbovirus/host interactions in different classes of arbovirus vectos. Using an Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line, key Argonaute proteins involved in RNAi and the response against tick-borne Langat virus (Flaviviridae) replication were identified and phylogenetic relationships characterized. Analysis of small RNAs in infected cells showed the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs), which are key molecules of the antiviral RNAi response. Importantly, viRNAs were longer (22 nucleotides) than those from other arbovirus vectors and mapped at highest frequency to the termini of the viral genome, as opposed to mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Moreover, tick-borne flaviviruses expressed subgenomic flavivirus RNAs that interfere with tick RNAi. Our results characterize the antiviral RNAi response in tick cells including phylogenetic analysis of genes encoding antiviral proteins, and viral interference with this pathway. This shows important differences in antiviral RNAi between the two major classes of arbovirus vectors, and our data broadens our understanding of arthropod antiviral RNAi. PMID:25053841

  1. Delayed plumage maturation increases overwinter survival in North Island robins.

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Asa; Armstrong, Doug P.; Lewis, Rebecca M.

    2004-01-01

    Many bird species show delayed plumage maturation (DPM), retaining sub-adult plumage until after their first breeding season. Most explanations assume that DPM increases fitness over the breeding season. However, unless birds undergo a full moult before breeding, DPM could also be an adaptation to increase survival over the previous winter. The winter adaptation hypothesis has never been tested owing to the difficulty of measuring overwinter survival. We experimentally tested this hypothesis in North Island robins (Petroica longipes) using a closed island population where we could accurately estimate survival. The experiment involved dyeing 41 juveniles to mimic adult males, and comparing their survival with 41 control juveniles treated with the same peroxide base minus the pigment. The population was monitored with a series of resighting surveys, and mark-recapture analysis used to estimate overwinter survival. Survival probability was estimated to be 10% for dyed birds versus 61% for control birds in 2001, and 29% for dyed birds versus 40% for control birds in the winter of 2002, supporting the winter adaptation hypothesis for DPM. Access to suitable habitat is the key factor limiting juvenile survival in this population, and the locations where dyed juveniles were sighted suggest that they were often excluded from suitable areas. PMID:15475331

  2. Revision of the Empis subgenus Enoplempis Bigot, east of the Rocky Mountains (Diptera: Empididae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Bradley J; Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    The Empis subgenus Enoplempis Bigot, east of the Rocky Mountains of North America is revised. A total of 19 species are recorded from this region including seven new species: E. (En.) amytis Walker, E. (En.) appalachicola Sinclair sp. nov., E. (En.) arthritica Melander, E. (En.) ctenonema Melander, E. (En.) enodis Melander, E. (En.) gladiator Melander, E. (En.) gulosa Coquillett, E. (En.) loripedis Coquillett, E. (En.) montywoodi Brooks sp. nov., E. (En.) nodipoplitea Steyskal, E. (En.) nuda Loew, E. (En.) pectinata Sinclair sp. nov., E. (En.) penicillata Brooks sp. nov., E. (En.) prodigiosa Cumming sp. nov., E. (En.) snoddyi Steyskal, E. (En.) stenoptera Loew, E. (En.) tridentata Coquillett, E. (En.) vockerothi Cumming sp. nov., E. (En.) volsella Sinclair sp. nov. The following new synonymies are designated: E. (En.) longipes Loew, E. (En.) longeoblita Steyskal, E. (En.) deterra Walley = E. (En.) amytis; E. (En.) cacuminifer Melander = E. (En.) gulosa. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: E. (En.) arthritica, E. (En.) cacuminifer, E. (En.) ctenonema, E. (En.) enodis, E. (En.) gladiator, E. (En.) loripedis, E. (En.) stenoptera and E. (En.) tridentata. A key to eastern species is presented and distributions illustrated. The form of nuptial gift presentation displayed within this group, including the use of balloons (with or without prey) and unwrapped prey are indicated for species when known. PMID:25112640

  3. Reasoning about "Capability": Wild Robins Respond to Limb Visibility in Humans.

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes) with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments. In most conditions, robins preferred to steal food located near the experimenter whose limbs were obscured by a cloth or board rather than food located near the experimenter whose limbs were not obscured. The robins' responses indicate that human limb visibility is associated with reduced access to food. Current findings lay the groundwork for a closer look at the potential general use of causal reasoning in an inter-specific context of using limbs to perform physical acts, specifically within the context of pilfering. This study presents one of the first tests of the role of visual attendance of potential limb availability in a competitive context, and could provide an alternative hypothesis for how other species have passed tests designed to examine what individuals understand about the physical acts others are capable of performing. PMID:27455334

  4. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  5. PYCNOIB: biodiversity and biogeography of Iberian pycnogonids.

    PubMed

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Munilla, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity and biogeographic studies comparing the distribution patterns of benthic marine organisms across the Iberian Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are scarce. The Pycnogonida (sea spiders) are a clear example of both endemicity and diversity, and are considered a key taxon to study and monitor biogeographic and biodiversity patterns. This is the first review that compiles data about abundance and diversity of Iberian pycnogonids and examines their biogeographic patterns and bathymetric constraints using GIS tools. A total of 17,762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families. Achelia echinata and Ammothella longipes (family Acheliidae) were the most abundant comprising ~80% of the total records. The Acheliidae is also the most speciose in Iberian waters with 15 species. In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae. Species accumulation curves indicate that further sampling would increase the number of Iberian species records. Current sampling effort suggests that the pycnogonid fauna of the Mediterranean region may be richer than that of the Atlantic. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are recognized as species-rich areas that act as buffer zones between the Atlantic and Mediterranean boundaries. The deep waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula are poorly surveyed, with only 15% of the sampling sites located below 1000 m. Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side.

  6. Review of Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) in Borneo, with descriptions of three new genera and the first case of (ovo)viviparity in the long-horned beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gabriš, Radim; Kundrata, Robin; Trnka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the species of genus Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae: Morimopsini) from Borneo, which included the redescriptions of two species – Dolichostyrax moultoni Aurivillius, 1911 and Dolichostyrax longipes Aurivillius, 1913, with the first female description for the latter. After the examination of the additional material previously identified as Dolichostyrax, we described three new genera – Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n., and Eurystyrax gen. n. Borneostyrax cristatus sp. n. was described based on the male and female specimens, whilst Microdolichostyrax hefferni sp. n., Microdolichostyrax minutus sp. n. and Eurystyrax nemethi sp. n. are known only from females. All studied species are distributed in the mountain regions of Sabah, with the exception of Dolichostyrax moultoni from Sarawak. An identification key to the genera of Bornean Morimopsini and species of Dolichostyrax, Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n. and Eurystyrax gen. n. is provided and their distributions and intraspecific morphological variability are discussed. The short and wide ovipositor, loss of spermatheca, and presence of large larvae without apparent eggbursters inside the female abdomens indicate the presence of (ovo)viviparity in Borneostyrax gen. n. This is the first case of this rare phenomenon within Cerambycidae. PMID:27408527

  7. Diversity of Phylogenetic Information According to the Locus and the Taxonomic Level: An Example from a Parasitic Mesostigmatid Mite Genus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lise; Dowling, Ashley P.G.; Chauve, Claude Marie; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Molecular markers for cladistic analyses may perform differently according to the taxonomic group considered and the historical level under investigation. Here we evaluate the phylogenetic potential of five different markers for resolving evolutionary relationships within the ectoparasitic genus Dermanyssus at the species level, and their ability to address questions about the evolution of specialization. COI provided 9–18% divergence between species (up to 9% within species), 16S rRNA 10–16% (up to 4% within species), ITS1 and 2 2–9% (up to 1% within species) and Tropomyosin intron n 8–20% (up to 6% within species). EF-1α revealed different non-orthologous copies within individuals of Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Tropomyosin intron n was shown containing consistent phylogenetic signal at the specific level within Dermanyssus and represents a promising marker for future prospects in phylogenetics of Acari. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the generalist condition is apomorphic and D. gallinae might represent a complex of hybridized lineages. The split into hirsutus-group and gallinae-group in Dermanyssus does not seem to be appropriate based upon these results and D. longipes appears to be composed of two different entities. PMID:20480038

  8. Purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium citrinum from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection. PMID:24931500

  9. Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of dangerous and harmless predators.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators. PMID:27067101

  10. PYCNOIB: Biodiversity and Biogeography of Iberian Pycnogonids

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Munilla, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity and biogeographic studies comparing the distribution patterns of benthic marine organisms across the Iberian Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are scarce. The Pycnogonida (sea spiders) are a clear example of both endemicity and diversity, and are considered a key taxon to study and monitor biogeographic and biodiversity patterns. This is the first review that compiles data about abundance and diversity of Iberian pycnogonids and examines their biogeographic patterns and bathymetric constraints using GIS tools. A total of 17762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families. Achelia echinata and Ammothella longipes (family Acheliidae) were the most abundant comprising ~80% of the total records. The Acheliidae is also the most speciose in Iberian waters with 15 species. In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records) than Acheliidae. Species accumulation curves indicate that further sampling would increase the number of Iberian species records. Current sampling effort suggests that the pycnogonid fauna of the Mediterranean region may be richer than that of the Atlantic. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are recognized as species-rich areas that act as buffer zones between the Atlantic and Mediterranean boundaries. The deep waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula are poorly surveyed, with only 15% of the sampling sites located below 1000 m. Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side. PMID:25781483

  11. Characterization of AgMaT2, a plasma membrane mannitol transporter from celery, expressed in phloem cells, including phloem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles.

  12. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin

    2015-01-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  13. Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of dangerous and harmless predators.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators.

  14. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  15. Revision of the Empis subgenus Enoplempis Bigot, east of the Rocky Mountains (Diptera: Empididae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Bradley J; Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2013-11-15

    The Empis subgenus Enoplempis Bigot, east of the Rocky Mountains of North America is revised. A total of 19 species are recorded from this region including seven new species: E. (En.) amytis Walker, E. (En.) appalachicola Sinclair sp. nov., E. (En.) arthritica Melander, E. (En.) ctenonema Melander, E. (En.) enodis Melander, E. (En.) gladiator Melander, E. (En.) gulosa Coquillett, E. (En.) loripedis Coquillett, E. (En.) montywoodi Brooks sp. nov., E. (En.) nodipoplitea Steyskal, E. (En.) nuda Loew, E. (En.) pectinata Sinclair sp. nov., E. (En.) penicillata Brooks sp. nov., E. (En.) prodigiosa Cumming sp. nov., E. (En.) snoddyi Steyskal, E. (En.) stenoptera Loew, E. (En.) tridentata Coquillett, E. (En.) vockerothi Cumming sp. nov., E. (En.) volsella Sinclair sp. nov. The following new synonymies are designated: E. (En.) longipes Loew, E. (En.) longeoblita Steyskal, E. (En.) deterra Walley = E. (En.) amytis; E. (En.) cacuminifer Melander = E. (En.) gulosa. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: E. (En.) arthritica, E. (En.) cacuminifer, E. (En.) ctenonema, E. (En.) enodis, E. (En.) gladiator, E. (En.) loripedis, E. (En.) stenoptera and E. (En.) tridentata. A key to eastern species is presented and distributions illustrated. The form of nuptial gift presentation displayed within this group, including the use of balloons (with or without prey) and unwrapped prey are indicated for species when known.

  16. The Ability of North Island Robins to Discriminate between Humans Is Related to Their Behavioural Type

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Craig; Salter, Matt; Chevallier, Clément; Robertson, Nicola; Berard, Otis; Burns, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird's ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird's underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were differences among North Island (NI) robins (Petroica longipes), based on their underlying behavioural type, in their abilities to discriminate between familiar and novel human observers. Using a simple feeding experiment, we timed how long it took birds to attack a food item placed next to an observer on each of 7 days. On the eighth day, a different observer timed the birds. We found that birds could be split into two behaviour types based on their attack behaviour: fast attackers (latencies <20 sec) and slow attackers (latencies >20 secs). Interestingly, the fast birds did not increase their attack latency in response to the novel observer whereas the slow attackers did. This result, for the first time, demonstrates that a bird's ability to discriminate between humans can vary among birds based on their behavioural type. PMID:23700482

  17. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid

    PubMed Central

    Nazareth, Taís M.; Machado, Glauco

    2015-01-01

    Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs) would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF). We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders) than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group. PMID:26331946

  18. Zooplankton abundance and biomass size spectra in the East Antarctic sea-ice zone during the winter-spring transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jake R.; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.; Jones, Hugh J.; Buchanan, Pearse J.; Crawford, Christine M.; James, Lainey C.; Johnson, Robert; Meiners, Klaus M.; Virtue, Patti; Westwood, Karen; Kawaguchi, So

    2016-09-01

    Sea ice is an influential feature in Southern Ocean-Antarctic marine environments creating a 2-phase vertical ecosystem. The lack of information on how this system influences community structure during the winter-spring transition, however, is largely lacking. Zooplankton form the link that bridges these environments, with the meiofaunal and algal communities within sea ice directly influencing the epipelagic zooplankton community at the ice-water interface. A combination of methods including sea-ice coring, umbrella net sampling and Laser Optical Plankton Counter were used to describe the vertical structure of zooplankton and meiofaunal communities. The distribution of meiofauna and chlorophyll a both played important roles in structuring the zooplankton community within this dynamic region. Many dominant taxa, including Calanus propinquus and Oithona similis, directly responded to the high availability of algae present within the bottom strata of sea ice. The sea-ice associated species Stephos longipes represented a strong link between this 2-phase ecosystem. Observations of the vertical distribution of biomass obtained from the LOPC suggests that the responses of these species to the sea ice directly influences the vertical structure of zooplankton during the winter-spring transition.

  19. Reasoning about “Capability”: Wild Robins Respond to Limb Visibility in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Little comparative work has focused on what nonhumans understand about what physical acts others are capable of performing, and none has yet done so in the wild, or within a competitive framework. This study shows that North Island robins visually attend to human limbs in the context of determining who to steal food from. We presented 24 wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes) with two experimenters. Robins could choose to steal a mealworm from one of two experimenters: one whose limbs were exposed and one who underwent a range of visual obstructions in two experiments. In most conditions, robins preferred to steal food located near the experimenter whose limbs were obscured by a cloth or board rather than food located near the experimenter whose limbs were not obscured. The robins’ responses indicate that human limb visibility is associated with reduced access to food. Current findings lay the groundwork for a closer look at the potential general use of causal reasoning in an inter-specific context of using limbs to perform physical acts, specifically within the context of pilfering. This study presents one of the first tests of the role of visual attendance of potential limb availability in a competitive context, and could provide an alternative hypothesis for how other species have passed tests designed to examine what individuals understand about the physical acts others are capable of performing. PMID:27455334

  20. Characterization of AgMaT2, a Plasma Membrane Mannitol Transporter from Celery, Expressed in Phloem Cells, Including Phloem Parenchyma Cells[OA

    PubMed Central

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523

  1. Whole transcriptome analysis of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Schicht, Sabine; Qi, Weihong; Poveda, Lucy; Strube, Christina

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY Although the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) is the major parasitic pest in poultry farming causing substantial economic losses every year, nucleotide data are rare in the public databases. Therefore, de novo sequencing covering the transcriptome of D. gallinae was carried out resulting in a dataset of 232 097 singletons and 42 130 contiguous sequences (contigs) which were subsequently clustered into 24 140 isogroups consisting of 35 788 isotigs. After removal of sequences possibly originating from bacteria or the chicken host, 267 464 sequences (231 657 singletons, 56 contigs and 35 751 isotigs) remained, of which 10·3% showed homology to proteins derived from other organisms. The most significant Blast top-hit species was the mite Metaseiulus occidentalis followed by the tick Ixodes scapularis. To gain functional knowledge of D. gallinae transcripts, sequences were mapped to Gene Ontology terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and parsed to InterProScan. The transcriptome dataset provides new insights in general mite genetics and lays a foundation for future studies on stage-specific transcriptomics as well as genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic explorations and might provide new perspectives to control this parasitic mite by identifying possible drug targets or vaccine candidates. It is also worth noting that in different tested species of the class Arachnida no 28S rRNA was detectable in the rRNA profile, indicating that 28S rRNA might consists of two separate, hydrogen-bonded fragments, whose (heat-induced) disruption may led to co-migration with 18S rRNA. PMID:24135293

  2. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of two Tetragnatha Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae): Severe Truncation of tRNAs and Novel Gene Rearrangements in Araneae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnSAGN and trnSUCN lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders. PMID:26722222

  3. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    , a large gene duplication of cathepsin L occurred in Arachnida with the sequences from ticks being completely divergent from other arachnids probably due to the particular selective pressures over this group. PMID:25875018

  4. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  5. Disentangling vector-borne transmission networks: a universal DNA barcoding method to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Muñoz, Joaquín; Figuerola, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vector species. Therefore, ascertaining the potential afforded by DNA barcoding tools in other vector-host systems of human and veterinary importance would represent a major advance in tracking pathogen life cycles and hosts. Here, we show the applicability of a novel and efficient molecular method for the identification of the vertebrate host's DNA contained in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods. To this end, we designed a eukaryote-universal forward primer and a vertebrate-specific reverse primer to selectively amplify 758 base pairs (bp) of the vertebrate mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene. Our method was validated using both extensive sequence surveys from the public domain and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) experiments carried out over specimens from different Classes of vertebrates (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia and Amphibia) and invertebrate ectoparasites (Arachnida and Insecta). The analysis of mosquito, culicoid, phlebotomie, sucking bugs, and tick bloodmeals revealed up to 40 vertebrate hosts, including 23 avian, 16 mammalian and one reptilian species. Importantly, the inspection and analysis of direct sequencing electropherograms also assisted the resolving of mixed bloodmeals. We therefore provide a universal and high-throughput diagnostic tool for the study of the ecology of haematophagous invertebrates in relation to their vertebrate hosts. Such information is crucial to support the efficient management of initiatives aimed at reducing

  6. Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L; Telford, Maximilian J; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  7. Are ticks venomous animals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many Ixodida genera can induce paralysis and other types of toxicoses. Tick saliva was previously proposed as a special kind of venom since tick venom is used for blood feeding that counteracts host defense mechanisms. As a result, the present study provides evidence to reconsider the venomous properties of tick saliva. Results Based on our extensive literature mining and in silico research, we demonstrate that ticks share several similarities with other venomous taxa. Many tick salivary protein families and their previously described functions are homologous to proteins found in scorpion, spider, snake, platypus and bee venoms. This infers that there is a structural and functional convergence between several molecular components in tick saliva and the venoms from other recognized venomous taxa. We also highlight the fact that the immune response against tick saliva and venoms (from recognized venomous taxa) are both dominated by an allergic immunity background. Furthermore, by comparing the major molecular components of human saliva, as an example of a non-venomous animal, with that of ticks we find evidence that ticks resemble more venomous than non-venomous animals. Finally, we introduce our considerations regarding the evolution of venoms in Arachnida. Conclusions Taking into account the composition of tick saliva, the venomous functions that ticks have while interacting with their hosts, and the distinguishable differences between human (non-venomous) and tick salivary

  8. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Babbitt, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. c2002 The Willi Hennig Society.

  9. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    , a large gene duplication of cathepsin L occurred in Arachnida with the sequences from ticks being completely divergent from other arachnids probably due to the particular selective pressures over this group.

  10. Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Roller, Ladislav; Zitnanová, Inka; Dai, Li; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Adams, Michael E; Zitnan, Dusan

    2010-03-01

    Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) from endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and BLAST search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology searches, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by the eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of natural and the ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all insects examined, the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. We report for the first time the presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, including the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). The possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservation of ETH-ETHR signaling.

  11. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  12. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  13. Whole transcriptome analysis of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Schicht, Sabine; Qi, Weihong; Poveda, Lucy; Strube, Christina

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY Although the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) is the major parasitic pest in poultry farming causing substantial economic losses every year, nucleotide data are rare in the public databases. Therefore, de novo sequencing covering the transcriptome of D. gallinae was carried out resulting in a dataset of 232 097 singletons and 42 130 contiguous sequences (contigs) which were subsequently clustered into 24 140 isogroups consisting of 35 788 isotigs. After removal of sequences possibly originating from bacteria or the chicken host, 267 464 sequences (231 657 singletons, 56 contigs and 35 751 isotigs) remained, of which 10·3% showed homology to proteins derived from other organisms. The most significant Blast top-hit species was the mite Metaseiulus occidentalis followed by the tick Ixodes scapularis. To gain functional knowledge of D. gallinae transcripts, sequences were mapped to Gene Ontology terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and parsed to InterProScan. The transcriptome dataset provides new insights in general mite genetics and lays a foundation for future studies on stage-specific transcriptomics as well as genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic explorations and might provide new perspectives to control this parasitic mite by identifying possible drug targets or vaccine candidates. It is also worth noting that in different tested species of the class Arachnida no 28S rRNA was detectable in the rRNA profile, indicating that 28S rRNA might consists of two separate, hydrogen-bonded fragments, whose (heat-induced) disruption may led to co-migration with 18S rRNA.

  14. Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L; Telford, Maximilian J; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-07-12

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  15. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of two Tetragnatha Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae): Severe Truncation of tRNAs and Novel Gene Rearrangements in Araneae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnS(AGN) and trnS(UCN) lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders.

  16. Wetland macroinvertebrates of Prentiss Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan: diversity and functional group composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented < 10%. When comparing habitats, there was a relatively higher percentage of predators and shredders in the depositional habitat, while all other functional groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.

  17. Biochemical, Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Digestion in the Scorpion Tityus serrulatus: Insights into Function and Evolution of Digestion in an Ancient Arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Fuzita, Felipe J.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Patane, José S. L.; Juliano, Maria A.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Lopes, Adriana R.

    2015-01-01

    , a large gene duplication of cathepsin L occurred in Arachnida with the sequences from ticks being completely divergent from other arachnids probably due to the particular selective pressures over this group. PMID:25875018

  18. Under the lash

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3–0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2–0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases. PMID:20664811

  19. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  20. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  1. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Marcellino O S B, Sister Noëlla; Benson, David R

    2013-10-01

    The history of cheese manufacture is a "natural history" in which animals, microorganisms, and the environment interact to yield human food. Part of the fascination with cheese, both scientifically and culturally, stems from its ability to assume amazingly diverse flavors as a result of seemingly small details in preparation. In this review, we trace the roots of cheesemaking and its development by a variety of human cultures over centuries. Traditional cheesemakers observed empirically that certain environments and processes produced the best cheeses, unwittingly selecting for microorganisms with the best biochemical properties for developing desirable aromas and textures. The focus of this review is on the role of fungi in cheese ripening, with a particular emphasis on the yeast-like fungus Geotrichum candidum. Conditions that encourage the growth of problematic fungi such as Mucor and Scopulariopsis as well as Arachnida (cheese mites), and how such contaminants might be avoided, are discussed. Bethlehem cheese, a pressed, uncooked, semihard, Saint-Nectaire-type cheese manufactured in the United Sates without commercial strains of bacteria or fungi, was used as a model for the study of stable microbial succession during ripening in a natural environment. The appearance of fungi during a 60-day ripening period was documented using light and scanning electron microscopy, and it was shown to be remarkably reproducible and parallel to the course of ripening of authentic Saint-Nectaire cheese in the Auvergne region of France. Geotrichum candidum, Mucor, and Trichothecium roseum predominate the microbiotas of both cheese types. Geotrichum in particular was shown to have high diversity in different traditional cheese ripening environments, suggesting that traditional manufacturing techniques selected for particular fungi. This and other studies suggest that strain diversity arises in relation to the lore and history of the regions from which these types of cheeses arose.

  2. Ecdysozoan Mitogenomics: Evidence for a Common Origin of the Legged Invertebrates, the Panarthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms—the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  3. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  4. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  5. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern China

  6. Podargiform Affinities of the Enigmatic Fluvioviridavis platyrhamphus and the Early Diversification of Strisores (“Caprimulgiformes” + Apodiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Clarke, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The early Eocene Green River Formation avifauna preserves exceptional exemplars of the earliest unambiguous stem representatives of many extant avian clades. We identify the basal-most member of Podargiformes (extant and fossil stem lineage frogmouths) based on a new specimen of Fluvioviridavis platyrhamphus, a unique neoavian bird from the Fossil Butte Member of the Green River Formation of Wyoming. Extant frogmouths (Podargidae) comprise approximately 13 nocturnal species with an exclusively Australasian distribution. Methodology/Principal Findings The new specimen was included in a combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological (osteology and soft tissue) and molecular sequence (cytochrome b, c-myc exon 3, and RAG) data sampling species-level taxa from both extant and extinct members of Steatornithidae, Podargidae, Caprimulgidae, Nyctibiidae, Aegothelidae, and Apodiformes ( = Strisores). New data from F. platyrhamphus help resolve phylogenetic relationships within Strisores, supporting placement of F. platyrhamphus and the European fossil form Masillapodargus longipes as basal parts of Podargiformes and also supporting a sister taxon relationship between Podargiformes and Steatornithiformes (oilbirds) within Strisores. This relationship is recovered only when fossil taxa are included, reaffirming the potential impact of stem fossil taxa on inferences of phylogenetic relationships. The well-preserved mandible and palate of the new specimen demonstrate that many of the unique characteristics of the skull that characterize the crown frogmouth clade Podargidae arose early in the evolutionary history of the clade, over 50 million years ago. Comparisons with the new specimen also indicate that Eurofluvioviridavis and Fluvioviridavis are not closely related. Conclusions/Significance Together with the European fossil frogmouth Masillapodargus, Fluvioviridavis shows that Podargiformes had a much wider geographic distribution in the past, whereas extant

  7. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  8. Inter-annual variability of the epibiotic community on Pagurus bernhardus from Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Gabilondo, Regina

    2006-01-01

    Epibiont communities of Pagurus bernhardus and its inhabiting shell collected in the same month of two consecutive years near the Isle of Cumbrae (Scotland) were analyzed. The epibionts found were: (1) the protozoans Acineta, Conchacineta, Corynophrya, Zoothamnium, Cothurnia mobiusi, Cothurnia longipes, Chilodochona, Cryptacineta, Ephelota gemmipara and Ephelota plana; (2) the hydrozoans Leuckartiara, Clytia and Phialella; (3) the entoproct Barentsia; (4) the cirripeds Balanus balanus and Balanus crenatus; (5) the polychaetes Pomatoceros triqueter, Circeis amoricana paguri and Hydroides norvegica. Among these epibionts, a protozoan ( E. plana), two hydrozoans ( Leuckartiara, and Phialella), and the entoproct ( Barentsia) have not been described previously as epibionts on crustaceans. The protozoan, entoproct and hydrozoan epibiont species found on P. bernhardus represent the first mention of their presence on this hermit crab. The protozoan epibionts were found only on the crab, while the hydrozoan epibionts were observed on the shell and on the crab. The cirriped species were observed only on the external surface of the shell, and the polychaete species were observed on the external and internal surfaces of the shell, although Circeis was found only internally. An analysis of the distribution and density of each epibiont species on the anatomical units of the crab, as well as on the different shell areas were made. The comparison between the data of the two years showed differences with respect to the size of crabs, diversity of epibiont groups and density of epibionts. There was a significant difference between the two years with respect to the distribution of epibionts on the anatomical units of the crab, both in terms of density and biomass. The influence of some environmental parameters on these differences is considered.

  9. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  10. The Seed Plant Flora of the Mount Jinggangshan Region, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler’s system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu’s concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and southern

  11. Strategic rat control for restoring populations of native species in forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Doug P; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Kreigenhofer, Brigitte; McArthur, Nikki; Govella, Susanne; Barrett, Paul; Richard, Yvan

    2014-06-01

    Forest fragments have biodiversity value that may be enhanced through management such as control of non-native predators. However, such efforts may be ineffective, and research is needed to ensure that predator control is done strategically. We used Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate fragment-specific effects of experimental rat control on a native species targeted for recovery in a New Zealand pastoral landscape. The experiment was a modified BACI (before-after-control-impact) design conducted over 6 years in 19 forest fragments with low-density subpopulations of North Island Robins (Petroica longipes). The aim was to identify individual fragments that not only showed clear benefits of rat control, but also would have a high probability of subpopulation growth even if they were the only fragment managed. We collected data on fecundity, adult and juvenile survival, and juvenile emigration, and modeled the data in an integrated framework to estimate the expected annual growth rate (λ) of each subpopulation with and without rat control. Without emigration, subpopulation growth was estimated as marginal (λ = 0.95-1.05) or negative (λ = 0.74-0.90) without rat control, but it was estimated as positive in all fragments (λ = 1.4-2.1) if rats were controlled. This reflected a 150% average increase in fecundity and 45% average increase in adult female survival. The probability of a juvenile remaining in its natal fragment was 0.37 on average, but varied with fragment connectivity. With juvenile emigration added, 6 fragments were estimated to have a high (>0.8) probability of being self-sustaining (λ > 1) with rat control. The key factors affecting subpopulation growth rates under rat control were low connectivity and stock fencing because these factors were associated with lower juvenile emigration and higher fecundity, respectively. However, there was also substantial random variation in adult survival among fragments, illustrating the importance of

  12. Life cycle strategies of epipelagic copepods in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Angus

    1998-06-01

    Twelve epipelagic copepod species were reviewed to compare their adaptations to the short primary production season and low temperatures which characterise the Southern Ocean. The species show a spectrum of adaptations, but three broad life cycle strategies were defined: (1) herbivorous in summer, a short reproductive period and winter diapause at depth ( Calanoides acutus and possibly Ctenocalanus citer); (2) predominantly omnivorous/detritivorous diet, an extended period of feeding, growth and reproduction and less reliance on diapause at depth ( Metridia gerlachei, Calanus propinquus, Calanus simillimus, Oithona similis, Microcalanus pygmaeus, and possibly Oncaea curvata and Oithona frigida); (3) overwintering and feeding within sea ice as early nauplii or copepodids ( Stephos longipes and Paralabidocera antarctica). The large species Rhincalanus gigas appears to be intermediate between strategies (1) and (2). Contrasting species from groups (1) and (2), namely C. acutus and O. similis, were selected for more detailed comparison. For C. acutus, maximum (probably food saturated) feeding and egg production rates are well below equivalent values for Calanus spp. at lower latitudes. Likewise, summer growth and moulting rates are slower, and the growth season of this herbivore is only 2-4 months. Therefore, both the low summer temperatures and short primary production season seem to dictate a long (˜1 year) life cycle for C. acutus. A collation of data on O. similis revealed that its abundance increases about tenfold from the Antarctic shelf northwards to the Polar Frontal Zone, where abundances are similar to those in temperate and tropical shelf seas. In contrast to C. acutus, O. similis appears to remain in the epipelagic and reproduce there year-round, although the food sources which sustain this are still uncertain.

  13. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China.  PMID:25081273

  14. Biomass of Secondary Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Mixed Forest in Plateau-type Karst Terrain of Guizhou Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Using allometric functions, harvest and soil column methods, we investigated the biomass of a secondary evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Tianlongshan permanent monitoring plot (a horizontally-projected area of 2 hectares) of Puding Karst Ecosystem Research Station, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Results showed that the total biomass of the forest is 165.4 Mg·hm-2. The aboveground biomass and root biomass are 137.7 Mg·hm-2 and 27.7 Mg·hm-2, respectively. Among the aboveground biomass, the tree layer accounts for 97.76%, which is obviously greater than the shrub layer and herb layer. Larger trees (the diameter at breast height, DBH is between 5 cm and 20 cm) occupies 76.85% of the aboveground biomass, especially the five dominant species(Lithocarpus confinis, Platycarya longipes, Itea yunnanensis, Machilus cavaleriei and Carpinus pubescens). Shrubs and lianas (DBH = 1 cm) account for more than 30% of total shrub and liana biomass, although their individuals are less than 2% of total shrub individuals and 1% of total liana individuals, respectively. The root biomass differs in root diameters, i.e. coarse root > medium root > fine root. Root biomass decreases with the increase of soil depth. Within soil depth of 20 cm, the root biomass is 20.1 Mg·hm-2, which is more than 70% of total root biomass. Within soil depth of 50 cm, the root biomass is 26.7 Mg·hm-2, which is 96.39% of total root biomass. Compared with non-karst forests in the same climate zone, karst forest has lower biomass and carbon stock, but it further has greater potential of carbon sink.

  15. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-07-08

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China. 

  16. Strategic rat control for restoring populations of native species in forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Doug P; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Kreigenhofer, Brigitte; McArthur, Nikki; Govella, Susanne; Barrett, Paul; Richard, Yvan

    2014-06-01

    Forest fragments have biodiversity value that may be enhanced through management such as control of non-native predators. However, such efforts may be ineffective, and research is needed to ensure that predator control is done strategically. We used Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate fragment-specific effects of experimental rat control on a native species targeted for recovery in a New Zealand pastoral landscape. The experiment was a modified BACI (before-after-control-impact) design conducted over 6 years in 19 forest fragments with low-density subpopulations of North Island Robins (Petroica longipes). The aim was to identify individual fragments that not only showed clear benefits of rat control, but also would have a high probability of subpopulation growth even if they were the only fragment managed. We collected data on fecundity, adult and juvenile survival, and juvenile emigration, and modeled the data in an integrated framework to estimate the expected annual growth rate (λ) of each subpopulation with and without rat control. Without emigration, subpopulation growth was estimated as marginal (λ = 0.95-1.05) or negative (λ = 0.74-0.90) without rat control, but it was estimated as positive in all fragments (λ = 1.4-2.1) if rats were controlled. This reflected a 150% average increase in fecundity and 45% average increase in adult female survival. The probability of a juvenile remaining in its natal fragment was 0.37 on average, but varied with fragment connectivity. With juvenile emigration added, 6 fragments were estimated to have a high (>0.8) probability of being self-sustaining (λ > 1) with rat control. The key factors affecting subpopulation growth rates under rat control were low connectivity and stock fencing because these factors were associated with lower juvenile emigration and higher fecundity, respectively. However, there was also substantial random variation in adult survival among fragments, illustrating the importance of

  17. Static vs dynamic settlement and adhesion of diatoms to ship hull coatings.

    PubMed

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments utilize static immersion tests to evaluate the performance of ship hull coatings. These provide valuable data; however, they do not accurately represent the conditions both the hull and fouling organisms encounter while a ship is underway. This study investigated the effect of static and dynamic immersion on the adhesion and settlement of diatoms to one antifouling coating (BRA 640), four fouling-release coatings (Intersleek(®) 700, Intersleek(®) 900, Hempasil X3, and Dow Corning 3140) and one standard surface (Intergard(®) 240 Epoxy). Differences in community composition were observed between the static and dynamic treatments. Achnanthes longipes was present on all coatings under static immersion, but was not present under dynamic immersion. This was also found for diatoms in the genera Bacillaria and Gyrosigma. Melosira moniformis was the only diatom present under dynamic conditions, but not static conditions. Several common fouling diatom genera were present on panels regardless of treatment: Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis Cylindrotheca, Licmophora, Navicula, Nitzschia, Plagiotropis, and Synedra. Biofilm adhesion, diatom abundance and diatom diversity were found to be significantly different between static and dynamic treatments; however, the difference was dependent on coating and sampling date. Several coatings (Epoxy, DC 3140 and IS 700) had significantly higher biofilm adhesion on dynamically treated panels on at least one of the four sampling dates, while all coatings had significantly higher diatom abundance on at least one sampling date. Diversity was significantly greater on static panels than dynamic panels for Epoxy, IS 700 and HX3 at least once during the sampling period. The results demonstrate how hydrodynamic stress will significantly influence the microfouling community. Dynamic immersion testing is required to fully understand how antifouling surfaces will respond to biofilm formation when subjected to the stresses experienced

  18. Effects of chemical elements in the trophic levels of natural salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Barczak, Tadeusz; Bennewicz, Janina; Jerzak, Leszek; Bogdzińska, Maria; Aleksandrowicz, Oleg; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Woźniak, Alina

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between the bioaccumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb, acidity (pH), salinity (Ec), and organic matter content within trophic levels (water-soil-plants-invertebrates) were studied in saline environments in Poland. Environments included sodium manufactures, wastes utilization areas, dumping grounds, and agriculture cultivation, where disturbed Ca, Mg, and Fe exist and the impact of Cd and Pb is high. We found Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, and Cd accumulation in the leaves of plants and in invertebrates. Our aim was to determine the selectivity exhibited by soil for nutrients and heavy metals and to estimate whether it is important in elucidating how these metals are available for plant/animal uptake in addition to their mobility and stability within soils. We examined four ecological plant groups: trees, shrubs, minor green plants, and water macrophytes. Among invertebrates, we sampled breastplates Malacostraca, small arachnids Arachnida, diplopods Diplopoda, small insects Insecta, and snails Gastropoda. A higher level of chemical elements was found in saline polluted areas (sodium manufactures and anthropogenic sites). Soil acidity and salinity determined the bioaccumulation of free radicals in the trophic levels measured. A pH decrease caused Zn and Cd to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Ca, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the anthropogenic sites. pH increase also caused Na, Mg, and Fe to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Na, Fe, Mn, and Co in the anthropogenic sites. There was a significant correlation between these chemical elements and Ec in soils. We found significant relationships between pH and Ec, which were positive in saline areas of sodium manufactures and negative in the anthropogenic and control sites. These dependencies testify that the measurement of the selectivity of cations and their fluctuation in soils provide essential information on the affinity and binding strength in these environments. The

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart): a novel gene arrangement among arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes), usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp), which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene order is extremely rearranged

  20. Entomological fauna from Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, RN, Brazil: I. Morphospecies composition.

    PubMed

    Almeida; Marchon-Silva; Ribeiro; Serpa-Filho; Almeida; Costa

    2000-05-01

    Atol das Rocas, the unique atoll in the South-western Atlantic, is located 144 nautical miles (266 Km) northeast from the city of Natal, NE Brazil and 80 nautical miles from Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, with geographic co-ordinates 3 masculine51'S and 33 masculine49"W. It's of volcanic origin and coralline formation. The reef is ellipsoid, its largest axis (E-W) is approximately 3.7 km long, and the shortest (N-S) is 2.5 km. Inside the lagoon, there are two islands: the Ilha do Farol and Ilha do Cemitério, which comprehend 7.2 Km2 of emerged area. The Atol das Rocas lodges 143,000 birds, mainly by Sula dactilatra, S. leucogaster, Anous stolidus, A. minuta and Sterna fuscata. Due to their remote location, the islands remain largely undisturbed by the human activities. Aiming to a first characterization of the entomological diversity and the general trophic niches of atoll's entomofauna, three collects were made (1994, 1995 and 1996) utilizing several methods for a wide sample. One thousand six hundred and six insect specimens were collected belonging to eight orders: 1. Coleoptera - 333 individuals of Dermestidae (Dermestes cadaverinus); Tenebrionidae (Phaleria testacea and morphospecies) and Curculionidae (one morphospecies); 2. Dermaptera - 50 individuals of Carcinophoridae (Anisolabis maritima); 3. Diptera - 281 individuals of Ephydridae (Scatella sp. and Hecamede sp.) and Hippoboscidae (one morphospecies); 4. Hymenoptera - 45 individuals of Formicidae (Brachymyrmex sp.); 5. Lepidoptera - 111 individuals of Microlepidoptera (one morphospecies); 6. Mallophaga - 18 individuals in birds (two morphospecies); 7. Orthoptera - 237 individuals of Acrididae (Schistocerca cancellata), Tridactylidae (one morphospecies) and Blattidae (three morphospecies); 8. Thysanoptera -531 individuals (one morphospecies). Also were collected 112 individuals of Arachnida. The taxa of the Order Araneae were represented by the families: 1. Miturgidae (Cheiracanthium inclusum); 2

  1. Patterns of bathymetric distribution among deep-sea fauna at local spatial scale: comparison of mainland vs. insular areas [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Maynou, Francesc; Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Lloris, Domènec; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    , Munida tenuimana, Geryon longipes) species, and (2) fish at lower trophic levels, deduced from fractional trophic levels, showed higher differences in the MDO than fish at higher trophic levels. Trophic position of species in food webs seems the most important factor affecting the distributional differences between contrasting areas.

  2. Cross-shelf life-stage segregation and community structure of the euphausiids off central Oregon (1970 1972)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, J.; Peterson, W. T.; Miller, C. B.

    2005-01-01

    Community structure and zonal distribution of euphausiids along the Newport Hydrographic line (44°39.1'N) off central Oregon, USA, were examined from bi-weekly oceanographic surveys ( n=48) carried out from January 1970 through July 1972. We explored the associations among the euphausiid community composition (14 species) and changes in sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface salinity (SSS), coastal upwelling index (CUI), sigma- t, day vs. night sampling time, and distance from the coast. This period included the 1970-1971 La Niña and, at low latitudes, the 1972 El Niño events; this study shows that this El Niño event did not reach the Oregon coast as have most other most recent events. Multivariate analyses were done to identify the cross-shelf environmental gradients that most influence temporal changes in the euphausiid community structure. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) indicated that the euphausiid community separates into coastal and oceanic assemblages, with a species-richness gradient located about 45 km from shore, over the shelf-break. In the inshore zone, positive CUI (upwelling) was associated with Thysanoessa spinifera, while negative CUI (downwelling) was associated with the presence of the oceanic species assemblage during October-November. Indicator species analysis (ISA) showed that two species were good indicators for the oceanic environment: Thysanoessa longipes and Nematoscelis atlantica. Three species (Thysanoessa gregaria, Nematoscelis difficilis, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) were moderate indicators for the oceanic environment because, during fall and winter downwelling events, they may be transported over the continental shelf. High densities of larvae and juveniles of T. spinifera were found nearshore (<18 km from the coast), but older stages were mainly recorded offshore (>18-108 km from the coast). Euphausia pacifica was relatively homogeneously distributed in shelf and offshore waters, but its larvae were recorded

  3. Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D

    2004-03-01

    Methods of finding larvae and pupae of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are described and the known types of breeding sites used by sandflies are listed. Three ways of detecting sandfly breeding places are the use of emergence traps placed over potential sources to catch newly emerged adult sandflies; flotation of larvae and pupae from soil, etc., and desiccation of media to drive out the larvae. Even so, remarkably little information is available on the ecology of the developmental stages of sandflies, despite their importance as vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and phleboviruses affecting humans and other vertebrates in warmers parts of the world. Regarding the proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniases, information on breeding sites is available for only 15 out of 29 species of sandflies involved in the Old World and 12 out of 44 species of sandflies involved in the Americas, representing approximately 3% of the known species of Phlebotominae. Ecotopes occupied by immature phlebotomines are usually organically rich moist soils, such as the rain forest floor (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. whitmani in the Amazon; Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trapidoi in Panama), or contaminated soil of animal shelters (Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America, Phlebotomus argentipes in India; P. chinensis in China; P. ariasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus in Europe). Developmental stages of some species (P. langeroni and P. martini in Africa; P. papatasi in Eurasia; Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America), have been found in a wide range of ecotopes, and many species of sandflies employ rodent burrows as breeding sites, although the importance of this niche is unclear. Larvae of some phlebotomines have been found in what appear to be specialized niches such as Lu. ovallesi on buttress roots of trees in Panama; P. celiae in termite hills in Kenya; P. longipes and P. pedifer in caves and among rocks in East Africa. Old World species found as immatures in

  4. Adaptive strategies against drought stress of six plant species with different growth forms from karst habitats of southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Guo, K.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Frequent temporary drought in the rain season, as well as long-term drought in the dry season, is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats of southwestern China. The morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of six native woody plant species were investigated under both temporary and prolonged drought stress. The six plant species included Pyracantha fortuneana (evergreen shrub), Rosa cymosa (deciduous shrub), Cinnamomum bodinieri (evergreen tree), and other three deciduous trees, Broussonetia papyrifera, Platycarya longipes and Pteroceltis tatarinowii. Under severe drought stress, the two shrubs with low leaf area ratio (LAR) maintained higher water status, higher photosynthetic capacity and larger percent biomass increase than the most of the trees, owing to their lower specific leaf area, higher intrinsic water use efficiency and thermal dissipation, and higher capacities of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant protection. The evergreen tree, C. bodinieri, exhibited small decrease of water potential and maintained higher leaf mass ratio (LMR) and LAR than the deciduous species under moderate drought stress, due to the high proline accumulation and high activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, it showed high levels of cellular damages, very low photosynthetic capacity, and sharp decreases of water potential and biomass under severe drought stress. After rewatering, C. bodinieri showed a lower ability to recover from severe drought with the successive repeats of severe drought event. The three deciduous trees developed high root mass ratio for maximizing water uptake, and showed higher LAR and biomass than the two shrubs under well-watered condition. However, drought stress resulted in sharp decreases of biomass in the three deciduous trees, which were attributed to the large drought-induced decreases of LMR, LAR and gas exchange. Under drought conditions, the deciduous trees

  5. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U

  6. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

    2013-01-01

    ), Baconia turgifrons sp. n., Baconia crassa sp. n., Baconia anthracina sp. n., Baconia emarginata sp. n., Baconia obsoleta sp. n.], Baconia ruficauda group [Baconia ruficauda sp. n., Baconia repens sp. n.], Baconia angusta group [Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Baconia incognita sp. n., Baconia guartela sp. n., Baconia bullifrons sp. n., Baconia cavei sp. n., Baconia subtilis sp. n., Baconia dentipes sp. n., Baconia rubripennis sp. n., Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.], Baconia aeneomicans group [Baconia aeneomicans (Horn, 1873), Baconia pulchella sp. n., Baconia quercea sp. n., Baconia stephani sp. n., Baconia irinae sp. n., Baconia fornix sp. n., Baconia slipinskii Mazur, 1981, Baconia submetallica sp. n., Baconia diminua sp. n., Baconia rufescens sp. n., Baconia punctiventer sp. n., Baconia aulaea sp. n., Baconia mustax sp. n., Baconia plebeia sp. n., Baconia castanea sp. n., Baconia lescheni sp. n., Baconia oblonga sp. n., Baconia animata sp. n., Baconia teredina sp. n., Baconia chujoi (Cooman, 1941), Baconia barbarus (Cooman, 1934), Baconia reposita sp. n., Baconia kubani sp. n., Baconia wallacea sp. n., Baconia bigemina sp. n., Baconia adebratti sp. n., Baconia silvestris sp. n.], Baconia cylindrica group [Baconia cylindrica sp. n., Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.], Baconia gibbifer group [Baconia gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., Baconia maquipucunae sp. n., Baconia tenuipes sp. n., Baconia tuberculifer sp. n., Baconia globosa sp. n.], Baconia insolita group [Baconia insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n., Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870), Baconia tricolor sp. n., Baconia pilicauda sp. n.], Baconia riouka group [Baconia riouka (Marseul, 1861), Baconia azuripennis sp. n.], Baconia famelica group [Baconia famelica sp. n., Baconia grossii sp. n., Baconia redemptor sp. n., Baconia fortis sp. n., Baconia longipes sp. n., Baconia katieae sp. n., Baconia cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n., Baconia haeterioides sp. n.], Baconia micans group [Baconia micans (Schmidt, 1889a

  7. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    in combination with molecular work. Hy. fraxineus was described from Europe as a cryptic species that differed from Hy. albidus by molecular data alone. However, the Hy. albidus/Hy. fraxineus species complex represents one of many examples within the ascomycetes in which subtle microscopic differences between closely related species, in this case the presence or absence of croziers at the ascus base, are strictly correlated with molecular characteristics. Two species that closely resemble Hy. albidus and Hy. fraxineus form pseudosclerotia in Aesculus leaves and again differ from each other mainly in the ascus base: Hymenoscyphus aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum from Europe lacks croziers, whereas Hymenoscyphus honshuanus from Japan on Aesculus turbinata possesses croziers. Other taxa treated here include Hymenoscyphus vacini, a European species growing on stromatized net veins of skeletonized leaves of Acer, and Hymenoscyphus torquatus, a Chinese species on unidentified herbaceous stems. An equivalent stroma-forming North American species on leaves of Fraxinus, Rutstroemia longipes (Rutstroemiaceae), is discussed and compared. A key to the Hymenoscyphus species that form a dark stroma on leaves of Acer, Aesculus, Fraxinus, and Picrasma is provided. PMID:25544935

  8. Food web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the Catalan slope (NW Mediterranean): Evidence from δ 13C and δ 15N analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Rumolo, P.; Brunet, C.; Sprovieri, M.

    2011-01-01

    The food-web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Balearic basin, NW Mediterranean) was investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes on a total of 34 species, and HPLC pigment analyses for three key species. Samples were collected close to Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula), between 650 and 800 m depth and between February 2007 and February 2008. Mean δ 13C values ranged from -21.0‰ (small Calocaris macandreae and Amphipholis squamata) to -14.5‰ ( Sipunculus norvegicus). Values of δ 15N ranged from 4.0‰ ( A. squamata) to 12.1‰ ( Molpadia musculus). The stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna displayed a continuum of values (e.g. δ 15N range of 8‰), confirming a wide spectrum of feeding strategies (from active suspension feeders to predators) and complex food webs. According to the available information on diets of benthic fauna, the lowest values were found for surface deposit feeders (small C. macandrae and the two ophiuroids A. squamata and Amphiura chiajei) and active suspension feeders ( Abra longicallus and Scalpellum scalpellum) feeding on different sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), among which small particles may exhibit lower δ 15N. High annual mean δ 15N values were found among sub-surface deposit feeders, exploiting refractory or frequently recycled organic matter that is enriched in δ 15N. Carnivorous polychaetes ( Nephtys spp., Oenonidae and Polynoidae) and large decapods ( Geryon longipes and Paromola cuvieri) also displayed high δ 15N values. δ 13C ranges were particularly wide among surface deposit feeders (ranging from -21.0‰ to -16.4‰), suggesting exploitation of POM of both terrigenous and oceanic origins. Correlation between δ 13C and δ 15N was generally weak, indicating multiple carbon sources, likely due to the consumption of different kinds of sinking particles (e.g. marine snow, phytodetritus, etc.), sedimented and frequently recycled POM

  9. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

    2013-01-01

    ), Baconia turgifrons sp. n., Baconia crassa sp. n., Baconia anthracina sp. n., Baconia emarginata sp. n., Baconia obsoleta sp. n.], Baconia ruficauda group [Baconia ruficauda sp. n., Baconia repens sp. n.], Baconia angusta group [Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Baconia incognita sp. n., Baconia guartela sp. n., Baconia bullifrons sp. n., Baconia cavei sp. n., Baconia subtilis sp. n., Baconia dentipes sp. n., Baconia rubripennis sp. n., Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.], Baconia aeneomicans group [Baconia aeneomicans (Horn, 1873), Baconia pulchella sp. n., Baconia quercea sp. n., Baconia stephani sp. n., Baconia irinae sp. n., Baconia fornix sp. n., Baconia slipinskii Mazur, 1981, Baconia submetallica sp. n., Baconia diminua sp. n., Baconia rufescens sp. n., Baconia punctiventer sp. n., Baconia aulaea sp. n., Baconia mustax sp. n., Baconia plebeia sp. n., Baconia castanea sp. n., Baconia lescheni sp. n., Baconia oblonga sp. n., Baconia animata sp. n., Baconia teredina sp. n., Baconia chujoi (Cooman, 1941), Baconia barbarus (Cooman, 1934), Baconia reposita sp. n., Baconia kubani sp. n., Baconia wallacea sp. n., Baconia bigemina sp. n., Baconia adebratti sp. n., Baconia silvestris sp. n.], Baconia cylindrica group [Baconia cylindrica sp. n., Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.], Baconia gibbifer group [Baconia gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., Baconia maquipucunae sp. n., Baconia tenuipes sp. n., Baconia tuberculifer sp. n., Baconia globosa sp. n.], Baconia insolita group [Baconia insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n., Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870), Baconia tricolor sp. n., Baconia pilicauda sp. n.], Baconia riouka group [Baconia riouka (Marseul, 1861), Baconia azuripennis sp. n.], Baconia famelica group [Baconia famelica sp. n., Baconia grossii sp. n., Baconia redemptor sp. n., Baconia fortis sp. n., Baconia longipes sp. n., Baconia katieae sp. n., Baconia cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n., Baconia haeterioides sp. n.], Baconia micans group [Baconia micans (Schmidt, 1889a