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Sample records for longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics

  1. Computer programs for calculating the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Goodwin, F. K.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Four computer programs developed to calculate the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations are presented. The R1307 program is based on a linear method and is limited to the small range of angles of attack for which the lift and moment characteristics of wings and bodies are linear with angle of attack. The CRSFLW program is based on a crossflow method of predicting the forces and moments on bodies alone or wing-body combinations over a large angle of attack range. The SUBSON program predicts the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic speeds and at angles of attack for which symmetrical pairs of vortices are shed from the body nose and the leading and side edges of the lifting surfaces. Program SUPSON predicts the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail combinations at supersonic speeds in the same angle-of-attack range. A description of the use of each program, instructions for preparation of input, a description of the output, program listings, and sample cases for each program are included.

  2. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an externally blown flap powered lift model with several propulsive system simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of a four-engine externally blown flap (EBF) powered-lift transport was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of different engine configurations on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. The different engine configurations were simulated by five different sets of propulsion simulators on a single aircraft model. Longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained for each simulator on each flap deflection corresponding to cruise, take-off, and landing at a range of angles of attack and various thrust coefficients. The bypass ratio (BPR) 6.2 engine simulator provided the best lift and drag characteristics of the five simulators tested in the take-off and landing configurations. The poor performance of the BPR 10.0 and 3.2 engine simulators can be attributed to a mismatch of engine-model sizes or poor engine location and orientation. Isolated engine wake surveys indicated that a reasonable assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of an engine-wing-flap configuration could be made if qualitative information were available which defined the engine wake characteristics. All configurations could be trimmed easily with relatively small horizontal-tail incidence angles; however, the take-off landing configurations required a high-lift tail.

  3. Effects of upper-surface nacelles on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of high-wing transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of installing and streamline contouring upper-surface nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport configuration. Also investigated were the effects of adding a fairing under the nacelle. The investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.83 at angles fo attack from -2 deg to 4 deg. Flow-through nacelles were used. Streamline contouring the nacelles substantially reduced the interference drag due to installing the nacelles.

  4. Effect of symmetrical vortex shedding on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    An engineering prediction method for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail combinations is developed. The method includes the effects of nonlinear aerodynamics of components and the interference between components. Nonlinearities associated with symmetrical vortex shedding from the nose of the body are considered as well as the nonlinearities associated with the separation vortices from the leading edges and side edges of the lifting surfaces. The wing and tail characteristics are calculated using lifting surface theories which include effects of incidence, camber, twist, and induced velocities from external sources of disturbance such as bodies and vortices. The lifting surface theories calculate the distribution of leading edge and side edge suction which is converted to vortex lift using the Polhamus suction analogy. Correlation curves are developed to determine the fraction of the theoretical suction force which is converted into vortex lift. The prediction method is compared with experimental data on a variety of aircraft configurations to assess the accuracy and limitations of the method.

  5. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of externally blown flap configurations is described. Two potential flow models make up the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting-surface model and a turbofan engine wake model. A vortex-lattice lifting-surface method is used to represent the wing and multiple-slotted trailing-edge flaps. The jet wake is represented by a series of closely spaced vortex rings normal to a centerline which is free to move to conform to the local flow field. The two potential models are combined in an iterative fashion to predict the jet wake interference effects on a typical EBF configuration. Comparisons of measured and predicted span-load distributions, individual surface forces, forces and moments on the complete configuration, and flow fields are included.

  6. Subsonic longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics for a systematic series of strake-wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic wind tunnel study was conducted in the Langley 7 by 10 foot high speed tunnel to help establish a parametric data base of the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics for configurations incorporating strake-wing geometries indicative of current and proposed maneuvering aircraft. The configurations employed combinations of strakes with reflexed planforms having exposed spans of 10%, 20%, and 30% of the reference wing span and wings with trapezoidal planforms having leading edge sweep angles of approximately 30, 40, 44, 50, and 60 deg. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 and at angles of attack from approximately -4 to 48 deg at zero sideslip.

  7. Flap effectiveness on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinto, P. F.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified arrow-wing model was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel. This investigation addressed the effectiveness of the leading and trailing edge flap deflections of this model. The arrow wing was tested at a Mach number of 0.02 and at an angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 24 deg. The results of the investigation showed that deflecting the leading edge and trailing edge in combination could promote an attached-flow condition at the wing leading edge. Also, the leading edge suction could be maximized over the complete lift-coefficient range by scheduling a combination of leading and trailing edge flap deflections.

  8. Prediction of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of STOL configurations with externally blown high lift devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical method has been developed to predict the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of engine-wing-flap combinations with externally blown flaps (EBF) and upper surface blowing (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wake are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the lifting surfaces. The engine wakes may be circular, elliptic, or rectangular cross-sectional jets, and the lifting surfaces are comprised of a wing with multiple-slotted trailing-edge flaps or a deflected trailing-edge Coanda surface. Results are presented showing comparisons of measured and predicted forces, pitching moments, span-load distributions, and flow fields.

  9. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to develop an engineering method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with upper surface blown (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wakes are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the wing and flaps. The wing may have an arbitrary planform with camber and twist and multiple trailing edge flaps. The jet wake model has a rectangular cross section over its entire length and it is positioned such that the wake is tangent to the upper surfaces of the wing and flaps. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, spanload distributions, and total lift and pitching-moment coefficients on swept and unswept USB configurations are presented for a wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles.

  10. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to develop an engineering method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with upper surface blown (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wakes are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the wing and flaps. The wing may have an arbitrary planform with camber and twist and multiple trailing edge flaps. The jet wake model has a rectangular cross section over its entire length and it is positioned such that the wake is tangent to the upper surfaces of the wing and flaps. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, spanload distributions, and total lift and pitching-moment coefficients on swept and unswept USB configurations are presented for a wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles.

  11. Prediction of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of STOL configurations with externally blown high lift devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical method has been developed to predict the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of engine-wing-flap combinations with externally blown flaps (EBF) and upper surface blowing (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wake are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the lifting surfaces. The engine wakes may be circular, elliptic, or rectangular cross-sectional jets, and the lifting surfaces are comprised of a wing with multiple-slotted trailing-edge flaps or a deflected trailing-edge Coanda surface. Results are presented showing comparisons of measured and predicted forces, pitching moments, span-load distributions, and flow fields.

  12. Effect of wing design on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body model at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.; Huffman, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of wing camber and twist on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wingbody configuration. Three wings were used each having the same planform (aspect ratio of 2.5 and leading-edge sweep angle of 44 deg.) but differing in amounts of camber and twist (wing design lift coefficient). The wing design lift coefficients were 0, 0.35, and 0.70. The investigation was conducted over a Mach number range from 0.20 to 0.70 at angles of attack up to about 22 deg. The effect of wing strakes on the aerodynamic characteristics of the cambered wings was also studied. A comparison of the experimentally determined aerodynamic characteristics with theoretical estimates is also included.

  13. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1978-01-01

    An engineering method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with upper surface blowing (USB) was developed. Potential flow models were incorporated into the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting surface model and a jet wake model. The wing-flap model used a vortex-lattice to represent the wing and flaps. The wing had an arbitrary planform and camber and twist, and the flap system was made up of a Coanda flap and other flap segments of arbitrary size. The jet wake model consisted of a series of closely spaced rectangular vortex rings. The wake was positioned such that it was tangent to the upper surface of the wing and flap between the exhaust nozzle and the flap trailing edge. It was specified such that the mass, momentum, and spreading rates were similar to actual USB jet wakes. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, span load distributions, and total lift and pitching-moment coefficients on swept and unswept USB configurations are included. A wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles were considered at angles of attack up to the onset of stall.

  14. Longitudinal aerodynamics of a low-wing lift-fan transport including hover characteristics in and out of ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a six-fan, tip-driven (remote) lift-fan VTOL transport throughout transition. The large midspan lift-fan pods and cruise fans were removed to determine their influence on the stability and control of the configuration. Data were obtained in the hovering mode for ranges of model height above ground. The data are presented without analysis or discussion.

  15. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a flat-plate planform model of an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, Brian E.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Oneil, Pat

    1994-01-01

    A flat-plate wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter configuration was tested in the NASA LaRC Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel and the 16- by 24-inch Water Tunnel. The test objectives were to obtain and evaluate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a candidate configuration for the integration of several new innovative wing designs. The flat plate test allowed for the initial evaluation of the candidate planform and was designated as the baseline planform for the innovative wing design study. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of freestream dynamic pressures from 7.5 psf to 30 psf (M = 0.07 to M = 0.14) and angles-of-attack from 0 to 40 deg. The aerodynamic data are presented in coefficient form for the lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. Flow-visualization results obtained were photographs of the flow pattern over the flat plate model in the water tunnel for angles-of-attack from 10 to 40 deg. The force and moment coefficients and the flow-visualization photographs showed the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics due to attached flow and vortical flow over the flat plate model. Comparison between experiment and linear theory showed good agreement for the lift and induced drag; however, the agreement was poor for the pitching moment.

  16. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller-driven airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Representative state-of-the-art analytical procedures and design data for predicting the longitudinal static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, propeller-driven airplanes are presented. Procedures for predicting drag characteristics are also included. The procedures are applied to a twin-engine, propeller-driven airplane in the clean configuration from zero lift to stall conditions. The calculated characteristics are compared with wind-tunnel and flight data. Included in the comparisons are level-flight trim characteristics, period and damping of the short-period oscillatory mode, and windup-turn characteristics. All calculations are documented.

  17. Calculation of static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of STOL aircraft with upper surface blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Perkin, S. C., Jr.; Goodwin, F. K.; Spangler, S. B.

    1975-01-01

    An existing prediction method developed for EBF aircraft configurations was applied to USB configurations to determine its potential utility in predicting USB aerodynamic characteristics. An existing wing-flap vortex-lattice computer program was modified to handle multiple spanwise flap segments at different flap angles. A potential flow turbofan wake model developed for circular cross-section jets was used to model a rectangular cross-section jet wake by placing a number of circular jets side by side. The calculation procedure was evaluated by comparison of measured and predicted aerodynamic characteristics on a variety of USB configurations. The method is limited to the case where the flow and geometry of the configuration are symmetric about a vertical plane containing the wing root chord. Comparison of predicted and measured lift and pitching moment coefficients were made on swept wings with one and two engines per wing panel, various flap deflection angles, and a range of thrust coefficients. The results indicate satisfactory prediction of lift for flap deflections up to 55 and thrust coefficients less than 2. The applicability of the prediction procedure to USB configurations is evaluated, and specific recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  18. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a low-wing lift-fan transport including hover characteristics in and out of ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a six-fan, tip-driven (remote) lift-fan VTOL transport through transition were determined by an investigation conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Tests were also made with the large midspan lift-fan pods and lift-cruise fans removed to determine their their influence on the stability and control of the configuration. Data were obtained for a range of model height above ground.

  19. Low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of the X-31 configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Paulson, John W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a 19 pct. scale model of the X-31 configuration was completed in the Langley 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This study was performed to determine the static low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the basic configuration over a large range of angle of attack and sideslip and to study the effects of strakes, leading-edge extensions (wing-body strakes), nose booms, speed-brake deployment, and inlet configurations. The ultimate purpose was to optimize the configuration for high angle of attack and maneuvering-flight conditions. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 to 67 deg and at sideslip angles from -16 to 16 deg for speeds up to 190 knots (dynamic pressure of 120 psf).

  20. Error Estimate of the Ares I Vehicle Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics Based on Turbulent Navier-Stokes Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on the unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver USM3D, with an assumption that the flow is fully turbulent over the entire vehicle. This effort was designed to complement the prior computational activities conducted over the past five years in support of the Ares I Project with the emphasis on the vehicle s last design cycle designated as the A106 configuration. Due to a lack of flight data for this particular design s outer mold line, the initial vehicle s aerodynamic predictions and the associated error estimates were first assessed and validated against the available experimental data at representative wind tunnel flow conditions pertinent to the ascent phase of the trajectory without including any propulsion effects. Subsequently, the established procedures were then applied to obtain the longitudinal aerodynamic predictions at the selected flight flow conditions. Sample computed results and the correlations with the experimental measurements are presented. In addition, the present analysis includes the relevant data to highlight the balance between the prediction accuracy against the grid size and, thus, the corresponding computer resource requirements for the computations at both wind tunnel and flight flow conditions. NOTE: Some details have been removed from selected plots and figures in compliance with the sensitive but unclassified (SBU) restrictions. However, the content still conveys the merits of the technical approach and the relevant results.

  1. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a generic fighter model with a wing designed for sustained transonic maneuver conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fixed-wing generic fighter model with a wing designed for sustained transonic maneuver conditions. The airfoil sections on the wing were designed with a two-dimensional nonlinear computer code, and the root and tip section were modified with a three-dimensional code. The wing geometric characteristics were as follows: a leading-edge sweep of 45 degrees, a taper ratio of 0.2141, an aspect ratio of 3.30, and a thickness ratio of 0.044. The model was investigated at Mach numbers from 0.600 to 1.200, at Reynolds numbers, based on the model reference length, from 2,560,000 to 3,970,000, and through a model angle-of-attack range from -5 to +18 degrees.

  2. Effect of tail size reductions on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a three surface F-15 model with nonaxisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frassinelli, Mark C.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal and vertical tail size reductions on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified F-15 model with canards and 2-D convergent-divergent nozzles. Quantifying the drag decrease at low angles of attack produced by tail size reductions was the primary focus. The model was tested at Mach numbers of 0.40, 0.90, and 1.20 over an angle of attack of -2 degree to 10 degree. The nozzle exhaust flow was simulated using high pressure air at nozzle pressure ratios varying from 1.0 (jet off) to 7.5. Data were obtained on the baseline configuration with and without tails as well as with reduced horizontal and/or vertical tail sizes that were 75, 50, and 25 percent of the baseline tail areas.

  3. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.; Nielsen, J. N.; Goodwin, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was carried out to extend and improve an existing method for predicting the longitudinal characteristics of wing flap configurations with externally blown flaps (EBF). Two potential flow models were incorporated into the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting-surface model and a turbofan engine wake model. The wing-flap model uses a vortex-lattice approach to represent the wing and flaps. The jet wake model consists of a series of closely spaced vortex rings normal to a centerline which may have vertical and lateral curvature to conform to the local flow field beneath the wing and flaps. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, span load distributions on each lifting surface, and total lift and pitching moment coefficients on swept and unswept EBF configurations are included. A wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles is considered at angles of attack up to the onset of stall. Results indicate that overall lift and pitching-moment coefficients are predicted reasonably well over the entire range. The predicted detailed load distributions are qualitatively correct and show the peaked loads at the jet impingement points, but the widths and heights of the load peaks are not consistently predicted.

  4. Effect of underwing aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic effects of installing flow through engine nacelles in the aft underwing position of a high wing transonic transfer airplane. Mixed flow nacelles with circular and D-shaped inlets were tested at free stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg. The aerodynamic effects of installing antishock bodies on the wing and nacelle upper surfaces as a means of attaching and supporting nacelles in an extreme aft position were investigated.

  5. Thrust-induced effects on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinto, P. F.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel of the thrust induced effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing fighter aircraft. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.14 to 0.17 over an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to 26 deg. The major model variables were the spanwise blowing nozzle sweep angle and main nozzle vector angle along with trailing edge, flap deflections. The overall thrust coefficient (main and spanwise nozzles) was varied from 0 (jet off) to 2.0. The results indicate that the thrust-induced effects from the main nozzle alone were small and mainly due to boundary-layer control affecting a small area behind the nozzle. When the spanwise blowing nozzles were included, the induced effects were larger than the main nozzle alone and were due to both boundary layer control and induced circulation lift. No leading edge vortex effects were evident.

  6. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of STOL aircraft with externally-blown jet-augmented flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was made to develop methods for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of externally-blown, jet-augmented wing-flap combinations. A potential flow analysis was used to develop two models: a wing-flap lifting surface model and a high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine wake model. Use of these two models in sequence provides for calculation of the wing-flap load distribution including the influence of the engine wake. The method can accommodate multiple engines per wing panel and part-span flaps but is limited to the case where the flow and geometry of the configuration are symmetric about a vertical plane containing the wing root chord. Comparisons of predicted and measured lift and pitching moment on unswept and swept wings with one and two engines per panel and with various flap deflection angles indicate satisfactory prediction of lift and moment for flap deflections up to 30 to 40 degrees. At higher flap angles with and without power, the method begins to overpredict lift, due probably to the appearance of flow separation on the flaps.

  7. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an elliptical body with a horizontal tail at Mach numbers from 2.3 to 4.63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.; Robins, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a configuration consisting of an elliptical body with an in plane horizontal tail were investigated. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.3, 2.96, 4.0, and 4.63. In some cases, the configuration with negative tail deflections yielded higher values of maximum lift drag ratio than did the configuration with an undeflected tail. This was due to body upwash acting on the tail and producing an additional lift increment with essentially no drag penalty. Linear theory methods used to estimate some of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the model yielded results which compared well with experimental data for all Mach numbers in this investigation and for both small angles of attack and larger angles of attack where nonlinear (vortex) flow phenomena were present.

  8. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  9. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  10. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  11. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  12. Mathematical description of nonstationary aerodynamic characteristics of a passenger aircraft model in longitudinal motion at large angles of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoshin, V. I.; Chasovnikov, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    Aerodynamic loads in problems of flight dynamics of passenger aircraft in stalled flow regimes are described using a mathematical model that includes an ordinary linear first-order differential equation. A procedure for determining the parameters of the mathematical model is proposed which is based on approximating experimental frequency characteristics with the frequency characteristics of the linearized mathematical model. The mathematical model was verified by tests of a modern passenger aircraft model in a wind tunnel.

  13. Effect of location of aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, William K.; Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program at Langley Research Center, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of locating flow-through mixed flow engine nacelles in several aft underwing positions on the longitudinal aerodynamics of a high wing transport airplane. D-shaped inlet nacelles were used in the test. Some configurations with antishock bodies and with nacelle toe-in were also tested. Data were obtained for a free stream Mach number range of 0.70 to 0.85 and a model angle-of-attack range from -2.5 to 4.0 degrees.

  14. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  15. Effects of spanwise nozzle geometry and location on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing configuration at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Yip, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A V/STOL tunnel study was performed to determine the effects of spanwise blowing on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a model using a vectored-over-wing powered lift concept. The effects of spanwise nozzle throat area, internal and external nozzle geometry, and vertical and axial location were investigated. These effects were studied at a Mach number of 0.186 over an angle-of-attack range from 14 deg to 40 deg. A high pressure air system was used to provide jet-exhaust simulation. Engine nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 3.75.

  16. Longitudinal aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics of a propulsive-wing V/STOL model at high subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salters, L. B., Jr.; Schmeer, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics of a 1/6-scale propulsive-wing V/STOL air-powered model was investigated over the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.96 and at angles of attack from -5 deg to 15 deg for several fan rotational speeds. Three fanduct-exit configurations were tested, including two exit areas. The model with 25-percent-thick wing had a drag-rise Mach number of 0.85, which is typical of aircraft with thinner, conventional, unswept wings.

  17. Some Effects of Nose Bluntness and Fineness Ratio on the Static Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of Bodies of Revolution at Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, William C., Jr.; Henderson, William P.

    1961-01-01

    . The effects of a systematic variation of nose shape and fineness ratio on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of bodies of revolution have been qualitatively determined at subsonic speeds. Six nose shapes were investigated, representing five corner radii which varied from 0 to 50 percent of the body diameter and three face radii which varied from 50 percent of the model diameter to infinity. The complete models had fineness ratios of 0.50 to 2.00. In addition, effects of boattailing the afterbody and removing or varying the transitions trips which had been attached to initiate a turbulent boundary layer were noted. Results are presented for an angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 24 deg for Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.80, and indicate that small variations of the model nose can produce large variations in the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the body. These variations may in turn be moderated by an increase in the model fineness ratio .

  18. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Model Having a Highly Tapered, Cambered 45 degree Swept Wing of Aspect Ratio 4 at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, F. E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body-horizontal-tail configuration designed for efficient performance at transonic speeds has been investigated at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.03 in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The effect of adding an outboard leading-edge chord-extension to the highly tapered 45 deg. swept wing was also obtained. The average Reynolds number for this investigation was 6.7 x 10(exp 6) based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The relatively low tail placement as well as the addition of a chord-extension achieved some alleviation of the pitchup tendencies of the wing-fuselage configuration. The maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio was 16.5 up to a Mach number of 0.9, with the moment center located at the quarter-chord point of the mean aerodynamic chord. For the untrimmed case, the maximum lift-drag ratio was approximately 19.5 up to a Mach number of 0.9.

  19. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Subsonic Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Tiltable-Wing Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing Supersonic Bomber Configuration Including Turbojet Power Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert F.; Vogler, Raymond D.; Moseley, William C., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Jet-powered model tests were made to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical-take-off and-landing supersonic bomber configuration. The configuration has an unique engine-wing arrangement wherein six large turbojet engines (three on each side of the fuselage) are buried in a low-aspect-ratio wing which is tilted into the vertical plane for take-off. An essentially two-dimensional variable inlet, spanning the leading edge of each wing semispan, provides air for the engines. Jet flow conditions were simulated for a range of military (nonafterburner) and afterburner turbojet-powered flight at subsonic speeds. Three horizontal tails were tested at a station down-stream of the jet exit and at three heights above the jet axes. A semi-span model was used and test parameters covered wing-fuselage incidence angles from 0 deg to 15 deg, wing angles of attack from -4 deg to 36 deg, a variable range of horizontal-tail incidence angles, and some variations in power simulation conditions. Results show that, with all horizontal tails tested, there were large variations in static stability throughout the lift range. When the wing and fuselage were alined, the model was statically stable throughout the test range only with the largest tail tested (tail span of 1.25 wing span) and only when the tail was located in the low test position which placed the tail nearest to the undeflected jet. For transition flight conditions, none of the tail configurations provided satisfactory longitudinal stability or trim throughout the lift range. Jet flow was destabilizing for most of the test conditions, and varying the jet-exit flow conditions at a constant thrust coefficient had little effect on the stability of this model. Wing leading-edge simulation had some important effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics.

  20. Effects of wing leading-edge flap deflections on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration with a 44 deg swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of wing leading-edge flap deflections on the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration with a 44 deg swept wing. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.85, corresponding to Reynolds numbers (based on wing mean geometric chord) of 2.37 x 1,000,000 to 4.59 x 1,000,000 and at angles of attack from -3 deg to 22 deg. The configurations under study included a wing-fuselage configuration and a wing-fuselage-strake configuration. Each configuration had multisegmented, constant-chord leading-edge flaps which could be deflected independently or in various combinations.

  1. Effects of wing leading-edge radius and Reynolds number on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of highly swept wing-body configurations at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effects of wing leading edge radius and Reynolds number on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a series of highly swept wing-body configurations. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers below 0.30, angles of attack up to 16 deg, and Reynolds numbers per meter from 6.57 million to 43.27 million. The wings under study in this investigation had leading edge sweep angles of 61.7 deg, 64.61 deg, and 67.01 deg in combination with trailing edge sweep angles of 0 deg and 40.6 deg. The leading edge radii of each wing planform could be varied from sharp to nearly round.

  2. Inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics in longitudinal parameter estimation from flight data. [use of vortices and mathematical models for parameterization from flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Wells, W. R.; Keskar, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A simple vortex system, used to model unsteady aerodynamic effects into the rigid body longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft, is described. The equations are used in the development of a parameter extraction algorithm. Use of the two parameter-estimation modes, one including and the other omitting unsteady aerodynamic modeling, is discussed as a means of estimating some acceleration derivatives. Computer generated data and flight data, used to demonstrate the use of the parameter-extraction algorithm are studied.

  3. Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics for Langley Test Technique Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Cruz, C. I.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for a generic transatmospheric vehicle concept referred to as the Langley Test Technique Demonstrator. The baseline configuration, without engine modules, was longitudinally and directionally unstable over the hypersonic Mach number range of the investigation and exhibited untrimmed (L/D)max levels between 2.6 and 2.8. Adding various engine modules to the baseline configuration produced mainly, degradations in lift-to-drag ratio. In general, longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients predicted with an engineering code referred to as Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) were in qualitative, and often quantitative agreement with measurement.

  4. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-winglet model designed at M = 0.8, C sub L = 0.4 using linear aerodynamic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.

  5. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics to Large Angles of Attack of a Cruciform Missile Configuration at a Mach Number of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, J. R.

    1954-01-01

    The lift, pitching-moment, and drag characteristics of a missile configuration having a body of fineness ratio 9.33 and a cruciform triangular wing and tail of aspect ratio 4 were measured at a Mach number of 1.99 and a Reynolds number of 6.0 million, based on the body length. The tests were performed through an angle-of-attack range of -5 deg to 28 deg to investigate the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of roll angle, wing-tail interdigitation, wing deflection, and interference among the components (body, wing, and tail). Theoretical lift and moment characteristics of the configuration and its components were calculated by the use of existing theoretical methods which have been modified for application to high angles of attack, and these characteristics are compared with experiment. The lift and drag characteristics of all combinations of the body, wing, and tail were independent of roll angle throughout the angle-of-attack range. The pitching-moment characteristics of the body-wing and body-wing-tail combinations, however, were influenced significantly by the roll angle at large angles of attack (greater than 10 deg). A roll from 0 deg (one pair of wing panels horizontal) to 45 deg caused a forward shift in the center of pressure which was of the same magnitude for both of these combinations, indicating that this shift originated from body-wing interference effects. A favorable lift-interference effect (lift of the combination greater than the sum of the lifts of the components) and a rearward shift in the center of pressure from a position corresponding to that for the components occurred at small angles of attack when the body was combined with either the exposed wing or tail surfaces. These lift and center-of-pressure interference effects were gradually reduced to zero as the angle of attack was increased to large values. The effect of wing-tail interference, which influenced primarily the pitching-moment characteristics, is dependent on the distance

  6. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics to Large Angles of Attack of a Cruciform Missile Configuration at a Mach Number of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, J Richard

    1954-01-01

    The lift, pitching-moment, and drag characteristics of a missile configuration having a body of fineness ratio 9.33 and a cruciform triangular wing and tail of aspect ratio 4 were measured at a Mach number of 1.99 and a Reynolds number of 6.0 million, based on the body length. The tests were performed through an angle-of-attack range of -5 deg to 28 deg to investigate the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of roll angle, wing-tail interdigitation, wing deflection, and interference among the components (body, wing, and tail). Theoretical lift and moment characteristics of the configuration and its components were calculated by the use of existing theoretical methods which have been modified for application to high angles of attack, and these characteristics are compared with experiment. The lift and drag characteristics of all combinations of the body, wing, and tail were independent of roll angle throughout the angle-of-attack range. The pitching-moment characteristics of the body-wing and body-wing- tail combinations, however, were influenced significantly by the roll angle at large angles of attack (greater than 10 deg). A roll from 0 deg (one pair of wing panels horizontal) to 45 deg caused a forward shift in the center of pressure which was of the same magnitude for both of these combinations, indicating that this shift originated from body-wing interference effects. A favorable lift - interference effect (lift of the combination greater than the sum of the lifts of the components) and a rearward shift in the center of pressure from a position corresponding to that for the components occurred at small angles of attack when the body was combined with either the exposed wing or tail surfaces. These lift and center-of-pressure interference effects were gradually reduced to zero as the angle of attack was increased to large values. The effect of wing-tail interference, which influenced primarily the pitching-moment characteristics, is dependent on the

  7. Effects of deflected thrust on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a close-coupled wing-canard configuration. [in the Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of power on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a close-coupled wing-canard fighter configuration with partial-span rectangular nozzles at the trailing edge of the wing were investigated. Data were obtained on a basic wing-strake configuration for nozzle and flap deflections from 0 deg to 30 deg and for nominal thrust coefficients from 0 to 0.30. The model was tested over an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to 40 deg at Mach numbers of 0.15 and 0.18. Results show substantial improvements in lift-curve slope, in maximum lift, and in drag-due-to-lift efficiency when the canard and strakes have been added to the basic wing-fuselage (wing-alone) configuration. Addition of power increased both lift-curve slope and maximum lift, improved longitudinal stability, and reduced drag due to lift on both the wing-canard and wing-canard-strake configurations. These beneficial effects are primarily derived from boundary-layer control due to moderate thrust coefficients which delay flow separation on the nozzle and inboard portion of the wing flaps.

  8. Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were made from subsonic to hypersonic speeds to define the aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration. The data have been assembled into an aerodynamic database for flight analysis of this proposed vehicle. The wind tunnel data indicates that the model is longitudinally and laterally stable (about a center-of-gravity location of 0.54 body length) over the test range from Mach 20 to 0.3. At hypersonic speeds, the HL-20 model trimmed at a lift/drag (L/D) ratio of 1.4. This value gives the vehicle a crossrange capability similar to that of the space shuttle. At subsonic speeds, the HL-20 has a trimmed L/D ratio of about 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate outboard fins with fins having an airfoil shape increased the maximum subsonic trimmed L/D to 4.2.

  10. Effects of Canard Planform and Wing-Leading-Edge Modification on Low-Speed Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Canard Airplane Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Bernard, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at low subsonic speeds to study the effects of canard planform and wing-leading-edge modification on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a general research canard airplane configuration. The basic wing of the model had a trapezoidal planform, an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.143, and an unswept 80-percent-chord line. Modifications to the wing included addition of full-span and partial-span leading-edge chord-extensions. Two canard planforms were employed in the study; one was a 60 deg sweptback delta planform and the other was a trapezoidal planform similar to that of the basic wing. Modifications to these canards included addition of a full-span leading-edge chord-extension to the trapezoidal planform and a fence to the delta planform. For the basic-wing-trapezoidal-canard configuration, rather abrupt increases in stability occurred at about 12 deg angle of attack. A slight pitch-up tendency occurred for the delta-canard configuration at approximately 8 deg angle of attack. A comparison of the longitudinal control effectiveness for the basic-wing-trapezoidal-canard combination and for the basic-wing-delta-canard combination indicates higher values of control effectiveness at law angles of attack for the trapezoidal canard. The control effectiveness for the delta-canard configuration, however, is seen to hold up for higher canard deflections and to higher angles of attack. Use of a full-span chord-extension deflected approximately 30 deg on the trapezoidal canard greatly improved the control characteristics of this configuration and enabled a sizeable increase in trim lift to be realized.

  11. Effect of conventional and square stores on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter aircraft model at supersonic speeds. [in the langley unitary plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monta, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of conventional and square stores on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter aircraft configuration at Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 was investigated. Five conventional store configurations and six arrangements of a square store configuration were studied. All configurations of the stores produced small, positive increments in the pitching moment throughout the angle-of-attack range, but the configuration with area ruled wing tanks also had a slight decrease on stability at the higher angles of attack. There were some small changes in lift coefficient because of the addition of the stores, causing the drag increment to vary with the lift coefficient. As a result, there were corresponding changes in the increments of the maximum lift drag ratios. The store drag coefficient based on the cross sectional area of the stores ranged from a maximum of 1.1 for the configuration with three Maverick missiles to a minimum of about .040 for the two MK-84 bombs and the arrangements with four square stores touching or two square stores in tandem. Square stores located side by side yielded about 0.50 in the aft position compared to 0.74 in the forward position.

  12. Effects of landing gear, speed brake and protuberances on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an NASA supercritical-wing research airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. W.; Sangiorgio, G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Research Center 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel to determine the effects of the landing gear, speed brake and the major airplane protuberances on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an 0.087-scale model of the TF-8A supercritical-wing research airplane. For the effects of the landing gear and speed brake, tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 0.25 and 0.35 with a flap deflection of 20 degrees and a horizontal-tail angle of -10 degrees. These conditions simulated those required for take-off and landing. The effects of the protuberances were determined with the model configured for cruise (i.e., horizontal-tail angle of -2.5 degrees and no other control deflection), and these tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 1.00. The angle-of-attack range for all tests varied from about -5 degrees to 12 degrees.

  13. Comparison of theoretical predicted longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics with full-scale wind tunnel data on the ATLIT airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P. G.; Griswold, M.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for predicting the lift coefficient, the pitching moment coefficient, and the drag coefficient of light, twin-engine, propeller-driven airplanes. The method was applied to the Advanced Technology Light Twin-Engine airplane. The calculated characteristics were then correlated against full scale wind tunnel data. The analytical method was found to predict the drag and pitching moment fairly well. However, the lift prediction was extremely poor.

  14. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a deflected-thrust propulsive-lift transport model. [wind tunnel tests of aircraft models of jet transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effect of deflecting the engine exit of a four-engine double-slotted flap transport to provide STOL performance. Longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained at various engine exit positions and deflections. The data were obtained at three flap deflections representing cruise, take-off, and landing conditions for a range of angles of attack and various thrust coefficients. Downwash angles at the location of the horizontal tail were measured. The data are presented without analysis or discussion. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

  15. Wind-tunnel investigation of basic aerodynamic characteristics of a supercritical-wing research airplane configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. W.; Re, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Transonic pressure tunnel and transonic tunnel tests were performed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.087 scale model of a supercritical wing research airplane configuration at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.30. The investigation included tests to determine the basic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics for sideslip angles of 0 deg and + or - 2.5 deg, and the effects of Reynolds number and aeroelasticity.

  16. [Aerodynamic characteristics of crewman's arms during windblast].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-ran; Wu, Gui-rong

    2003-10-01

    To study the aerodynamic characteristics of crewman's arms with or without protective devices in the status with raised legs or not. The experiments were performed in an FL-24 transonic and supersonic wind tunnel, over Mach number range of 0.4-2.0, with 5 degrees-30 degrees angles of attack, 0 degrees - 90 degrees sideslip angles and Re number of (0.93-3.1) x 10(6). The test model was a 1/5-scale crewman/ejection seat combination. The aerodynamic characteristics of the various sections of crewman's arms were studied and analyzed. The results showed that 1) The effect of raised leg on the aerodynamic characteristics of the crewman's arms was very evident, and was related to the status of leg raising; 2) The sideslip considerably increased aerodynamic loads on the crewman's arms, in particular when beta=50 degrees the loads was severe in the test; 3) The tested protective devices was valid, the effectiveness of wind deflector in protecting crewman's arms was evident; 4) A formula for calculating aerodynamic force acting on crewman's arms was presented. 1)The tested protective devices was valid, and the effectiveness of wind deflector in protecting crewman's arms was evident; 2) An aerodynamic basis for the development of crewman windblast protective device was presented; 3)The calculation formula presented is useful in estimating aerodynamic forces of crewman's arms.

  17. Experimental effects of fuselage camber on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a series of wing-fuselage configurations at a Mach number of 1.41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Morris, O. A.; Adams, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate a method for the integration of a fighter-type fuselage with a theoretical wing to preserve desirable wing aerodynamic characteristics for efficient maneuvering. The investigation was conducted by using semispan wing fuselage models mounted on a splitter plate. The models were tested through an angle of attack range at a Mach number of 1.41. The wing had a leading edge sweep angle of 50 deg and an aspect ratio of 2.76; the wing camber surface was designed for minimum drag due to lift and was to be self trimming at a lift coefficient of 0.2 and at a Mach number of 1.40. A series of five fuselages of various camber was tested on the wing.

  18. Wake shape and its effects on aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emdad, H.; Lan, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The wake shape under symmetrical flight conditions and its effects on aerodynamic characteristics are examined. In addition, the effect of wake shape in sideslip and discrete vortices such as strake or forebody vortex on lateral characteristics is presented. The present numerical method for airplane configurations, which is based on discretization of the vortex sheet into vortex segments, verified the symmetrical and asymmetrical roll-up process of the trailing vortices. Also, the effect of wing wake on tail planes is calculated. It is concluded that at high lift the assumption of flat wake for longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics should be reexamined.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  1. The interference of the model support mast with measurements of the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandekreeke, C.; Verriere, J.; Quemard, G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects the single-bottom support masts used in the ONERA S1 and S4 wind tunnels have on aerodynamic data collected with scale model aircraft were examined experimentally and analytically. Systematic studies were performed on the flow characteristics around different diameters for the mounts. Scaling methods used to make data from one wind tunnel correspond to data from the other are described. Airbus 320 models were introduced into the tests and mast-body flow interactions were observed. A summary is presented of restrictions on the mast diameters, relative to cylindrical model diameters, which will minimize the effects the masts have on longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability data.

  2. Space shuttle: Longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the 0.0035-scale GD/C aerospace booster (B-15B-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debevoise, J. M.; Mcginnis, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Force tests on a 0.0035-scale model of the General Dynamics/Convair space shuttle B-15B-1 booster were conducted in the MSFC trisonic wind tunnel during February and March 1971. Longitudinal and lateral characteristics were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 4.96. The configuration tested had a low delta wing, all-movable canard controls of delta planform, and a single vertical tail. Most of the test was devoted to obtaining data relevant to the transition from atmospheric reentry to subsonic cruise. In that portion of the test the angles of attack ranged from 6 degrees to 60 degrees, and yaw runs were made at angles of attack of 15 and 35 degrees. The rest of the test was devoted to obtaining booster-alone buildup data relevant to the launch phase. For the launch phase, the Mach number range was from 0.6 to 2.0, the angles of attack were from -10 to +10 degrees, and yaw runs were made at zero angle of attack.

  3. Deep-Stall Aerodynamic Characteristics of T-Tail Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert T.; Ray, Edward J.

    1965-01-01

    A wind-tunnel research program has been under-taken by the NASA to study the aerodynamic characteristics of T-tail aircraft at high angles of attack. The program was designed to show the effects on longitudinal stability and control of several configuration variables. The results to date do not allow the formulation of general design rules, but the effects of several configuration variables have been noted to have a prime influence on the post-stall characteristics. An increase in tail size, changes in the location of fuselage-mounted engine nacelles, and reduced fuselage-forebody lift were all found to have a beneficial effect on static longitudinal stability at high angles of attack.

  4. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed wing-body reusable launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A proposed wing-body reusable launch vehicle was tested in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14 x 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during the winter of 1994. This test resulted in the vehicle's subsonic and transonic, Mach 0.3 to 1.96, longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics. The effects of control surface deflections on the basic vehicle's aerodynamics, including a body flap, elevons, ailerons, and tip fins, are presented.

  5. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Proposed Wing Body Reusable Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A proposed wing body reusable launch vehicle was tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel during the winter of 1994. this test resulted in the vehicle's subsonic and transonic (Mach 03 to 1.96) longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics. The effects of control surface deflections on the basic vehicle aerodynamics including a body flap, elevons, ailerons, and tip fins are presented.

  6. Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2005-06-21

    The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings.

  7. Effects of Sweep and Thickness on the Static Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Series of Thin, Low-aspect-ratio, Highly Tapered Wings at Transonic Speeds : Transonic-bump Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Paul G; Few, Albert G , Jr

    1954-01-01

    An investigation by the transonic-bump technique of the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a series of thin, low-aspect-ratio, highly tapered wings has been made in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The Mach number range extended from about 0.60 to 1.18, with corresponding Reynolds numbers ranging from about 0.75 x 10(6) to 0.95 x 10(6). The angle of attack range was from -10 degrees to approximately 32 degrees.The effects on drag and lift-drag ratio of a variation in sweep angle from -14.03 degrees to 45 degrees with respect to the quarter-chord line for wings of 3-percent-chord thickness was found to be small in comparison to the effects of a variation in thickness from 2 percent chord to 4.5 percent chord for wings with 14.03 degree sweepback. For the range of variables considered, variations in plan form were considerably more important with regard to longitudinal stability characteristics than the variations in thickness. For the series of basic wings having an aspect ratio of 4, the most hearly linear pitching-moment characteristics were obtained with 26.57 degree of sweepback of the quarter-chord line. However, for the modified series of wings (obtained by clipping the tips of the original wings parallel to the plane of symmetry to give an aspect ratio of 3 and a taper ratio of 0.143), the most nearly linear pitching-moment characteristics were obtained with 36.87 degrees of sweepback. By decreasing the thickness-to-chord ratios from 0.03 to 0.02, a large increase in lift-curve slope was obtained for both the basic and modified wings. All of the wings of both series had fairly large inward shifts of the lateral center-of-pressure location (indicative of tip stalling) with increasing lift coefficient, except those wings having minimum sweepback angles.

  8. Subsonic-to-Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics for a Winged, Circular-Body, Single-Stage-to-Orbit Spacecraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Engelund, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for a generic, winged, circular-body, single-stage-to-orbit spacecraft configuration. The baseline configuration was longitudinally stable and trimmable at almost all Mach numbers from 0.15 to 10.0--with the exception occurring at low supersonic speeds. Landing speed and subsonic-to-hypersonic longitudinal stability and control appear to be within design guidelines. Lateral-directional instabilities found over the entire speed range, however, create a problem area for this configuration. Longitudinal aerodynamic predictions made utilizing the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) were in qualitative, often quantitative agreement with experimental values.

  9. Experimental and analytical study of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of analytically and empirically designed Strake-wing configurations at subcritical speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.; Frink, N. T.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen analytically and empirically designed strakes have been tested experimentally on a wing-body at three subcritical speeds in such a way as to isolate the strake-forebody loads from the wing-afterbody loads. Analytical estimates for these longitudinal results are made using the suction analogy and the augmented vortex lift concepts. The synergistic data are reasonably well estimated or bracketed by the high- and low-angle-of-attack vortex lift theories over the Mach number range and up to maximum lift or strake-vortex breakdown over the wing. Also, the strake geometry is very important in the maximum lift value generated and the lift efficiency of a given additional area. Increasing size and slenderness ratios are important is generating lift efficiently, but similar efficiency can also be achieved by designing a strake with approximately half the area of the largest gothic strake tested. These results correlate well with strake-vortex-breakdown observations in the water tunnel.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of popcorn ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkaduvasala, V.; Murphy, D.W.; Ban, H.; Harrison, K.E.; Monroe, L.S.

    2007-07-01

    Popcorn ash particles are fragments of sintered coal fly ash masses that resemble popcorn in low apparent density. They can travel with the flow in the furnace and settle on key places such as catalyst surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are often used in the design process to prevent the carryover and settling of these particles on catalysts. Particle size, density, and drag coefficient are the most important aerodynamic parameters needed in CFD modeling of particle flow. The objective of this study was to experimentally determine particle size, shape, apparent density, and drag characteristics for popcorn ash particles from a coal-fired power plant. Particle size and shape were characterized by digital photography in three orthogonal directions and by computer image analysis. Particle apparent density was determined by volume and mass measurements. Particle terminal velocities in three directions were measured in water and each particle was also weighed in air and in water. The experimental data were analyzed and models were developed for equivalent sphere and equivalent ellipsoid with apparent density and drag coefficient distributions. The method developed in this study can be used to characterize the aerodynamic properties of popcorn-like particles.

  11. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics for a winged-cone concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. Pelham; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Micol, John R.; Woods, William C.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamics were obtained for a generic aerodynamics were obtaiend for a generic winged-cone configuration having possible application as a transatmospheric vehicle concept. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 20.0; Reynolds numbers, based on model length, between 2.5 and 5.3 million; and angles of attack from -4 to 20 deg. Results indicate a longitudinal center-of-pressure travel of about 23 percent of the fuselage length for the test Mach number range, with longitudinal instabilities noted at high-supersonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. These instabilities are coupled with directional instability at similar Mach numbers. Predictions with analytic codes, namely, the USAF DATCOM and the tangent-cone option of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program, provided fair agreement with the experimental aerodynamic characteristics at low angles-of-attack.

  12. Determination of longitudinal and lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics of the B19B pressure-fed booster and the B19B booster/040A orbiter launch configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginnis, R. F.; Eder, F. W.

    1971-01-01

    The 0.003366 scale models of the space shuttle pressure-fed booster and booster/orbiter configurations were tested in the MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel. The test was conducted as a static stability and control investigation over a Mach range of 0.60 to 5.00. The booster alone configuration was tested with various tail sizes, tail wedge angles, tail flaps, spoilers, and a body flare drag skirt. Two launch configurations were tested; one being the MSC orbiter location on the booster tank and the other being the North American Rockwell orbiter location. Orbiter buildup, longitudinal position, incidence angle, and booster tail on and off were the variables for launch configuration. Booster alone models were pitched over an angle of attack range of -4 to +14 and +20 to +60 deg at zero deg yaw angle and yawed over an angle of sideslip range of -10 to +10 deg at 52 deg angle of attack. Launch configuration models were yawed -10 to +10 deg at zero degrees angle of attack and yawed -10 to +10 deg at zero and -6 deg angle of attack. All models were rolled 45 deg during selected runs.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2010-10-01

    The flying fish (family Exocoetidae) is an exceptional marine flying vertebrate, utilizing the advantages of moving in two different media, i.e. swimming in water and flying in air. Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. Hence, the morphological and behavioral adaptations of flying fish to aerial locomotion have attracted great interest from various fields including biology and aerodynamics. Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. Therefore, in the present study, we directly measure the aerodynamic forces and moment on darkedged-wing flying fish (Cypselurus hiraii) models and correlated them with morphological characteristics of wing (fin). The model configurations considered are: (1) both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread out, (2) only the pectoral fins spread with the pelvic fins folded, and (3) both fins folded. The role of the pelvic fins was found to increase the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio, which is confirmed by the jet-like flow structure existing between the pectoral and pelvic fins. With both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread, the longitudinal static stability is also more enhanced than that with the pelvic fins folded. For cases 1 and 2, the lift-to-drag ratio was maximum at attack angles of around 0 deg, where the attack angle is the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the flying direction. The lift coefficient is largest at attack angles around 30∼35 deg, at which the flying fish is observed to emerge from the sea surface. From glide polar

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.

  15. Error Estimates of the Ares I Computed Turbulent Ascent Longitudinal Aerodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on an unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The validity of the approach to compute the associated error estimates, derived from a base grid to an extrapolated infinite-size grid, was first demonstrated on a sub-scaled wind tunnel model at representative ascent flow conditions for which the experimental data existed. Such analysis at the transonic flow conditions revealed a maximum deviation of about 23% between the computed longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid and the measured data across the entire roll angles. This maximum deviation from the wind tunnel data was associated with the computed normal force coefficient at the transonic flow condition and was reduced to approximately 16% based on the infinite-size grid. However, all the computed aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid at the supersonic flow conditions showed a maximum deviation of only about 8% with that level being improved to approximately 5% for the infinite-size grid. The results and the error estimates based on the established procedure are also presented for the flight flow conditions.

  16. An analytical procedure for evaluating shuttle abort staging aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering analysis and computer code (AERSEP) for predicting Space Shuttle Orbiter - HO Tank longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics during abort separation has been developed. Computed results are applicable at Mach numbers above 2 for angle-of-attack between plus or minus 10 degrees. No practical restrictions on orbiter-tank relative positioning are indicated for tank-under-orbiter configurations. Input data requirements and computer running times are minimal facilitating program use for parametric studies, test planning, and trajectory analysis. In a majority of cases AERSEP Orbiter-Tank interference predictions are as accurate as state-of-the-art estimates for interference-free or isolated-vehicle configurations. AERSEP isolated-orbiter predictions also show excellent correlation with data.

  17. Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1994-01-01

    A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.

  18. On the formulation of the aerodynamic characteristics in aircraft dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Schiff, L. B.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of functionals is used to reformulate the notions of aerodynamic indicial functions and superposition. Integral forms for the aerodynamic response to arbitrary motions are derived that are free of dependence on a linearity assumption. Simplifications of the integral forms lead to practicable nonlinear generalizations of the linear superpositions and stability derivative formulations. Applied to arbitrary nonplanar motions, the generalization yields a form for the aerodynamic response that can be compounded of the contributions from a limited number of well-defined characteristic motions, in principle reproducible in the wind tunnel. Further generalizations that would enable the consideration of random fluctuations and multivalued aerodynamic responses are indicated.

  19. Effects of vortex breakdown on longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamics of slender wings by the suction analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Hsu, C.-H.

    1982-01-01

    A semi-empirical method based on the suction analogy is developed to predict longitudinal aerodynamics and lateral-directional characteristics of slender wings at high angles of attack, including effects of vortex breakdown. The latter is based on a correlation parameter derived from the predicted leading-edge suction distribution in the attached flow. Empirical formulas, derived from a least-square analysis of data, for the vortex-breakdown angle of attack at the trailing edge, the progression rate of breakdown points and the vortex lift recovery factor in the breakdown region are given. Comparison of predicted results with data in longitudinal aerodynamics and lateral-directional characteristics for wings exhibiting strong vortex flow shows that the present method is reasonably accurate. Explanation for peculiar lateral-directional characteristics is given.

  20. An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an 0.08-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel. Part III - Longitudinal-Control Characteristics TED No. NACA DE308. Part 3; Longitudinal-Control Characteristics, TED No. NACA DE308

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in the Langley high speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.91 to determine the stability and control characteristics of an 0,08-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane. The longitudinal-control characteristics of the complete model are presented in the present report with a limited analysis of the results.

  1. Predicted aerodynamic characteristics for HL-20 lifting-body using the aerodynamic preliminary analysis system (APAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Christopher I.; Ware, George M.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting body configuraiton obtained through the APAS and from wind-tunnel tests have been compared. The APAS is considered to be an easy-to-use, relatively simple tool for quick preliminary estimation of vehicle aerodynamics. The APAS estimates are found to be in good agreement with experimental results to be used for preliminary evaluation of the HL-20. The APAS accuracy in predicting aerodynamics of the HL-20 varied over the Mach range. The speed ranges of best agreement were subsonic and hypersonic, while least agreement was in the Mach range from 1.2 to about 2,5.

  2. Comparison of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Similar Models in Two Size Wind Tunnels at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Anthony M.

    1998-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of two similar models of a lifting body configuration were run in two transonic wind tunnels, one a 16 foot the other a 14-inch and are compared. The 16 foot test used a 2% model while the 14-inch test used a 0.7% scale model. The wind tunnel model configurations varied only in vertical tail size and an aft sting shroud. The results from these two tests compare the effect of tunnel size, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure and blockage on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The data accuracy and uncertainty are also presented. It was concluded from these tests that the data resultant from a small wind tunnel compares very well to that of a much larger wind tunnel in relation to total vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

  3. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics and Effect of Rocket Jet on Drag of Models of the Hermes A-3A and A-3B Missiles in Free Flight at Mach Numbers From 0.6 to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, H. Herbert

    1955-01-01

    A free-flight investigation over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 has been conducted to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and effect of rocket jet on zero-lift drag of 1/5-scale models of two ballistic-type missiles, the Hermes A-3A and A-3B. Models of both types of missiles exhibited very nearly linear normal forces and pitching moments over the angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to -4 deg and Mach number range tested. The centers of pressure for both missiles were not appreciably affected by Mach number over the subsonic range; however, between a Mach number of 1.02 and 1.50 the center of pressure for the A-3A model moved forward 0.34 caliber with increasing Mach number. At a trim angle-of-attack of approximately 30 deg, the A-3A model indicated a total drag coefficient 30% higher than the power-off zero-lift drag over the subsonic Mach number range and 10% higher over the supersonic range. Under the conditions of the present test, and excluding the effect of the jet on base drag, there was no indicated effect of the propulsive jet on the total drag of the A-3A model. The propulsive jet operating at a jet pressure ratio p(sub j)/p(sub o) of 0.8 caused approximately 100% increase in base drag over the Mach number range M = 0.6 to 1.0. This increase in base drag amounts to 15% of the total drag. An underexpanded jet operating at jet pressure ratios corresponding approximately to those of the full-scale missile caused a 22% reduction in base drag at M = 1.55 (p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.76) but indicated no change at M = 1.30 (p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.43). At M = 1.1 and p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.55, the jet caused a 50% increase in base drag.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of dragonfly wing sections compared with technical aerofoils.

    PubMed

    Kesel, A B

    2000-10-01

    During gliding, dragonfly wings can be interpreted as acting as ultra-light aerofoils which, for static reasons, have a well-defined cross-sectional corrugation. This corrugation forms profile valleys in which rotating vortices develop. The cross-sectional configuration varies greatly along the longitudinal axis of the wing. This produces different local aerodynamic characteristics. Analyses of the C(L)/C(D) characteristics, where C(L) and C(D) are the lift and drag coefficients, respectively (at Reynolds numbers Re of 7880 and 10 000), using a force balance system, have shown that all cross-sectional geometries have very low drag coefficients (C(D, min)<0.06) closely resembling those of flat plates. However, the wing profiles, depending upon their position along the span length, attain much higher lift values than flat plates. The orientation of the leading edge does not play an important role. The detectable lift forces can be compared with those of technical wing profiles for low Re numbers. Pressure measurements (at Re=9300) show that, because of rotating vortices along the chord length, not only is the effective profile form changed, but the pressure relationship on the profile is also changed. Irrespective of the side of the profile, negative pressure is produced in the profile valleys, and net negative pressure on the upper side of the profile is reached only at angles of attack greater than 0 degrees. These results demonstrate the importance of careful geometrical synchronisation as an answer to the static and aerodynamic demands placed upon the ultra-light aerofoils of a dragonfly.

  5. An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an 0.08-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel. Part I - Basic Longitudinal Stability Characteristics, TED No. NACA DE308. Part 1; Basic Longitudinal Stability Characteristics, TED No. NACA DE308

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, William B., Jr.; Kuhn, Richard E.; Goodson, Kenneth W.

    1947-01-01

    The stability and control characteristics of an 0.08-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane have been investigated over a Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.91. Results of the basic longitudinal tests of the complete model with undeflected control surfaces are given in the present report with a very limited analysis of the results.

  6. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Pegasus Air-Launched Booster and Comparisons with Predicted and Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, M. N.; Engelund, Walter C.; Mendenhall, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for the Pegasus and Pegasus XL configurations over a Mach number range from 1.6 to 6 and angles of attack from -4 to +24 degrees. Angle of sideslip was varied from -6 to +6 degrees, and control surfaces were deflected to obtain elevon, aileron, and rudder effectiveness. Experimental data for the Pegasus configuration are compared with engineering code predictions performed by Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc. (NEAR) in the aerodynamic design of the Pegasus vehicle, and with results from the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) code. Comparisons of experimental results are also made with longitudinal flight data from Flight #2 of the Pegasus vehicle. Results show that the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the Pegasus and Pegasus XL configurations are similar, having the same lift-curve slope and drag levels across the Mach number range. Both configurations are longitudinally stable, with stability decreasing towards neutral levels as Mach number increases. Directional stability is negative at moderate to high angles of attack due to separated flow over the vertical tail. Dihedral effect is positive for both configurations, but is reduced 30-50 percent for the Pegasus XL configuration because of the horizontal tail anhedral. Predicted longitudinal characteristics and both longitudinal and lateral-directional control effectiveness are generally in good agreement with experiment. Due to the complex leeside flowfield, lateral-directional characteristics are not as well predicted by the engineering codes. Experiment and flight data are in good agreement across the Mach number range.

  7. Calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of airplane configurations at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1988-01-01

    Calculation of longitudinal and lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes by the VORSTAB code is examined. The numerical predictions are based on the potential flow theory with corrections of high angle of attack phenomena; namely, vortex flow and boundary layer separation effects. To account for the vortex flow effect, vortex lift, vortex action point, augmented vortex lift and vortex breakdown effect through the method of suction analogy are included. The effect of boundary layer separation is obtained by matching the nonlinear section data with the three dimensional lift characteristics iteratively. Through correlation with results for nine fighter configurations, it is concluded that reasonably accurate prediction of longitudinal and static lateral directional aerodynamics can be obtained with the VORSTAB code up to an angle of attack at which wake interference and forebody vortex effect are not important. Possible reasons for discrepancy at higher angles of attack are discussed.

  8. High Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of the GAF0PH Aerofoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    upper surface of the aerofoil for angles of incidence greater than 210. POSTAL ADDRESS: Chief Superintendent, Aeronautical Research Laboratories, Box...kCLAERO-.NOTE3 98 -AR-002-223 -LEVEL m DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE 00 DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES...MELBOURNE, VICTORIA AERODYNAMICS NOTE 398 ’,\\ HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GAFPH AEROFOIL by ~B D :, . , .IR-© Approved for Public Release

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of reentry vehicles at supersonic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, N. P.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Chasovnikov, E. A.; Dyad'kin, A. A.; Kazakov, M. I.; Krylov, A. N.; Skorovarov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Models of promising reentry vehicles, experimental equipment, and test program are described. The method used to determine the total aerodynamic characteristics of these models on the AB-313 mechanical balance in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and the method used for simulations are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients of the examined objects in wide ranges of Mach numbers and angles of attack are obtained. The experimental data are compared with the results of simulations.

  10. Estimation of longitudinal aircraft characteristics using parameter identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    This study compares the results from different parameter identification methods used to determine longitudinal aircraft characteristics from flight data. In general, these comparisons have found that the estimated short-period dynamics (natural frequency, damping, transfer functions) are only weakly affected by the type of identification method, however, the estimated aerodynamic coefficients may be strongly affected by the type of identification method. The estimated values for aerodynamic coefficients were found to depend upon the type of math model and type of test data used with each of the identification methods. The use of fairly complete math models and the use of long data lengths, combining both steady and nonsteady motion, are shown to provide aerodynamic coefficient values that compare favorably with the results from other testing methods such as steady-state flight and full-scale wind-tunnel experiments.

  11. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  12. Extended mapping and characteristics techniques for inverse aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieczky, H.; Qian, Y. J.

    1991-01-01

    Some ideas for using hodograph theory, mapping techniques and methods of characteristics to formulate typical aerodynamic design boundary value problems are developed. The inverse method of characteristics is shown to be a fast tool for design of transonic flow elements as well as supersonic flows with given shock waves.

  13. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  14. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of conformal carriage monoplanar circular missile configurations with low-profile quadriform tail fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on monoplanar circular missile configurations with low-profile quadriform tail fins to provide an aerodynamic data base to study and evaluate air-launched missile candidates for efficient conformal carriage on supersonic-cruise-type aircraft. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 1.70 to 2.86 for a constant Reynolds number per foot of 2,000,000. Selected test results are presented to show the effects of tail-fin dihedral angle, wing longitudinal and vertical location, and nose-body strakes on the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control characteristics.

  15. Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

  16. CFD calculations of S809 aerodynamic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.P.; Ochs, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Steady-state, two-dimensional CFD calculations were made for the S809 laminar-flow, wind-turbine airfoil using the commercial code CFD-ACE. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data from the Delft University 1.8 m x 1.25 m low-turbulence wind tunnel. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to-turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-{epsilon} model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation.

  17. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  18. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Proposed Mars '07 Smart Lander Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Erickson, Gary E.; Green, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Supersonic aerodynamic data were obtained for proposed Mars '07 Smart Lander configurations in NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The primary objective of this test program was to assess the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline Smart Lander configuration with and without fixed shelf/tab control surfaces. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 2.3 to 4.5, at a free stream Reynolds Number of 1 x 10(exp 6) based on body diameter. All configurations were run at angles of attack from -5 to 20 degrees and angles of sideslip of -5 to 5 degrees. These results were complemented with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions to enhance the understanding of experimentally observed aerodynamic trends. Inviscid and viscous full model CFD solutions compared well with experimental results for the baseline and 3 shelf/tab configurations. Over the range tested, Mach number effects were shown to be small on vehicle aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the results from 3 different shelf/tab configurations, a fixed control surface appears to be a feasible concept for meeting aerodynamic performance metrics necessary to satisfy mission requirements.

  19. The effect of winglets on the static aerodynamic stability characteristics of a representative second generation jet transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    A baseline wing and a version of the same wing fitted with winglets were tested. The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics were determined through an angle-of-attack range from -1 deg to 10 deg at an angle of sideslip of 0 deg for Mach numbers of 0.750, 0.800, and 0.825. The lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined through the same angle-of-attack range at fixed sideslip angles of 2.5 deg and 5 deg. Both configurations were investigated at Reynolds numbers of 13,000,000, per meter (4,000,000 per foot) and approximately 20,000,000 per meter (6,000,000 per foot). The winglet configuration showed slight increases over the baseline wing in static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability throughout the test Mach number range for a model design lift coefficient of 0.53. Reynolds number variation had very little effect on stability.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Water Rocket and Stabilization of Flight Trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Rikio; Tomita, Nobuyuki; Takemae, Toshiaki

    The aerodynamic characteristics of water rockets are analyzed experimentally by wind tunnel testing. Aerodynamic devices such as vortex generators and dimples are tested and their effectiveness to the flight performance of water rocket is discussed. Attaching vortex generators suppresses the unsteady body fluttering. Dimpling the nose reduces the drag coefficient in high angles of attack. Robust design approach is applied to water rocket design for flight stability and optimum water rocket configuration is determined. Semi-sphere nose is found to be effective for flight stability and it is desirable for the safety of landing point. Stiffed fin attachment is required for fins to work properly as aerodynamic device and it enhances the flight stability of water rockets.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Telescopic Aerospikes with Multiple-Row-Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Maru, Yusuke; Sato, Tetsuya

    This paper reports experimental studies on telescopic aerospikes with multiple disks. The telescopic aerospike is useful as an aerodynamic control device; however, changing its length causes a buzz phenomenon, which many researchers have reported. The occurrence of buzzing might be critical to the vehicle because it brings about severe pressure oscillations on the surface. Disks on the shaft produce stable recirculation regions by dividing the single separation flow into several conical cavity flows. The telescopic aerospikes with stabilizer disks are useful without any length constraints. Aerodynamic characteristics of the telescopic aerospikes were investigated through a series of wind tunnel tests. Transition of recirculation/reattachment flow modes of a plain spike causes a large change in the drag coefficient. Because of this hysteresis phenomenon and the buzzing, the plain spike is unsuitable for fine aerodynamic control devices. Adding stabilizer disks is effective for the improved control of aerospikes.

  2. Techniques for estimating Space Station aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity and temperature distributions of molecules reflected from a surface of arbitrary momentum and energy accommodation. A system of equations, based on momentum and energy balances for the surface, incident, and reflected molecules, was solved by a numerical optimization technique. The minimization of a 'cost' function, developed from the set of equations, resulted in the determination of the defining properties of the flow reflected from the arbitrary surface. The properties used to define both the incident and reflected flows were: average temperature of the molecules in the flow, angle of the flow with respect to a vector normal to the surface, and the molecular speed ratio. The properties of the reflected flow were used to calculate the contribution of multiply reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90 deg concave wedge were compared to results that did not include multiple reflections, it was found that multiple reflections could nearly double lift and drag coefficients, with nearly a 50 percent increase in pitching moment for cases with specular or nearly specular accommodation. The cases of diffuse or nearly diffuse accommodation often had minor reductions in axial and normal forces when multiple reflections were included. There were several cases of intermediate accommodation where the addition of multiple reflection effects more than tripled the lift coefficient over the convex technique.

  3. Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on the Flight Characteristics of an F-16XL Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhongjun; Lan, C. Edward; Brandon, Jay M.

    2000-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic models based on windtunnel forced oscillation test data and analyzed with a fuzzy logic algorithm arc incorporated into an F-16XL flight simulation code. The reduced frequency needed in the unsteady models is numerically calculated by using a limited prior time history of state variables in a least-square sense. Numerical examples arc presented to show the accuracy of the calculated reduced frequency. Oscillatory control inputs are employed to demonstrate the differences in the flight characteristics based on unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic models. Application of the unsteady aerodynamic models is also presented and the results are compared with one set of F16XIL longitudinal maneuver flight data. It is shown that the main differences in dynamic response are in the lateral-directional characteristics, with the quasi-steady model being more stable than the flight vehicle, while the unsteady model being more unstable. Similar conclusions can also be made in a simulated rapid sideslipping roll. To improve unsteady aerodynamic modeling, it is recommended to acquire test data with coupled motions in pitch, roll and yaw.

  4. Super/hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics for a transatmospheric vehicle concept having a minimum drag forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for a generic transatmospheric vehicle concept having a replaceable minimum drag forebody shape. The alternate forebody tested was a 1/4-power series body. Tests were made over a range of Mach numbers from 2 to 10 at a nominal Reynolds number, based on a length of 2.3 x 10 to the 8th and angles of attack from -4 to 20 deg. The minimum drag forebody provided significant improvements in minimum drag and L/D for the configuration as well as a longitudinally stabilizing increment. Although the baseline configuration is longitudinally unstable, the L/D improvements at low to moderate angles of attack would enhance cruise performance. Varying wing incidence angles was demonstrated as an effective horizontal trim device without significant trim drag penalties.

  5. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Tracheostomy Speaking Valves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornataro-Clerici, Lisa; Zajac, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure-flow characteristics were determined for four different one-way valves (Kisner, Montgomery, Olympic, and Passy-Muir) used for speech production in tracheotomy patients. Results indicated significant differences in resistance among the valves, with the resistance of one valve substantially greater than that of the normal upper airways.…

  6. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of subsonic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Frink, N. T.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical strake design procedure is investigated. A numerical solution to the governing strake design equation is used to generate a series of strakes which are tested in a water tunnel to study their vortex breakdown characteristics. The strakes are scaled for use on a half-scale model of the NASA-LaRC general research fuselage with a 44 degrees trapezoidal wing. An analytical solution to the governing design equation is obtained. The strake design procedure relates the potential-flow leading-edge suction and pressure distributions to vortex stability. Several suction distributions are studied and those which are more triangular and peak near the tip generate strakes that reach higher angles of attack before vortex breakdown occurs at the wing trailing edge. For the same suction distribution, a conical rather than three dimensional pressure specification results in a better strake shape as judged from its vortex breakdown characteristics.

  7. Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body research aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at Mach 6 to determine the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body, delta-planform, hypersonic research aircraft (HYFAC configuration). The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers based on model length of 2.84 million and 10.5 million and over an angle-of-attack range from minus 4 deg to 20 deg. The experimental results show that the HYFAC configuration is longitudinally stable and can be trimmed over the range of test conditions. The configuration had a small degree of directional stability over the angle-of-attack range and positive effective dihedral at angles of attack greater than 2 deg. Addition of canards caused a decrease in longitudinal stability and an increase in directional stability. Oil-flow studies revealed extensive areas of separated and vortex flow on the fuselage lee surface. A limited comparison of wind-tunnel data with several hypersonic approximations indicated that, except for the directional stability, the tangent-cone method gave adequate agreement at control settings between 5 deg and minus 5 deg and positive lift coefficient. A limited comparison indicated that the HYFAC configuration had greater longitudinal stability than an elliptical-cross-section configuration, but a lower maximum lift-drag ratio.

  8. Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Characteristics of a Tension Cone Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ian G.; Cruz, Juan R.; Hughes, Monica F.; Ware, Joanne S.; Madlangbayan, Albert; Braun, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The supersonic aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of a tension cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator were investigated by wind tunnel testing. Two sets of tests were conducted: one using rigid models and another using textile models. Tests using rigid models were conducted over a Mach number range from 1.65 to 4.5 at angles of attack from -12 to 20 degrees. The axial, normal, and pitching moment coefficients were found to be insensitive to Mach number over the tested range. The axial force coefficient was nearly constant (C(sub A) = 1.45 +/- 0.05) with respect to angle of attack. Both the normal and pitching moment coefficients were nearly linear with respect to angle of attack. The pitching moment coefficient showed the model to be statically stable about the reference point. Schlieren images and video showed a detached bow shock with no evidence of large regions of separated flow and/or embedded shocks at all Mach numbers investigated. Qualitatively similar static aerodynamic coefficient and flow visualization results were obtained using textile models at a Mach number of 2.5. Using inflatable textile models the torus pressure required to maintain the model in the fully-inflated configuration was determined. This pressure was found to be sensitive to details in the structural configuration of the inflatable models. Additional tests included surface pressure measurements on rigid models and deployment and inflation tests with inflatable models.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations based on Soviet design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of several missile concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on some typical Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing missiles with either forward- or aft-tail controls, and wing-control missiles with fixed aft stabilizing surfaces. The conceptual missions include air-to-air, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface. Analytical and experimental results indicate that through the proper shaping and location of components, and through the exploitation of local flow fields, the concepts provide generally good stability characteristics, high control effectiveness, and low control hinge moments. In addition, in the case of some cruise-type missions, there are indications of the application of area ruling as a means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency. In general, a point-design philosophy is indicated whereby a particular configuration is developed for performing a particular mission.

  10. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of 7.62mm Match Bullets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    to accurately record the flight of a projectile over approximately 90 metres of its trajectory. The free flight range technique for obtaining...aerodynamic data demands unusually high accuracy in the measurement of position, time of flight, and projectile pitch and yaw angles. Figure 1 is a...tested. A sample of five each of the three projectile types were measured for complete physical characteristics. The average physical properties of the

  11. Assured Crew Return Vehicle flowfield and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. James; Smith, Robert E.; Greene, Francis A.

    1990-01-01

    A lifting body has been proposed as a candidate for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle which will serve as crew rescue vehicle for the Space Station. The focus of this work is on body surface definition, surface and volume grid definition, and the computation of inviscid flowfields about the vehicle at wind-tunnel conditions. Very good agreement is shown between the computed aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle at a freestream Mach number of 10 and those measured in wind-tunnel tests.

  12. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced F-16 derivative aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Mike C.; Forrest, Dana K.

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on an advanced derivative configuration of the United States Air Force F-16 fighter. Longitudinal and lateral directional force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.60 to 2.16 to evaluate basic performance parameters and control effectiveness. The aerodynamic characteristics for the F-16 derivative model were compared with the data obtained for the F-16C model and also with a previously tested generic wing model that features an identical plan form shape and similar twist distribution.

  13. Subsonic/supersonic aerodynamic characteristics for a tactical supercruiser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Bare, E. A.; Hollenback, D.; Hutchison, R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of cooperative NASA-Langley/Boeing experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced tactical fighter designed for supersonic cruise. These investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic and Lewis 10 x 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnels at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.47. This fighter is a Mach 2.0, 49,000 pound class vehicle that features a close-coupled canard and underwing propulsion units that utilize multifunction two-dimensional exhaust nozzles. Tests were conducted to determine the basic aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration with flow-through nacelles in which the spillage effects of representative inlets were measured. The effects of thrust-induced forces on overall aerodynamic performance were evaluated with a series of multifunction nozzles installed on air-powered nacelles. An axisymmetric nozzle configuration was also tested to obtain comparative aeropropulsive performance. Trim aerodynamic characteristics for the flow-through and powered configurations and the effect of thrust vectoring at subsonic speeds are presented.

  14. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

  15. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation was made on the effects of integrating the required aircraft components with hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders to create hypersonic cruise vehicles. Previous studies suggest that waveriders offer advantages in aerodynamic performance and propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) characteristics over conventional non-waverider hypersonic shapes. A wind-tunnel model was developed that integrates vehicle components, including canopies, engine components, and control surfaces, with two pure waverider shapes, both conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63. The experimental data show the component build-up effects and the aerodynamic characteristics of the fully integrated configurations, including control surface effectiveness. The aerodynamic performance of the fully integrated configurations is not comparable to that of the pure waverider shapes, but is comparable to previously tested hypersonic models. Both configurations exhibit good lateral-directional stability characteristics.

  16. Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko

    2016-07-01

    Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.

  17. Aerodynamics and Characteristics of a Spinner Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. F.; Sørensen, N. N.; Enevoldsen, P.

    2007-07-01

    A spinner anemometer is a wind measurement concept in which measurements of wind speed in the flow over a wind turbine spinner is used for determination of the free wind. Analogies to the concept are the flow around a sphere and a five hole pitot-tube. But, in stead of measuring pressure differences on the surface, the spinner anemometer measures directional air speeds in the flow above the spinner surface. A spinner anemometer, based on a modified 300kW wind turbine spinner, was mounted with three 1D sonic wind speed sensors. The flow around the spinner was calculated with the EllipSys3D CFD-code. Calculations were made for varying wind speeds and yaw angles, and the air speed within the sonic sensor path was determined during rotation. The calculated air speeds were used as "calibration" data for an analogue spinner anemometer algorithm. The algorithm converts, by inclusion of a measured rotor position, the measured sonic sensor air speeds to free wind speed, wind direction relative to the spinner and flow inclination angle. A wind tunnel concept test and a full scale field experiment with a comparison to a 3D sonic anemometer were made. The results indicate that the 300kW spinner anemometer characteristics are comparable to the 3D sonic anemometer with respect to time traces and average and standard deviation of wind speeds.

  18. Aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of the adult African American voice.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, C M

    1997-12-01

    Laryngeal aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of African American voice production were examined from vowel samples produced by ten adult female and ten adult male speakers. The data were compared with that for a control group consisting of ten adult female and ten adult male White speakers, matched for age, height, and weight. All measures were analyzed using Cspeech 4.0. Aerodynamic measurements, extracted from a glottal airflow waveform, included maximum flow declination rate, alternating glottal airflow, minimum glottal airflow, and airflow open quotient. Acoustic measures included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level. No significant mean differences between the African American and White speakers were found, except for maximum-flow declination rate. The White speakers produced significantly higher declination rates than the African American speakers. The factor of sex for the African American speakers was statistically significant for the measures of maximum-flow declination rate, alternating glottal airflow, open quotient, and fundamental frequency, consistent with the functioning of the White speakers. The results suggest that during vowel production, where the vocal tract is in a fairly static position, acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics for African American and White Speakers are comparable.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of High Speed Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, J. S. Mohamed; Omar, Ashraf Ali; Ali, Muhammad ‘Atif B.; Baseair, Abdul Rahman Bin Mohd

    2017-03-01

    In this work, initially the effect of nose shape on the drag characteristics of a high speed train is studied. Then the influence of cross winds on the aerodynamics and hence the stability of such modern high speed trains is analyzed. CFD analysis was conducted using STAR-CCM+ on trains with different features and important aerodynamic coefficients such as the drag, side force and rolling moment coefficients have been calculated for yaw angles of crosswinds ranging from 0° to 90°. The results show that the modification on train nose shape can reduce the drag up to more than 50%. It was also found that, bogie faring only reduces small percentage of drag but significantly contributed to higher rolling moment and side force coefficient hence induced train instability.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of High Speed Trains under Cross Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Wu, S. P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-09-01

    Numerical simulation for the two models in cross-wind was carried out in this paper. The three-dimensional compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations(RANS), combined with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model, were solved on multi-block hybrid grids by second order upwind finite volume technique. The impact of fairing on aerodynamic characteristics of the train models was analyzed. It is shown that, the flow separates on the fairing and a strong vortex is generated, the pressure on the upper middle car decreases dramatically, which leads to a large lift force. The fairing changes the basic patterns around the trains. In addition, formulas of the coefficient of aerodynamic force at small yaw angles up to 24° were expressed.

  1. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.P.; Ochs, S.S.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives from steady-state measurement of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the estimation of aerodynamic derivatives from steady-state symmetric flight data is developed. The derivatives considered are the longitudinal static stability and control derivatives, damping derivatives due to tail, and the derivatives expressing the speed effect on the lift and pitching moment coefficients. The method is an extension of the well known theory of longitudinal static stability and control, and corresponding flight data interpretation. Measured data is assumed in the form of trim curves and lift vs angle of attack. The expressions for the derivative estimates are in the form of algebraic relationships containing known constants, and directly or indirectly measured quantities.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 5.8-Percent Scale Hybrid Wing Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2012-01-01

    A low-speed experimental investigation has been conducted on a 5.8-percent scale Hybrid Wing Body configuration in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was designed with specific intention to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project goals of reduced noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This HWB configuration incorporates twin, podded nacelles mounted on the vehicle upper surface between twin vertical tails. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics were assessed through the acquisition of force and moment, surface pressure, and flow visualization data. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were investigated on this multi-component model. The effects of a drooped leading edge, longitudinal flow-through nacelle location, vertical tail shape and position, elevon deflection, and rudder deflection have been studied. The basic configuration aerodynamics, as well as the effects of these configuration variations, are presented in this paper.

  4. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of an Aerodynamically Refined Planing-Tail Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Suydam, Henry B.

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of an aerodynamically refined planing-tail hull were determined from dynamic model tests in Langley tank no. 2. Stable take-off could be made for a wide range of locations of the center of gravity. The lower porpoising limit peak was high, but no upper limit was encountered. Resistance was high, being about the same as that of float seaplanes. A reasonable range of trims for stable landings was available only in the aft range of center-of-gravity locations.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of an acoustically modulated gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordasov, D. M.; Mordasov, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    It has been established from a theoretical and experimental analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of acoustically modulated gas jets that, in the subcritical flow regime, acoustic vibrations affect the turbulent jet divergence at the exit from the jet-acoustic generator. It has been proved that the acoustic action on the core of a turbulent jet results in the hysteresis in the jet-acoustic system. This effect has been substantiated theoretically and the influence on the density of the reflecting surface on the hysteresis loop width has been confirmed experimentally.

  6. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles traveling in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Dayman, B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified theoretical model for a vehicle traveling through an unvented tube under equilibrium incompressible conditions was used to guide the test program, reduce the data, and determine the self-consistency of the results. The results were then used to establish values for the arbitrary coefficients in the theoretical model. Substantial progress was made in understanding the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles traveling in tubes as exemplified by the good agreement of the theoretical model predictions with the experimental data throughout the Reynolds number range (three orders of magnitude, up to that for an actual full-scale system) and the many geometric variables tested.

  7. Investigation of Non Linear Aerodynamic Characteristics of Slender Bodies at High Incidence, in Subsonic and Transonic Speeds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    the calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of bodies at incidence including the separation of symmetric vortices, in sub - sonic...direction cosines of the vector normal to an elemental panel N number of sub -divigions, axi.al directionc -V - N number of sub -divisions, circumferential...summarizes the research performed under Grant No. DAERO- 78-G-119 during the period September ist 1978 to September 30th, 1980. Many modern aircraft and

  8. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  9. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  10. Effect of winglets on a first-generation jet transport wing. 1: Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan model at subsonic speeds. [in the Langley 8 ft transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.; Montoya, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of winglets and a simple wing-tip extension on the aerodynamic forces and moments and the flow-field cross flow velocity vectors behind the wing tip of a first generation jet transport wing were investigated in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel using a semi-span model. The test was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.30, 0.70, 0.75, 0.78, and 0.80. At a Mach number of 0.30, the configurations were tested with combinations of leading- and trailing-edge flaps.

  11. Effects of changing airfoil aerodynamic characteristics on turning diffuser performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh@Seth, Nur Hazirah; Isa, Norasikin Mat

    2017-04-01

    Combining both turning and diffusing activities by using 3-dimensional turning diffuser offer more advantages as compared to bend-diffuser systems. However, adverse pressure gradient and curvature design of turning diffuser itself will result in existence of secondary flow at the inner wall and both left and right wall region, which will disrupt turning diffuser performance. Introduction of baffle has successfully proven able to improve the performance of 3-dimensional turning diffuser in terms of both pressure recovery and flow uniformity using experimental approach. Preliminary design airfoil referred to previous study was used, and the results were used to validate present study simulation work. Aerodynamic characteristic of the airfoil were varied and series of simulation were conducted to study the effects of changing aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil on turning diffuser performance. Optimum parameters proposed in this study have successfully improved 3-dimensional turning diffuser performance by 7.20% in terms of flow uniformity and 6.16% in terms of pressure recovery. Turning diffuser efficiency was also improved with increment of 6.12%. These parameters can be used in the future for reference in the design of airfoil baffle especially for usage involving 3-dimensional turning diffuser.

  12. Extraction from flight data of longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients in maneuvering flight for F-8C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    Flight-test data were used to extract the longitudinal aerodynamic parameters of the F-8C aircraft. The aircraft was trimmed in a steady turn at angles of attack of approximately 9 deg and 13 deg at Mach numbers of 0.7 and 0.8. The parameters extracted resulted in a good match to the flight data and the values obtained were reasonable. The values were further verified by comparing the period and time to damp to half-amplitude, as calculated by using the extracted parameter values, with the period and time to damp to half-amplitude actually measured from the flight data traces. These results show that for the set of data examined, a mathematical model using linear aerodynamics was adequate to describe the response motions at the test angles of attack.

  13. Transonic Free-Flight Investigation of the Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Steel-Wing Model of the Northrop MX-775A Missile with Leading-Edge Extensions, Inboard Trailing-Edge Flaps, and a Speed Brake on the Vertical Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbic, R. G.

    1955-01-01

    Results are presented of a free-flight investigation between Mach numbers of 0.7 to 1.3 and Reynolds numbers of 3.1 x 10(exp 6) to 7.0 x 10(exp 6) to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the Northrop MX-775A missile. This missile has a weng, body, and vertical tail, but has no horizontal tail. The basic wing plan form has an aspect ratio of 5.5, 45 deg of sweepback of the 0.406 streamwise chord line, and a taper ratio of 0.4. A 1/10-scale steel-wing model of the missile was flown with modifications to the basic wing plan form consisting of leading-edge chord-extensions deflected 7 deg downward together with the forward 15 percent of the wing chord, and inboard trailing-edge flaps deflected 5 deg downward. In addition, the model had a static-pressure tube mounted at the tip of the vertical tail for position-error measurements and had a speed brake also mounted on the vertical tail to trim the model to positive lift coefficients and to permit determination of the trim and drag effectiveness of the brake. The data are uncorrected for the effects of wing elasticity, but experimental wing influence coefficients are presented.

  14. Locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivaties for the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivatives for the X-29A aircraft were calculated for altitudes ranging from sea level to 50,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.5, and angles of attack from -5 deg to 25 deg. Several other parameters were also calculated, including aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, control face position, normal acceleration, static margin, and reference angle of attack.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of a distinct wing-body configuration at Mach 6: Experiment, theory, and the hypersonic isolation principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.

  16. Wind tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of symmetrically deflected ailerons of the F-8C airplane. [conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gera, J.

    1977-01-01

    A .042-scale model of the F-8C airplane was investigated in a transonic wind tunnel at high subsonic Mach numbers and a range of angles of attack between-3 and 20 degrees. The effect of symmetrically deflected ailerons on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics was measured. Some data were also obtained on the lateral control effectiveness of asymmetrically deflected horizontal tail surfaces.

  17. X-31 aerodynamic characteristics determined from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokolios, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the X-31 were determined at angles of attack ranging from 20 to 45 deg. Estimates of the lateral stability and control parameters were obtained by applying two parameter estimation techniques, linear regression, and the extended Kalman filter to flight test data. An attempt to apply maximum likelihood to extract parameters from the flight data was also made but failed for the reasons presented. An overview of the System Identification process is given. The overview includes a listing of the more important properties of all three estimation techniques that were applied to the data. A comparison is given of results obtained from flight test data and wind tunnel data for four important lateral parameters. Finally, future research to be conducted in this area is discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of the planetary atmosphere experiments test entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Kruse, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the Planetary Atmosphere Experiments Test entry probe were determined experimentally in ballistic range tests over a wide range of Mach and Reynolds numbers, and were compared with full-scale flight results. The ground facility data agreed with the full-scale data within 2 to 3% in drag coefficient, and within 5 to 10% in static stability, at the higher Mach numbers. Comparisons of the flight data with conventional wind-tunnel data indicated a significant disagreement in drag coefficient in the transonic speed range suggestive of important sting or wall interference effects. Variations in drag coefficient with Mach number were very small hypersonically, but variations with Reynolds number were of the order of 15% at a free-stream Mach number of 13 over the Reynolds number range from 10,000 to 1,000,000. Variations in the lift and static-stability curves with Mach number and Reynolds number were also defined.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of proposed assured crew return capability (ACRC) configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, George M.; Spencer, Bernard, Jr.; Micol, John R.

    1989-07-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of seven reentry configurations suggested as possible candidate vehicles to return crew members from the U.S. Space Station Freedom to earth has been reviewed. The shapes varied from those capable of purely ballistic entry to those capable of gliding entry and fromk parachute landing to conventional landing. Data were obtained from existing (published and unpublished) sources and from recent wind tunnel tests. The lifting concepts are more versatile and satisfy all the mission requirements. Two of the lifting shapes studied appear promising - a lifting body and a deployable wing concept. The choice of an ACRC concept, however, will be made after all factors involving transportation from earth to orbit and back to earth again have been weighed.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics as determinants of the drafting effect in cycling.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andy G; Byrnes, William C

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether cyclists' individual aerodynamic characteristics influence the magnitude of the drafting effect in cycling. Thirteen competitive male cyclists performed two field protocols (individual and drafting). Hub-based power meters were used to measure power output and velocity, from which drag area (Ad) was calculated. The three subjects obtaining maximum (MAX), intermediate (INT), and minimum (MIN) values for Ad during the individual protocol acted as leaders during the drafting protocol. Measures of Ad were then made while subjects drafted each of the three leaders. The drafting effect was specifically quantified as the decrement on measured drag coefficient (Cd) and power output. The mean drafting effect increased with leader Ad (DeltaCd: MIN = 35.55%, INT = 41.31%, MAX = 50.47%; Delta power: MIN = 111.1 W, INT = 124.05 W, MAX = 159.23 W; P < 0.0001). Regressions between leader Ad and drafting effect for individual drafters indicated substantial interdrafter variability (slope ranged from 29.4 to 190.5%.m) but little intradrafter variability (mean r = 0.9689), suggesting an interaction between leader and drafter. Correlating leader:drafter ratios for Ad, Ap, and body mass to the drafting effect supported this interaction (r = 0.69-0.78, P < 0.01), but only when data for all three groups were pooled. Alteration of leader Ad elicits a linear increase in the drafting effect. However, the Ad of the leader does not explain all of the interdrafter variability in the drafting effect, which is specific to the drafting subject but is minimally explained by their aerodynamic characteristics. This interdrafter variability may be attributable to the drafter's skill in obtaining maximum benefit from drafting.

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of a powered tilt-proprotor wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the performance, stability and control, and rotor-wake interaction effects of a powered tilt-proprotor aircraft model with gimbal-hub rotors. Tests were conducted at representative flight conditions for hover, helicopter, transition, and airplane flight. Force and moment data were obtained for the complete model and for each of the two rotors. In addition to wind-speed variation, the angle of attack, angle of sideslip, rotor speed, rotor collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, rotor pylon angle, and configuration geometry were varied. The results, presented in graphical form, are available in tabular form to facilitate the validation of analytical methods of defining the aerodynamic characteristics of tilt-proprotor configurations.

  2. Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a family of power-law, wing body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The configurations analyzed are half-axisymmetric, power-law bodies surmounted by thin, flat wings. The wing planform matches the body shock-wave shape. Analytic solutions of the hypersonic small disturbance equations form a basis for calculating the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Boundary-layer displacement effects on the body and the wing upper surface are approximated. Skin friction is estimated by using compressible, laminar boundary-layer solutions. Good agreement was obtained with available experimental data for which the basic theoretical assumptions were satisfied. The method is used to estimate the effects of power-law, fineness ratio, and Mach number variations at full-scale conditions. The computer program is included.

  3. Effect of longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Kim, Heesu; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are known as the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver in the open ocean among marine turtles. Unlike other marine turtles, leatherback sea turtles have five longitudinal ridges on their carapace. To investigate the effect of these longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model, the experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 1.0 × 105 - 1.4 × 106 (including that of real leatherback turtle in cruising condition) based on the model length. We measure the drag and lift forces on the leatherback turtle model with and without longitudinal ridges. The presence of longitudinal ridges increases both the lift and drag forces on the model, but increases the lift-to-drag ratio by 15 - 40%. We also measure the velocity field around the model with and without the ridges using particle image velocimetry. More details will be shown in the presentation. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).

  4. Jet exhaust and support interference effects on the transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter model with two widely spaced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1976-01-01

    Jet exhaust, nozzle installation, and model support interference effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter model were determined. Realistic jet exhaust nozzle configurations and a reference configuration with a simulated vertical-tail support were tested. Free-stream Mach number was varied from 0.6 to 1.2, and model angle of attack from 0 deg to 9 deg. The jet exhaust affected drag more than it affected lift and pitching moment. The largest effects occurred at a Mach number of 0.9 and for the afterburning mode of exhaust nozzle operation. The combined differences between the aerodynamic characteristics of the realistic and reference configurations (which were due to afterbody and nozzle contours, jet operation, and simulated reference support interference) were considerably different from those for the jet interference alone.

  5. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine general aviation configuration with aft-fuselage-mounted pusher propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Dana Morris; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Applin, Zachary T.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop aircraft model with aft-pylon-mounted pusher propellers. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of -8 to 28 degrees, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -20 to 20 degrees at free-stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 0.55 to 2.14 x 10 to the 6th power based on mean aerodynamic chord. Test results show that for the unpowered configurations the maximum lift coefficients for the cruise, takeoff, and landing configurations are 1.45, 1.90, and 2.10, respectively. Nacelle installation results in a drag coefficient increase of 0.01. Increasing propeller thrust results in a significant increase in lift for angles of attack above stall and improves the longitudinal stability. The cruise configuration remains longitudinally stable to an angle of attack 5 degrees beyond the stall angle, the takeoff configuration is stable 4 degrees beyond stall angle, and the landing configuration is stable 3 degrees beyond stall angle. The predominant effect of symmetric thrust on the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics is in the post-stall region, where additional rudder control is available with power on.

  6. Effects of Bel Canto Training on Acoustic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Singing Voice.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Monica A; Evans, Joseph; Powitzky, Eric

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of 2 years of operatic training on acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the singing voice. This is a longitudinal study. Participants were 21 graduate students and 16 undergraduate students. They completed a variety of tasks, including laryngeal videostroboscopy, audio recording of pitch range, and singing of syllable trains at full voice in chest, passaggio, and head registers. Inspiration, intraoral pressure, airflow, and sound pressure level (SPL) were captured during the syllable productions. Both graduate and undergraduate students significantly increased semitone range and SPL. The contributions to increased SPL were typically increased inspiration, increased airflow, and reduced laryngeal resistance, although there were individual differences. Two graduate students increased SPL without increased airflow and likely used supraglottal strategies to do so. Students demonstrated improvements in both acoustic and aerodynamic components of singing. Increasing SPL primarily through respiratory drive is a healthy strategy and results from intensive training. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  8. Mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics in flight dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.; Schiff, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    Basic concepts involved in the mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers are reviewed. The original formulation of an aerodynamic response in terms of nonlinear functionals is shown to be compatible with a derivation based on the use of nonlinear functional expansions. Extensions of the analysis through its natural connection with ideas from bifurcation theory are indicated.

  9. Measurements of the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbo-jav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Tomoya; Itano, Tomoaki; Sugihara-Seki, Masako

    2014-11-01

    The ``turbo-jav'' which is used for the javelic throw in the junior Olympic games has four tail fins. In order to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbo-jav with an emphasis on the effect of the fins, we performed wind tunnel tests, throwing experiments and numerical simulations of the flight for intact turbo-javs as well as turbo-javs with their fins cut. The wind tunnel tests showed that the drag and lift coefficients for the intact turbo-javs are larger than the corresponding values for the turbo-javs without fins. As the angle of attack increases from 0, the pitching moments for the intact turbo-javs decrease from 0, whereas the moments for the turbo-javs without fins increase. In accord with this property, the throwing experiments showed that intact turbo-javs fly stably with oscillating angle of attack around 0. The flight distance, the orbit and the variation of angle of attack for the intact turbo-javs launched by a launcher agree closely with the numerical simulation performed based on the wind tunnel tests. A comparison of throwing experiments by students and by the launcher suggested significant effects of the rolling motion of the turbo-jav on its flight characteristics.

  10. Computational modeling of aerodynamic characteristics in sprayed and spiraled precalciner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangguo; Ma, Baoguo; Hu, Zhenwu

    2008-08-01

    Based on the structural and work characteristics of a spiraled and sprayed precalciner, the RNG k- ɛ model and the SIMPLE method were used to simulate the aerodynamic characteristics in a sprayed and spiraled precalciner. The simulation results demonstrate that the flow area of airflow was increased abruptly due to the reduced part of the bottom of precalciners, which attributed to a sprayed effect. With the mix of the tertiary air with the swirl flow and secondary air, a high-speed zone was formed in the opposite side of the inlet of tertiary air, in which the highest speed was 32.97 m/s. Moreover, the inlet of raw meal designed in the high-speed zone can be propitious to the decentralization of the raw meal. A back-flow zone was formed near the side of the inlet of tertiary air, in which the velocity was negative. From the analysis of the results, the flow field of the precalciner is composed of a sprayed zone, a high-speed zone, a back-flow zone and cylinder zone; moreover, the simulation results agree with those of the engineering compared to the in situ results. The results also showed that the CFD method can be used to give the basis for optimizing the geometrical design and flow parameters of a precalciner.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics, Database Development and Flight Simulation of the X-34 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Fuhrmann, Henri D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics, development of the preflight aerodynamic database and flight simulation of the NASA/Orbital X-34 vehicle is presented in this paper. To develop the aerodynamic database, wind tunnel tests from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers including ground effect tests at low subsonic speeds were conducted in various facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. Where wind tunnel test data was not available, engineering level analysis is used to fill the gaps in the database. Using this aerodynamic data, simulations have been performed for typical design reference missions of the X-34 vehicle.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of wheelchairs. [Langley V/STOL wind tunnel tests for human factors engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The overall aerodynamic drag characteristics of a conventional wheelchair were defined and the individual drag contributions of its components were determined. The results show that a fiftieth percentile man sitting in the complete wheelchair would experience an aerodynamic drag coefficient on the order of 1.4.

  13. Wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of scale models of three rectangular shaped cargo containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, G. H.; Kodani, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on scale models of three rectangular shaped cargo containers to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of these typical externally-suspended helicopter cargo configurations. Tests were made over a large range of pitch and yaw attitudes at a nominal Reynolds number per unit length of 1.8 x one million. The aerodynamic data obtained from the tests are presented.

  14. Status report on the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden version of the missile aerodynamics program LARV, for calculation of static aerodynamic properties and longitudinal aerodynamic damping derivatives. Part 1: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibust, E.

    Improvements to a missile aerodynamics program which enable it to (a) calculate aerodynamic coefficients as input for a flight mechanics model, (b) check manufacturers' data or estimate performance from photographs, (c) reduce wind tunnel testing, and (d) aid optimization studies, are discussed. Slender body theory is used for longitudinal damping derivatives prediction. Program predictions were compared to known values. Greater accuracy is required in the estimation of drag due to excrescences on actual missile configurations, the influence of a burning motor, and nonlinear effects in the stall region. Prediction of pressure centers on wings and on bodies in presence of wings must be improved.

  15. Modeling of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav

    1999-01-01

    Aerodynamic equations for the longitudinal motion of an aircraft with a horizontal tail were developed. In this development emphasis was given on obtaining model structure suitable for model identification from experimental data. The resulting aerodynamic models included unsteady effects in the form of linear indicial functions. These functions represented responses in the lift on the wing and tail alone, and interference between those two lifting surfaces. The effect of the wing on the tail was formulated for two different expressions concerning the downwash angle at the tail. The first expression used the Cowley-Glauert approximation known-as "lag-in-downwash," the second took into account growth of the wing circulation and delay in the development of the lift on the tail. Both approaches were demonstrated in two examples using the geometry of a fighter aircraft and a large transport. It was shown that the differences in the two downwash formulations would increase for an aircraft with long tail arm performing low-speed, rapid maneuvers.

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Caliber .22 Long Rifle Match Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    range. The Aerodynamic-s Range is an enclosed, cimate -controlled range, instrumented with spark-photography stations to record the motion of the...slant of groups in the wind from a right-hand twist of rifling is due to aerodynamic jump, which is an effective change in the vertical angle of...Director, USAHEL ATTN: SLCHE-IS, Mr. B. Corona Mr. P. Ellis Mr. J. Torre 64 USER EVALUArION SHEET/ CHANGE OF ADDRIESS9 This Uboray underk a c-effor- to imo t

  17. Extraction from flight data of longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients for F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Suit, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives of the F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing were obtained from flight data by a parameter-extraction algorithm at Mach numbers of 0.8, 0.9, and 0.98. A set of derivatives were obtained from which calculated aircraft responses were correlated almost identically with actual flight responses. In general, the trends of the extracted derivatives obtained by the algorithm agreed with those obtained by a Newton-Raphson method and with preliminary data from the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. The wind-tunnel damping derivatives were, however, substantially higher than the converged damping derivatives possibly because of Reynolds number differences between flight and model tests.

  18. Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

  19. Calculation of real-gas effects on airfoil aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul; Yoon, Seokkwan

    1990-01-01

    The effects of high temperature thermochemical phenomena on the aerodynamic characteristics at hypersonic speeds are calculated for two-dimensional airfoils in air. The calculations are performed on an airfoil similar to that used for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and ellipses of thickness ratios varying between 5 and 15 percent. For the airfoil, one flight condition is considered. For the ellipses, the calculations are carried out over a range of chord lengths, flight velocities, flight altitudes, and angles of attack. It is shown that the lift and drag coefficients are consistently reduced by the thermochemical phenomena, and that the behavior can be represented by a specific heat ratio value less than 1.4. The center of pressure shifts forward due to the thermochemical phenomena, but its extent is sensitively affected by the geometry and angle of attack and cannot be represented by a fixed specific heat ratio. The calculated results are in qualitative agreement with the data obtained during the entry flights of the Space Shuttle vehicle.

  20. Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of ejectives in Amharic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier

    2004-05-01

    This paper invetsigates the main phonetic characteristics that distinguishes ejectives from pulmonic sounds in Amharic. In this language, there are five ejectives that can be phonemically singleton or geminate. Duration measurements have been made in intervocalic position for pulmonic stops and for each type of ejective, taking into account the overall duration and VOT. Results show that ejective stops have a higher amplitude burst than pulmonic stops. The duration of the noise is shorter for ejective fricatives compared to pulmonic fricatives. At the end of ejective fricatives, there is a 30-ms glottal lag that is not present in pulmonic fricatives. Geminate ejectives are realized by delaying the elevation of the larynx. This can be observed on the spectrographic data by an increase of the noise at the end of the geminate ejectives. Aerodynamic data have been collected in synchronization with the acoustic recordings. The main observations are that pharyngeal pressures values are much higher than what is usually assumed (up to 40 CmH2O for velars) and that the delayed command in the elevation of the larynx of geminate ejectives is shown by two phases in the rise of pharyngeal pressure.

  1. High supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of five irregular planform wings with systematically varying wing fillet geometry tested in the NASA/LaRC 4-foot UPWT (LEG 2) (LA45A/B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical aerodynamic program to develop predesign guides for irregular planform wings is reported. The benefits are linearization of subsonic lift curve slope to high angles of attack and avoidance of subsonic pitch instabilities at high lift by proper tailoring of the planform fillet wing combination while providing the desired hypersonic trim angle and stability. The two prime areas of concern are to optimize shuttle orbiter landing and entry characteristics. Basic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics at high supersonic speeds are developed.

  2. Aeroassisted Flight Experiment aerodynamic characteristics at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. James; Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The success of NASA's Aeroassisted Flight Experiment project depends on the suitable placement of instrumentation on the vehicle surface and the ability of the vehicle to fly the maximum science payload. The initial aerodynamic data base was established using wind tunnel data and CFD analyses, where the influence of real-gas effects precluded the use of ground-facility data. More recently, a viscous thermochemical nonequilibrium flow analysis about the complete vehicle, including the wake, has updated the vehicle aerodynamic data base.

  3. Effect of wing aspect ratio and flap span on aerodynamic characteristics of an externally blown jet-flap STOL model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of flap span and wing aspect ratio on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions on the wing and trailing-edge flap of a straight-wing STOL model having an externally blown jet flap without vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. The force tests were made over an angle-of-attack range for several thrust coefficients and two flap deflections. The pressure data are presented as tabulated and plotted chordwise pressure-distribution coefficients for angles of attack of 1 and 16. Pressure-distribution measurements were made at several spanwise stations.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale powered model of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA). For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model with a four-blade articulated main rotor was used. Tests were conducted with and without the main rotor. Both the helicopter and the compound helicopter were tested. The latter configuration included the auxiliary thrust engines and the variable-incidence wing. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and main-rotor collective pitch angle at several main-rotor advance ratios. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the rotor, the wing, and the tail. The results indicated that without the effect of the rotor wake, the RSRA had static longitudinal and directional stability and positive effective dihedral. With the effect of the main rotor and its wake, the RSRA exhibited longitudinal instability but retained static directional stability and positive effective dihedral.

  5. Aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 aircraft. Part 1: General characteristics at low speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karling, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of the aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 and its performances, especially at low speeds is presented. The aerodynamic requirements for the design of the Viggen 37 aircraft are given, including the basic design, performance requirement, and aerodynamic characteristics, static and dynamic load test results and flight test results. The Viggen 37 aircraft is designed to be used for air attack, surveillance, pursuit, and training applications. It is shown that this aircraft is suitable for short runways, and has good maneuvering, acceleration, and climbing characteristics. The design objectives for this aircraft were met by utilizing the effect produced by the interference between two triangular wings, positioned in tandem.

  6. Design and aerodynamic characteristics of a span morphing wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuemin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-03-01

    Flight vehicles are often designed to function around a primary operating point such as an efficient cruise or a high maneuverability mode. Performance and efficiency deteriorate rapidly as the airplane moves towards other portions of the flight envelope. One solution to this quandary is to radically change the shape of the aircraft. This yields both improved efficiency and a larger flight envelope. This global shape change is an example of morphing aircraft . One concept of morphing is the span morphing wing in which the wingspan is varied to accommodate multiple flight regimes. This type of design allows for at least two discreet modes of the aircraft. The original configuration, in which the extensible portion of the wing is fully retracted, yields a high speed dash mode. Fully extending the wing provides the aircraft with a low speed mode tailored for fine tracking and loiter tasks. This paper discusses the design of a span morphing wing that permits a change in the aspect ratio while simultaneously supporting structural wing loads. The wing cross section is maintained by NACA 4412 rib sections . The span morphing wing was investigated in different configurations. The wing area and the aspect ratio of the span morphing wing increase as the wings pan increases. Computational aerodynamics are used to estimate the performance and dynamic characteristics of each wing shape of this span morphing wing as its wingspan is changed. Results show that in order to obtain the same lift, the conventional wing requires a larger angle of attach(AOA) than that of the span morphing wing.The lift of the span morphing wing increases as the wing span ,Mach number and AOA increases.

  7. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Twenty-Four Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigg, L J; Dryden, H L

    1930-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of 24 airfoils are given for speeds of 0.5, 0.65, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound, as measured in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The 24 airfoils belong to four general groups. The first is the standard R. A. F. family in general use by the Army and Navy for propeller design, the members of the family differing only in thickness. This family is represented by nine members ranging in thickness from 0.04 to 0.20 inch. The second group consists of five members of the Clark Y family, the members of the family again differing only in thickness. The third group, comprising six members, is a second R. A. F. Family in which the position of the maximum ordinate is varied. Combined with two members of the first R.A.F. family, this group represents a variation of maximum ordinate position from 30 to 60 percent of the chord in two camber ratios, 0.08 and 0.16. The fourth group consists of three geometrical forms, a flat plate, a wedge, and a segment of a right circular cylinder. In addition one section used in the reed metal propeller was included. These measurements form a part of a general program outlined at a Conference on Propeller Research organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the work was carried out with the financial assistance of the committee (author)

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  9. [Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the oesophageal voice].

    PubMed

    Vázquez de la Iglesia, F; Fernández González, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the physiology and pathophisiology of esophageal voice according to objective aerodynamic and acoustic parameters (quantitative and qualitative parameters). Our subjects were comprised of 33 laryngectomized patients (all male) that underwent aerodynamic, acoustic and perceptual protocol. There is a statistical association between acoustic and aerodynamic qualitative parameters (phonation flow chart type, sound spectrum, perceptual analysis) among quantitative parameters (neoglotic pressure, phonation flow, phonation time, fundamental frequency, maximum intensity sound level, speech rate). Nevertheles, not always such observations bring practical resources to clinical practice. We consider that the facts studied may enable us to add, pragmatically, new resources to the more effective vocal rehabilitation to these patients. The physiology of esophageal voice is well understood by the method we have applied, also seeking for rehabilitation, improving oral communication skills in the laryngectomee population.

  10. On-orbit free molecular flow aerodynamic characteristics of a proposal space operations center configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, P. O.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed configuration for a Space Operations Center is presented in its eight stages of buildup. The on orbit aerodynamic force and moment characteristics were calculated for each stage based upon free molecular flow theory. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics was accomplished through the use of an orbital aerodynamic computer program, and the computation method is described with respect to the free molecular theory used. The aerodynamic characteristics are presented in tabulated form for each buildup stage at angles of attack from 0 to 360 degrees and roll angles from -60 to +60 degrees. The reference altitude is 490 kilometers, however, the data should be applicable for altitudes below 490 kilometers down to approximately 185 kilometers.

  11. Unstructured Grid Euler Method Assessment for Longitudinal and Lateral/Directional Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of the HSR Technology Concept Airplane at Supersonic Cruise Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1999-01-01

    Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at M (sub infinity) = 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. Although all the present computations are performed for the complete TCA configuration, appropriate assumptions derived from the fundamental supersonic aerodynamic principles have been made to extract aerodynamic predictions to complement the experimental data obtained from a 1.675%-scaled truncated (aft fuselage/empennage components removed) TCA model. The validity of the computational results, derived from the latter assumptions, are thoroughly addressed and discussed in detail. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex flow structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the truncated TCA configuration are shown to correlate very well with the corresponding wind-tunnel data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The complementary computational results for the longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the complete TCA configuration are also presented along with the aerodynamic effects due to empennage components. Results are also presented to assess the computational method performance, solution sensitivity to grid refinement, and solution convergence characteristics.

  12. Nozzle and wing geometry effects on OTW aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle geometry and wing size on the aerodynamic performance of several 5:1 aspect ratio slot nozzles are presented for over-the-wing (OTW) configurations. Nozzle geometry variables include roof angle, sidewall cutback, and nozzle chordwise location. Wing variables include chord size, and flap deflection. Several external deflectors also were included for comparison. The data indicate that good flow turning may not necessarily provide the best aerodynamic performance. The results suggest that a variable exhaust nozzle geometry offers the best solution for a viable OTW configuration.

  13. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Model of a Supersonic Multijet Water-Based Aircraft Equipped with Supercavitating Hydrofoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert E.; Blanchard, Ulysse J.; Pearson, Albin O.

    1960-01-01

    The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a multijet water-based Mach 2.0 aircraft equipped with hydrofoils have been determined. Takeoff stability and spray characteristics were very good, and sufficient excess thrust was available for takeoff in approximately 32 seconds and 4,700 feet at a gross weight of 225,000 pounds. Longitudinal and lateral stability during smooth-water landings were good. Lateral stability was good during rough-water landings, but forward location of the hydrofoils or added pitch damping was required to prevent diving. Hydrofoils were found to increase the aerodynamic lift-curve slope and to increase the aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transonic speed range, and the maximum lift-drag ratio decreased from 7.6 to 7.2 at the cruise Mach number of 0.9. The hydrofoils provided an increment of positive pitching moment over the Mach number range of the tests (0.6 to 1.42) and reduced the effective dihedral and directional stability.

  14. An investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of wings having vortex flow using different numerical codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Ghaffari, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three different numerical codes are employed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of wings with separation induced vortex flows. Both flat as well as cambered wings of various planform shapes are studied. The effects of wing thickness, fuselage, notch ratio and multiple vortex modeling on aerodynamic performance of the wing are also examined. The theoretically predicted results are compared with experimental results to validate the various computer codes used in this study. An analytical procedure for designing aerodynamically effective leading edge extension (LEE) for a thick delta wing is also presented.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Grumman H-33 orbiter mated to a three segment solid propellant booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, F.; Olive, R.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a .003366-scale model of the Grumman space shuttle configuration mounted to a three (3) segmented solid propellant booster. These tests were conducted in the MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 4.96. The purpose of the test was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration. Aerodynamic data was taken over a nominal angle of attack and angle of sideslip of -10 degrees to 10 degrees at zero degrees beta and alpha respectively. In addition, data was obtained for the H-33 orbiter alone to supplement data from TWT 502 and TWT 503.

  16. Static aerodynamic characteristics of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle with low planform loading at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 4.63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Transonic pressure and wind tunnel studies were performed to determine the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle which utilizes an all metallic, hot structure, thermal protection system resulting in low planform loading. The model was tested over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 4.63 for angles of attack from -4 deg to 32 deg at both 0 deg and 5 deg sideslip.

  17. Static aerodynamic characteristics of a winged single-stage-to-orbit vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 4.63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel used to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a winged single-state-to-orbit vehicle was investigated. The model was tested over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 4.63 for an angle-of-attack range from 4 to 30 D at both 0 and 5 D sideslip.

  18. Effect of twist and camber on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a powered close-coupled wing-canard configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A series of wind-tunnel tests were conducted in a V/STOL tunnel to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a powered close-coupled wing/canard fighter configuration. The data was obtained for a high angle-of-attack maneuvering configuration and a takeoff and landing configuration. The data presented in tabulated form are intended for reference purposes.

  19. Navier-Stokes simulations of Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics including pitch trim and bodyflap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. James; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Greene, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the shuttle orbiter in the hypersonic flight regime is made through the use of computational fluid dynamics. Particular attention is given to establishing the cause of the 'pitching moment anomaly,' which occurred on the orbiter's first flight, and to computing the aerodynamics of a complete orbiter configuration at flight conditions. Data from ground-based facilities as well as orbiter flight data are used to validate the computed results. Analysis shows that the pitching moment anomaly is a real-gas chemistry effect that was not simulated in ground-based facilities, which used air as a test gas. Computed flight aerodynamics for the orbiter are within 5% of the measured flight values and trim bodyflap deflections are predicted to within 10%.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil sction with flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockfen, Alex E.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2009-09-01

    Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-ground-effect flow id numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio

  1. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

  3. High angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and elliptic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral-directional forces and moments were measured for elliptic- and crescent-wing models at high angles-of-attack in the NASA Langley 14 by 22-Ft Subsonic Tunnel. The forces and moments were obtained for an angle-of-attack range including stall and post-stall conditions at a Reynolds number based on the average wing chord of about 1.8 million. Flow-visualization photographs using a mixture of oil and titanium-dioxide were also taken for several incidence angles. The force and moment data and the flow-visualization results indicated that the crescent wing model with its highly swept tips produced much better high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics than the elliptic model. Leading-edge separation-induced vortex flow over the highly swept tips of the crescent wing is thought to produce this improved behavior at high angles-of-attack. The unique planform design could result in safer and more efficient low-speed airplanes.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  5. Effects of forebody strakes and Mach number on overall aerodynamic characteristics of configuration with 55 deg cropped delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Rogers, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel data base was established for the effects of chine-like forebody strakes and Mach number on the longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a generalized 55 degree cropped delta wing-fuselage-centerline vertical tail configuration. The testing was conducted in the 7- by 10-Foot Transonic Tunnel at the David Taylor Research Center at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 to 1.10 and Reynolds numbers based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord of 1.60 x 10(exp 6) to 2.59 x 10(exp 6). The best matrix included angles of attack from 0 degree to a maximum of 28 degree, angles of sidesip of 0, +5, and -5 degrees, and wing leading-edge flat deflection angles of 0 and 30 degrees. Key flow phenomena at subsonic and transonic conditions were identified by measuring off-body flow visualization with a laser screen technique. These phenomena included coexisting and interacting vortex flows and shock waves, vortex breakdown, vortex flow interactions with the vertical tail, and vortices induced by flow separation from the hinge line of the deflected wing flap. The flow mechanisms were correlated with the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic data trends.

  6. Effects of vortex flaps on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Murri, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 12-foot low-speed wind-tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic effects of plain and tabbed vortex flaps on a flat-plate, highly swept arrow-wing model. Flow-visualization studies were made using a helium-bubble technique. Static forces and moments were measured over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to 50deg for sideslip angles of 0 deg and + or - 4 deg.

  7. Transonic aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of a variable sweep wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, P. M.; Guruswamy, G. P.; Ide, H.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The flow over the B-1 wing is studied computationally, including the aeroelastic response of the wing. Computed results are compared with results from wind tunnel and flight tests for both low-sweep and high-sweep cases, at 25.0 deg. and 67.5 deg., respectively, for selected transonic Mach numbers. The aerodynamic and aeroelastic computations are made by using the transonic unsteady code ATRAN3S. Steady aerodynamic computations compare well with wind tunnel results for the 25.0 deg. sweep case and also for small angles of attack at the 67.5 deg. sweep case. The aeroelastic response results show that the wing is stable at the low sweep angle for the calculation at the Mach number at which there is a shock wave. In the higher sweep case, for the higher angle of attack at which oscillations were observed in the flight and wind tunnel tests, the calculations do not show any shock waves. Their absence lends support to the hypothesis that the observed oscillations are due to the presence of leading edge separation vortices and are not due to shock wave motion as was previously proposed.

  8. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic flow around bodies of revolution with a permeable tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidnyaev, N. I.

    2007-03-01

    Results of experimental investigations of aerodynamic characteristics of models of high-velocity flying vehicles consisting of a combination of a blunt cone, a cylinder, and a conical tail fin are presented. The model forebody is cooled by porous blowing. The choice of such a configuration is determined by the necessity of optimizing the arrangement of high-velocity flying vehicles on the launcher and their aerodynamic characteristics under conditions of intense surface mass transfer (decrease in drag and heat transfer and increase in static and dynamic stability).

  9. Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Methodology Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10−7 and 10−6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. Results It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics

  10. Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping

    Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10-7 and 10-6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics nearly remain unchanged. In

  11. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ROTARY WING UAV DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  12. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Rotary Wing UAV Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  13. Numerical analysis for comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of six airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Magedi Moh M.; Mohd, Sofian Bin; Zulkafli, Mohd Fadhli; Shibani, Wanis Mustafa E.

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of six airfoils; FX 63-137, FX76-100, S835, S809, NACA63415, and NACA63215, have been performed using commercial software, FLUENT and XFOIL, in order to choose the best maximum lift to drag ratio in the region of 4×10∧6 Reynolds number, and also to specify their aerodynamic coefficients in Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM). These airfoils are candidates for the use as blade turbines and another application of flying object operating at high Reynolds number. In this study, the two-dimensional model of airfoils was established through Gambit software. The range of angles of attack is from -150 to 150. Comparisons of the numerical results generally show good agreements. Numerical results of FX 63-137 were also validated with experimental data. A good agreement of lift and drag coefficient from numerical simulations of FLUENT and experimental data was obtained at 10∧6 Reynolds number.

  14. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a tail-control cruciform maneuverable missile with and without wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Fournier, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics for a winged and a wingless cruciform missile are examined. The body was an ogive-cylinder with a 3.5 caliber forebody; an overall length-to-diameter ratio of 11.667; and has cruciform tails that were trapexoidal in planform. Tests were made both with and without 72.9 deg cruciform delta wings. The investigation was made for Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63, roll attitudes of 0 and 45 deg, angles of attack from -40 to 22 deg, and tail control deflections from 10 to -40 deg. The purpose is to determine the influence of the aerodynamic behavior on the design choice for maneuverable missiles intended primarily for air-to-air or surface-to-surface missions. The results indicate that the winged missile with its more linear aerodynamic characteristics and higher lift-curve slope, should provide the highest maneuverability over a large operational range.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics and design guidelines of push-pull ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, R F; Lin, S Y; Jan, S-Y; Hsieh, R H; Chen, Y-K; Chen, C-W; Yeh, W-Y; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S; Chen, C-C

    2005-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics such as the flow patterns, velocity field, streamline evolutions, characteristic flow modes and characteristic flow regimes of the push-pull ventilation system are cross-examined by using the laser-light sheet smoked-flow visualization method and laser Doppler velocimetry. Four characteristic flow modes, which are denoted as dispersion, transition, encapsulation and strong suction, are identified in the domain of the push-jet and pull-flow velocities at various open-surface tank widths and rising gas velocities. It is argued phenomenologically, from the aerodynamic point of view, that operating the system in the strong suction regime would be a better strategy than operating it in other characteristic regimes for the consideration of capture efficiency. Design guidelines are developed and summarized based on the results obtained from this study. The regression formulas for calculating the critical values of the push-jet and the pull-flow velocities are provided for easy access. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas validation technique is performed to measure the capture efficiency. The results of tracer gas validations are consistent with those obtained from the aerodynamic visualization and measurements. The operation points obtained by employing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists design criteria are compared with the results obtained in this study for both the aerodynamics and the capture efficiency. Methods for improving the capture efficiency and energy consumptions are suggested.

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Flying-Boat Hull Having a Length-Beam Ratio of 15, TED No. NACA 2206

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting bodies at angles of attack from -10 degrees to 53 degrees at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy; Torres, Abel O.

    1994-01-01

    Lifting bodies are of interest for possible use as space transportation vehicles because they have the volume required for significant payloads and the aerodynamic capability to negotiate the transition from high angles of attack to lower angles of attack (for cruise flight) and thus safely reenter the atmosphere and perform conventional horizontal landings. Results are presented for an experimental and theoretical study of the aerodynamic characteristics at supersonic speeds for a series of lifting bodies with 75 deg delta planforms, rounded noses, and various upper and lower surface cambers. The camber shapes varied in thickness and in maximum thickness location, and hence in body volume. The experimental results were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for both the longitudinal and the lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Selected experimental results are compared with calculated results obtained through the use of the Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamic Computer Program.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of 10 percent thick NASA supercritical airfoils with different aft camber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of several supercritical airfoils interim to the improved 10-percent thick NASA supercritical airfoil 26a are discussed. The airfoils have related slope and curvature distributions over the rear which result in different aft camber. For identification, the airfoils are designated supercritical airfoils 12, 13, 21, 22, and 24. Data is presented without analysis.

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Parachutes at Mach Numbers from 1.6 to 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Aerodynamic Characteristics of Parachutes at Mach Numbers from 1.6 to 3. A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the parameters affecting the aerodynamic performance of drogue parachutes in the Mach number range from 1.6 to 3. Flow studies of both rigid and flexible-parachute models were made by means of high-speed schlieren motion pictures and drag coefficients of the flexible-parachute models were measured at simulated altitudes from about 50,000 to 120,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030970. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  20. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supercritical-wing transport model with trailing-edge controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, M. J.; Langhans, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of wing trailing-edge control surfaces on the static transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a transport configuration with a supercritical wing were studied. The configuration was tested with both an area-ruled fuselage and a cylindrical fuselage. The Mach number range was from 0.80 to 0.96 and the angle of attack range was from -1 deg to 12 deg. The Reynolds number was 1,580,000 based on the mean aerodynamic chord. Tabular data are presented.

  1. Development of a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators: the aerodynamic characteristics of a morphing flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seung-Hee; Bae, Jae-Sung; Rho, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    The discontinuous contour of a wing with conventional flaps diminishes the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. A wing with a continuous contour does not experience extreme flow stream fluctuations during flight, and consequently has good aerodynamic characteristics. In this study, a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators is proposed, designed and fabricated, and its aerodynamic characteristics are investigated using aerodynamic analyses and wind tunnel tests. The ribs of the morphing flap are designed and fabricated with multiple elements joined together in a way that allows relative rotations of adjacent elements and forms a smooth contour of the morphing flap. The aerodynamic analyses of this multiple-element morphing-flap wing are performed using XFLR pro; its aerodynamic performance is compared with that of a mechanical-flap wing, and is measured through wind-tunnel tests.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Scout 133R vehicle determined from wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramson, F. B.; Muir, T. G., Jr.; Simmons, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Bending moments and other associated parameters were measured on a Scout vehicle during a launch through high velocity horizontal winds. Comparison of the measured data with predictions revealed some unexplained discrepancies. Possible sources of error in the experimental data and predictions were considered; one of which is the predicted aerodynamic characteristics. A wind tunnel investigation was initiated, including supersonic force and pressure tests, to better define the aerodynamics. In addition to basic aerodynamic coefficients from the force test, detailed pressure and load distributions along the body were established from the pressure test. Pressure coefficients were integrated to determine normal load distributions, total normal force, and total pitching moment of the body. Comparison of the normal forces from pressure and force tests resulted in agreement within 15%. Comparison of pitching moment data from the two tests resulted in larger differences.

  3. A comparison of computed and measured aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed aeroassist flight experiment configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. J.; Hamilton, H. H., II

    1986-01-01

    The use of experimental or computed data to evaluate the performance of aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs) is discussed. Aerodynamic and surface pressure data are derived from computed flowfield solutions (the HALIS inviscid flowfield code), the Newtonian theory, and ground-based, wind tunnel studies (hypersonic He tunnel, 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and a hypersonic CF4 tunnel). The wind tunnel and HALIS models were tested at angles-of-attack that ranged from -10 to 10 deg. The effects of the ellipticity of the nose, the radius of the circular arc, and the angle through which the arc passes on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicles are examined. It is observed that the HALIS and CF4 tunnel generated surface pressure on the AOTVs produced the most useful aerodynamic data. Good correlation is obtained for the experimental and computational data; however, the Newtonian results do not correspond to the tunnel/HALIS data.

  4. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Glide-Back Performance of Langley Glide-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Covell, Peter F.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA-Langley Research Center is conducting system level studies on an-house concept of a small launch vehicle to address NASA's needs for rapid deployment of small payloads to Low Earth Orbit. The vehicle concept is a three-stage system with a reusable first stage and expendable upper stages. The reusable first stage booster, which glides back to launch site after staging around Mach 3 is named the Langley Glide-Back Booster (LGBB). This paper discusses the aerodynamic characteristics of the LGBB from subsonic to supersonic speeds, development of the aerodynamic database and application of this database to evaluate the glide back performance of the LGBB. The aerodynamic database was assembled using a combination of wind tunnel test data and engineering level analysis. The glide back performance of the LGBB was evaluated using a trajectory optimization code and subject to constraints on angle of attack, dynamic pressure and normal acceleration.

  5. Effect of sweep and aspect ratio on the longitudinal aerodynamics of a spanloader wing in and out of ground effect. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, S. O.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 meter tunnel to determine the effects of leading edge sweep, aspect ratio, flap deflection, and elevon deflection on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a span distributed load advanced cargo aircraft (spanloader). Model configurations consisted of leading edge sweeps of 0, 15, 30 and 45 deg and aspect ratios of approximately 2, 4, 6, and 8. Data were obtained for angles of attack of -8 to 18 deg out of ground effect and at angles of attack of -2, 0, and 2 deg in ground effect at Mach number equal 0.14. Flap and elevon deflections ranged from -20 to 20 deg. The data are represented in tabulated form.

  6. Effect of configuration modification on the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a blended delta wing-body entry vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P.; Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The longitudinal, lateral, and directional aerodynamic characteristics of a delta-wing configuration were obtained experimentally at Mach 20 in helium with Reynolds numbers, based on model length, of 1.5 million and 2.9 million and at a Mach number of 6 in air with a Reynolds number, based on model length, of 4.8 million. The angles of attack varied from 0 deg to 55 deg for two sideslip angles. The effects of the addition of dorsal fins, the removal of wing tip fins, an increase in elevon span, and changes in elevon hinge-line sweep angle are discussed. The unmodified vehicle had a maximum lift-drag ratio of 2.1 at Mach 19 and of 2.4 at Mach 6 with about the same lateral and directional stability level at both Mach numbers. As the Mach number increased from 6 to 20, the longitudinal center of pressure moved forward and more positive elevon deflection was therefore required to maintain a given trim angle. The removal of wing tip fins increased the maximum lift-drag ratio and had a negligible effect on longitudinal stability, but caused directional instability that was not corrected by the dorsal fins examined. The shape of the wing and elevon hinge-line sweep had a large influence on the induced yawing moment due to roll control.

  7. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oblique Wing for the F-8 OWRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Carmichael, Ralph L.; Smith, Stephen C.; Strong, James M.; Kroo, Ilan M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted during June-July 1987 in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to study the aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing. This effort was part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA) program performed in conjunction with Rockwell International. The Ames-designed, aspect ratio 10.47, tapered wing used specially designed supercritical airfoils with 0.14 thickness/chord ratio at the root and 0.12 at the 85% span location. The wing was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Performance and longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg, and 65deg at Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 1.40. Reynolds number varied from 3.1 x 10(exp 6)to 5.2 x 10(exp 6), based on the reference chord length. Angle of attack was varied from -5deg to 18deg. The performance of this wing is compared with that of another oblique wing, designed by Rockwell International, which was tested as part of the same development program. Lateral-directional stability data were obtained for a limited combination of sweep angles and Mach numbers. Sideslip angle was varied from -5deg to +5deg. Landing flap performance was studied, as were the effects of cruise flap deflections to achieve roll trim and tailor wing camber for various flight conditions. Roll-control authority of the flaps and ailerons was measured. A novel, deflected wing tip was evaluated for roll-control authority at high sweep angles.

  8. Unsteady aerodynamics of missiles. Part 3: Determination of the longitudinal stability of wings at high angles of attack in supersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C. P.

    1980-05-01

    A theoretical method for the determination of unsteady aerodynamic coefficients associated with the longitudinal stability of slender wings in supersonic flight is presented. It is based on the indicial functional theory of Tobak. Extension to higher incidences is effected by combining the indicial functions with steady nonlinear coefficients derived from a semiempiricial procedure. The unsteady nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients are determined for delta wings with subsonic and supersonic leading edges, respectively.

  9. Effect of milling machine roughness and wing dihedral on the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of surface finish on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept wing at supersonic speeds. A study of the effects of wing dihedral was also made. Included in the tests were four wing models: three models having 22.5 degrees of outboard dihedral, identical except for surface finish, and a zero-dihedral, smooth model of the same planform for reference. Of the three dihedral models, two were taken directly from the milling machine without smoothing: one having a maximum scallop height of 0.002 inches and the other a maximum scallop height of 0.005 inches. The third dihedral model was handfinished to a smooth surface. Tests were conducted in Test Section 1 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA-Langley over a range of Mach numbers from 1.8 to 2.8, a range of angle of attack from -5 to 8 degrees, and at a Reynolds numbers per foot of 2 x 10(6). Selected data were also taken at a Reynolds number per foot of 6 x 10(6). Drag coefficient increases, with corresponding lift-drag ratio decreases were the primary aerodynamic effects attributed to increased surface roughness due to milling machine grooves. These drag and lift-drag ratio increments due to roughness increased as Reynolds number increased.

  10. Wind-tunnel studies of the effects of simulated damage on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes and missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    In order to assess the effects on static aerodynamic characteristics of battle damage to an aircraft or missile, wind tunnel studies were performed on models from which all or parts of the wing or horizontal or vertical tail had been removed. The effects of damage on the lift, longitudinal stability, lateral stability and directional stability of a swept-wing fighter are presented, along with the effects of wing removal on the control requirements of a delta-wing fighter. Results indicate that the loss of a major part of the vertical tail will probably result in the loss of the aircraft at any speed, while the loss of major parts of the horizontal tail generally results in catastrophic instability at subsonic speeds but, at low supersonic speeds, may allow the aircraft to return to friendly territory before pilot ejection. Major damage to the wing may be sustained without the loss of aircraft or pilot. The loss of some of the aerodynamic surfaces of cruise or surface-to-air missiles may result in catastrophic instability or may permit a ballistic trajectory to be maintained, depending upon the location of the lost surface with respect to the center of gravity of the missile.

  11. Characteristic boundary conditions for three-dimensional transonic unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristic far-field boundary conditions for the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small disturbance potential equation have been developed. The boundary conditions were implemented in the XTRAN3S finite difference code and tested for a flat plate rectangular wing with a pulse in angle of attack; the freestream Mach number was 0.85. The calculated force response shows that the characteristic boundary conditions reduce disturbances that are reflected from the computational boundaries.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of the National Launch System (NLS) 1 1/2 stage launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.; Pokora, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying ways of assuring more reliable and cost effective means to space. One launch system studied was the NLS which included the l l/2 stage vehicle. This document encompasses the aerodynamic characteristics of the 1 l/2 stage vehicle. To support the detailed configuration definition two wind tunnel tests were conducted in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14x14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992. The tests were a static stability and a pressure test, each utilizing 0.004 scale models. The static stability test resulted in the forces and moments acting on the vehicle. The aerodynamics for the reference configuration with and without feedlines and an evaluation of three proposed engine shroud configurations were also determined. The pressure test resulted in pressure distributions over the reference vehicle with and without feedlines including the reference engine shrouds. These pressure distributions were integrated and balanced to the static stability coefficients resulting in distributed aerodynamic loads on the vehicle. The wind tunnel tests covered a Mach range of 0.60 to 4.96. These ascent flight aerodynamic characteristics provide the basis for trajectory and performance analysis, loads determination, and guidance and control evaluation.

  13. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongfeng, DENG; Jian, JIANG; Xianwei, HAN; Chang, TAN; Jianguo, WEI

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  14. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Jiang, Jian; Han, Xianwei; Tan, Chang; Wei, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of the upper stages of a launch vehicle in low-density regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Bum Seok; Lee, Joon Ho

    2016-11-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the orbital block (remaining configuration after separation of nose fairing and 1st and 2nd stages of the launch vehicle) and the upper 2-3stage (configuration after separation of 1st stage) of the 3 stages launch vehicle (KSLV-II, Korea Space Launch Vehicle) at high altitude of low-density regime are analyzed by SMILE code which is based on DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo) method. To validating of the SMILE code, coefficients of axial force and normal forces of Apollo capsule are also calculated and the results agree very well with the data predicted by others. For the additional validations and applications of the DSMC code, aerodynamic calculation results of simple shapes of plate and wedge in low-density regime are also introduced. Generally, aerodynamic characteristics in low-density regime differ from those of continuum regime. To understand those kinds of differences, aerodynamic coefficients of the upper stages (including upper 2-3 stage and the orbital block) of the launch vehicle in low-density regime are analyzed as a function of Mach numbers and altitudes. The predicted axial force coefficients of the upper stages of the launch vehicle are very high compared to those in continuum regime. In case of the orbital block which flies at very high altitude (higher than 250km), all aerodynamic coefficients are more dependent on velocity variations than altitude variations. In case of the upper 2-3 stage which flies at high altitude (80km-150km), while the axial force coefficients and the locations of center of pressure are less changed with the variations of Knudsen numbers (altitudes), the normal force coefficients and pitching moment coefficients are more affected by variations of Knudsen numbers (altitude).

  16. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics from wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic-cruise transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Tests have been conducted to extend the existing low speed aerodynamic data base of advanced supersonic-cruise arrow wing configurations. Principle configuration variables included wing leading-edge flap deflection, wing trailing-edge flap deflection, horizontal tail effectiveness, and fuselage forebody strakes. A limited investigation was also conducted to determine the low speed aerodynamic effects due to slotted training-edge flaps. Results of this investigation demonstrate that deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps downward to suppress the wing apex vortices provides improved static longitudinal stability; however, it also results in significantly reduced static directional stability. The use of a selected fuselage forebody strakes is found to be effective in increasing the level of positive static directional stability. Drooping the fuselage nose, which is required for low-speed pilot vision, significantly improves the later-directional trim characteristics.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body hypersonic aircraft configuration at Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Thomas, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a model designed to represent an all body, hypersonic cruise aircraft are presented for Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6. The configuration had a delta planform with an elliptic cone forebody and an afterbody of elliptic cross section. Detailed effects of varying angle of attack (-2 to +15 deg), angle of sideslip (-2 to +8 deg), Mach number, and configuration buildup were considered. In addition, the effectiveness of horizontal tail, vertical tail, and canard stabilizing and control surfaces was investigated. The results indicate that all configurations were longitudinally stable near maximum lift drag ratio. The configurations with vertical tails were directionally stable at all angles of attack. Trim penalties were small at hypersonic speeds for a center of gravity location representative of the airplane, but because of the large rearward travel of the aerodynamic center, trim penalties were severe at transonic Mach numbers.

  18. Magellan Aerodynamic Characteristics During the Termination Experiment Including Thruster Plume-Free Stream Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cestero, Francisco J.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Magellan spacecraft during the October 1994 Termination Experiment, including the effects of the thruster engine exhaust plumes upon the molecular free stream around the spacecraft and upon the aerodynamics coefficients. As Magellan passed through the Venusian atmosphere, the solar arrays were turned in opposite directions relative to the free stream creating a torque on the spacecraft. The spacecraft control system was programmed to counter the effects of this torque with attitude control engines to maintain an inertially fixed attitude. The orientation and reaction engine telemetry returned from Magellan are used to create a model of the aerodynamic torques. Geometric models of the Magellan spacecraft are analyzed with the aid of both free molecular and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes. The simulated aerodynamic torques determined are compared to the measured torques. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is also used to model the attitude engine exhaust plumes, the free stream disturbance caused by these plumes, and the resulting torques acting on the spacecraft compared to no-exhaust plume cases. The effect of the exhaust plumes was found to be sufficiently large that thrust reversal is possible.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach 6 of a wing-body concept for a hypersonic research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. L.; Pittman, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The static aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/30 scale model of a wing-body concept for a high speed research airplane were investigated in the Langley 20 inch Mach six tunnel. The investigation consisted of configuration buildup from the basic body by adding a wing, center vertical tail, three-module scramjet, and six-module scramjet engine. The test Mach number was six at a Reynolds number, based on model fuselage length, of about 13,700,000. The test angle-of-attack range was 4 to 20 D at constant angles of sideslip of 0, 2, and 4 deg. The elevons were deflected from 10 to -15 D for pitch control. Roll and yaw control were investigated. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics are compared with analytical elements.

  20. Assessment of analytic methods for the prediction of aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary bodies at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, E. J.; Miller, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Trends toward the automation of the design process for airplanes and missiles accentuate the need for analytic techniques for the prediction of aerodynamic characteristics. A number of computer codes have been developed or are under development which show promise of significantly improving the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics for arbitrarily-shaped bodies at supersonic speeds. The programs considered range in complexity from a simple linearized solution employing slender body theory to an exact finite difference solution of the Euler equations. The results from five computer codes are compared with experimental data to determine the accuracy, range of applicability, ease of use, and computer time and cost of the programs. The results provide a useful guide for selecting the appropriate method for treating bodies at the various levels of an automated design process.

  1. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Slotted Clark Y Wing as Affected by the Auxiliary Airfoil Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Shortal, Joseph A

    1932-01-01

    Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.

  2. The Practical Calculation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Slender Finned Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, James S.

    1967-01-01

    The basic objective of this thesis is to provide a practical method of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of slender finned vehicles such as sounding rockets, high speed bombs, and guided missiles. The aerodynamic characteristics considered are the normal force coefficient derivative, c(sub N(sub alpha)); center of pressure, bar-X; roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, c(sub l(sub delta)); roll damping moment coefficient derivative, c(sub l(sub p)); pitch damping moment coefficient derivative, c(sub mq); and the drag coefficient, c (sub D). Equations are determined for both subsonic and supersonic flow. No attempts is made to analyze the transonic region. The general configuration to which the relations are applicable is a slender axisymmetric body having three or four fins.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of supersonic fighter airplane configurations based on Soviet design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Fournier, R. H.; Lamb, M.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic, stability, and control characteristics of several supersonic fighter airplane concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing aircraft having delta wings, swept wings, and trapezoidal wings, and a variable wing-sweep aircraft. Each concept employs aft tail controls. The concepts vary from lightweight, single-engine, air superiority, point interceptor, or ground attack types to larger twin-engine interceptor and reconnaissance designs. Analytical and experimental results indicate that careful application of the transonic or supersonic area rule can provide nearly optimum shaping for minimum drag for a specified Mach number requirement. In addition, through the proper location of components and the exploitation of interference flow fields, the concepts provide linear pitching moment characteristics, high control effectiveness, and reasonably small variations in aerodynamic center location with a resulting high potential for maneuvering capability.

  4. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  5. Space shuttle: Verification of transition reentry corridor at high angles of attack and determination of transition aerodynamic characteristics and subsonic aerodynamic characteristics at low angles of attack for the Boeing H-32 booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, J.; Johnson, L. J.; Oiye, M.; Runciman, W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were made in a transonic wind tunnel on a 1/150-scale model of the Boeing H-32 space shuttle booster configuration. The purpose of the test was: (1) to verify the transonic reentry corridor at high angles of attack; (2) to determine the transonic aerodynamic characteristics; and (3) to determine the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics at low angles of attack. Test variables included configuration buildup, horizontal stabilizer settings of 0 and -20 deg, elevator deflections of 0 and -30 deg, and wing spoiler settings of 60 deg.

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics of the standard dynamics model in coning motion at Mach 0.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jermey, C.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted on the Standard Dynamics Model (a simplified generic fighter aircraft shape) undergoing coning motion at Mach 0.6. Six component force and moment data are presented for a range of angle of attack, sideslip, and coning rates. At the relatively low non-dimensional coning rate employed (omega b/2V less than or equal to 0.04), the lateral aerodynamic characteristics generally show a linear variation with coning rate.

  7. Effect of nacelles on aerodynamic characteristics of an executive-jet model with simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control wing glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel using a 1/10-scale model of an executive jet to examine the effects of the nacelles on the wing pressures and model longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. For the present investigation, each wing panel was modified with a simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control glove. Horizontal-tail effects were also briefly examined. The tests covered a range of Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.82 and lift coefficients from 0.20 to 0.55. Oil-flow photographs of the wing at selected conditions are included.

  8. Experimental low-speed and calculated high-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 65 deg swept delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Creel, T. R., Jr.; Howard, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental wind-tunnel investigation has been carried out to determine the static longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability and control characteristics of a model of a large-body, delta-wing hypersonic research airplane concept at low speed. This investigation was conducted at a dynamic pressure of 239.4 Pa (5 psf) and a Reynolds number, based on fuselage length, of 2 million. The configuration variables included vertical fins, engine modules, canards, and a canopy. The aerodynamic results of a computer study at Mach numbers of 3 to 12 are presented.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of a six-jet V/STOL configuration with four swing-out lift jets in the transition speed range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, A. W.

    1970-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been made of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and jet-interference effects of a model of a jet V/STOL variable-sweep fighter airplane that employs four direct-lift engines which swing out from the fuselage and two lift-cruise engines located in the rear part of the fuselage. Data were obtained with two wing areas for various forward speeds and power conditions in the transition speed range. The data are presented without analysis or discussion.

  10. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a model having a 42 deg swept low wing with a supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and a T-tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a general research model which simulated an advance configuration for a commercial transport airplane with a T tail. The model had a 42 deg swept, aspect ratio 6.78 wing with a supercritical airfoil and a high lift system which consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted flap. Various slat and flap deflection combinations represented clean, take off, and landing configurations. Effects on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined for two flow through, simulated engine nacelles located on the sides of the fuselage near the rear of the model.

  11. Vortex flap flow reattachment line and subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic data on 50 deg to 74 deg Delta wings on common fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, N. T.; Huffman, J. K.; Johnson, T. D., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Positions of the primary vortex flow reattachment line and longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained at Mach number 0.3 for a systematic series of vortex flaps on delta wing body configurations with leading edge sweeps of 50, 58, 66, and 74 deg. The investigation was performed to study the parametric effects of wing sweep, vortex flap geometry and deflection, canards, and trailing edge flaps on the location of the primary vortex reattachment line relative to the flap hinge line. The vortex reattachment line was located via surface oil flow photographs taken at selected angles of attack. Force and moment measurements were taken over an angle of attack range of -1 deg to 22 deg at zero sideslip angle for many configurations to further establish the data base and to assess the aforementioned parametric effects on longitudinal aerodynamics. Both the flow reattachment and aerodynamic data are presented.

  12. General Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Research Model with High Disk Loading Direct Lifting Fan Mounted in Fuselage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-10-26

    3/4 Low front view of fuselage and fan. Showing jet engine hanging below. Lift fan powered by jet exhaust. General Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Research Model with High Disk Loading Direct Lifting Fan Mounted in Fuselage

  13. Evaluation of VSAERO in prediction of aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter hub fairings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, Alexander

    1989-01-01

    A low-order panel code, VSAERO, was used to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter hub fairings. Since the simulation of this kind of bluff body by VSAERO was not documented before, the VSAERO solutions were correlated with experimental data to establish their validity. The validation process revealed that simulation of the aerodynamic environment around a hub fairing was sensitive to several modeling parameters. Some of these parameters are body and wake panels arrangement, streamwise and spanwise separation location, and the most prominent one-the wake modeling. Three wake models were used: regular wake, separated wake, and jet model. The regular wake is a wake with negligible thickness (thin wake). It is represented by a single vortex sheet. The separated wake and the jet model in the present application are wakes with finite thickness (thick wake). They consist of a vortex sheet enclosing a region of low-energy flow. The results obtained with the reqular wake were marginally acceptable for sharp-edged hub fairings. For all other cases under consideration, the jet model results correlated slightly better. The separated wake, which seemed to be the most appropriate model, caused the solution to diverge. While the regular wake was straight-forward to apply in simulations, the jet model was not. It requires the user to provide information about the doublet strength gradient on wake panels by guessing the efflux velocities at the wake shedding location. In summary, VSAERO neither predicts accurately the aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter hub fairings nor was cost effective.

  14. Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Symmetric NACA Section with Simulated Ice Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, N.; Cervantes, M. J.; Trivedi, C.; Aidanpää, Jan-Olof

    2016-09-01

    To develop a numerical model of icing on wind turbine blades, a CFD simulation was conducted to investigate the effect of critical ice accretions on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.610 m chord NACA 0011 airfoil section. Aerodynamic performance coefficients and pressure profile were calculated and compared with the available measurements for a chord Reynolds number of 1.83x106. Ice shapes were simulated with flat plates (spoiler-ice) extending along the span of the wing. Lift, drag, and pressure coefficients were calculated in zero angle of attack through the steady state and transient simulations. Different approaches of numerical studies have been applied to investigate the icing conditions on the blades. The simulated separated flow over the sharp spoilers is challenging and can be seen as a worst test case for validation. It allows determining a reliable strategy to simulate real ice shapes [1] for which the detailed validation cannot easily be provided.

  15. A program to compute three-dimensional subsonic unsteady aerodynamic characteristics using the doublet lattice method, L216 (DUBFLEX). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, B. A.; Richard, M.

    1979-01-01

    The information necessary for execution of the digital computer program L216 on the CDC 6600 is described. L216 characteristics are based on the doublet lattice method. Arbitrary aerodynamic configurations may be represented with combinations of nonplanar lifting surfaces composed of finite constant pressure panel elements, and axially summetric slender bodies composed of constant pressure line elements. Program input consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic field (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.

  16. Measured and Computed Hypersonic Aerodynamic/Aeroheating Characteristics for an Elliptically Blunted Flared Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Francis A.; Buck, Gregory M.; Wood, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Computational and experimental hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments and aeroheating levels for Kistler Aerospace Corporation's baseline orbiter vehicle at incidence are presented. Experimental data were measured in ground-based facilities at the Langley Research Center and predictions were performed using the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm code. The test parameters were incidence (-4 to 24 degrees), freestream Mach number (6 to 10),freestream ratio o specific heats (1.2 to 1.4), and freestream Reynolds number (0.5 to 8.0 million per foot). The effects of these parameters on aerodynamic characteristics, as well as the effects of Reynolds number on measured heating levels are discussed. Good agreement between computational and experimental aerodynamic and aeroheating values were observed over the wide range of test parameters examined. Reynolds number and ratio of specific heats were observed to significantly alter the trim L/D value. At Mach 6, laminar flow was observed along the entire windward centerline tip to the flare for all angles and Reynolds numbers tested. Flow over the flare transitioned from laminar to transitional/turbulent between 4 and 8 million per foot at 8 and 12 degrees angle of attack, and near 4 million per foot at 16 degrees angle of attack.

  17. Measured and Computed Hypersonic Aerodynamic/Aeroheating Characteristics for an Elliptically Blunted Flared Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Francis A.; Buck, Gregory M.; Wood, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Computational and experimental hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments and aeroheating levels for Kistler Aerospace Corporation's baseline orbiter vehicle at incidence are presented. Experimental data were measured in ground-based facilities at the Langley Research Center and predictions were performed using the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm code. The test parameters were incidence (-4 to 24 degrees), freestream Mach number (6 to 10), freestream ratio of specific heats (1.2 to 1.4), and freestream Reynolds number (0.5 to 8.0 million per foot). The effects of these parameters on aerodynamic characteristics, as well as the effects of Reynolds number on measured heating levels are discussed. Good agreement between computational and experimental aerodynamic and aeroheating values were observed over the wide range of test parameters examined. Reynolds number and ratio of specific heats were observed to significantly alter the trim L/D value. At Mach 6, laminar flow, was observed along the entire windward centerline up to the flare for all angles and Reynolds numbers tested. Flow over the flare transitioned front laminar to transitional turbulent between 4 and 8 million per foot at 8 and 12 degrees angle of attack, and near 4 million per foot at 16 degrees angle of attack.

  18. Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aspect-Ratio-1 Airfoils With and Without End Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arthur W.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine the effect of ground proximity on the aerodynamic characteristics of aspect-ratio-1 airfoils. The investigation was made with the model moving over the water in a towing tank in order to eliminate the effects of wind-tunnel walls and of boundary layer on ground boards at small ground clearances. The results indicated that, as the ground was approached, the airfoils experienced an increase in lift-curve slope and a reduction in induced drag; thus, lift-drag ratio was increased. As the ground was approached, the profile drag remained essentially constant for each airfoil. Near the ground, the addition of end plates to the airfoil resulted in a large increase in lift-drag ratio. The lift characteristics of the airfoils indicated stability of height at positive angles of attack and instability of height at negative angles; therefore, the operating range of angles of attack would be limited to positive values. At positive angles of attack, the static longitudinal stability was increased as the height above the ground was reduced. Comparison of the experimental data with Wieselsberger's ground-effect theory (NACA Technical Memorandum 77) indicated generally good agreement between experiment and theory for the airfoils without end plates.

  19. Low-Speed Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Proposed Supersonic Multijet Water-Based Hydro-Ski Aircraft with Upward-Rotating Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petynia, William W.; Croom, Delwin R.; Davenport, Edwin E.

    1958-01-01

    The low-speed aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of a proposed multijet water-based aircraft configuration for supersonic operation have been investigated. The design features include upward-rotating engines, body indentation, a single hydro-ski, and a wing with an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.143, 36.90 sweepback of the quarter-chord line, and NACA 65AO04 airfoil sections. For the aerodynamic investigation, with the flaps retracted, the model was longitudinally and directionally stable up to the stall. The all-movable horizontal tail was capable of trimming the model up to a lift coefficient of approximately 0.87. All flap configurations investigated had a tendency to become longitudinally unstable at stall. The effectiveness of the all-movable horizontal tail increased with increasing lift coefficient for all flap configurations investigated; however, with the large static margin of the configuration with the center of gravity at 0.25 mean aerodynamic chord, the all-movable horizontal tail was not powerful enough to trim all the various flapped configurations investigated throughout the angle-of-attack range. For the hydrodynamic investigation, longitudinal stability during take-offs and landings was satisfactory. Decreasing the area of the hydro-ski 60 percent increased the maximum resistance and emergence speed 40 and 70 percent, respectively. Without the jet exhaust, the resistance was reduced by simulating the vertical-lift component of the forward engines rotated upward. However, the jet exhaust of the forward engines increased the maximum resistance approximately 60 percent. The engine inlets and horizontal tail were free from spray for all loads investigated and for both hydro-ski sizes.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.16 of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration with a design Mach number of 1.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel, over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 2.16, to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic-cruise fighter. The configuration, which is designed for efficient cruise at Mach number 1.8, is a twin-engine tailless arrow-wing concept with a single rectangular inlet beneath the fuselage and outboard vertical tails and ventral fins. It had untrimmed values of lift-drage ratio ranging from 10 at subsonic speeds to 6.4 at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable both longitudinally and laterally.

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise airplane configuration at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.96, and 3.30. [Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.; Fournier, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.96, and 3.30 to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic cruise airplane. The configuration, with a design Mach number of 3.0, has a highly swept arrow wing with tip panels of lesser sweep, a fuselage chine, outboard vertical tails, and outboard engines mounted in nacelles beneath the wings. For wind tunnel test conditions, a trimmed value above 6.0 of the maximum lift-drag ratio was obtained at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable, both longitudinally and laterally. Data are presented for variations of vertical-tail roll-out and toe-in and for various combinations of components. Some roll control data are shown as are data for the various sand grit sizes used in fixing the boundary layer transition location.

  2. Space shuttle: Basic subsonic static aerodynamic characteristics for Grumman H-33 orbiter configuration (M equals 0.17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, W.; Carlucci, F.

    1971-01-01

    Results of an experimental aerodynamic investigation of the H-33 space orbiter are presented. The investigation was undertaken to determine static aerodynamic characteristics of the orbiter at a Mach number of 0.17. These data were determined by employing a 1/25 scale model of the orbiter for pitch and yaw variations of -4 degrees to 24 degrees to 15 degrees, respectively. Investigations were conducted in the 7 - by - 10 foot wind tunnel.

  3. Estimation of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination From Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an initial step toward model identification from wind tunnel data for an airliner configuration. Two approaches to modeling a transport configuration are considered and applied to both steady and large-amplitude forced-oscillation wind tunnel data taken over a wide range of angles of attack. Only limited conclusions could be drawn from this initial data set. Although model estimated time histories of normal force and pitching moment agree reasonably well with the corresponding measured values, model damping parameters did not, for some cases, have values consistent with small amplitude oscillatory data. In addition, large parameter standard errors implied poor information content for model structure determination and parameter estimation. Further investigation of the modeling problem for more general aerodynamic models is recommended with close attention to experiment design for obtaining parameters with high accuracy.

  4. The characteristics of the ground vortex and its effect on the aerodynamics of the STOL configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Vearle R.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of the free stream velocity on the wall jet formed by the impingement of deflected engine thrust results in a rolled up vortex which exerts sizable forces on a short takeoff (STOL) airplane configuration. Some data suggest that the boundary layer under the free stream ahead of the configuration may be important in determining the extent of the travel of the wall jet into the oncoming stream. Here, early studies of the ground vortex are examined, and those results are compared to some later data obtained with moving a model over a fixed ground board. The effect of the ground vortex on the aerodynamic characteristics are discussed.

  5. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of some reentry concepts for angles of attack to 90 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-11-01

    Past studies of reentry vehicles tested to high angles of attack (up to 90 deg) in the Mach number range from 2 to 4.8 are reviewed. Two basic planforms are considered: highly-swept deltas and circular. The delta concepts include variations in cross section (and thus volume) and in camber distribution. The effectiveness of various types of aerodynamic control devices is also included. The purpose of the paper is to examine the characteristics of the vehicles with a view toward the potential usefulness of such concepts in a flight regime that would include reentry from space into the atmosphere followed by a transition to sustained atmospheric flight.

  6. Prediction of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Fighter Wings at High Angles of Attack.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    method coupled with iterative routines for wake location, viscous effects and vortex flows. Applications of the techniques to a number of...AD-A145 1@7 PREDICTION OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FIGHTER i/2 WIINGS AT HIGH ANGLES OF ATTACK(U) ANALYTICAL METHODS INC REDMOND WA B MASKEW ET...ATTACK I B. !4askew T.S. Vaidyanathan J.K. Nathman F.A. Dvorak Analytical Methods , Inc. 2047 - 152nd Avenue N.E. Redmond, Washington 98052 CONTRACT

  7. The aerodynamic characteristics of seven frequently used wing sections at full Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M; Miller, Elton W

    1927-01-01

    This report contains the aerodynamic properties of the wing sections U.S.A. 5, U.S.A. 27, U.S.A. 35 A, U.S.A. 35 B, Clark Y, R.A.F. 15, and Gottingen 387, as determined at various Reynolds numbers up to an approximately full scale value in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It is shown that the characteristics of the wings investigated are affected greatly and in a somewhat erratic manner by variation of the Reynolds number. In general there is a small increase in maximum lift and an appreciable decrease in drag at all lifts.

  8. Theoretical aerodynamic characteristics of a family of slender wing-tail-body combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard; Byrd, Paul F

    1951-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane configuration composed of a swept-back, nearly constant chord wing and a triangular tail mounted on a cylindrical body are presented. The analysis is based on the assumption that the free-stream Mach number is near unity or that the configuration is slender. The calculations for the tail are made on the assumption that the vortex system trailing back from the wing is either a sheet lying entirely in the plane of the flat tail surface or has completely "rolled up" into two point vortices that lie either in, above, or below the plane of the tail surface.

  9. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a transport configuration having a 42 deg swept supercritical airfoil wing and three tail height positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A low speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to define the static stability characteristics of an advanced high subsonic speed transport aircraft model in the cruise configuration (no high lift system). The wing of the model had 42 deg sweep of the quarter chord line, an aspect ratio of 6.78, and supercritical airfoil sections. Three different horizontal tail configurations (high, mid, and low) were investigated on the complete model and for the model with the wing removed in order to assess effects of the wing flow field on the tail contributions to both longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics. All the model configurations investigated were tested over an angle of attack range from approximately -5 to 23 deg. Some model configurations were also tested over an angle of attack range from about 11 to 38 deg in order to explore the aerodynamic characteristics in the deep stall region.

  10. Cylinder wake influence on the tonal noise and aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0018 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y.; Fujisawa, N.; Nakano, T.; Nashimoto, A.

    2006-11-01

    The influence of cylinder wake on discrete tonal noise and aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0018 airfoil is studied experimentally in a uniform flow at a moderate Reynolds number. The experiments are carried out by measuring sound pressure levels and spectrum, separation and the reattachment points, pressure distribution, fluid forces, mean-flow and turbulence characteristics around the airfoil with and without the cylinder wake. Present results indicate that the tonal noise from the airfoil is suppressed by the influence of the cylinder wake and the aerodynamic characteristics are improved in comparison with the case without the cylinder wake. These are mainly due to the separation control of boundary layers over the airfoil caused by the wake-induced transition, which is observed by surface flow visualization with liquid- crystal coating. The PIV measurements of the flow field around the airfoil confirm that highly turbulent velocity fluctuation of the cylinder wake induces the transition of the boundary layers and produces an attached boundary layer over the airfoil. Then, the vortex shedding phenomenon near the trailing edge of pressure surface is removed by the influence of the wake and results in the suppression of tonal noise.

  11. Navier-Stokes simulations of the Shuttle Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics with emphasis on pitch trim and bodyflap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. J.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Greene, Francis A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Shuttle Orbiter in the hypersonic flight regime is made through the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particular attention is given to establishing the cause of the 'pitching moment anomaly' which occurred on the Orbiter's first flight and to computing the aerodynamics of a complete Orbiter configuration at flight conditions. Data from ground based facilities as well as Orbiter flight data are used to validate the computed results. Analysis shows that the 'pitching moment anomaly' is a real gas chemistry effect which cannot be simulated in ground-based facilities. Computed flight aerodynamics for the Orbiter are within 5 percent of the measured flight values and trim bodyflap deflections are predicted to within 10 percent.

  12. Navier-Stokes simulations of the Shuttle Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics with emphasis on pitch trim and bodyflap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. J.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Greene, Francis A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Shuttle Orbiter in the hypersonic flight regime is made through the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particular attention is given to establishing the cause of the 'pitching moment anomaly' which occurred on the Orbiter's first flight and to computing the aerodynamics of a complete Orbiter configuration at flight conditions. Data from ground based facilities as well as Orbiter flight data are used to validate the computed results. Analysis shows that the 'pitching moment anomaly' is a real gas chemistry effect which cannot be simulated in ground-based facilities. Computed flight aerodynamics for the Orbiter are within 5 percent of the measured flight values and trim bodyflap deflections are predicted to within 10 percent.

  13. Large-scale aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as tested in the variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Anderson, Raymond F

    1931-01-01

    In order to give the large-scale characteristics of a variety of airfoils in a form which will be of maximum value, both for airplane design and for the study of airfoil characteristics, a collection has been made of the results of airfoil tests made at full-scale values of the reynolds number in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They have been corrected for tunnel wall interference and are presented not only in the conventional form but also in a form which facilitates the comparison of airfoils and from which corrections may be easily made to any aspect ratio. An example showing the method of correcting the results to a desired aspect ratio has been given for the convenience of designers. In addition, the data have been analyzed with a view to finding the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with their thickness and camber.

  14. Semi-Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Erik D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper lays out a comprehensive methodology for computing a low-speed, high-lift polar, without requiring additional details about the aircraft design beyond what is typically available at the conceptual design stage. Introducing low-order, physics-based aerodynamic analyses allows the methodology to be more applicable to unconventional aircraft concepts than traditional, fully-empirical methods. The methodology uses empirical relationships for flap lift effectiveness, chord extension, drag-coefficient increment and maximum lift coefficient of various types of flap systems as a function of flap deflection, and combines these increments with the characteristics of the unflapped airfoils. Once the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped sections are known, a vortex-lattice analysis calculates the three-dimensional lift, drag and moment coefficients of the whole aircraft configuration. This paper details the results of two validation cases: a supercritical airfoil model with several types of flaps; and a 12-foot, full-span aircraft model with slats and double-slotted flaps.

  15. A numerical investigation into the aerodynamic characteristics and aeroelastic stability of a footbridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, I. J.; Vezza, M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a numerical investigation into the aerodynamic characteristics and aeroelastic stability of a proposed footbridge across a highway in the north of England are presented. The longer than usual span, along with the unusual nature of the pedestrian barriers, indicated that the deck configuration was likely to be beyond the reliable limits of the British design code BD 49/01. The calculations were performed using the discrete vortex method, DIVEX, developed at the Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde. DIVEX has been successfully validated on a wide range of problems, including the aeroelastic response of bridge deck sections. In particular, the investigation focussed on the effects of non-standard pedestrian barriers on the structural integrity of the bridge. The proposed deck configuration incorporated a barrier comprised of angled flat plates, and the bridge was found to be unstable at low wind speeds, with the plates having a strong turning effect on the flow at the leading edge of the deck. These effects are highlighted in both a static and dynamic analysis of the bridge deck, along with modifications to the design that aim to improve the aeroelastic stability of the deck. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was also used to investigate the unsteady pressure field on the upper surface of the static bridge deck. The results of the flutter investigation and the POD analysis highlight the strong influence of the pedestrian barriers on the overall aerodynamic characteristics and aeroelastic stability of the bridge.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of the orbital reentry vehicle experimental probe fins in a supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mitsunori; Sekine, Hideo; Tate, Atsushi; Noda, Junichi

    1994-04-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of probe fins with a sweep angle of 60 deg, which are equipped on the Orbital Reentry Experiment (OREX) vehicle to measure the surrounding ionized gas temperature and electron number density distributions in the high temperature communication black out regions, have been measured in the supersonic wind tunnel of the National Aerospace Laboratory and compared with those of the fins of 0 deg sweep angles. Since the probes are to be embedded in the boundary layer where the local Mach number is less than 2.5 over the OREX surface at a hypersonic flight speed, the aerodynamic characteristics in supersonic regions are needed to estimate the rolling moments of fins caused by the error of the installation angles. The lift coefficient slope of the probe fins decreases as the Mach number increases, being less than the values for the 0 deg sweep fins. The drag coefficient depends highly on the sweep angle of the fins in Mach number regions less than 2.5.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuya; Kawakita, Masatoshi; Iijima, Takayoshi; Koga, Mitsuhiro; Kihira, Mitsuhiko; Funaki, Jiro

    The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils have been researched in higher Reynolds-number ranges more than 106, in a historic context closely related with the developments of airplanes and fluid machineries in the last century. However, our knowledge is not enough at low and middle Reynolds-number ranges. So, in the present study, we investigate such basic airfoils as a NACA0015, a flat plate and the flat plates with modified fore-face and after-face geometries at Reynolds number Re < 1.0×105, using two- and three-dimensional computations together with wind-tunnel and water-tank experiments. As a result, we have revealed the effect of the Reynolds number Re upon the minimum drag coefficient CDmin. Besides, we have shown the effects of attack angle α upon various aerodynamic characteristics such as the lift coefficient CL, the drag coefficient CD and the lift-to-drag ratio CL/CD at Re = 1.0×102, discussing those effects on the basis of both near-flow-field information and surface-pressure profiles. Such results suggest the importance of sharp leading edges, which implies the possibility of an inversed NACA0015. Furthermore, concerning the flat-plate airfoil, we investigate the influences of fore-face and after-face geometries upon such effects.

  19. Entry dynamics of space shuttle orbiter with longitudinal stability and control uncertainties at supersonic and hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis was conducted to examine the effects of longitudinal static aerodynamic stability and control uncertainties on the performance of the space shuttle orbiter automatic (no manual inputs) entry guidance and control systems. To establish the acceptable boundaries, the static aerodynamic characteristics were varied either by applying a multiplier to the aerodynamic parameter or by adding an increment. With either of two previously identified control system modifications included, the acceptable longitudinal aerodynamic boundaries were determined.

  20. Some effects of wing and body geometry on the aerodynamic characteristics of configurations designed for high supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Tice, David C.; Braswell, Dorothy O.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented for a family of aerodynamic configurations for flight Mach numbers as high as Mach 8. All of these generic configurations involved 70-deg sweep delta planform wings of three different areas and three fuselage shapes with circular-to-elliptical cross sections. It is noted that fuselage ellipticity enhances lift-curve slope and maximum L/D, while decreasing static longitudinal stability (especially with smaller wing areas).

  1. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Batterson, J. G.; O'Mara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control

  2. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Batterson, J. G.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Omara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control

  3. Longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate various aerodynamic characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) powered-lift concept. Time-history records from maneuvers performed with the aircraft in landing-approach and take-off configurations (with its stability augmentation system disengaged) were analyzed to obtain longitudinal stability and control derivatives and performance characteristics. The experiments included measuring the aircraft responses to variations in the deflection of direct-lift control spoilers and to thrust variations as well as to elevator inputs. The majority of the results are given for the aircraft in a landing configuration with the USB flaps at 50 degrees. For this configuration, if the static longitudinal stability is defined as the variation of the pitching-moment coefficient with the lift coefficient at a constant thrust coefficient, this stability decreases significantly with increasing angle of attack above 9 degrees. For this configuration, at small and negative angles of attack and high levels of thrust, the elevators and the horizontal stabilizer lost effectiveness owing to incipent stalling, but this occurred only during unsteady maneuvers and for brief time intervals.

  4. Effect of the Surface Condition of a Wing on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrance, S J

    1934-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of the surface conditions of a wing on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane, tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on the Fairchild F-22 airplane first with normal commercial finish of wing surface and later with the same wing polished. Comparison of the characteristics of the airplane with the two surface conditions shows that the polish caused a negligible change in the lift curve, but reduced the minimum drag coefficient by 0.001. This reduction in drag if applied to an airplane with a given speed of 200 miles per hour and a minimum drag coefficient of 0.025 would increase the speed only 2.9 miles per hour, but if the speed remained the same, the power would be reduced 4 percent.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale lift fan transport model with podded fans forward and lift cruise fans mounted above the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, J. V.; Dickinson, S. O.; Hall, L. P.; Coffman, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale V/STOL transport model powered by tip-turbine driven lift fans were investigated. The model had four fans; the forward fans were mounted in pods forward of the wing at midsemispan. The aft fans were placed in cruise nacelles behind and above the wing. A cascade of variable camber exit louvers was placed behind each of the lift-cruise fans to turn the fan flow in the lift direction for hover and transition to wing supported flight. The wing of the model was mounted above the fuselage, had an aspect ratio of 5.8, sweepback of 35 deg at the quarter chord line and a taper ratio of 0.3. Various configurations of the model were tested to explore the transition speed range. Fan performance, turning effectiveness of the variable camber exit louvers, longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics with fan operation in crossflow are presented.

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.0 of a blended wing-body configuration with and without integral canards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Lamb, M.; Miller, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    An exploratory, experimental, and theoretical investigation was made of a cambered, twisted, and blended wing-body concept with and without integral canard surfaces. Theoretical calculations of the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-body configurations were compared with the characteristics obtained from tests of a model in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. Mach numbers of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.0 and a Reynolds number per meter of 6.56 million were used in the calculations and tests. Overall results suggest that planform selection is extremely important and that the supplemental application of new calculation techniques should provide a process for the design of supersonic wings in which spanwise distribution of upwash and leading-edge thrust might be rationally controlled and exploited.

  7. Steady-state and transitional aerodynamic characteristics of a wing in simulated heavy rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Bezos, Gaudy M.

    1989-01-01

    The steady-state and transient effects of simulated heavy rain on the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of a wing model were determined in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The 1.29 foot chord wing was comprised of a NACA 23015 airfoil and had an aspect ratio of 6.10. Data were obtained while test variables of liquid water content, angle of attack, and trailing edge flap angle were parametrically varied at dynamic pressures of 10, 30, and 50 psf (i.e., Reynolds numbers of .76x10(6), 1.31x10(6), and 1.69x10(6)). The experimental results showed reductions in lift and increases in drag when in the simulated rain environment. Accompanying this was a reduction of the stall angle of attack by approximately 4 deg. The transient aerodynamic performance during transition from dry to wet steady-state conditions varied between a linear and a nonlinear transition.

  8. Experimental and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics of a high-lift semispan wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics were compared for a high-lift, semispan wing configuration that incorporated a slightly modified version of the NASA Advanced Laminar Flow Control airfoil section. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at chord Reynolds numbers of 2.36 and 3.33 million. A two-dimensional airfoil code and a three-dimensional panel code were used to obtain aerodynamic predictions. Two-dimensional data were corrected for three-dimensional effects. Comparisons between predicted and measured values were made for the cruise configuration and for various high-lift configurations. Both codes predicted lift and pitching moment coefficients that agreed well with experiment for the cruise configuration. These parameters were overpredicted for all high-lift configurations. Drag coefficient was underpredicted for all cases. Corrected two-dimensional pressure distributions typically agreed well with experiment, while the panel code overpredicted the leading-edge suction peak on the wing. One important feature missing from both of these codes was a capability for separated flow analysis. The major cause of disparity between the measured data and predictions presented herein was attributed to separated flow conditions.

  9. Measurements of the Longitudinal Stability and Control and Stalling Characteristics of a North American P-51H Airplane (AAF No. 4-64164)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Christopher C., Jr.; Reeder, J. P.

    1948-01-01

    Flight tests have been made to determine the longitudinal stability and control and stalling characteristics of a North American P-51H airplane. The results indicate that the airplane has satisfactory longitudinal stability in all the flight conditions tested at normal loadings up to 25,000 feet altitude. At Mach numbers above 0.7, the elevator push force required for longitudinal trim decreased somewhat because of compressibility effects. The elevator stick force per g in accelerated turns at the forward center-of-gravity position of 24 percent mean aerodynamic chord above 250 miles per hour was in excess of the required limits at both 5,000 and 25,OOO feet altitude. The longitudinal-trim-force changes due to flaps and power were small, but the rudder-trim-force change with power change was high. The stalling characteristics in all the conditions tested were satisfactory.

  10. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator configuration at Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0. [conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Ira J.; Covell, Peter F.; Forrest, Dana K.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic research vehicle was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). A parametric study was performed to determine the interference effects of various model components. Configuration variables included delta and trapezoidal canards; large and small centerline-mounted vertical tails, along with a set of wing-mounted vertical tails; and a set of model noses with different degrees of bluntness. Wing position was varied by changing the longitudinal location and the incidence angle. The test Mach numbers were 1.5 and 2.0 at Reynolds numbers of 1 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 2 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Angle of attack was varied from -4 degrees to 27 degrees, and sideslip angle was varied from -8 degrees to 8 degrees. Generally, the effect of Reynolds number did not deviate from conventional trends. The longitudinal stability and lift-curve slope decreased with increasing Mach number. As the wing was shifted rearward, the lift-curve slope decreased and the longitudinal stability increased. Also, the wing-mounted vertical tails resulted in a more longitudinally stable configuration. In general, the lift-drag ratio was not significantly affected by vertical-tail arrangement. The best lateral-directional stability was achieved with the large centerline-mounted tail, although the wing-mounted vertical tails exhibited the most favorable characteristics at the higher angles of attack.

  11. Aerodynamic stability and control characteristics of TBC shuttle booster AR-11981-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, E. R.; Watts, L. L.; Ainsworth, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    A scale model of the Boeing Company space shuttle booster configuration 3 was tested in the MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel. This test was proposed to fill-in the original test run schedule as well as to investigate the aerodynamic stability and control characteristics of the booster with three wing configurations not previously tested. The configurations tested included: (1) a cylindrical booster body with an axisymmetric nose, (2) clipped delta canards that had variable incidence from 0 deg to -60 deg, (3) different aft body mounted wing configurations, (4) two vertical fin configurations, and (5) a Grumman G-3 orbiter configuration. Tests were conducted over a Mach range from 0.6 to 5.0.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of the ventilated design for flapping wing micro air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Q; Yu, S C M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the "ventilation" in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds.

  13. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders using magnetic suspension technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, Charles W.; Britcher, Colin

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation is reported on slanted base ogive cylinders at zero incidence. The Mach number range is 0.05 to 0.3. All flow disturbances associated with wind tunnel supports are eliminated in this investigation by magnetically suspending the wind tunnel models. The sudden and drastic changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag for a slight change in base slant angle are reported. Flow visualization with liquid crystals and oil is used to observe base flow patterns, which are responsible for the sudden changes in aerodynamic characteristics. Hysteretic effects in base flow pattern changes are present in this investigation and are reported. The effect of a wire support attachment on the 0 deg slanted base model is studied. Computational drag and transition location results using VSAERO and SANDRAG are presented and compared with experimental results. Base pressure measurements over the slanted bases are made with an onboard pressure transducer using remote data telemetry.

  14. Investigations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics and Blade Excitations of the Radial Turbine with Pulsating Inlet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Yang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic performance, detailed unsteady flow and time-based excitations acting on blade surfaces of a radial flow turbine have been investigated with pulsation flow condition. The results show that the turbine instantaneous performance under pulsation flow condition deviates from the quasi-steady value significantly and forms obvious hysteretic loops around the quasi-steady conditions. The detailed analysis of unsteady flow shows that the characteristic of pulsation flow field in radial turbine is highly influenced by the pulsation inlet condition. The blade torque, power and loading fluctuate with the inlet pulsation wave in a pulse period. For the blade excitations, the maximum and the minimum blade excitations conform to the wave crest and wave trough of the inlet pulsation, respectively, in time-based scale. And toward blade chord direction, the maximum loading distributes along the blade leading edge until 20% chord position and decreases from the leading to trailing edge.

  15. Preliminary aerodynamic characteristics of several advanced VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    VSTOL attack aircraft to be developed in the mid- or late-1990's and research programs dealing with possible characteristics are discussed. Design studies of horizontal attitude takeoff and landing (HATOL) and vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) type aircraft were executed and wind tunnel models were built and tested. The configurations tested were a wing-canard HATOL concept with jet-diffuser ejectors as a vertical lift system and a variety of the same with nacelles which are closer together. Other proposals were a HATOL concept with wing-canard design and two vertical tails on twin afterbodies, and a VATOL concept which is tailless with an extended leading-edge wing to increase lift. Aerodynamic uncertainties were defined and wind tunnel tests were made. Special research concerning top-mounted air induction systems is also covered.

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Ventilated Design for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G. Q.; Yu, S. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the “ventilation” in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds. PMID:24683339

  17. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted to determine the low-speed two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications (GA(W)-1). The results were compared with predictions based on a theoretical method for calculating the viscous flow about the airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Reynolds numbers based on airfoil chord varied from 2.0 million to 20.0 million. Maximum section lift coefficients greater than 2.0 were obtained and section lift-drag ratio at a lift coefficient of 1.0 (climb condition) varied from about 65 to 85 as the Reynolds number increased from about 2.0 million to 6.0 million.

  18. Wake structure and aerodynamic characteristics of an auto-propelled pitching airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanchi, S.; Benkherouf, T.; Mekadem, M.; Oualli, H.; Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we investigate the wake configuration as well as the flow aerodynamic and propulsive characteristics of a system equipped with a nature-inspired propulsion system. The study focuses on the effect of a set of pitching frequency and amplitude values on the flow behavior for a symmetric foil performing pitching sinusoidal rolling oscillations. The viscous, non-stationary flow around the pitching foil is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The foil movement is reproduced using the dynamic mesh technique and an in-house developed UDF (User Define Function). Our results show the influence of the pitching frequency and the amplitude on the wake. We provide the mechanisms relating the system behavior to the applied forces. The frequency varies from 1 to 400Hz and the considered amplitudes are 18%, 24%, 30%, 37%, 53%, 82% and 114% of the foil chord.

  19. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic characteristics and wing pressure distributions of an airplane with variable-sweep wings modified for laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallissy, James B.; Phillips, Pamela S.

    1989-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and wing pressure distributions of a variable wing sweep aircraft having wing panels that are modified to promote laminar flow. The modified wing section shapes were incorporated over most of the exposed outer wing panel span and were obtained by extending the leading edge and adding thickness to the existing wing upper surface forward of 60 percent chord. Two different wing configurations, one each for Mach numbers 0.7 and 0.8, were tested on the model simultaneously, with one wing configuration on the left side and the other on the right. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers 0.20 to 0.90 for wing sweep angles of 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees. Longitudinal, lateral and directional aerodynamic characteristics of the modified and baseline configurations, and selected pressure distributions for the modified configurations, are presented in graphical form without analysis. A tabulation of the pressure data for the modified configuration is available as microfiche.

  20. Effect of rotor wake on aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6 scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft. [in the Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft. A 1/6-scale model with a 4-blade articulated rotor was used to determine the effect of the rotor wake for the compound configuration. Data were obtained over a range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, auxiliary engine thrusts, rotor collective pitch angles, and rotor tip-path plane angles for several main-rotor advance ratios. Separate results are presented for the forces and moments on the airframe, the wing, and the tail. An analysis of the test data indicates significant changes in the aerodynamic characteristics. The rotor wake increases the longitudinal static stability, the effective dihedral, and the lateral static stability of the airframe. The rotor induces a downwash on the wing. This downwash decreases the wing lift and increases the drag. The asymmetrical rotor wake induces a differential lift across the wing and a subsequent rolling moment. These rotor induced effects on the wing become smaller with increasing forward speed.

  1. A simulator investigation of the influence of engine response characteristics on the approach and landing for an externally blown flap aircraft. Part 2: Aerodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Robinson, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of engine response characteristics on the approach and landing of an externally blown flap aircraft was conducted using flight simulator facilities. The configuration of the aerodynamic model is described. The aerodynamic characteristics as a function of angle of attack, thrust coefficient, and flap deflection are presented in tabular form and as graphs.

  2. A longitudinal aerodynamic data repeatability study for a commercial transport model test in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahls, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.; Witkowski, D. P.; Wright, F. L.

    1995-01-01

    A high Reynolds number investigation of a commercial transport model was conducted in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Langley Research Center. This investigation was part of a cooperative effort to test a 0.03-scale model of a Boeing 767 airplane in the NTF over a Mach number range of 0.70 to 0.86 and a Reynolds number range of 2.38 to 40.0 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord. One of several specific objectives of the current investigation was to evaluate the level of data repeatability attainable in the NTF. Data repeatability studies were performed at a Mach number of 0.80 with Reynolds numbers of 2.38, 4.45, and 40.0 x 10(exp 6) and also at a Mach number of 0.70 with a Reynolds number of 40.0 x 10(exp 6). Many test procedures and data corrections are addressed in this report, but the data presented do not include corrections for wall interference, model support interference, or model aeroelastic effects. Application of corrections for these three effects would not affect the results of this study because the corrections are systematic in nature and are more appropriately classified as sources of bias error. The repeatability of the longitudinal stability-axis force and moment data has been accessed. Coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment are shown to repeat well within the pretest goals of plus or minus 0.005, plus or minus 0.0001, and plus or minus 0.001, respectively, at a 95-percent confidence level over both short- and near-term periods.

  3. Effect of a Nacelle on the Low-speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Swept-back Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Frederick H , Jr; Dannenberg, Robert E

    1948-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of a simplified nacelle on a semispan wing having approximately 35 degrees of sweepback were made at low speeds to evaluate the effects of the nacelle on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. Force, moment, and pressure-distribution measurements are presented for the nacelle underslung and centrally mounted on the wing and mounted on a strut below the wing.

  4. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald

    1968-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.

  5. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  7. Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics from a Flight Investigation of a Cruciform Canard Missile Configuration Having an Exposed Wing-canard Area Ratio of 16:1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, Martin T; Wineman, Andrew R

    1952-01-01

    A flight investigation has been made to determine the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a 60 0 delta-wing-canard missile configuration with an exposed wing-canard area ratio of 16:1. The results presented include the longitudinal stability derivatives, control effectiveness, and drag characteristics for a Mach number range of 0.75 to 1.80 and are compared with the results of a similar configuration having larger 6ontrols. Stability characteristics are also presented from the flights of an interdigitated canard configuration at a Mach number of 2.08 and a wing-body configuration at Mach numbers of 1.25 to 1.45. The stability derivatives varied gradually with Mach number with the exception of the damping-in-pitch derivative. Aerodynamic damping in pitch decreased to a minimum at a Mach number of 1.0 3, then increased to a peak value at a Mach number of 1.26 followed by a gradual decrease at higher Mach numbers. The aerodynamic-center location of the in-line canard configuration shifted rearward 13 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord at transonic speeds. The pitching-moment curve slope was 25 percent greater for the model having no canards than for the in-line configuration. No large effects of interdigitation were noted in the stability derivatives. Pitching effectiveness of the in-line configuration was maintained throughout the Mach number range. A comparison of the stability and control characteristics of two canard configurations having different area controls showed that decreasing the control area 44 percent decreased the pitching effectiveness proportionally, shifted the aerodynamic-center location rearward 9 to 14 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord, and reduced the total hinge moments required for 10 trimmed flight about 50 percent at transonic speeds.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of two single-stage-to-orbit vehicles at Mach 20.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernot, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    The hypersonic stability, control, and performance characteristics of two configurations have been determined. Each configuration had a 50 deg swept delta wing, a vertical tail, and a body flap. One model represented a control configured vehicle with a reduced level of longitudinal static stability; the other model was designed for a conventional level of stability. Data were obtained over an angle of attack range of 0 deg to 50 deg and included effects of component buildup. In addition, the effects of the vertical tail on the lateral directional characteristics were obtained.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale model with a swept wing and augmented jet flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    Data of tests of a large-scale swept augmentor wing model in the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel are presented. The data includes longitudinal characteristics with and without a horizontal tail as well as results of preliminary investigation of lateral-directional characteristics. The augmentor flap deflection was varied from 0 deg to 70.6 deg at isentropic jet thrust coefficients of 0 to 1.47. The tests were made at a Reynolds number from 2.43 to 4.1 times one million.

  10. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Refined Deep-step Planing-tail Flying-boat Hull with Various Forebody and Afterbody Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M; Naeseth, Rodger L

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300-mph 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes and, for comparison, a streamline body simulating the fuselage of a modern transport airplane. The results of the tests indicated that the configurations incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 7 had lower minimum drag coefficients than the configurations incorporating a forebody with length-beam ratio of 5. The lowest minimum drag coefficients, which were considerably less than that of a conventional hull and slightly less than that of a streamline body, were obtained on the length-beam-ratio-7 forebody, alone and with round center boom. Drag coefficients and longitudinal- and lateral-stability parameters presented include the interference of a 21-percent-thick support wing.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Refined Deep-Step Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hull with Various Forebody and Afterbody Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M; Naeseth, Rodger L

    1953-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 mph 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes. For comparison, tests were made on a streamline body simulating the fuselage of a modern transport airplane. The results of the tests, which include the interference effects of a 21-percent-thick support wing, indicated that for corresponding configurations the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 7 had lower minimum drag coefficients than the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 5. Longitudinal and lateral stability was generally about the same for all hull models tested and about the same as that of a conventional hull.

  12. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Supersonic Fighter Aircraft Model at Mach 0.40 to 2.47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Bare, E. A.; Arbiter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective of this investigation was to establish an aerodynamic data base for the configuration with flow-through nacelles and representative inlets. The use of a canard for trim and the effects of fairing over the inlets were assessed. Comparisons between experimental and theoretical results were also made. The theoretical results were determined by using a potential vortex lift code for subsonic speeds and a linear aerodynamic code for supersonic speeds. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 2.47, at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg, and at inlet capture ratios of about 0.5 to 1.4.

  13. Effect of posture on the aerodynamic characteristics during take-off in ski jumping.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keizo; Tsubokura, Makoto; Ikeda, Jun; Onishi, Keiji; Baleriola, Sophie

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posture of a ski jumper on aerodynamic characteristics during the take-off using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD method adopted for this study was based on Large-Eddy Simulation. Body surface data were obtained by 3-D laser scanning of an active ski jumper. Based on video analysis of the actual take-off movement, two sets of motion data were generated (world-class jumper A and less-experienced jumper B). The inlet flow velocity that corresponds to the in-run velocity in actual ski jumping was set to 23.23m/s in the CFD. The aerodynamic force, flow velocity, and vortexes for each model were compared between models. The total drag force acting upon jumper A was lower than that acting upon jumper B through the whole movement. Regarding the total lift force, although jumper A׳s total lift force was less in the in-run posture, it became greater than that of jumper B at the end of the movement. In the latter half of the movement, low air-speed domain expansion was observed at the model׳s back. This domain of jumper B was larger. There were two symmetric vortexes in the wake of jumper A, but the disordered vortexes were observed behind the jumper B. In the case of jumper A, these two distinct vortexes generated by the arms produced a downwash flow in the wake. It is considered that the positioning of the arms in a very low position strongly influences the flow structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wind-tunnel investigation of the powered low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of the Vectored-Engine-Over (VEO) wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W.; Whitten, P. D.; Stumpfl, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation incorporating both static and wind-on testing was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to determine the effects of vectored thrust along with spanwise blowing on the low-speed aerodynamics of an advanced fighter configuration. Data were obtained over a large range of thrust coefficients corresponding to takeoff and landing thrust settings for many nozzle configurations. The complete set of static thrust data and the complete set of longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained in the investigation are presented. These data are intended for reference purposes and, therefore, are presented without analysis or comment. The analysis of the thrust-induced effects found in the investigation are not discussed.

  15. Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch and Sideslip at High Subsonic Speeds of a 1/14-Scale Model of the Grumman XF104 Airplane with Wing Sweepback of 42.5 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Draper, John W.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made at high subsonic speeds of the aerodynamic'characteristics in pitch and sideslip of a l/l4-scale model of the Grumman XF10F airplane with a wing sweepback angle of 42.5. The longitudinal stability characteristics (with the horizontal tail fixed) indicate a pitch-up near the stall; however, this was somewhat alleviated by the addition of fins to the side of the fuselage below the horizontal tail. The original model configuration became directionally unstable for small sideslip angles at Mach numbers above 0.8; however, the instability was eliminated by several different modifications.

  16. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of two V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configurations at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.; Lummus, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of two horizontal attitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts. In one concept, a jet diffuser ejector was used for the vertical lift system; the other used a remote augmentation lift system (RALS). Wind tunnel tests to investigate the aerodynamic uncertainties and to establish a data base for these types of concepts were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 2.0. The present report covers tests, conducted in the 11 foot transonic wind tunnel, for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Detailed effects of varying the angle of attack (up to 27 deg), angle of sideslip (-4 deg to +8 deg), Mach number, Reynolds number, and configuration buildup were investigated. In addition, the effects of wing trailing edge flap deflections, canard incidence, and vertical tail deflections were explored. Variable canard longitudinal location and different shapes of the inboard nacelle body strakes were also investigated.

  17. A study of the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of a slender double-delta wing in roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Alain

    An experimental investigation of the dynamic behavior of an 80sp°/65sp° double-delta wing at high angles of incidence was conducted. It was found that depending upon the angle of incidence, different dynamic regimes were encountered as the wing was free to rotate about its longitudinal axis. These dynamic regimes included damped oscillations, quasi-limit-cycle wing-rock motion, and chaotic oscillations. The presence of vortex breakdown on the model was shown to influence the type of dynamic regime obtained and the location of the roll attractors. Results are presented that indicate how the individual physical features of the double-delta wing affected the overall dynamic behavior of the 80sp°/65sp° double-delta wing. It is shown that the 65sp° main wing had a strong influence on the location of the roll attractors, while the presence of the 80sp° strake seemed to affect the amplitude of oscillation. Force balance experiments and flow visualization tests were also conducted and the results show a relationship between vortex behavior and wing aerodynamics. The behavior of the leeward strake vortex at large roll angle was shown to have a strong influence on the roll moment acting on the wing. Flow visualization also helped explain the presence of critical states in the force and moment data. It also showed that different dynamic regimes were associated with different flow regimes. Moreover, a method was developed to predict the roll attractors and amplitude of oscillation from static roll moment coefficient results. Finally, numerical simulation of the free-to-roll behavior of the wing led to a better understanding of the possible chaotic nature of the free-to-roll response of the wing at certain angles of incidence.

  18. Effects of surface dielectric barrier discharge on aerodynamic characteristic of train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Gao, Guoqiang; Peng, Kaisheng; Wei, Wenfu; Li, Chunmao; Wu, Guangning

    2017-07-01

    High-speed railway today has become an indispensable means of transportation due to its remarkable advantages, including comfortability, convenience and less pollution. The increase in velocity makes the air drag become the main source of energy consumption, leading to receiving more and more concerns. The surface dielectric barrier discharge has shown some unique characteristics in terms of active airflow control. In this paper, the influences of surface dielectric barrier discharge on the aerodynamic characteristics of a scaled train model have been studied. Aspects of the discharge power consumption, the temperature distribution, the velocity of induced flow and the airflow field around the train model were considered. The applied AC voltage was set in the range of 20 kV to 28 kV, with a fixed frequency of 9 kHz. Results indicated that the discharge power consumption, the maximum temperature and the induced flow velocity increased with increasing applied voltage. Mechanisms of applied voltage influencing these key parameters were discussed from the point of the equivalent circuit. The airflow field around the train model with different applied voltages was observed by the smoke visualization experiment. Finally, the effects of surface dielectric barrier discharge on the train drag reduction with different applied voltages were analyzed.

  19. Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of Country-Western, Operatic and Broadway singing styles compared to speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Robert E.; Cleveland, Thomas F.; Sundberg, P. Johan

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic measures were used to objectively describe characteristics of Country-Western (C-W) singing in a group of six premier performers in a series of studies and of operatic and Broadway singing in a female subject with professional experience in both styles of singing. For comparison purposes the same measures also were applied to individuals while speaking the same material as sung. Changes in pitch and vocal loudness were investigated for various dependent variables, including subglottal pressure, closed quotient, glottal leakage, H1-H2 difference [the level difference between the two lowest partials of the source spectrum and glottal compliance (the ratio between the air volume displaced in a glottal pulse and the subglottal pressure)], formant frequencies, long-term-average spectrum and vibrato characteristics (in operatic versus Broadway singing). Data from C-W singers suggest they use higher sub-glottal pressures in singing than in speaking. Changes in vocal intensity for doubling sub-glottal pressure is less than reported for classical singers. Several measures were similar for both speaking and C-W singing. Whereas results provide objective specification of differences between operatic and Broadway styles of singing, the latter seems similar to features of conversational speaking style.

  20. Prediction of dynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of the centrifugal fan with forward curved blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanský, Jiří; Kalmár, László; Gášpár, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is determine the centrifugal fan with forward curved blades aerodynamic characteristics based on numerical modeling. Three variants of geometry were investigated. The first, basic "A" variant contains 12 blades. The geometry of second "B" variant contains 12 blades and 12 semi-blades with optimal length [1]. The third, control variant "C" contains 24 blades without semi-blades. Numerical calculations were performed by CFD Ansys. Another aim of this paper is to compare results of the numerical simulation with results of approximate numerical procedure. Applied approximate numerical procedure [2] is designated to determine characteristics of the turbulent flow in the bladed space of a centrifugal-flow fan impeller. This numerical method is an extension of the hydro-dynamical cascade theory for incompressible and inviscid fluid flow. Paper also partially compares results from the numerical simulation and results from the experimental investigation. Acoustic phenomena observed during experiment, during numerical simulation manifested as deterioration of the calculation stability, residuals oscillation and thus also as a flow field oscillation. Pressure pulsations are evaluated by using frequency analysis for each variant and working condition.

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics and thermal structure of nonpremixed reacting swirling wakes at low Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Rong F.; Yen, Shun C.

    2008-12-15

    The aerodynamic characteristics and thermal structure of uncontrolled and controlled swirling double-concentric jet flames at low Reynolds numbers are experimentally studied. The swirl and Reynolds numbers are lower than 0.6 and 2000, respectively. The flow characteristics are diagnosed by the laser-light-sheet-assisted Mie scattering flow visualization method and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The thermal structure is measured by a fine-wire thermocouple. The flame shapes, combined images of flame and flow, velocity vector maps, streamline patterns, velocity and turbulence distributions, flame lengths, and temperature distributions are discussed. The flow patterns of the no-control case exhibit an open-top, single-ring vortex sitting on the blockage disc with a jetlike swirling flow evolving from the central disc face toward the downstream area. The rotation direction and size of the near-disc vortex, as well as the flow properties, change in different ranges of annulus swirl number and therefore induce three characteristic flame modes: weak swirling flame, lifted flame, and turbulent reattached flame. Because the near-disc vortex is open-top, the radial dispersion of the fuel-jet fluids is not significantly enhanced by the annulus swirling flow. The flows of the reacting swirling double-concentric jets at such low swirl and Reynolds numbers therefore present characteristics of diffusion jet flames. In the controlled case, the axial momentum of the central fuel jet is deflected radially by a control disc placed above the blockage disc. This arrangement can induce a large near-disc recirculation bubble and high turbulence intensities. The enhanced mixing hence tremendously shortens the flame length and enlarges the flame width. (author)

  2. Longitudinal Stability and Stalling Characteristics of a 1/8.33-Scale Model of the Republic XF-12 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Edward; Foster, Gerald V.

    1946-01-01

    The XF-12 airplane is a high performance, photo-reconnaissance aircraft designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for Army Air Forces. A series of tests of a 1/8.33-scale powered model was conducted in the Langley 9-foot pressure tunnel to obtain information relative to the aerodynamic design of the airplane. This report presents the results of tests to determine the static longitudinal stability and stalling characteristics of the model. From this investigation it was indicated that the airplane will possess a positive static margin for all probable flight conditions. The stalling characteristics are considered satisfactory in that the stall initiates near the root section and progresses toward the tips. Early root section stalling occurs, with the flaps retracted and may cause undesirable tail buffeting and erratic elevator control in the normal flight range. From considerations of sinking speed landing flap deflections of 40 degrees may be preferable to 55 degrees of 65 degrees.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of a rotorcraft airfoil designed for the tip region of a main rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.

    1991-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the 2-D aerodynamic characteristics of a new rotorcraft airfoil designed for application to the tip region (stations outboard of 85 pct. radius) of a helicopter main rotor blade. The new airfoil, the RC(6)-08, and a baseline airfoil, the RC(3)-08, were investigated in the Langley 6- by 28-inch transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.37 to 0.90. The Reynolds number varied from 5.2 x 10(exp 6) at the lowest Mach number to 9.6 x 10(exp 6) at the highest Mach number. Some comparisons were made of the experimental data for the new airfoil and the predictions of a transonic, viscous analysis code. The results of the investigation indicate that the RC(6)-08 airfoil met the design goals of attaining higher maximum lift coefficients than the baseline airfoil while maintaining drag divergence characteristics at low lift and pitching moment characteristics nearly the same as those of the baseline airfoil. The maximum lift coefficients of the RC(6)-08 varied from 1.07 at M=0.37 to 0.94 at M=0.52 while those of the RC(3)-08 varied from 0.91 to 0.85 over the same Mach number range. At lift coefficients of -0.1 and 0, the drag divergence Mach number of both the RC(6)-08 and the RC(3)-08 was 0.86. The pitching moment coefficients of the RC(6)-08 were less negative than those of the RC(3)-08 for Mach numbers and lift coefficients typical of those that would occur on a main rotor blade tip at high forward speeds on the advancing side of the rotor disk.

  4. Space shuttle: Static aerodynamic characteristics characteristics and control effectiveness for McDonnell-Douglas orbiter configuration for Mach number range of 0.4 to 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental aerodynamic wind tunnel investigation was conducted employing a 0.00325 scale model of the McDonnell-Douglas space shuttle orbiter configuration. This investigation was conducted in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14- by 14- inch trisonic wind tunnel. The investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the orbiter over the Mach number range of 0.4 to 5.0, an angle of attack variation from -4 degrees to 50 degrees, and -6 degrees to 9 degrees angle of sideslip. Control surface effectiveness was investigated for elevator, aileron, and rudder deflections.

  5. Effect of Full-Chord Porosity on Aerodynamic Characteristics of the NACA 0012 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Hartwich, Peter M.

    1996-01-01

    A test was conducted on a model of the NACA 0012 airfoil section with a solid upper surface or a porous upper surface with a cavity beneath for passive venting. The purposes of the test were to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with full-chord porosity and to assess the ability of porosity to provide a multipoint or self-adaptive design. The tests were conducted in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.50 to 0.82 at chord Reynolds numbers of 2 x 10(exp 6), 4 x 10(exp 6), and 6 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -1 deg to 6 deg. At the lower Mach numbers, porosity leads to a dependence of the drag on the normal force. At subcritical conditions, porosity tends to flatten the pressure distribution, which reduces the suction peak near the leading edge and increases the suction over the middle of the chord. At supercritical conditions, the compression region on the porous upper surface is spread over a longer portion of the chord. In all cases, the pressure coefficient in the cavity beneath the porous surface is fairly constant with a very small increase over the rear portion. For the porous upper surface, the trailing edge pressure coefficients exhibit a creep at the lower section normal force coefficients, which suggests that the boundary layer on the rear portion of the airfoil is significantly thickening with increasing normal force coefficient.

  6. Numerical Analysis on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Delta Wing with Variable Geometry Device in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Masashi; Imamura, Osamu; Suzuki, Kojiro

    The application of the variable geometry (VG) wing to a lifting re-entry body is expected to enhance the control capability of its aerodynamic characteristics and, as a result, to widen the corridor for the flight trajectory. In the present study, the flow field around a plain delta wing having three chord-wise hinges, one is on the wing root and the others on both sides of the mid-span of the wing, at Mach number 3 is numerically investigated by solving the Euler equations. The effects of the angle of attack and the “tip-down” bending angles around these hinges are clarified. The results show that the lift-to-drag ratio is hardly affected by the tip-down angle and that the overall lift and drag forces vary almost proportional to the change in the projected wing area by taking the tip-down configuration. The center of pressure moves backward by the tip-down effect.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of Lockheed delta-body orbiter and stage-and-one-half launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velligan, F. A.; Svendsen, H. O.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test program was conducted to investigate the subsonic through high supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of the Lockheed delta lifting body orbiter and stage-and-one-half launch vehicle. Analyses and results of these data are presented. A 0.01-scale model of the LS 200-5 system was designed and fabricated for testing in wind tunnels. Orbiter and launch configurations were tested over a speed range of Mach 0.6 to 2.0, whereas only the orbiter was tested over a speed range of Mach 2.3 to 4.6. Six-component force and moment data, base pressures, and schlieren photos were obtained at various angles-of-attack and sideslip. A 0.03-scale model of the orbiter was also designed, fabricated, and tested in a wind tunnel. Six-component force and moment data, base pressure, and a limited amount of tuft flow visualization data were obtained on a variety of configuration combinations.

  8. Numerical Simulations of the Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.

  9. The aerodynamic characteristics of vortex ingestion for the F/A-18 inlet duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.

    1991-01-01

    A Reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS) solution technique was successfully combined with the concept of partitioned geometry and mesh generation to form a very efficient 3D RNS code aimed at the analysis-design engineering environment. Partitioned geometry and mesh generation is a pre-processor to augment existing geometry and grid generation programs which allows the solver to (1) recluster an existing gridlife mesh lattice, and (2) perturb an existing gridfile definition to alter the cross-sectional shape and inlet duct centerline distribution without returning to the external geometry and grid generator. The present results provide a quantitative validation of the initial value space marching 3D RNS procedure and demonstrates accurate predictions of the engine face flow field, with a separation present in the inlet duct as well as when vortex generators are installed to supress flow separation. The present results also demonstrate the ability of the 3D RNS procedure to analyze the flow physics associated with vortex ingestion in general geometry ducts such as the F/A-18 inlet. At the conditions investigated, these interactions are basically inviscid like, i.e., the dominant aerodynamic characteristics have their origin in inviscid flow theory.

  10. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  11. An experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of planar and non-planar outboard wing planforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, D. A.; Ostowari, C.

    1987-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of several planar and nonplanar wingtip planforms. Seven different configurations: base-line rectangular, elliptical, swept and tapered, swept and tapered with dihedral, swept and tapered with anhedral, rising arc, and drooping arc, were investigated for two different spans. The data are available in terms of coefficient plots of force data, flow visualization photographs, and velocity and pressure flowfield surveys. All planforms, particularly the nonplanar, have some advantages over the baseline rectangular planform. Span efficiencies up to 20-percent greater than baseline are a possibility. However, it is suggested that the span efficiency concept might need refinement for nonplanar wings. Flow survey data show the change in effective span with vortex roll-up. The flow visualization shows the occurrence of mushroom-cell-separation flow patterns at angles of attack corresponding to stall. These grow with an increase in post-stall angle of attack. For the larger aspect ratios, the cells are observed to split into sub-cells at the higher angles of attack. For all angles of attack, some amount of secondary vortex flow is observed for the planar and nonplanar out-board planforms with sweep and taper.

  12. Program VSAERO theory document: A computer program for calculating nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The VSAERO low order panel method formulation is described for the calculation of subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of general configurations. The method is based on piecewise constant doublet and source singularities. Two forms of the internal Dirichlet boundary condition are discussed and the source distribution is determined by the external Neumann boundary condition. A number of basic test cases are examined. Calculations are compared with higher order solutions for a number of cases. It is demonstrated that for comparable density of control points where the boundary conditions are satisfied, the low order method gives comparable accuracy to the higher order solutions. It is also shown that problems associated with some earlier low order panel methods, e.g., leakage in internal flows and junctions and also poor trailing edge solutions, do not appear for the present method. Further, the application of the Kutta conditions is extremely simple; no extra equation or trailing edge velocity point is required. The method has very low computing costs and this has made it practical for application to nonlinear problems requiring iterative solutions for wake shape and surface boundary layer effects.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP) wind energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report describes an analytical and experimental research program that has been conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute for the purpose of evaluating the aerodynamic characteristics of the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP) wind energy conversion system. The TARP is an obstruction type flow concentrator and accelerator which converts ambient winds into low pressure, high kinetic energy zones in the immediate proximity of a wind energy conversion unit. A TARP may be described as being substantially the shape of an inner section of a hollow toroid. A twin rotor system of any kind may be mounted within the peripheral flow channel about a TARP structure such that each rotor is situated in the optimum accelerated flow velocity region for best energy recovery. In a series of preliminary experimental tests, the pressure distribution about the basic TARP configuration was obtained at Reynolds numbers based on the TARP's minimum diameter ranging from about 1.1 x 10/sup 5/ to 9.0 x 10/sup 5/.

  14. Pharyngeal aerodynamic characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hong-Rui; Li, Li-Feng; Zhou, Bing; Li, Yun-Chuan; Wang, Tong; Han, De-Min

    2012-09-01

    The role of nasal obstruction in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has been debated for decades. In this prospective study, we compared the pharyngeal aerodynamic characteristics of OSAHS patients and normal people, and investigated the contribution of total nasal airway resistance to the pathophysiology of OSAHS. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to extract the average pressure and average airflow velocity in three transverse cross-sectional planes of the pharynx for statistical analysis, and the correlation between nasal resistance and the average pressure in the pharyngeal cavity was investigated. The negative pressure within the pharyngeal cavity was significantly higher in OSAHS patients than in normal subjects, and total nasal airway resistance correlated well with the average pressure in three consecutive transverse cross-sections of the pharyngeal cavity. Greater negative pressure within the pharyngeal cavity contributed to the increased collapsibility of the pharynx in OSAHS patients, and the strong correlation between nasal resistance and pharyngeal pressure suggests that the nose plays a role in the pathogenesis of OSAHS.

  15. Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

  16. Low-speed, high-lift aerodynamic characteristics of slender, hypersonic accelerator-type configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Two investigations were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator-type configuration. The model was a delta wing configuration incorporating a conical forebody, a simulated wrap-around engine package, and a truncated conical aftbody. Six-component force and moment data were obtained over a range of attack from -4 to 30 degrees and for a sideslip range of + or - 20 degrees. In addition to tests of the basic configuration, component build-up tests were conducted; and the effects of power, forebody nose geometry, canard surfaces, fuselage strakes, and engines on the lower surface alone were also determined. Control power available from deflections of wing flaps and aftbody flaps was also investigated and found to be significantly increased during power-on conditions. Large yawing moments resulted from asymmetric flow fields exhibited by the forebody as revealed by both surface pressure data and flow visualization. Increasing nose bluntness reduced the yawing-moment asymmetry, and the addition of a canard eliminated the yawing-moment asymmetry.

  17. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a variable-geometry spacecraft designed for high hypersonic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made in the high Mach number test section of the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel on a variable-geometry high hypersonic performance spacecraft concept at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.63. The basic lifting body is designed for hypersonic lift-drag ratio near 3.0. The variable-geometry feature is a single-pivot two-position high wing which is deployed at subsonic speeds to improve vehicle landing characteristics. For the present investigation the wing was maintained in a stowed position, and the effects of horizontal stabilizer dihedral, elevon control effectiveness, and the addition of either a conventional single vertical tail or dorsal-fin-type vertical stabilizers on the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics were studied.

  18. Improvement of aerodynamic characteristics of a thick airfoil with a vortex cell in sub- and transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, Sergey; Baranov, Paul; Popov, Igor; Sudakov, Alexander; Usachov, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    The modified SST model (2005) is verified using Rodi- Leschziner-Isaev's approach and the multiblock computational technologies are validated in the VP2/3 code on different-structure overlapping grids by comparing the numerical predictions with the experimental data on transonic flow around an NACA0012 airfoil at an angle of attack of 4o for M=0.7 and Re=4×106. It is proved that the aerodynamic characteristics of a thick (20% of the chord) MQ airfoil mounted at an angle of attack of 2o for Re=107 and over the Mach number range 0.3-0.55 are significantly improved because an almost circular small-size (0.12) vortex cell with a defined volumetric flow rate coefficient of 0.007 during slot suction has been located on the upper airfoil section and an intense trapped vortex has been formed in it. A detailed analysis of buffeting within the self-oscillatory regime of flow around the MQ airfoil with a vortex cell has demonstrated the periodic changes in local and integral characteristics; the lift and the aerodynamic efficiency remain quite high, but inferior to the similar characteristics at M=0.55. It is found that the vortex cell at M=0.7 is inactive, and the aerodynamic characteristics of the MQ airfoil with a vortex cell are close to those of a smooth airfoil without a cell.

  19. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of Recessed Fuel-Vent Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Robert S.; VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Rollins, Vern G.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the NACA Cleveland icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of several recessed fuel-vent configurations. The vents were investigated aerodynamically to obtain vent-tube pressures and pressure distributions on the ramp surface as functions of tunnel-air velocity and angle of attack. Icing investigations were made to determine the vent-tube pressure losses for several icing conditions at tunnel-air velocities ranging from 220 to 440 feet per second. In general, under nonicing conditions, the configurations with diverging ramp walls maintained, vent-tube pressures greater than the required marginal value of 2 inches of water positive pressure differential between the fuel cell and the compartment containing the fuel cell for a range of angles of attack from 0 to 14deg at a tunnel-air velocity of approximately 240 feet per second. A configuration haying divergIng ramp sldewalls, a 7deg ramp angle; and vent tubes manifold,ed to a common plenum chamber opening through a slot In the ramp floor gave the greatest vent-tube pressures for all the configurations investigated. The use of the plenum chamber resulted in uniform pressures in all vent tubes. In a cloud-icing condition, roughness caused by ice formations on the airfoil surface ahead of the vent ramp, rather than icing of the vent configuration, caused a rapid loss in vent-tube pressures during the first few minutes of an icing period. Only the configuration having diverging ramp sidewalls, a 7 ramp angle, and a common plenum chamber maintained the required vent-tube pressures throughout a 60-minute icing period, although the ice formations on this configuration were more severe than those observed for the other configurations. No complete closure of vent-tube openings occurred for the configurations investigated. A simulated freezing-rain condition caused a greater and more rapid vent-tube pressure loss than was observed for a cloud

  20. A Parametric Study of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Nose-Cylinder-Flare Bodies at a Mach Number of 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Cary, Aubrey M., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Force tests were conducted at a Mach number of 6.0 on nose-cylinder-flare bodies to determine the effect of nose shape, cylinder length, flare angle, and flare length on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. A particular investigation was conducted to determine the effect of flare angle for constant flare length, surface area, and diameter. Results indicated that at a Reynolds number of approximately 0.92 x l0 (exp 6) (based on body diameter), the boundary-layer separation effects were significant only with respect to the slope of the normal-force and pitching-moment curve at low angles of attack. The variations of the aerodynamic characteristics with the various parameters were, in general, similar to those predicted by Newtonian theory below a flare angle of 30 degrees and a ratio of flare base diameter to cylinder diameter of less than approximately 2.2. The limiting diameter ratio is consistent with the extent of the low-constant dynamic-pressure region near the body caused by the bow-shock influences as predicted by axisymmetric characteristic theory. The effects of the various parameters for the flares that exceeded the limiting diameter ratio follow the trends predicted by the computed flow-field properties. The axial force for these flare configurations at zero angle of attack was, in general, computed within 10 percent by using these properties. For a constant flare length and surface area the flare effectiveness increased with increasing flare angle; however, for constant flare diameter only the axial-force coefficient was affected by flare angle.

  1. Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of inertant acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Prateek P.; Manimala, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of acoustic metamaterials with various inerter configurations are investigated using their representative one-dimensional discrete element lattice models. Inerters are dynamic mass-amplifying mechanical elements that are activated by a difference in acceleration across them. They have a small device mass but can provide a relatively large dynamic mass presence depending on accelerations in systems that employ them. The effect of introducing inerters both in local attachments and in the lattice was examined vis-à-vis the propagation characteristics of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. A simple effective model based on mass, stiffness, or their combined equivalent was used to establish dispersion behavior and quantify attenuation within bandgaps. Depending on inerter configurations in local attachments or in the lattice, both up-shift and down-shift in the bandgap frequency range and their extent are shown to be possible while retaining static mass addition to the host structure to a minimum. Further, frequency-dependent negative and even extreme effective-stiffness regimes are encountered. The feasibility of employing tuned combinations of such mass-delimited inertant configurations to engineer acoustic metamaterials that act as high-pass filters without the use of grounded elements or even as complete longitudinal wave inhibitors is shown. Potential device implications and strategies for practical applications are also discussed.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport configuration with a over-the-wing nacelle-pylon arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.; Abeyounis, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport configuration of installing an over-the-wing nacelle-pylon arrangement. The tests are conducted at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and at angles of attack from -2 deg to 4 deg. The configurational variables under study include symmetrical and contoured nacelles and pylons, pylon size, and wing leading-edge extensions. The symmetrical nacelles and pylons reduce the lift coefficient, increase the drag coefficient, and cause a nose-up pitching-moment coefficient. The contoured nacelles significantly reduce the interference drag, though it is still excessive. Increasing the pylon size reduces the drag, whereas adding wing leading-edge extension does not affect the aerodynamic characteristics significantly.

  3. Effects of thickness on the aerodynamic characteristics of an initial low-speed family of airfoils for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the effects of airfoil thickness-ratio on the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of an initial family of airfoils. The results were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a subsonic viscous method. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2.0 x 1 million to 9.0 x 1 million.

  4. Tests of Four Full-scale Propellers to Determine the Effect of Trailing-edge Extensions on Propeller Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D.; Evans, Albert J

    1945-01-01

    Propellers with trailing-edge extensions were studied to determine aerodynamic characteristics. Trailing-edge extension increased power absorbed by propeller with little loss in efficiency. Power coefficient for maximum efficiency was greater for 20% camber type extension than for 20% straight type extension over range of advance ratio of 1.0 to 2.5 although camber type was less efficient. Efficiency was about the same for cruising and high-speed at a high power coefficient for propeller with extension.

  5. An Investigation of Two-Propeller Tilt Wing V/STOL Aircraft Flight Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    aerodynamic input files or using manual input data. The output provides static aircraft longitudinal parameters for determining performance...wing aircraft so configured, the NASA Ames computer code TWANG is used for simulation of aircraft longitudinal stability and performance characteristics

  6. Analysis of wind tunnel test results for a 9.39-per cent scale model of a VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft. Volume 1: Study overview. [aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummus, J. R.; Joyce, G. T.; Omalley, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of current methodologies to accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics identified as uncertainties was evaluated for two aircraft configurations. The two wind tunnel models studied horizontal altitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter aircraft derivatives.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 and HL-20A lifting-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.; Spencer, Bernard, Jr.; Micol, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The data show that the HL-20 is longitudinally and laterally stable over the test range from Mach 10 to 0.2. At hypersonic speeds it has a trimmed lift/drag ratio of 1.4. This values gives the vehicle a cross range capability similar to that of the Space Shuttle. At subsonic speeds, the HL-20 has a trimmed lift/drag ratio of about 3.6. Replacing the flat plate outboard fins with fins having an airfoil shape, increased the maximum trimmed L/D to 4.3. Preliminary evaluation of configuration modifications (the HL-20A series), indicates that trim at higher values of lift at hypersonic speeds could be achieved with an L/D of about 1.0. In the supersonic range, the lift and directional stability characteristics were improved. The untrimmed subsonic L/D was increased to 5.8 with airfoil fins.

  8. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a series of wrap-around-fin missile configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric study of wrap-around-fin missile configurations was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 2.86 in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. The fin configurations investigated included variations in chord length, leading edge sweep, thickness ratio, and leading edge shape. The investigation also included a smooth and a stepped-down afterbody required for flush retraction of the wrap-around-fin configuration. The investigation indicated no unusual longitudinal characteristics; however, all the wrap-around-fin configurations tested indicated erratic lateral behavior, particularly in the form of induced roll at zero angle of attack and irregular variations of roll with angle of attack and Mach number. The magnitude of rolling moment at an angle of attack of 0 deg is estimated to represent approximately 0.25 deg or less roll control deflection. The stepped-down afterbody has a marked effect on reducing the induced roll.

  9. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of Water-Inertia-Separation Inlets for Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Blatz, R. E.

    1950-01-01

    The results of an investigation of several internal water-inertia-separation inlets consisting of a main duct and an alternate duct designed to prevent automatically the entrance of large quantities of water into a turbojet engine in icing conditions are presented. Total-pressure losses and icing characteristics for a direct-ram inlet and the inertia-separation inlets are compared at similar aerodynamic and simulated icing conditions. Complete ice protection for inlet guide vanes could not be achieved with the inertia-separation inlets investigated. Approximately 8 percent of the volume of water entering the nacelles remained. In the air passing into the compressor inlet. Heavy alternate-duct-elbow ice formations caused by secondary inertia separation resulted in rapid total-pressure losses and decreases in mass flow. The duration in an icing condition for an inertia-separation- inlet, without local surface heating, was increased approximately four times above that for a direct-ram inlet with a compressor-inlet screen. For normal nonicing operation, the inertia-separation- inlet total-pressure losses were comparable to a direct-ram installation. The pressure losses and the circumferential uniformity of the mass flow in all the inlets were relatively independent of angle of attack. Use of an inertia-separation inlet would in most cases require a larger diameter nacelle than a direct-ram inlet in order to obtain an alternate duct sufficiently large to pass the required engine air flow at duct Mach numbers below 1.0 at the minimum area.

  10. Development and validation of the V/STOL aerodynamics and stability and control manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, C.; Walters, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    A V/STOL Aerodynamics and Stability and Control Manual was developed to provide prediction methods which are applicable to a wide range of V/STOL configurations in hover and transition flight, in and out of ground effect. Propulsion-induced effects have been combined with unpowered aerodynamics in a buildup of total forces and moments for the jet-lift concept, so that total aerodynamics can be used to predict aircraft stability, control, and flying qualities characteristics. Results of longitudinal aerodynamic predictions have been compared with test data, and indicate that the methods are fast, inexpensive, and within the desired accuracy for the objective preliminary design stage.

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of a canard-controlled missile at Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.0.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassner, D. L.; Wettlaufer, B.

    1977-01-01

    A typical missile model with nose mounted canards and cruciform tail surfaces was tested in the Ames 6- by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the contributions of the component aerodynamic surfaces to the static aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 and Reynolds number of 1 million based on body diameter. Data were obtained at angles of attack ranging from -3 deg to 12 deg for various stages of model build-up (i.e., with and without canard and/or tail surfaces). Results were obtained both with the model unrolled and rolled 45 deg. For the canard and tail arrangements investigated, the model was trimmable at angles of attack up to about 10 deg with canard deflections of 9 deg. Also, the tail arrangements studied provided ample pitch stability. there were no appreciable effects of model roll orientation.

  12. An experimental study of aerodynamic damping characteristics of a compressor annular cascade in high speed flow and the visualization of annular cascade flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    To clarify experimentally the characteristics of aerodynamic damping of a compressor cascade in high speed flow, which is an important factor of blade oscillatory fatigue, the time-variant aerodynamic pressure acting on the blade surface of harmonically oscillated annular cascade in torsional mode was measured with a Freon gas annular cascade test facility over a range from high subsonic to supersonic and over a wide range of reduced frequencies. Through these data, the variance of cascade aerodynamic stability of inlet flow Mach No. and reduced frequency, and the effects of shock wave movement due to blade oscillation on an unsteady aerodynamic force and on an aerodynamic stability of the cascade were made clear. The visualization of annular cascade flow by the new schlieren system is also described.

  13. Longitudinal associations between family characteristics and measures of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between different family characteristics and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in children. This was a prospective follow-up study conducted in Helsinki region with data collected in 2006 and 2008. The sample consisted of 550 children aged 9-11 at baseline. Children were measured and weighed by research staff, and they completed a questionnaire about their family characteristics. More meals together with the family, more parenting practices at meals, less time home without adult company after school, and child's perception of receiving care from mother in 2006 predicted a lower BMI in 2008 and partly a smaller increase in BMI from 2006 to 2008. Fewer associations were found to WHtR. Physical activity with either parent was not associated with BMI or WHtR. Several family characteristics predicted child BMI and WHtR 2 years later. These results contribute new knowledge about parental influence on child weight and weight gain and should be taken into account when planning interventions on the matter.

  14. Simulator study of stall/post-stall characteristics of a fighter airplane with relaxed longitudinal static stability. [F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Ogburn, M. E.; Gilbert, W. P.; Kibler, K. S.; Brown, P. W.; Deal, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a fighter configuration based on wind-tunnel testing of the F-16, with particular emphasis on the effects of various levels of relaxed longitudinal static stability. The aerodynamic data used in the simulation was conducted on the Langley differential maneuvering simulator, and the evaluation involved representative low-speed combat maneuvering. Results of the investigation show that the airplane with the basic control system was resistant to the classical yaw departure; however, it was susceptible to pitch departures induced by inertia coupling during rapid, large-amplitude rolls at low airspeed. The airplane also exhibited a deep-stall trim which could be flown into and from which it was difficult to recover. Control-system modifications were developed which greatly decreased the airplane susceptibility to the inertia-coupling departure and which provided a reliable means for recovering from the deep stall.

  15. Comparison of theoretically predicted lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics with full-scale wind tunnel data on the ATLIT airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, M.; Roskam, J.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for predicting lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of light twin engine propeller-driven airplanes. This method is applied to the Advanced Technology Light Twin Engine airplane. The calculated characteristics are correlated against full-scale wind tunnel data. The method predicts the sideslip derivatives fairly well, although angle of attack variations are not well predicted. Spoiler performance was predicted somewhat high but was still reasonable. The rudder derivatives were not well predicted, in particular the effect of angle of attack. The predicted dynamic derivatives could not be correlated due to lack of experimental data.

  16. Experimental Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 2001 Mars Surveyor Precision Lander with Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; OConnell, Tod F.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Alter, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic wind-tunnel screening tests were conducted on a 0.029 scale model of a proposed Mars Surveyor 2001 Precision Lander (70 deg half angle spherically blunted cone with a conical afterbody). The primary experimental objective was to determine the effectiveness of a single flap to trim the vehicle at incidence during a lifting hypersonic planetary entry. The laminar force and moment data, presented in the form of coefficients, and shock patterns from schlieren photography were obtained in the NASA Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory for post-normal shock Reynolds numbers (based on forebody diameter) ranging from 2,637 to 92,350, angles of attack ranging from 0 tip to 23 degrees at 0 and 2 degree sideslip, and normal-shock density ratios of 5 and 12. Based upon the proposed entry trajectory of the 2001 Lander, the blunt body heavy gas tests in CF, simulate a Mach number of approximately 12 based upon a normal shock density ratio of 12 in flight at Mars. The results from this experimental study suggest that when traditional means of providing aerodynamic trim for this class of planetary entry vehicle are not possible (e.g. offset c.g.), a single flap can provide similar aerodynamic performance. An assessment of blunt body aerodynamic effects attributed to a real gas were obtained by synergistic testing in Mach 6 ideal-air at a comparable Reynolds number. From an aerodynamic perspective, an appropriately sized flap was found to provide sufficient trim capability at the desired L/D for precision landing. Inviscid hypersonic flow computations using an unstructured grid were made to provide a quick assessment of the Lander aerodynamics. Navier-Stokes computational predictions were found to be in very good agreement with experimental measurement.

  17. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Control Effectiveness of the HL-20 Lifting Body Configuration at Mach 10 in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1999-01-01

    A 0.0196-scale model of the HL-20 lifting-body, one of several configurations proposed for future crewed spacecraft, was tested in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to determine the effectiveness of fin-mounted elevons, a lower surface flush-mounted body flap, and a flush-mounted yaw controller at hypersonic speeds. The nominal angle-of-attack range, representative of hypersonic entry, was 2 deg to 41 deg, the sideslip angles were 0 deg, 2 deg, and -2 deg, and the test Reynolds number was 1.06 x 10 E6 based on model reference length. The aerodynamic, longitudinal, and lateral control effectiveness along with surface oil flow visualizations are presented and discussed. The configuration was longitudinally and laterally stable at the nominal center of gravity. The primary longitudinal control, the fin-mounted elevons, could not trim the model to the desired entry angle of attack of 30 deg. The lower surface body flaps were effective for roll control and the associated adverse yawing moment was eliminated by skewing the body flap hinge lines. A yaw controller, flush-mounted on the lower surface, was also effective, and the associated small rolling moment was favorable.

  18. Aerodynamic Performance and Flow-Field Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    The component integration of a class of hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders into hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. A wind-tunnel model was developed which integrates realistic vehicle components with two waverider shapes, referred to as the straight-wing and cranked-wing shapes. Both shapes were conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The CFD predictions and flow visualization data confirmed the shock attachment characteristics of the baseline waverider shapes and illustrated the waverider flow-field properties. Experimental data showed that no significant performance degradations, in terms of maximum lift-to-drag ratios, occur at off-design Mach numbers for the waverider shapes and the integrated configurations. A comparison of the fully-integrated waverider vehicles to the baseline shapes showed that the performance was significantly degraded when all of the components were added to the waveriders, with the most significant degradation resulting from aftbody closure and the addition of control surfaces. Both fully-integrated configurations were longitudinally unstable over the Mach number range studied with the selected center of gravity location and for unpowered conditions. The cranked-wing configuration provided better lateral-directional stability characteristics than the straight-wing configuration.

  19. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Modeling of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flaps on a GIII Airplane and Comparisons to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.; Bui, Trong T.; Garcia, Christian A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    A pair of compliant trailing edge flaps was flown on a modified GIII airplane. Prior to flight test, multiple analysis tools of various levels of complexity were used to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flaps. Vortex lattice, full potential flow, and full Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis software programs were used for prediction, in addition to another program that used empirical data. After the flight-test series, lift and pitching moment coefficient increments due to the flaps were estimated from flight data and compared to the results of the predictive tools. The predicted lift increments matched flight data well for all predictive tools for small flap deflections. All tools over-predicted lift increments for large flap deflections. The potential flow and Navier-Stokes programs predicted pitching moment coefficient increments better than the other tools.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics, Temperature, and Noise Measurements of a Large-Scale External-Flow Jet-Augmented-Flap Model with Turbojet Engines Operating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Marvin P.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel on a large-scale model powered by turbojet engines with flattened rectangular nozzles. The wing had 35 deg. sweep of the leading edge, an aspect ratio of 6.5, a taper ratio of 0.31, and NACA 65(1)-412 and 65-408 airfoils at the root and tip. The investigation included measurements of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the model with half-span and full-span flaps and measurements of the sound pressure and skin temperature on the portions of the lower surface of the wing immersed in the jet flow. The tests were conducted over a range or angles of attack from -8 to 16 deg. for Reynolds numbers from 1.8 x 10(exp 6) to 4.4 x 10(exp 6) and a range of momentum coefficients from 0 to 2.0. In general, the aerodynamic results of this investigation made with a large-scale hot-jet model verified the results of previous investigations with small models powered by compressed-air jets. Although blowing was only done over the inboard portion of the wing, substantial amounts of induced lift were also obtained over the outboard portion of the wing. Skin temperatures were about 340 F and wing heating could be handled with available materials without cooling. Random acoustic loadings on the wing surface were high enough to indicate that fatigue failure from this source would require special consideration in the design of an external-flow jet flap system for an airplane.

  1. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Low-Drag Aircraft Configuration having an Arrow Wing of Aspect Ratio 1.86 and a Body of Fineness Ratio 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Warren, Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A free-flight rocket-propelled-model investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 1.2 to 1.9 to determine the longitudinal and lateral aero-dynamic characteristics of a low-drag aircraft configuration. The model consisted of an aspect-ratio -1.86 arrow wing with 67.5 deg. leading-edge sweep and NACA 65A004 airfoil section and a triangular vertical tail with 60 deg. sweep and NACA 65A003 section in combination with a body of fineness ratio 20. Aerodynamic data in pitch, yaw, and roll were obtained from transient motions induced by small pulse rockets firing at intervals in the pitch and yaw directions. From the results of this brief aerodynamic investigation, it is observed that very slender body shapes can provide increased volumetric capacity with little or no increase in zero-lift drag and that body fineness ratios of the order of 20 should be considered in the design of long-range supersonic aircraft. The zero-lift drag and the drag-due-to-lift parameter of the test configuration varied linearly with Mach number. The maximum lift-drag ratio was 7.0 at a Mach number of 1.25 and decreased slightly to a value of 6.6 at a Mach number of 1.81. The optimum lift coefficient, normal-force-curve slope, lateral-force-curve slope, static stability in pitch and yaw, time to damp to one-half amplitude in pitch and yaw, the sum of the rotary damping derivatives in pitch and also in yaw, and the static rolling derivatives all decreased with an increase in Mach number. Values of certain rolling derivatives were obtained by application of the least-squares method to the differential equation of rolling motion. A comparison of the experimental and calculated total rolling-moment-coefficient variation during transient oscillations of the model indicated good agreement when the damping-in-roll contribution was included with the static rolling-moment terms.

  2. Approach to establishing the effect of aeroelasticity on aerodynamic characteristics of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, D. C.; Dominik, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The static aeroelastic effects on the longitudinal stability and elevon/aileron effectiveness of the space transportation system (STS) Space Shuttle orbiter were estimated by a simplified approach called the elevon torsional stiffness (ETS) method. This method employs rigid model wind tunnel test results to predict aeroelastic effects. Lateral/directional stability and rudder effectiveness were based on results of a wind tunnel test in which a flexible tail model was used. Comparisons with selective flight data are made in this paper. Results of correlations with flight data (although limited at the present time) verify the predicted aeroelastic effects for the orbiter. The orbiter's structural characteristics are such that the effects of aeroelasticity, whether estimated using analytical techniques or simplified methods, do not appear to affect the vehicle performance to any great extent. The large amount of scatter in the flight-extracted data made verification of the aeroelastic corrections very difficult. Generally, the simplified elevon torsional stiffness method provided better correlation with flight test results than he analytical method and reduced the verification effort and cost.

  3. Approach to establishing the effect of aeroelasticity on aerodynamic characteristics of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, D. C.; Dominik, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The static aeroelastic effects on the longitudinal stability and elevon/aileron effectiveness of the space transportation system (STS) Space Shuttle orbiter were estimated by a simplified approach called the elevon torsional stiffness (ETS) method. This method employs rigid model wind tunnel test results to predict aeroelastic effects. Lateral/directional stability and rudder effectiveness were based on results of a wind tunnel test in which a flexible tail model was used. Comparisons with selective flight data are made in this paper. Results of correlations with flight data (although limited at the present time) verify the predicted aeroelastic effects for the orbiter. The orbiter's structural characteristics are such that the effects of aeroelasticity, whether estimated using analytical techniques or simplified methods, do not appear to affect the vehicle performance to any great extent. The large amount of scatter in the flight-extracted data made verification of the aeroelastic corrections very difficult. Generally, the simplified elevon torsional stiffness method provided better correlation with flight test results than he analytical method and reduced the verification effort and cost.

  4. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Canard and an Outboard-Tail Airplane Model at High Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Paul G.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel through a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.95 of the static longitudinal and lateral stability and control characteristics of a canard airplane configuration and an outboard-tail configuration. The canard model had a twisted wing with approximately 67 deg of sweepback and an aspect ratio of 2.91 and was tested with three trapezoidal canard surfaces having ratios of exposed area to wing area of 0.032, 0.076, and 0.121. The canard model had a single body-mounted vertical tail. The outboard-tail model had its horizontal- and vertical-tail surfaces mounted on slender bodies attached to the wing tips and located to the rear and outboard of the 67 deg sweptback wing of aspect ratio 1.00. The data, which are presented with limited analysis, provide information at high subsonic speeds on these two types of high-speed airplanes which have previously been tested at supersonic speeds and reported in NACA RM L58BO7 and NACA RM L58E20.

  5. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Slender Cone-cylinder Body of Revolution at a Mach Number of 3.85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John R

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamics of a slender cone-cylinder body of revolution was conducted at a Mach number of 3.85 for angles of attack of 0 degree to 10 degrees and a Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6). Boundary-layer measurements at zero angle of attack are compared with the compressible-flow formulations for predicting laminar boundary-layer characteristics. Comparison of experimental pressure and force values with theoretical values showed relatively good agreement for small angles of attack. The measured mean skin-friction coefficients agreed well with theoretical values obtained for laminar flow over cones.

  6. Aerodynamic Characteristics at High Speeds of Related Full-Scale Propellers Having Different Blade-Section Cambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D; Salters, Leland B , Jr

    1957-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of a full-scale two-blade NACA 10-(10)(08)-03 (high camber) propeller have been made for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. The results of these tests have been compared with results from previous tests of the NACA 10-(3) (08)-03 (low camber) and NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 (medium camber) propellers to evaluate the effects of blade-section camber on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.

  7. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Model of an Inflatable-Sphere Launching Vehicle under Simulated Conditions of Mach Number and Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ross B.; Morris, Odell A.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch of a two-stage-rocket model configuration which simulated the last two stages of the launching vehicle for an inflatable sphere. Tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from -6 deg to 18 deg at dynamic pressures of 102 and 255 pounds per square foot with corresponding Mach numbers of 1.89 and 1.98 for the model both with and without a bumper arrangement designed to protect the rocket casing from the outer shell of the vehicle.

  8. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics associated with variations in the geometry of the forward portion of irregular planform wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Stone, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental aerodynamic characteristics of three basic wing planforms on a conceptual orbiter fuselage (designated the LO-100) have been obtained in the 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The study included variations in the forward portion (fillet) of each basic wing. Fillet sweeps to 78 deg were investigated while holding the spanwise intersection of the fillet and wing constant. The data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.35 to 1.2 and at Reynolds number (depending on Mach number) of 1.9 million to 2.11 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 2 deg to 22 deg at 0 deg of sideslip.

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics of an A-4B Aircraft with Simulated and Actual Gunfire Damage to One Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, M. D.; Brown, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a damaged McDonnell Douglas A-4B aircraft were studied in the Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. A standard fuselage and three different wings were used. The first wing tested was an undamaged one in which holes had been cut and detachable cover plates installed. Removal of one or more cover plates gave one of fourteen different simulated damage cases. The other two wings tested were damaged by actual gunfire at an Air Force range.

  10. Experimental and theoretical low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a Wortmann airfoil as manufactured on a fiberglass sailplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    A low turbulence pressure tunnel evaluation is reported for low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the FX 66-17AII-182 airfoil as manufactured on a fiberglass sailplane. The results were compared with data for design coordinates obtained from another low turbulence wind tunnel and with theoretical calculations generated by a viscous flow airfoil computer program. The investigation was performed over a Reynolds number range, based on airfoil chord, of approximately 0.5 x 1 million to 6 million and a Mach number range of about 0.05 to 0.35. Comparison with data from another wind tunnel for the design coordinates showed slightly higher drag for the manufactured section.

  11. Experimental study of aerodynamic characteristics of a reentry vehicle on a setup with free oscillations at supersonic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, N. P.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Chasovnikov, E. A.; Dyad'kin, A. A.; Krylov, A. N.; Aleksandrov, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    A setup with free oscillations containing a transverse sting for holding the test model and possible test regimes are described. The method of testing and data processing is presented. Aerodynamic characteristics of the pitching moment of the model in a wide range of Mach numbers are obtained. Comparisons of quasi-steady data with numerical predictions and of damping derivatives with those obtained previously in tests of the model mounted on the base sting and with calculated results are performed. The model is found to be statically and dynamically stable except for regimes with M = 1.75 and 2.25, where nondecaying oscillations are excited.

  12. Effect of fuselage upwash on the supersonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of 2 fighter configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. M.; Miller, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of fuselage incidence effects on two fighter aircraft models, which differed in wing planform only, has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0. Results were obtained on the two models at fuselage incidence angles of 0 deg, 2 deg, and 5 deg. The fuselage geometry included two side-mounted, flow-through, half-axisymmetric inlets and twin vertical tails. The two planforms tested were cranked wings with 70 deg/66 deg and 70 deg/30 deg leading-edge sweep angles. Experimental data showed that fuselage incidence resulted in positive increments in configuration lift and pitching moment; most of the lift increment can be attributed to the fuselage-induced upwash acting on the wing and most of the pitching-moment increment is due to the fuselage. Theoretical analysis indicates that linear-theory methods can adequately predict the overall configuration forces and moments resulting from fuselage upwash, but a higher order surface-panel method (PAN AIR) more accurately predicted the distribution of forces and resulting moments between the components.

  13. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic, energy-efficient transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Peter F.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1989-01-01

    The Reynolds number, aeroelasticity, boundary layer transition, and nonadiabatic wall temperature effects, and data repeatability was determined in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) for a subsonic, energy efficient transport model. The model was tested over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.86 and a Reynolds number range of 1.9 million to approximately 23.0 million (based on mean geometric chord). The majority of the data was taken using cryogenic nitrogen (data at 1.9 million Reynolds number was taken in air). Force and moment, wing pressure, and wing thermocouple data are presented. The data indicate that increasing Reynolds number resulted in greater effective camber of the supercritical wing and horizontal tail, resulting in greater lift and pitching moment coefficients at nearly all angles of attack for M = 0.82. As Reynolds number was increased, untrimmed L/D increased, the angle of attack for maximum L/D decreased, drag creep was reduced significantly, and drag divergence Mach number increased slightly. Data repeatability for both modes of operation of the NTF (air and cryogenic nitrogen) was generally very good, and nonadiabatic wall effects were estimated to be small. Transition-free and transition-fixed configurations had significantly different force and moment data at M = 0.82 for low Reynolds number, and very small differences were noted at high Reynolds numbers.

  14. Effects of stores on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Sangiorgio, G.; Monta, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental investigations of single and twin stores representative of advanced, elliptical cross section missile concepts were made at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 2.16 to substantiate theoretically predicted results. The stores were mounted on the fuselage of a model representing a fighter configuration. Store base closure effects in the carriage condition were also obtained through tests with and without base closure fairings.

  15. The Effect of an Operating Propeller on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Lockheed XFV-1 Airplane at High Subsonic Speeds (TED No. NACA DE-377)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Fred B.; Buell, Donald A.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of an operating propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a l/l9-scale model of the Lockheed XFV-1 airplane, Several full-scale power conditions were simulated at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.92; the.Reynolds number was constant at 1,7 million. Lift, longitudinal force, pitch, roll, and yaw characteristics, determined with and without power, are presented for the complete model and for various combinations of model components, Results of an investigation to determine the characteristics of the dual-rotating propeller used on the model are given also,

  16. Flight Test Determined Aerodynamics Force and Moment Characteristics of the X-43A Research Vehicle at Mach 7.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Mark C.; White, J. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The second flight of the HYPER-X Program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe integrated scramjet powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets, frequency sweeps, and pull-up/push-over maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent phase. The subject flight research maneuvers were conducted in a Mach number range of 6.8 to 0.95 at altitudes from 92,000 ft to sea level. In this flight regime, the dynamic pressure varied from 1300 psf to 400 psf with angle-of-attack ranging from 0 deg to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with pre-flight predictions based on wind tunnel test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10 to 15 percent higher than prediction. Under-predictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers greater than 4, the X-43A flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger than predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5-inches forward along the X(CG) at Mach 6. This would result in less static margin in pitch. The X-43A predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle-of-sideslip.

  17. Flight-Test-Determined Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characteristics of the X-43A at Mach 7.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis. Marl C.; White, J. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The second flight of the Hyper-X program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets; frequency sweeps; and pushover-pullup maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent. Maneuvers were conducted at Mach numbers of 6.80 to 0.95 and altitudes from 92,000 ft msl to sea level. The dynamic pressure varied from 1300 psf to 400 psf with the angle of attack ranging from 0 deg to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with preflight predictions based on wind-tunnel-test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10 percent to 15 percent higher than prediction. Under-predictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers above 4.0, the flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger-than-predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5 in. forward along the x-axis center of gravity at Mach 6.0. This condition would result in less static margin in pitch. The predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle of sideslip.

  18. X-43A Flight-Test-Determined Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characteristics at Mach 7.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Mark C.; White, J. Terry

    2008-01-01

    The second flight of the Hyper-X program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets, frequency sweeps, and pushover-pullup maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent. Maneuvers were conducted at Mach numbers of 6.80-0.95 and at altitudes from 92,000 ft mean sea level to sea level. The dynamic pressure varied from 1300 to 400 psf with the angle of attack ranging from 0 to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with preflight predictions based on wind-tunnel test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10-15%higher than prediction. Underpredictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers above 4.0, the flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger-than-predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5 in. forward along the x-axis center of gravity at Mach 6.0. This condition would result in less static margin in pitch. The predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle of sideslip.

  19. Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 2: Parameters estimated from wind tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Aerospace Vehicle During a Subsonic Pitch-Over Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.

    1996-01-01

    Time-dependent CFD has been used to predict aerospace vehicle aerodynamics during a subsonic rotation maneuver. The inviscid 3D3U code is employed to solve the 3-D unsteady flow field using an unstructured grid of tetrahedra. As this application represents a challenge to time-dependent CFD, observations concerning spatial and temporal resolution are included. It is shown that even for a benign rotation rate, unsteady aerodynamic effects are significant during the maneuver. Possibly more significant, however, the rotation maneuver creates ow asymmetries leading to yawing moment, rolling moment, and side force which are not present in the quasi-steady case. A series of steady solutions at discrete points in the maneuver are also computed for comparison with wind tunnel measurements and as a means of quantifying unsteady effects.

  1. Transonic Aerodynamic Loading Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Combination Having a 52.5 deg. Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 With Conical Wing Camber and Body Indentation for a Design Mach Number of Square Root of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  2. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of .50 Ball, M33, API, M8, and APIT, M20 Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Drag Measurements for the APIT, M20 Projectile ........ .. 62 Vi vii INUXIIO1NA.M.LY u.LI IIIANK. I. Introduction The caliber .50 Armor Piercing...Incendiary (API, MS) and Armor Piercing Incendiary Tracer (APIT, M20) munitions were developed in 1943-44, for wartime service use in various versions of the...Hitchcock, H.P., "Aerodynamic Data for Spinning Projectiles," US Army Balistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, BRL Report No

  3. Experimental Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter for a Range of Damage Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckman, Gregory J.; Scallion, William I.

    2003-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests in support of the Columbia accident investigation were conducted in two hypersonic wind tunnels at the NASA Langley Research Center, the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and the 20-Inch Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel. The primary purpose of these tests was to measure the forces and moments generated by a variety of outer mold line alterations (damage scenarios) using 0.0075-scale models of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (approximately 10 inches in length). Simultaneously acquired global heat transfer mappings were obtained for a majority of the configurations tested. Test parameters include angles of attack from 38 to 42 deg, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.26 to 3.0 x10^6 per foot, and normal shock density ratios of 5 (Mach 6 air) and 12 (Mach 6 CF4). The damage scenarios evaluated included asymmetric boundary layer transition, gouges in the windward surface acreage thermal protection system tiles, wing leading edge damage (partially and fully missing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels), holes through the wing from the windward surface to the leeside, deformation of the wing windward surface, and main landing gear door and/or gear deployment. The aerodynamic data were compared to the magnitudes and directions observed in flight, and the heating images were evaluated in terms of the location of the generated disturbances and how these disturbance might relate to the response of discrete gages on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle during entry. The measured aerodynamic increments were generally small in magnitude, as were the flight-derived values during most of the entry. Asymmetric boundary layer transition (ABLT) results were consistent with the flight-derived Shuttle ABLT model, but not with the observed flight trends for STS-107. The partially missing leading edge panel results best matched both the early aerodynamic and heating trends observed in flight. A progressive damage scenario is presented that qualitatively matches the flight observations for the full entry.

  4. Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of the New Family of 5. 56mm NATO Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    5 LIST OF TABLES .... 7 I. INTRODUCTION ........... ......, 9..,,.......,,.,.., .-. IeI TEST MATERIEL AND PROCEDURE...transonic and subsonic speeds. All Phase II aeroballistic tests were fired in the BRL Aerodynamics Range, using the same Phase I weapon mounting...shown in Figure 1. - The Phase III testing also used the weapon mounting system of Figure 1, but with the gun moved to one of the three firing positions

  5. Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of 5.56-mm Ammunition: M855

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    coefficient definition relative to projectile . ..................................14  Figure 15. Pitch angle vs. range for round 28097 ( M855 at Mach 1.47...round 28097 ( M855 at Mach 1.47). .............................18  Figure 23. Three-dimensional projectile motion through the range for round 28097...41  Figure 56. The 6-DOF simulation to 600 m of the M855 projectile using experimentally determined aerodynamic coefficients

  6. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  7. Plasma Influence on Characteristics of Aerodynamic Friction and Separation Flow Location

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mirror- galvanometer oscillograph NO43.1 (6); • · Shadow Schlieren device IAB-451 (7-10). After a modernization the oscilloscope “Tektronix TDS...amplifier is transmitted to the mirror- galvanometer oscillograph (6), which in turn records the pressure variation diagram on a Plasma Aerodynamics...balance (4) is used, the signal from which is also transmitted to the 8-ANCh amplifier and then to the mirror- galvanometer oscillograph and is

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics inside the rhino-sinonasal cavity after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao Bing; Lee, Heow Pueh; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on transient nasal aerodynamic flow patterns using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A three-dimensional model of the nasal cavity was constructed from CT scans of a patient with FESS interventions on the right side of the nasal cavity. CFD simulations were then performed for unsteady aerodynamic flow modeling inside the nasal cavity as well as the sinuses. Comparisons of the local velocity magnitude and streamline distributions inside the left and right nasal cavity and maxillary sinus regions were presented. Because of the FESS procedures in the right nasal cavity, existences and distributions of local circulations (vortexes) were found to be significantly different for the same nasal airflow rate but at different acceleration, deceleration, or quiet phases in the maxillary sinus region on the FESS side. Because of inertia effects, local internal airflow with circulation existences was continuous throughout the whole respiration cycle. With a larger peak inspiration flow rate, the airflow intensity inside the enlarged maxillary sinus increased significantly. Possible outcomes on functional performances of the nose were also examined and discussed. Surgical enlargements of natural ostium of the maxillary sinus will change the aerodynamic patterns inside the main nasal cavity and maxillary sinus regions, which may affect normal nasal physiological functions. Local inertia effects play more important roles for the internal nasal airflow pattern changes and thus such conventional FESS procedures should be carefully planned.

  9. A Subsonic Wind-Tunnel Study to Determine the Buffet and Static Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Systematic Series of Wings. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Edward J.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1968-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel to determine the buffet and static aerodynamic characteristics of a systematic wing series at Mach numbers ranging from 0.23 to 0.94. The results have indicated that for a given Mach number, the wings which display superior aerodynamic efficiency characteristics generally display the highest buffet free lift coefficient. The characteristics exhibited by the wings which were considered have indicated that correlations can be made between the onset of buffet and selected divergences in the static aerodynamic characteristics. Axial force has been found to be the most sensitive static component to the onset of buffeting.

  10. Estimation of the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic parameters from flight data for the NASA F/A-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello R.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report presents the results of an investigation focused on parameter identification for the NASA F/A-18 HARV. This aircraft was used in the high alpha research program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. In this study the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability derivatives are estimated from flight data using the Maximum Likelihood method coupled with a Newton-Raphson minimization technique. The objective is to estimate an aerodynamic model describing the aircraft dynamics over a range of angle of attack from 5 deg to 60 deg. The mathematical model is built using the traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Flight data used in this analysis were from a variety of maneuvers. The longitudinal maneuvers included large amplitude multiple doublets, optimal inputs, frequency sweeps, and pilot pitch stick inputs. The lateral-directional maneuvers consisted of large amplitude multiple doublets, optimal inputs and pilot stick and rudder inputs. The parameter estimation code pEst, developed at NASA Dryden, was used in this investigation. Results of the estimation process from alpha = 5 deg to alpha = 60 deg are presented and discussed.

  11. An experimental and theoretical study of the aerodynamic characteristics of some generic missile concepts at Mach numbers from 2 to 6.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy; Braswell, Dorothy O.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the experimental and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics for some generic high-speed missile concepts at Mach numbers from 2 to 6.8. The basic body for this study had a length-to-diameter ratio of 10 with the forward half being a modified blunted ogive and the rear half being a cylinder. Modifications made to the basic body included the addition of an after body flare, the addition of highly swept cruciform wings and the addition of highly swept aft tails. The effects of some controls were also investigated with all-moving wing controls on the flared body and trailing-edge flap controls on the winged body. The results indicated that the addition of a flare, wings, or tails to the basic body all provided static longitudinal stability with varying amounts of increased axial force. The control arrangements were effective in producing increments of normal-force and pitching-moment at the lower Mach numbers. At the highest Mach number, the flap control on the winged body was ineffective in producing normal-force or pitching-moment but the all-moving wing control on the flared body, while losing pitch effectiveness, still provided normal-force increments. Calculated results obtained through the use of hypersonic impact theory were in generally good agreement with experiment at the higher Mach numbers but were not accurate at the lower Mach numbers.

  12. Investigation of real-gas and viscous effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 40 deg half-cone with suggested correlations for the shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Jones, R. A.; Woods, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Parameters were evaluated that might be used to correlate shuttle orbiter aerodynamic data to be used in extrapolating from wind-tunnel to flight conditions. Preliminary calculations indicate that the lee-side forces will have an insignificant influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the orbiter for moderate angle-of-attack entries; therefore, this work is focused on phenomena which have an overriding influence on windward forces, namely, real-gas (equilibrium and nonequilibrium) and viscous-interaction effects. Analytically determined flow fields previously obtained on 40 deg blunted cones were used as a data source to evaluate various correlation parameters. Inviscid effects were found to be the dominant contributor to the aerodynamic coefficients in the altitude range of 64 to 76.2 km. The most suitable correlation of the aerodynamic forces on these cones is based on local dynamic pressure and local Mach number.

  13. An experimental and theoretical analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of a biplane-winglet configuration. M.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Improving the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane with respect to maximizing lift and minimizing induced and parasite drag are of primary importance in designing lighter, faster, and more efficient aircraft. Previous research has shown that a properly designed biplane wing system can perform superiorly to an equivalent monoplane system with regard to maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio and efficiency factor. Biplanes offer several potential advantages over equivalent monoplanes, such as a 60-percent reduction in weight, greater structural integrity, and increased roll response. The purpose of this research is to examine, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of further improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplanes configuration by adding winglets. Theoretical predictions were carried out utilizing vortex-lattice theory, which is a numerical method based on potential flow theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing a model in the Pennsylvania State University's subsonic wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 510,000. The results showed that the addition of winglets improved the performance of the biplane with respect to increasing the lift-curve slope, increasing the maximum lift coefficient, increasing the efficiency factor, and decreasing the induced drag. A listing of the program is included in the Appendix.

  14. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic and structural characteristics of a corrugated wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hord, Kyle

    Previous experimental studies on static, bio-inspired corrugated wings have shown that they produce favorable aerodynamic properties such as delayed stall compared to streamlined wings and flat plates at high Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 4x104). The majority of studies have been carried out with scaled models of dragonfly forewings from the Aeshna Cyanea in either wind tunnels or water channels. In this thesis, the aerodynamics of a corrugated airfoil was studied using computational fluid dynamics methods at a low Reynolds number of 1000. Structural analysis was also performed using the commercial software SolidWorks 2009. The flow field is described by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on an overlapping grid using the pressure-Poisson method. The equations are discretized in space with second-order accurate central differences. Time integration is achieved through the second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit method. The complex vortex structures that form in the corrugated airfoil valleys and around the corrugated airfoil are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements from corrugated wings and also with simulations of a flat plate. Contrary to the studies at high Reynolds numbers, our study shows that at low Reynolds numbers the wing corrugation does not provide any aerodynamic benefit compared to a smoothed flat plate. Instead, the corrugated profile generates more pressure drag which is only partially offset by the reduction of friction drag, leading to more total drag than the flat plate. Structural analysis shows that the wing corrugation can increase the resistance to bending moments on the wing structure. A smoothed structure has to be three times thicker to provide the same stiffness. It was concluded the corrugated wing has the structural benefit to provide the same resistance to bending moments with a much reduced weight.

  15. Longitudinal Stability of Person Characteristics: Intelligence and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, D.; Backteman, G.

    1979-01-01

    A longitudinal study of approximately 1,000 students aged 10-16 showed high stability of intelligence and creativity. Stability coefficients for intelligence were higher than those for creativity. Results supported the construct validity of creativity. (MH)

  16. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of tapered wings with partial-span flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Henry A; Anderson, Raymond F

    1939-01-01

    Factors derived from wing theory are presented. By means of these factors, the angle of zero lift, the lift-curve slope, the pitching moment, the aerodynamic-center position, and the induced drag of tapered wings with partial-span flaps may be calculated. The factors are given for wings of aspect ratios 6 and 10 , of taper ratios from 0.25 to 1.00, and with flaps of various length. An example is presented of the method of application of the factors. Fair agreement with experimental results is shown for two wings of different taper ratio having plain flaps of various spacing.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.

  18. Analysis of preflutter and postflutter characteristics with motion-matched aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the equations of dynamic equilibrium for a lifting surface from Lagrange's equation is reviewed and restated for general exponential growing and decaying oscillatory motion. Aerodynamic forces for this motion are obtained from the three-dimensional supersonic kernel function that is newly generalized to complex reduced frequencies. Illustrative calculations were made for two flutter models at supersonic Mach numbers. Preflutter and postflutter motion isodecrement curves were obtained. This type of analysis can be used to predict preflutter behavior during flutter testing and to predict postflutter behavior for use in the design of flutter suppression systems.

  19. Measured unsteady transonic aerodynamic characteristics of an elastic supercritical wing with an oscillating control surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, D. A.; Sandford, M. C.; Eckstrom, C. V.

    1985-01-01

    Transonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic data were measured on a large elastic wing in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The wing had a supercritical airfoil shape and a leading-edge sweepback of 28.8 deg. The wing was heavily instrumented to measure both static and dynamic pressures and deflections. A hydraulically driven outboard control surface was oscillated to generate unsteady airloads on the wing. Representative results from the wind tunnel tests are presented and discussed, and the unexpected occurrence of an unusual dynamic wing instability, which was sensitive to angle of attack, is reported.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed, two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 13percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 13 percent thick low speed airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle of attack frange from about -8 deg to 10 deg. The objective of retaining good high-lift low speed characteristics for an airfoil designed to have good medium speed cruise performance was achieved.

  1. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beaseley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0317) designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 17 percent thick low speed airfoil (LS(1)-0417) and the 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0313). Theoretical predictions of the drag rise characteristics of this airfoil are also provided. The tests were conducted in the Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2 million to 12 million, and an angle of attack range from about -8 to 20 deg.

  2. Experimental study of the effects of Reynolds number on high angle of attack aerodynamic characteristics of forebodies during rotary motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauley, H.; Ralston, J.; Dickes, E.

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Defense Research Agency (United Kingdom) have ongoing experimental research programs in rotary-flow aerodynamics. A cooperative effort between the two agencies is currently underway to collect an extensive database for the development of high angle of attack computational methods to predict the effects of Reynolds number on the forebody flowfield at dynamic conditions, as well as to study the use of low Reynolds number data for the evaluation of high Reynolds number characteristics. Rotary balance experiments, including force and moment and surface pressure measurements, were conducted on circular and rectangular aftbodies with hemispherical and ogive noses at the Bedford and Farnborough wind tunnel facilities in the United Kingdom. The bodies were tested at 60 and 90 deg angle of attack for a wide range of Reynolds numbers in order to observe the effects of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow separation on the forebody characteristics when rolling about the velocity vector.

  3. Predicting aerodynamic characteristics of vortical flows on three-dimensional configurations using a surface-singularity panel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1983-01-01

    A general low-order surface-singularity panel method is used to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of a problem where a wing-tip vortex from one wing closely interacts with an aft mounted wing in a low Reynolds Number flow; i.e., 125,000. Nonlinear effects due to wake roll-up and the influence of the wings on the vortex path are included in the calculation by using a coupled iterative wake relaxation scheme. The interaction also affects the wing pressures and boundary layer characteristics: these effects are also considered using coupled integral boundary layer codes and preliminary calculations using free vortex sheet separation modelling are included. Calculated results are compared with water tunnel experimental data with generally remarkably good agreement.

  4. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    PubMed

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  5. Experimental Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter for a Range of Damage Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Scallion, William I.

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests in support of the Columbia accident investigation were conducted in two hypersonic wind tunnels at the NASA Langley Research Center, the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and the 20-Inch CF4 Tunnel. The primary purpose of these tests was to measure the forces and moments generated by a variety of outer mold line alterations (damage scenarios) using 0.0075-scale models of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Simultaneously acquired global heat transfer mappings were obtained for a majority of the configurations tested. Test parametrics included angles of attack from 38 to 42 deg, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10(exp 6) to 3.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and normal shock density ratios of 5 (Mach 6 air) and 12 (CF4). The damage scenarios evaluated included asymmetric boundary layer transition, gouges in the windward surface thermal protection system tiles, wing leading edge damage (partially and fully missing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels), deformation of the wing windward surface, and main landing gear and/or door deployment. The measured aerodynamic increments for the damage scenarios examined were generally small in magnitude, as were the flight-derived values during most of the entry prior to loss of communication. A progressive damage scenario is presented that qualitatively matches the flight observations for the STS-107 entry.

  6. QCSEE under-the-wing engine-wing-flap aerodynamic profile characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a broad-based NASA program to provide a technology base for future propulsion requirements for powered-lift aircraft, the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul, Experimental Engine (QCSEE) program was begun by the Lewis Research Center in 1974. The initial buildup of the under-the-wing (UTW) engine was tested by the contractor at his test site. The UTW engine was delivered to Lewis in 1978 for further testing with wing and flap segments simulating an installation on a short-haul transport aircraft. The engine was also tested alone as an aid in identifying the various noise sources and their levels. As part of these tests the aerodynamic profiles at the exhaust nozzle and on the surfaces and in the wake of the wing-flap system were measured. This report documents, in plots and tabular form, the significant results from those tests. The results are presented as tabulations of aerodynamic data for all of the test points and as profiles of pressure, temperature, velocity, and normalized velocity and pressure for selected conditions. One of the main conclusions was that the measured flap surface temperatures were surprisingly low for both approach and takeoff flap settings.

  7. Effect of Geometric Uncertainties on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Benedikt; Schmitt, Henning; Seume, Jörg R.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore wind turbines operate in a complex unsteady flow environment which causes unsteady aerodynamic loads. The unsteady flow environment is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, geometry variations and material imperfections also cause uncertainties in the design process. Probabilistic design methods consider these uncertainties in order to reach acceptable reliability and safety levels for offshore wind turbines. Variations of the rotor blade geometry influence the aerodynamic loads which also affect the reliability of other wind turbine components. Therefore, the present paper is dealing with geometric uncertainties of the rotor blades. These can arise from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear of the blades. First, the effect of geometry variations of wind turbine airfoils on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated using a Latin hypercube sampling. Then, the resulting effects on the performance and the blade loads of an offshore wind turbine are analyzed. The variations of the airfoil geometry lead to a significant scatter of the lift and drag coefficients which also affects the damage-equivalent flapwise bending moments. In contrast to that, the effects on the power and the annual energy production are almost negligible with regard to the assumptions made.

  8. Effects of independent variation of Mach and Reynolds numbers on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012 airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladson, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive data base is given for the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012 airfoil section. The Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel is the facility used to obtain the data. Included in the report are the effects of Mach number and Reynolds number and transition fixing on the aerodynamic characteristics. Presented are also comparisons of some of the results with previously published data and with theoretical estimates. The Mach number varied from 0.05 to 0.36. The Reynolds number, based on model chord, varied from 3 x 10 to the 6th to 12 x 10 to the 6th power.

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Feathered Dinosaur Measured Using Physical Models. Effects of Form on Static Stability and Control Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While M. gui lived after Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver. PMID:24454820

  10. Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Having a 25% Integral-Type Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional ARC2D Navier-Stokes flow solver analyses were conducted to predict the sectional aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped NACA-0015 airfoil section. To facilitate the analyses and the generation of the computational grids, the airfoil with the deflected trailing edge flap was treated as a single element airfoil with no allowance for a gap between the flap's leading edge and the base of the forward portion of the airfoil. Generation of the O-type computational grids was accomplished using the HYGRID hyperbolic grid generation program. Results were obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers, angles of attack and flap deflections. The predicted sectional lift, drag and pitching moment values for the airfoil were then cast in tabular format (C81) to be used in lifting-line helicopter rotor aerodynamic performance calculations. Similar were also generated for the flap. Mathematical expressions providing the variation of the sectional lift and pitching moment coefficients for the airfoil and for the flap as a function of flap chord length and flap deflection angle were derived within the context of thin airfoil theory. The airfoil's sectional drag coefficient were derived using the ARC2D drag predictions for equivalent two dimensional flow conditions.

  11. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored thrust V/STOL transport with two lift/cruise fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renselaer, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain power on low speed characteristics of a twin fan vectored thrust V/STOL transport aircraft. Longitudinal, as well as some lateral directional data, were analyzed. Hover, STOL, and conventional flight modes were investigated. Determination of STOL characteristics, hover characteristics, roll control effectiveness and aircraft attitude were evaluated. The study also included various means to improve the lifting capability of the aircraft such as by application of fuselage strakes, exhaust vanes capable of shifting the thrust vector aft, and external flap blowing for STOL performance.

  12. On the aerodynamic characteristics of hovering rigid and flexible hawkmoth-like wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lua, K. B.; Lai, K. C.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    Insect wings are subjected to fluid, inertia and gravitational forces during flapping flight. Owing to their limited rigidity, they bent under the influence of these forces. Numerical study by Hamamoto et al. (Adv Robot 21(1-2):1-21, 2007) showed that a flexible wing is able to generate almost as much lift as a rigid wing during flapping. In this paper, we take a closer look at the relationship between wing flexibility (or stiffness) and aerodynamic force generation in flapping hovering flight. The experimental study was conducted in two stages. The first stage consisted of detailed force measurement and flow visualization of a rigid hawkmoth-like wing undergoing hovering hawkmoth flapping motion and simple harmonic flapping motion, with the aim of establishing a benchmark database for the second stage, which involved hawkmoth-like wing of different flexibility performing the same flapping motions. Hawkmoth motion was conducted at Re = 7,254 and reduced frequency of 0.26, while simple harmonic flapping motion at Re = 7,800 and 11,700, and reduced frequency of 0.25. Results show that aerodynamic force generation on the rigid wing is governed primarily by the combined effect of wing acceleration and leading edge vortex generated on the upper surface of the wing, while the remnants of the wake vortices generated from the previous stroke play only a minor role. Our results from the flexible wing study, while generally supportive of the finding by Hamamoto et al. (Adv Robot 21(1-2):1-21, 2007), also reveal the existence of a critical stiffness constant, below which lift coefficient deteriorates significantly. This finding suggests that although using flexible wing in micro air vehicle application may be beneficial in term of lightweight, too much flexibility can lead to deterioration in flapping performance in terms of aerodynamic force generation. The results further show that wings with stiffness constant above the critical value can deliver mean lift coefficient

  13. Characteristics of a wind-actuated aerodynamic braking device for high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, H.; Maekawa, H.

    2017-04-01

    To shorten the stopping distance of the high speed trains in case of emergency, we developed a small-sized aerodynamic braking unit without use of the friction between a rail and a wheel. The developed device could actuate a pair of two drag panels with a travelling wind. However, after the drag panel fully opened, vibrational movements of the drag panel characterized by its slight flutter were repeated. In this study, to stabilize the opened panel, matters pertaining to the angle of attack with respect to the drag panel and pertaining to the arrangement of the two panels were examined by a wind tunnel experiment using a scale model. As a result, to stabilize the opened panel and to keep the good performance of the braking device, it is found out that an angle of attack of 75 to 80 degrees is suitable provided that the interval of the two panels is narrow enough.

  14. A Fundamental Study for Aerodynamic Characteristics of Supersonic Biplane Wing and Wing-Body Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Yusuke; Kusunose, Kazuhiro

    In order to develop a quiet supersonic transport, it is necessary to reduce shock waves around the transport. Shock waves, in general, are the cause of the airplane's sonic boom. Authors have been studying an aerodynamic feasibility of supersonic biplanes based on the concept of the Busemann biplane. In this paper, the three dimensional effect of wing geometries on their wave drags, including wing tip effects and the interference effects between the wing and a body (Wing-Body configurations) are investigated, using CFD code in Euler (inviscid) mode. As a result, we can conclude that the supersonic biplane wings at their design Mach number (M∞=1.7) are still capable of reducing wave drag significantly similar to that of the 2-D supersonic biplane.

  15. DSMC method on aerodynamic heating and temperature characteristic of hypersonic rarefied flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jing; Bao, Xingdong; Mao, Hongxia; Dong, Yanbing

    2016-10-01

    Aerodynamic heating is one of important factors affecting hypersonic aircraft design. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) has evolved years into a powerful numerical technique for the computation of complex, non-equilibrium gas flows. In atmospheric target, non-equilibrium conditions occur at high altitude and in regions of flow fields with small length scales. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the DSMC technique is discussed. In addition, the methods used in DSMC are described for simulation of high temperature, real gas effects and gas-surface interactions. Combined with the solution of heat transfer in material, heat-flux distribution and temperature distribution of the different shape structures was calculated in rarefied conditions.

  16. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Four Full-Scale Propellers Having Different Plan Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P; Biermann, David

    1938-01-01

    Tests were made of four propellers, with diameters of 10 feet, having different blade plan forms. One propeller (Navy design no. 5868-r6) was of the usual present-day type and was used as a basis of comparison for the other three, which had unusual plan forms distinguished by the inward (toward the hub) location of the sections having the greatest blade width. It was found that propellers with points of maximum blade width occurring closer to the hub than on the present-day type of blade had higher peak efficiencies but lower take-off efficiencies. This results was found true for a "clean" liquid-cooled engine installation. It appears that some modification could be made to present plan forms which would produce propellers having more satisfactory aerodynamic qualities. The propellers with the inward location of the points of maximum blade width had lower thrust and power coefficients and stalled earlier than the present-day type.

  17. Space shuttle: Aerodynamic characteristics of a 162-inch diameter solid rocket booster with and without strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Radford, W. D.; Rampy, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests conducted at NASA-Langley have shown that a small flap or strake can generate a significant amount of lift on a circular cylinder with large cross flow. If strakes are placed on the opposite sides and ends on a circular body, a moment will be produced about the center of mass of the body. The purpose of this test was to determine the static-aerodynamic forces and moments of a 162-inch diameter SRB (PRR) with and without strakes. The total angle-of-attack range of the SRB test was from -10 to 190 degrees. Model roll angles were 0, 45, 90, and 135 degrees with some intermediate angles. The Mach range was from 0.6 to 3.48. The 0.00494 scale model was designated as MSFC No. 449.

  18. Impact of pulsed blowing jet on aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobonea, Andreea

    2012-11-01

    Wind turbine growth in size and weight made it impossible to control turbines passively as they were controlled in the past. Current efforts focus on increasing their aerodynamic efficiency and operational range through active flow control methods. One of the main methods of active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant or pulsed jets. By adding stored high-momentum air through slots into the boundary layer, they overcome adverse pressure gradients and postpone separation. Pulsed blowing sends short pulses rather than a continuous jet of fluid into the boundary layer and has been found to be more effective. Through CFD simulations over a 2D wind turbine airfoil, this research highlights the impact of different slot geometries with constant/pulsed blowing, on the effectiveness of this active flow control technique.

  19. Vegetation morphologic and aerodynamic characteristics reduce aeolian erosion.

    PubMed

    Miri, Abbas; Dragovich, Deirdre; Dong, Zhibao

    2017-10-09

    Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology. We demonstrate that in low-density cover the flow-response and resistance of individuals is most critical in the optimal effectiveness of a canopy. Our wind tunnel experiment suggests that vegetation morphology and structure must be priority parameters in facilitating aeolian erosion control.

  20. Analysis of the effect of engine characteristics on the external aerodynamics of STOL wing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of engine presssure ratio, engine size, and engine location on the pressure distribution, lift coefficient, and flow field of a STOL wing propulsion system are presented. The flow variables of the engines are included in the two-dimensional potential flow analysis by considering the effects of mass flow coefficient at the engine inlet and thrust coefficient at the engine exit. A functional relation between these coefficients and engine pressure ratio is given. The results of this study indicate that the effect of engine pressure ratio on the external aerodynamics is a function of engine location. For engines located on the bottom of the wing, the highest pressure ratio engine resulted in the highest lift coefficient. For engines located on the top of the wing, the lowest pressure ratio engine resulted in the highest lift coefficient.

  1. Wing-Alone Aerodynamic Characteristics to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    indicators of symmetry since the wings were unbanked within the limits of tolerances and flow angularity. Longitudinal, spanwise, and vertical... unbanked wings at subsonic and transonic speeds from low to high angles of attack. The wing planforms varied in aspect ratio and taper ratio with

  2. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman

    2012-06-01

    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  3. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research model with the engines suspended above the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of upper-surface nacelle exhaust flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research configuration was investigated in a 16 foot transonic tunnel over a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. The arrow-wing transport configuration with engines suspended over the wing was tested at angles of attack from -4 deg to 6 deg and jet total pressure ratios from 1 to approximately 13. Wing-tip leading edge flap deflections of -10 deg to 10 deg were tested with the wing-body configuration. Various nacelle locations (chordwise, spanwise, and vertical) were tested over the ranges of Mach numbers, angles of attack, and jet total-pressure ratios. The results show that reflecting the wing-tip leading edge flap from 0 deg to -10 deg increased the maximum lift-drag ratio by 1.0 at subsonic speeds. Jet exhaust interference effects were negligible.

  4. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several rotorcraft airfoils at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 0.90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, K. W.; Bingham, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 6- by 28-inch transonic tunnel and the 6- by 19-inch transonic tunnel to determine the two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several rotorcraft airfoils at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 0.90. The airfoils differed in thickness, thickness distribution, and camber. The FX69-H-098, the BHC-540, and the NACA 0012 airfoils were investigated in the 6- by 28-inch tunnel at Reynolds numbers (based on chord) from about 4.7 to 9.3 million at the lowest and highest test Mach numbers respectively. The FX69-H-098, the NLR-1, the BHC-540, and the NACA 23012 airfoils were investigated in the 6- by 19-inch tunnel at Reynolds numbers from about 0.9 to 2.2 million at the lowest and highest test Mach numbers respectively.

  5. A computer program for calculating aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect-ratio wings with partial leading-edge separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, S. C.; Lan, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary information for using a computer program to predict distributed and total aerodynamic characteristics for low aspect ratio wings with partial leading-edge separation is presented. The flow is assumed to be steady and inviscid. The wing boundary condition is formulated by the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice method. The leading edge separated vortices are represented by discrete free vortex elements which are aligned with the local velocity vector at midpoints to satisfy the force free condition. The wake behind the trailing edge is also force free. The flow tangency boundary condition is satisfied on the wing, including the leading and trailing edges. The program is restricted to delta wings with zero thickness and no camber. It is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC 6600 computer.

  6. The equivalent angle-of-attack method for estimating the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of missile wings and control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, M. J.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed for estimating the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of missile wing and control surfaces. The method is based on the following assumption: if a fin on a body has the same normal-force coefficient as a wing alone composed of two of the same fins joined together at their root chords, then the other force and moment coefficients of the fin and the wing alone are the same including the nonlinearities. The method can be used for deflected fins at arbitrary bank angles and at high angles of attack. In the paper, a full derivation of the method is given, its accuracy demonstrated and its use in extending missile data bases is shown.

  7. PROGRAM VSAERO: A computer program for calculating the non-linear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary configurations: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1982-01-01

    VSAERO is a computer program used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary three-dimensional configurations in subsonic flow. Nonlinear effects of vortex separation and vortex surface interaction are treated in an iterative wake-shape calculation procedure, while the effects of viscosity are treated in an iterative loop coupling potential-flow and integral boundary-layer calculations. The program employs a surface singularity panel method using quadrilateral panels on which doublet and source singularities are distributed in a piecewise constant form. This user's manual provides a brief overview of the mathematical model, instructions for configuration modeling and a description of the input and output data. A listing of a sample case is included.

  8. Effect of aileron deflections on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan model of a subsonic energy-efficient transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effect of aileron deflections on the aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic energy efficient transport (EET) model. The semispan model had an aspect ratio 10 supercritical wing and was configured with a conventionally located set of ailerons (i.e., a high speed aileron located inboard and a low speed aileron located outboard). Data for the model were taken over a Mach number range from 0.30 to 0.90 and an angle of attack range from approximately -2 deg to 10 deg. The Reynolds number was 2.5 million per foot for Mach number = 0.30 and 4 million per foot for the other Mach numbers. Model force and moment data, aileron effectiveness parameters, aileron hinge moment data, otherwise pressure distributions, and spanwise load data are presented.

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 14-Percent-Thick NASA Supercritical Airfoil Designed for a Normal-Force Coefficient of 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    This report documents the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil based on an off design sonic pressure plateau criterion. The design normal force coefficient was 0.7. The results are compared with those of the family related 10 percent thick supercritical airfoil 33. Comparisons are also made between experimental and theoretical characteristics and composite drag rise characteristics derived for a full scale Reynolds number of 40 million.

  10. Baseline patient characteristics and mortality associated with longitudinal intervention compliance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Julia Y; Ten Have, Thomas R; Bogner, Hillary R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-12-10

    Lin et al. (http://www.biostatsresearch.com/upennbiostat/papers/, 2006) proposed a nested Markov compliance class model in the Imbens and Rubin compliance class model framework to account for time-varying subject noncompliance in longitudinal randomized intervention studies. We use superclasses, or latent compliance class principal strata, to describe longitudinal compliance patterns, and time-varying compliance classes are assumed to depend on the history of compliance. In this paper, we search for good subject-level baseline predictors of these superclasses and also examine the relationship between these superclasses and all-cause mortality. Since the superclasses are completely latent in all subjects, we utilize multiple imputation techniques to draw inferences. We apply this approach to a randomized intervention study for elderly primary care patients with depression.

  11. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a Sparrow 3 type missile model with wing controls and comparison with existing tail-control results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monta, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on a model of a wing control version of the Sparrow III type missile to determine the static aerodynamic characteristics over an angle of attack range from 0 deg to 40 deg for Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.60.

  12. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic and/or supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional characteristics may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. The program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  13. Applicability of commercial CFD tools for assessment of heavy vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, W. D.; Sofu, T.; Chang, J.; Weber, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-12-01

    In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons learned from this validation study were then applied to the prediction of aerodynamic drag impacts associated with various changes to the GCM geometry, including the addition of trailer based drag reduction devices and modifications to the radiator and hood configuration. Add-on device studies have focused on ogive boat tails, with initial results indicating that a seven percent reduction in drag coefficient is easily achievable. Radiator and hood reconfiguration studies have focused on changing only the size of the radiator and angle of the hood components without changes to radii of curvature between the radiator grill and hood components. Initial results indicate that such changes lead to only modest changes in drag coefficient.

  14. The control of aerodynamics, acoustics, and perceptual characteristics during speech production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2004-10-01

    One of the most important areas of study in speech motor control is the identification of control variables, the variables controlled by the nervous system during motor tasks. The current study examined two hypotheses regarding control variables in speech production: (1) pressure and resistance in the vocal tract are controlled, and (2) perceptual and acoustic accuracy are controlled. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were collected on 20 subjects in three conditions, normally (NT), with an open air pressure bleed tube in place (TWB), and with a closed bleed tube in place (TNB). The voice recordings collected from the speakers in the production study were used in the perceptual study. Results showed that oral pressure (Po) was significantly lower in the TWB condition than in the NT and TNB conditions. The Po in the TWB condition seemed to be related to maintenance of subglottal pressure (Ps). Examination of the perceptual and acoustic data indicated that perceptual accuracy for [opena] was achieved by maintaining Ps to preserve a steady sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and voicing. Overall, it appeared speakers controlled pressure in compensating, but for the ultimate goal of maintaining acoustic and perceptual accuracy. .

  15. Aerodynamics Characteristics of Multi-Element Airfoils at -90 Degrees Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A developed method has been applied to calculate accurately the viscous flow about airfoils normal to the free-stream flow. This method has special application to the analysis of tilt rotor aircraft in the evaluation of download. In particular, the flow about an XV-15 airfoil with and without deflected leading and trailing edge flaps at -90 degrees incidence is evaluated. The multi-element aspect of the method provides for the evaluation of slotted flap configurations which may lead to decreased drag. The method solves for turbulent flow at flight Reynolds numbers. The flow about the XV-15 airfoil with and without flap deflections has been calculated and compared with experimental data at a Reynolds number of one million. The comparison between the calculated and measured pressure distributions are very good, thereby, verifying the method. The aerodynamic evaluation of multielement airfoils will be conducted to determine airfoil/flap configurations for reduced airfoil drag. Comparisons between the calculated lift, drag and pitching moment on the airfoil and the airfoil surface pressure will also be presented.

  16. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of two V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configurations at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.0. [Ames 9 by 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.; Lummus, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 9 by 7 ft supersonic wind tunnel to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of two horizontal attitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts. One concept featured a jet diffuser ejector for its vertical lift system and the other employed a remote augmentation lift system (RALS). Test results for Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.0 are reported. Effects of varying the angle of attack (-4 deg to +17 deg), angle of sideslip (-4 deg to +8 deg) Mach number, and configuration building were investigated. The effects of wing trailing edge flap deflections, canard incidence, and vertical tail deflections were also explored as well as the effects of varying the canard longitudinal location and shapes of the inboard nacelle body strakes.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter trimmed center-of-gravity extension study. Volume 8: Effects of configuration modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of the 140 A/B Orbiter at a Mach number of 5.97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics at M=5.97 for the 140 A/B Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration and for the configuration modified by geometric changes in the wing planform fillet region and the fuselage forebody are presented. The modifications, designed to extend the orbiter's longitudinal trim capability to more forward center of gravity locations, include reshaping the baseline wing fillet, changing the fuselage forebody camber, and adding canards. The Langley 20 inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 6 million based on fuselage reference length was used. The angle of attack range of the investigation varied from about 15 deg to 35 deg at 0 deg and -5 deg sideslip angles. Data are obtained with the elevators and body flap deflected at appropriate negative and positive conditions to assess the trim limits.

  18. Modeling of Aircraft Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics/Part 3 - Parameters Estimated from Flight Data. Part 3; Parameters Estimated from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1996-01-01

    A nonlinear least squares algorithm for aircraft parameter estimation from flight data was developed. The postulated model for the analysis represented longitudinal, short period motion of an aircraft. The corresponding aerodynamic model equations included indicial functions (unsteady terms) and conventional stability and control derivatives. The indicial functions were modeled as simple exponential functions. The estimation procedure was applied in five examples. Four of the examples used simulated and flight data from small amplitude maneuvers to the F-18 HARV and X-31A aircraft. In the fifth example a rapid, large amplitude maneuver of the X-31 drop model was analyzed. From data analysis of small amplitude maneuvers ft was found that the model with conventional stability and control derivatives was adequate. Also, parameter estimation from a rapid, large amplitude maneuver did not reveal any noticeable presence of unsteady aerodynamics.

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Four Republic Airfoil Sections from Tests in Langley Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Milton M.

    1945-01-01

    Four airfoils sections, designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for the root and tip sections of the XF-12 airplane, were tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels to obtain their aerodynamic characteristics. Lift characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, 9,000,000, and 14,000,000, whereas drag characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, and 9,000,000. Pressure distributions were obtained for one of the root sections for several angles of attack at a Reynolds number of 2,600,000. Comparison of the root section that appeared best from the tests with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic section has a higher maximum lift and higher calculated critical speeds, but a higher minimum drag. In addition, with standard roughness applied to the leading edge, the maximum lift of the Republic airfoil is lower than that of the NACA airfoil. Comparison of the Republic tip section with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic airfoil has a lower maximum lift and a higher minimum drag than the NACA airfoil. The calculated critical speeds of the Republic section are slightly higher than those of the NACA section.

  20. Comment on 'Convergence characteristics of a vortex-lattice method for nonlinear configuration aerodynamics'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that the study of Rusak et al. (1985), which reports numerical modeling sensitivities on longitudinal force/moment properties for a vortex-lattice method incorporating free vortex filaments to represent the leading-edge vortex separation, employs a formula that is strongly affected by the particular points of analysis chosen. This results in a narrowly applicable curve fit, where numerical sensitivities of the theory are inappropriately traded off against physical effects that are not modeled in that theory. Attention is also given to questionable drag estimate computations.

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of a feathered dinosaur measured using physical models. Effects of form on static stability and control effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, [Formula: see text]Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While [Formula: see text]M. gui lived after [Formula: see text]Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver.

  2. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a circular body Earth-to-Orbit vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.; Engelund, Walter C.; Macconochie, Ian O.

    1994-01-01

    The circular body configuration is a generic single- or multi-stage reusable Earth-to-orbit transport. A thick clipped-delta wing is the major lifting surface. For directional control, three different vertical fin arrangements were investigated: a conventional aft-mounted center fin, wingtip fins, and a nose-mounted fin. The tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The configuration is longitudinally stable about the estimated center of gravity of 0.72 body length up to a Mach number of about 3.0. Above Mach 3.0, the model is longitudinally unstable at low angles of attack but has a stable secondary trim point at angles of attack above 30 deg. The model has sufficient pitch control authority with elevator and body flap to produce stable trim over the test range. The model with the center fin is directionally stable at low angles of attack up to a Mach number of 3.90. The rudder-like surfaces on the tip fins and the all-movable nose fin are designed as active controls to produce artificial directional stability and are effective in producing yawing moment. The wing trailing-edge aileron surfaces are effective in producing rolling moment, but they also produce large adverse yawing moment.

  3. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    The HL-20 is proposed as a possible future manned spacecraft. The configuration consists of a low-aspect-ratio body with a flat undersurface. Three fins (a small centerline fin and two outboard (tip) fins set at a dihedral angle of 50 deg) are mounted on the aft body. The control system consists of elevon surfaces on the outboard fins, a set of four body flaps on the upper and lower aft body, and an all-movable center fin. Both the elevons and body flaps were capable of trimming the model to angles of attack from -2 deg to above 20 deg. The maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio was 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate tip fins with airfoil tip fins increased the maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio to 4.2. The elevons were effective as a roll control, but they produced about as much yawing moment as rolling moment because of the tip-fin dihedral angle. The body flaps produced less rolling moment than the elevons and only small values of yawing moment. A limited investigation of the effect of varying tip-fin dihedral angle indicated that a dihedral angle of 50 deg was a reasonable compromise for longitudinal and lateral stability, longitudinal trim, and performance at subsonic speeds.

  4. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Wedge Airfoil Sections Including Unsteady Flow Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.

    1959-01-01

    A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted on a 20-percent-thick single-wedge airfoil section. Steady-state forces and moments were determined from pressure measurements at Mach numbers from 0.70 to about 1.25. Additional information on the flows about the single wedge is provided by means of instantaneous pressure measurements at Mach numbers up to unity. Pressure distributions were also obtained on a symmetrical double-wedge or diamond-shaped profile which had the same leading-edge included angle as the single-wedge airfoil. A comparison of the data on the two profiles to provide information on the effects of the afterbody showed that with the exception of drag, the single-wedge profile proved to be aerodynamically superior to the diamond profile in all respects. The lift effectiveness of the single-wedge airfoil section far exceeded that of conventional thin airfoil sections over the speed range of the investigation. Pitching-moment irregularities, caused by negative loadings near the trailing edge, generally associated with conventional airfoils of equivalent thicknesses were not exhibited by the single-wedge profile. Moderately high pulsating pressures existing over the base of the single-wedge airfoil section were significantly reduced as the Mach number was increased beyond 0.92 and the boundaries of the dead airspace at the base of the model converged to eliminate the vortex street in the wake. Increasing the leading-edge radius from 0 to 1 percent of the chord had a minor effect on the steady-state forces and generally raised the level of pressure pulsations over the forward part of the single-wedge profile.

  5. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  6. Development of computer programs to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of complete light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for determining the flight characteristics of light aircraft was developed. The parameters which were used in the computer program are defined. The accuracy of the system for various types of airfoils is analyzed and the airfoils for which the system does not provide adequate data are identified. The application of a computer program for predicting the fuselage characteristics is discussed. The assumptions and parameters of the fuselage characteristics program are explained. It is stated that the computer programs make it possible to determine the response of a light aircraft to a small disturbance given the geometric and inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

  7. Aerodynamic Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Development, and Engineering Command Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California December 2003 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames...60A ROTOR BLADE AND AIRFOILS ................................................................................... 2 EVALUATION OF SECTION CHARACTERISTICS...Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils WILLIAM G. BOUSMAN Aeroflightdynamics Directorate U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command Ames

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propulsive wing-canard concept at STOL speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    A full span model of a wing/canard concept representing a fighter configuration has been tested at STOL conditions in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 meter tunnel. The results of this test are presented, and comparisons are made to previous data of the same configuration tested as a semispan model. The potential of the propulsive wing/canard to develop very high lift coefficients was investigated with several nozzle spans (nozzle aspect ratios). Although longitudinal trim was not accomplished with the blowing distributions and configurations tested, the propulsive wing/canard appears to offer an approach to managing the large negative pitching moments associated with trailing edge flap blowing. Also presented are data showing the effects of large flap deflections and relative wing/canard positions. Presented in the appendix to the report are limited lateral-directional and ground effects data, as well as wing downwash measurements.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of cognitive characteristics in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Marni E; Nicholson, Linda; Stabley, Deborah L; Sol-Church, Katia; Gripp, Karen W

    2007-12-15

    Costello syndrome encompasses pre- and postnatal medical problems including polyhydramnios, failure to thrive, cardiac complications, and an increased risk for solid tumors. Hypotonia and developmental delay are typical in infancy, and mental retardation can be diagnosed in older patients. Previous studies on the cognitive development in Costello syndrome relied on clinically diagnosed cases. The recent discovery of heterozygous HRAS mutations allows for molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnoses. We report here on cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior in the first cohort of patients with molecularly confirmed diagnoses. Further, this is the first longitudinal assessment of cognitive function in this patient population. Sixteen patients with identified HRAS mutations were tested, and 14 completed the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. The mean Full-Scale IQ score of 57 (range 30-87) was within the range of mild Mental Retardation. Analysis of test component subsets showed a relative strength in Fluid Reasoning with a mean score of 69 (range 48-98), in the mild range of Mental Retardation. Longitudinal analysis was performed for 12 patients by comparison of data obtained at the first evaluation (T1) to results obtained 2 years later (T2). In these patients intellectual and language abilities remained stable, and no deterioration was seen. We have thus shown that Costello syndrome is a static condition regarding intellectual and language abilities. The Leiter-R Memory Screen indicated functioning in the mildly delayed range for the majority of patients. Adaptive behavior was evaluated using the Vineland tool, and longitudinal data comparison for adaptive behavior showed improvements in Daily Living Skills, Communication, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite. However, these results must be interpreted cautiously as the measuring tool was updated from T1 to T2. Receptive language skills were measured with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

  10. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several polygon-shaped cross-sectional models applicable to helicopter fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Henry L.; Crowell, Cynthia A.; Wilson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine 2-D aerodynamic characteristics of nine polygon-shaped models applicable to helicopter fuselages. The models varied from 1/2 to 1/5 scale and were nominally triangular, diamond, and rectangular in shape. Side force and normal force were obtained at increments of angle of flow incidence from -45 to 90 degrees. The data were compared with results from a baseline UH-60 tail-boom cross-section model. The results indicate that the overall shapes of the plots of normal force and side force were similar to the characteristic shape of the baseline data; however, there were important differences in magnitude. At a flow incidence of 0 degrees, larger values of normal force for the polygon models indicate an increase in fuselage down load of 1 to 2.5 percent of main-rotor thrust compared with the baseline value. Also, potential was indicated among some of the configurations to produce high fuselage side forces and yawing moments compared with the baseline model.

  11. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 16-percent-thick variable-geometry airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.; Noonan, K. W.; Mcghee, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of climb, cruise, and landing configurations. These tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.35, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 1 million to 20.0 x 1 million, and an angle-of-attack range from -8 deg to 20 deg. Results show that the maximum section lift coefficients increased in the Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 1 million to 9.0 x 1 million and reached values of approximately 2.1, 1.8, and 1.5 for the landing, climb, and cruise configurations, respectively. Stall characteristics, although of the trailing-edge type, were abrupt. The section lift-drag ratio of the climb configuration with fixed transition near the leading edge was about 78 at a lift coefficient of 0.9, a Mach number of 0.15, and a Reynolds number of 4.0 x 1 million. Design lift coefficients of 0.9 and 0.4 for the climb and cruise configurations were obtained at the same angle of attack, about 6 deg, as intended. Good agreement was obtained between experimental results and the predictions of a viscous, attached-flow theoretical method.

  12. The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N

    1932-01-01

    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.

  13. Effect of modifications of aerodynamic characteristics of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle at Mach 5.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernot, P. T.

    1983-01-01

    Hypersonic stability, control, and performance characteristics were determined on a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle based on control-configured stability concepts. The configuration (0.006-scale model) had a large body with a small 50 deg swept wing. Two vertical-fin arrangements were investigated which consisted of a large center-line vertical tail and small wing-tip fins. The wing-tip fins had movable surfaces called controllers which could be deflected outward. Longitudinal and lateral directional characteristics were obtained over an angle-of-attack rage from 0 deg to 40 deg. The effects of tip-fin controller deflection on roll- and yaw-control characteristics at a sideslip angle of 0 deg were obtained. This investigation was conducted in the Langley 20 Inch Mach 6 Tunnel.

  14. Transonic aerodynamic design experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.

    1989-01-01

    Advancements have occurred in transonic numerical simulation that place aerodynamic performance design into a relatively well developed status. Efficient broad band operating characteristics can be reliably developed at the conceptual design level. Recent aeroelastic and separated flow simulation results indicate that systematic consideration of an increased range of design problems appears promising. This emerging capability addresses static and dynamic structural/aerodynamic coupling and nonlinearities associated with viscous dominated flows.

  15. Space shuttle: Aerodynamic characteristics of various MDAC space shuttle ascent configurations with parallel burn pressure-fed and SRM boosters. Volume 1: Tanks T1 and T2 ascent configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Various space shuttle ascent configurations were tested in a trisonic wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. The ascent configuration consisted of a NASA/MSC 040 orbiter in combination with various HO centerline tank and booster geometries. The aerodynamic interference between components of the space shuttle and the effect on the orbiter aerodynamics was determined. The various aerodynamic configurations tested were: (1) centerline HO tanks T1 and T2, (2) centerline HO tank T3, and (3) centerline HO tank H4.

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 Airfoils with 20-Percent-chord External-Airfoil Flaps of NACA 23012 Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C; Abbott, Ira H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel.

  17. Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics and Vertical-Tail-Load Measurements for a 0.03-Scale Model of the Avro CF-105 Airplane at Mach Numbers of 1.60, 1.80, and 2.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvers, H. Norman; Fournier, Roger H.; Wills, Jane S.

    1958-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, and 2.00 to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.03-scale model of the Avro CF-105 airplane. The investigation included the determination of the static longitudinal and lateral stability, the control and the hinge-moment characteristics of the elevator, rudder, and aileron, as well as the vertical-tail-load characteristics. Although the data are presented without analysis, a limited inspection of the longitudinal control results indicates a loss in maximum lift-drag ratio due to trimming of about 1.8 because of the large static margin. A reduction in static margin would be expected to improve the trim lift-drag ratio but would also reduce the directional stability. With the existing static margin, the configuration is directionally unstable at angles of attack above about 6 deg or 8 deg.

  18. Lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller driven airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical procedures and design data for predicting the lateral-directional static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, twin engine, propeller driven airplanes for propeller-off and power-on conditions are reported. Although the consideration of power effects is limited to twin engine airplanes, the propeller-off considerations are applicable to single engine airplanes as well. The procedures are applied to a twin engine, propeller driven, semi-low-wing airplane in the clean configuration through the linear lift range. The calculated derivative characteristics are compared with wind tunnel and flight data. Included in the calculated characteristics are the spiral mode, roll mode, and Dutch roll mode over the speed range of the airplane.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of seven symmetrical airfoil sections through 180-degree angle of attack for use in aerodynamic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldahl, R E; Klimas, P C

    1981-03-01

    When work began on the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) program at Sandia National Laboratories, it was recognized that there was a paucity of symmetrical airfoil data needed to describe the aerodynamics of turbine blades. Curved-bladed Darrieus turbines operate at local Reynolds numbers (Re) and angles of attack (..cap alpha..) seldom encountered in aeronautical applications. This report describes (1) a wind tunnel test series conducted at moderate values of Re in which 0 less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 180/sup 0/ force and moment data were obtained for four symmetrical blade-candidate airfoil sections (NACA-0009, -0012, -0012H, and -0015), and (2) how an airfoil property synthesizer code can be used to extend the measured properties to arbitrary values of Re (10/sup 4/ less than or equal to Re less than or equal to 10/sup 7/) and to certain other section profiles (NACA-0018, -0021, -0025).

  20. Summary of low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown jet-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of recent wind tunnel investigations to provide fundamental information on the upper surface blown (USB) jet flap concept demonstrated that the USB concept provides good high-lift performance. It is shown that the low speed performance is dependent upon the jet turning angle and turning efficiency and on the use of proper leading and trailing edge treatment to prevent premature flow separation. The best means of achieving good turning performance in any particular USB application must be determined from overall operational considerations in which high speed performance, structures and noise, as well as low speed performance, are evaluated. The large diving moments generated at high lift coefficients can be trimmed satisfactorily with a large, conventional horizontal tail; a high tail position is best from longitudinal stability considerations. Large rolling and yawing moments are introduced with the loss of an engine, but these moments can be trimmed satisfactorily through the use of asymmetrical boundary layer control and through the use of spoiler and rudder deflection as needed.

  1. Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circular Body Earth-to-Orbit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Ware, George M.; MacConochie, Ian O.

    1996-01-01

    A test of a generic reusable earth-to-orbit transport was conducted in the 7- by 10-Foot high-speed tunnel at the Langley Research Center at Mach number 0.3. The model had a body with a circular cross section and a thick clipped delta wing as the major lifting surface. For directional control, three different vertical fin arrangements were investigated: a conventional aft-mounted center vertical fin, wingtip fins, and a nose-mounted vertical fin. The configuration was longitudinally stable about the estimated center-of-gravity position of 0.72 body length and had sufficient pitch-control authority for stable trim over a wide range of angle of attack, regardless of fin arrangement. The maximum trimmed lift/drag ratio for the aft center-fin configuration was less than 5, whereas the other configurations had values of above 6. The aft center-fin configuration was directionally stable for all angles of attack tested. The wingtip and nose fins were not intended to produce directional stability but to be active controllers for artificial stabilization. Small rolling-moment values resulted from yaw control of the nose fin. Large adverse rolling-moment increments resulted from tip-fin controller deflection above 13 deg angle of attack. Flow visualization indicated that the adverse rolling-moment increments were probably caused by the influence of the deflected tip-fin controller on wing flow separation.

  2. An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Several Different Sets of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Green, M W

    1929-01-01

    This investigation was conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va., at the request of the Army Air Corps, for the purpose of comparing the full scale lift and drag characteristics of an airplane equipped with several sets of wings of commonly used airfoil sections. A Sperry Messenger Airplane with wings of R.A.F.-15, U.S.A.-5, U.S.A.-27, and Gottingen 387 airfoil sections was flown and the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane with each set of wings were determined by means of glide tests. The results are presented in tabular and curve form. (author)

  3. Determination of Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics from Free-Flight Model Tests with Results at Transonic Speeds for Three Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, Clarence L; Mitchell, Jesse L

    1957-01-01

    A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation. The analysis procedure has been set forth in some detail and the feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by data measured through the transonic speed range on several airplane configurations. It was shown that the flight conditions and dynamic similitude factors for the tests described were reasonably close to typical full-scale airplane conditions.

  4. Measurements in Flight of the Longitudinal-Stability Characteristics of a Republic YF-84A Airplane (Army Serial No. 45-59488) at High Subsonic Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Howard L.; Cooper, George E.

    1948-01-01

    A brief investigation was made of the longitudinal-stability characteristics of a YF-84A airplane (Army Serial No. 45-79488). The airplane developed a pitching-up tendency at approximately 0.80 Mach number which necessitated large push forces and down-elevator deflections for further increases in speed. In steady turns at 35,000 feet with the center of gravity at 28.3 percent mean aerodynamic chord for normal accelerations up to the maximum test value, the control-force gradients were excessive at Mach numbers over 0.78. Airplane buffeting did not present a serious problem in accelerated or unaccelerated flight at 15,000 and 35,000 feet up to the maximum test Mach number of 0.84. It is believed that excessive control force would be the limiting factor in attaining speeds in excess of 0.84 Mach number, especially at altitudes below 35,000 feet.

  5. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the longitudinal stability characteristics of a model equipped with a variable-speed wing, 23 May 1949

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The longitudinal stability characteristics of a complete model equipped with a variable sweep wings at angles of sweepback of 45 deg, 30 deg, 15 deg, and 0 deg investigated. Various wing modifications and an extern 1 flap arrangement designed to minimize the shift in neutral point accompanying the change in sweep angle were studied. The results indicate that stability at the stall was obtained at a sweep angle of 15 deg without recourse to stall control devices. The basic neutral point movement accompanying the change in sweep angle from 45 deg to 15 deg amounted to 56 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord (at zero sweep angle) and the most effective modification investigated only reduced this change to 47 percent of the chord. It appears, therefore, that for designs in which the fuselage is the major load carrying element some relative movement between the wing and center of gravity will be required to assure satisfactory stability at all sweep angles.

  6. The Effects of a Highly Cambered Low-Drag Wing and of Auxiliary Flaps on the High-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Twin-Engine Pursuit Airplane Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganzer, Victor M

    1944-01-01

    Results are presented for tests of two wings, an NACA 230-series wing and a highly-cambered NACA 66-series wing on a twin-engine pursuit airplane. Auxiliary control flaps were tested in combinations with each wing. Data showing comparison of high-speed aerodynamic characteristics of the model when equipped with each wing, the effect of the auxiliary control flaps on aerodynamic characteristics, and elevator effectiveness for the model with the 66-series wing are presented. High-speed aerodynamic characteristics of the model were improved with the 66-series wing.

  7. Effects of empennage surface location on aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine afterbody model with nonaxisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of empennage surface location and vertical tail cant angle on the aft-end aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter-type configuration. The configuration featured two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles and twin-vertical tails. The investigation was conducted with different empennage locations that included two horizontal and three vertical tail positions. Vertical tail cant angle was varied from -10 deg to 20 deg for one selected configuration. Tests were conducted at Mach number 0.60 to 1.20 and at angles of attack -3 to 9 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to approximately 9, depending upon Mach number. Tail interference effects were present throughout the range of Mach numbers tested and found to be either favorable or adverse, depending upon test condition and model configuration. At a Mach number of 0.90, adverse interference effects accounted for a significant percentage of total aft-end drag. Interference effects on the nozzle were generally favorable but became adverse as the horizontal tails were moved from a mid to an aft position. The configuration with nonaxisymmetric nozzles had lower total aft-end drag with tails-off than a similar configuration with axisymmetric nozzles at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.90.

  8. Effect of Horizontal-Tail Span and Vertical Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unswept Tail Assembly in Sideslip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R

    1954-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of two rotorcraft airfoils designed for application to the inboard region of a main rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.

    1990-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the 2-D aerodynamic characteristics of two new rotorcraft airfoils designed especially for application to the inboard region of a helicopter main rotor blade. The two new airfoils, the RC(4)-10 and RC(5)-10, and a baseline airfoil, the VR-7, were all studied in the Langley Transonic Tunnel at Mach nos. from about 0.34 to 0.84 and at Reynolds nos. from about 4.7 to 9.3 x 10 (exp 6). The VR-7 airfoil had a trailing edge tab which is deflected upwards 4.6 degs. In addition, the RC(4)-10 airfoil was studied in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at Mach nos. from 0.10 to 0.44 and at Reynolds nos. from 1.4 to 5.4 x 10 (exp 6) respectively. Some comparisons were made of the experimental data for the new airfoils and the predictions of two different theories. The results of this study indicates that both of the new airfoils offer advantages over the baseline airfoil. These advantages are discussed.

  10. Prediction of the hub vortex instability within wind turbine wakes and effects of the incoming wind and turbine aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Viola, Francesco; Camarri, Simone; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Gallaire, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Instability of the hub vortex, which is a vorticity structure present in wind turbine near-wake and mainly oriented along the streamwise direction, is predicted from wake velocity measurements. In this work, stability analysis is performed on wind tunnel velocity measurements acquired in the wake produced from a wind turbine model immersed in a uniform flow. Turbulence effects on wake dynamics are taken into account by modeling the Reynolds stresses through eddy-viscosity models, which are calibrated on the wind tunnel data. This formulation leads to the identification of one dominant mode associated with the hub vortex instability, which is characterized by a counter-winding single-helix mode. Moreover, this analysis also predicts accurately the frequency of the hub vortex instability observed experimentally. The hub vortex instability is also investigated by considering incoming wind fields with different turbulence characteristics, different turbine aerodynamic designs and operational regimes, which affect the morphology of the wake vorticity structures and their dynamics. The ultimate goal of this work consists in providing useful information for predicting wind turbine wake dynamics and their effects on downstream wake recovery, thus to maximize wind power harvesting.

  11. Influence of orbital-maneuvering-system fairings and rudder flare on the transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel to determine the influence of orbital-maneuvering-system fairings and a flared rudder on the aerodynamic characteristics of a space shuttle-orbiter configuration. Tests were made at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack from -1 deg to 24 deg, at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 5 deg, and at a Reynolds number, based on model length, of 4 million. The model with the orbital-maneuvering-system fairings had a minimum untrimmed lift-drag ratio from 7.4 to 3.4 at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2 and a maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio of about 3.55 at Mach 0.8 with the rudder flared 30 deg. The directional stability was increased at Mach 0.8 and 1.2 by addition of the orbital-maneuvering-system fairings and at Mach 1.2 by flaring the rudder.

  12. Wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic and tail buffet characteristics of leading-edge extension modifications to the F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Gautam H.

    1991-01-01

    The impact of leading-edge extension (LEX) modifications on aerodynamic and vertical tail buffet characteristics of a 16-percent scale F/A-18 model has been investigated in the NASA Langley 30-foot by 60-foot tunnel. Modifications under consideration include variations in LEX chord and span, addition of upper surface fences, and removal of the LEX. Both buffeting and high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics are found to be strongly dependent upon the LEX geometry, which directly influences the strength, position, and breakdown characteristics of the vortex flow field. Concepts aimed at influencing the development of vortical flow field are considered to have much greater potential in design application than those geared toward altering already established flow fields. It is recommended that configuration effects on structural and aerodynamic characteristics be evaluated in parallel, so that trade-off studies can be conducted to ensure adequate structural fatigue life and desired high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics in the design of future high performance aircraft.

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Number of Modified NACA Four-Digit-Series Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.; Cohen, Kenneth G.

    1947-01-01

    Theoretical pressure distributions and measured lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics at three values of Reynolds number are presented for a group of NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections modified for high-speed applications. The effectiveness of flaps applied to these airfoils and the effect of standard leading-edge roughness were also investigated at one value of Reynolds number. Results are also presented of tests of three conventional NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections.

  14. Aerodynamic and propeller performance characteristics of a propfan-powered, semispan model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Alan D.; Smith, Ronald C.; Wood, Richard D.

    1985-01-01

    A semispan wing/body model with a powered propeller was tested to provide data on a total powerplant installation drag penalty of advanced propfan-powered aircraft. The test objectives were to determine the total power plant installation drag penalty on a representative propfan aircraft; to study the effect of configuration modifications on the installed powerplant drag; and to determine performance characteristics of an advanced design propeller which was mounted on a representative nacelle in the presence of a wing.

  15. Investigation of the influence of wind shear on the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft using a vortex-lattice method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to investigate and characterize the aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters. The wind shear effect was computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitude of the aerodynamic effect was demonstrated by computing the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and tail combination on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results of the study indicate that a significant amount of the control authority of an airplane may be required to counteract the wind shear induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.

  16. The Effect of Blade-Section Thickness Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Related Full-Scale Propellers at Mach Numbers up to 0.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D; Steinberg, Seymour

    1953-01-01

    The results of an investigation of two 10-foot-diameter, two-blade NACA propellers are presented for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. These results are compared with those from previous investigations of five related NACA propellers in order to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.

  17. Effects of wing leading-edge deflection on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    Static force tests were conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel at a Reynolds number (based on the mean aerodynamic chord) of about 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power for an angle-of-attack range from about - 10 deg to 17 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 and + or - 5 deg. Limited flow visualization studies were also conducted in order to provide a qualitative assessment of leading-edge upwash characteristics.

  18. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio missile model with wing and tail controls and with tails in line and interdigitated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect ratio cruciform missile model with all-movable wings and tails. The configuration was tested at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 with the wings in the vertical and horizontal planes and with the wings in a 45 deg roll plane with tails in line and interdigitated.

  19. Wind Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Army Chemical Corps Model E-112 Bomblets with Span Chord Ratio of 2 - 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letko, W.

    1956-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the Army Chemical Corps model E-112 bomblets with span-chord ratio of 2:1. A detailed analysis has not been made; however, the results showed that all the models were spirally unstable and that a large gap between the model tips and end plates tended to reduce the instability.

  20. Wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a scale model of a D5 bulldozer and an M109 self-propelled 155 mm Howitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, G. H.; Kodani, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a scale model of a D5 bulldozer and an M109 self-propelled 155 MM howitzer to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of these typical externally-suspended heavy lift helicopter cargo configurations. Tests were made over a large range of pitch and yaw attitudes at a nominal Reynolds number per unit length of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power.

  1. Calculation of Aerodynamic Loading and Twist Characteristics of a Flexible Wing at Mach Numbers Approaching 1.0 and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, John P., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An iteration method is presented by which the detailed aerodynamic loading and twist characteristics of a flexible wing with known elastic properties may be calculated. The method is applicable at Mach numbers approaching 1.0 as well as at subsonic Mach numbers. Calculations were made for a wing-body combination; the wing was swept back 45 deg and had an aspect ratio of 4. Comparisons were made with experimental results at Mach numbers from.0.80 to 0.98.

  2. Subsonic and supersonic static aerodynamic characteristics of a family of bulbous base cones measured with a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlajinac, M.; Stephens, T.; Gilliam, G.; Pertsas, N.

    1972-01-01

    Results of subsonic and supersonic wind-tunnel tests with a magnetic balance and suspension system on a family of bulbous based cone configurations are presented. At subsonic speeds the base flow and separation characteristics of these configurations is shown to have a pronounced effect on the static data. Results obtained with the presence of a dummy sting are compared with support interference free data. Support interference is shown to have a substantial effect on the measured aerodynamic coefficient.

  3. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14-percent-thick NASA phase 2 supercritical airfoil designed for a lift coefficient of 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Mcghee, R. J.; Allison, D. O.

    1980-01-01

    The low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil are documented. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The effects of varying chord Reynolds number from 2,000,000 to 18,000,000 at a Mach number of 0.15 and the effects of varying Mach number from 0.10 to 0.32 at a Reynolds number of 6,000,000 are included.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 55 deg clipped-delta-wing orbiter model at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 4.63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.; Grow, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests to determine the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a delta wing space shuttle orbiter model were conducted. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 4.63, at nominal angles of attack from minus 2 degrees to plus 30 degrees, nominal sideslip angles of minus 4 degrees to plus 10 degrees, and Reynolds numbers from 1.8 to 2.5 times one million per foot.

  5. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body orbiter model with a blunted delta planform at Mach 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body orbiter model with a blunted delta planform. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.60, at nominal angles of attack from -4 deg to 60 deg and angles of sideslip from -4 deg to 10 deg, and at a Reynolds number of 2.5 million per foot.

  6. Aerodynamic flow quality and acoustic characteristics of the 40- by 80-foot test section circuit of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.; Zell, Peter T.; Soderman, Paul T.; Falarski, Michael D.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Edenborough, H. Kipling

    1988-01-01

    The 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel circuit of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) has recently undergone major modifications and subsequently completed final acceptance testing. The initial testing and calibration of the wind tunnel are described and in many cases these results are compared with predictions derived from model tests and theoretical analyses. The wind tunnel meets or exceeds essentially all performance objectives. The facility runs smoothly and routinely at its maximum test-section velocity of 300 knots (Mach number = 0.45). An effective cooling air exchange system enables the wind tunnel to operate indefinitely at this maximum power condition. Throughout the operating envelope of the wind tunnel the test-section dynamic pressure is uniform to within + or - 0.5 deg, and the axial component of turbulence is generally less than 0.5 percent. Acoustic measurements indicate that, due to the low noise fans and acoustic treatment in the wind-tunnel circuit and test section, the background noise level in the test section is comparable to other large-scale acoustic wind tunnels in the United States and abroad.

  7. Longitudinal Trim and Tumble Characteristics of a 0.057-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane, TED NO. NACA DE311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert L.

    1948-01-01

    Based on results of longitudinal trim and tumble tests of a 0.057-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane, the following conclusions regarding the trim and tumble characteristics of the airplane have been drawn: 1. The airplane will not trim at any unusual or uncontrolled angles of attack. 2. The airplane will not tumble with the center of gravity located forward of 24 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. When the center of gravity is located at 24 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord and slats are extended and elevators are deflected full up, the airplane may tumble if given an external positive pitching moment. 3. The tumbling motion obtained will be readily terminated by deflecting the elevators full down so as to oppose the rotation. 4. The accelerations encountered during an established tumble may be dangerous to the pilot and, therefore, action should be taken to terminate a tumble immediately upon its inception. 5. Simultaneous opening of two wing-tip parachutes having diameters of 4 feet or larger and having drag coefficients of approximately 0.7 will effectively terminate the tumble. 6. Model results indicate that the pilot will not be struck by the airplane if it becomes necessary to leave the airplane during a tumble. The pilot may require aid from an ejection-seat arrangement.

  8. A program to compute three-dimensional subsonic unsteady aerodynamic characteristics using the doublet lattic method, L216 (DUBFLX). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.

  9. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of the 10-percent-thick NASA supercritical airfoil 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    Refinements in a 10 percent thick supercritical airfoil (airfoil 31) have produced significant improvements in the drag characteristics compared with those for an earlier supercritical airfoil (airfoil 12) designed for the same normal force coefficient of 0.7. Drag creep was practically eliminated at normal force coefficients between about 0.4 and 0.7 and was greatly reduced at other normal force coefficients. Substantial reductions in the drag levels preceding drag divergence were also achieved at all normal force coefficients. The Mach numbers at which drag diverges were delayed for airfoil 31 at normal force coefficients up to about 0.6 (by approximately 0.01 and 0.02 at normal force coefficients of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively) but drag divergence occurred at slightly lower Mach numbers at higher normal force coefficients.

  10. Effect of wing flexibility on the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.; Yee, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    A solid-aluminum oblique wing was designed to deflect considerably under load so as to relieve the asymmetric spanwise stalling that is characteristic of this type of wing by creating washout on the trailing wing panel and washin on the leading wing panel. Experimental forces, and pitching, rolling and yawing moments were measured with the wing mounted on a body of revolution. In order to vary the dynamic pressure, measurements were made at several unit Reynolds numbers, and at Mach numbers. The wing was investigated when unswept (at subsonic Mach numbers only) and when swept 45 deg, 50 deg, and 60 deg. The wing was straight tapered in planform, had an aspect ratio of 7.9 (based on the unswept span), and a profile with a maximum thickness of 4 percent chord. The results substantiate the concept that an oblique wing designed with the proper amount of flexibility self relieves itself of asymmetric spanwise stalling and the associated nonlinear moment curves.

  11. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of a 0.10-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley high-speed 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the high-speed longitudinal stability end con&o1 characteristics of a 0.01-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane in the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.85. The results indicated that the lift and drag force breaks occurred at a Mach number of about 0.76. The aerodynamic-center position moved rearward after the force break and control position stability was present for all Mach numbers up to a Mach number of 0.80.

  12. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  13. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  14. Development of a Longitudinal File of Financial, Faculty, Enrollment, and Institutional Characteristics Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmartin, Kevin J.

    The content and format decisions and the data sources that were used to construct a longitudinal file of the characteristics of U.S. colleges and universities for academic years 1974-1975 through 1977-1978 are described, and forms and record layouts are provided, including data element descriptions. The file contains selected statistics extracted…

  15. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  16. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient. The design maximum lift coefficient was 2.1 at a Reynolds number of 9.7 million. The airfoil with a smooth surface and with surface roughness was tested at angles of attack from 6 deg to 26 deg, Reynolds numbers (based on airfoil chord) from 2.0 million to 12.9 million, and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.35. The experimental results are compared with values predicted by theory. The experimental pressure distributions observed at angles of attack up to at least 12 deg were similar to the theoretical values except for a slight increase in the experimental upper-surface pressure coefficients forward of 26 percent chord and a more severe gradient just behind the minimum-pressure-coefficient location. The maximum lift coefficients were measured with the model surface smooth and, depending on test conditions, varied from 1.5 to 1.6 whereas the design value was 2.1.

  17. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Penland, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the low-speed static longitudinal, lateral and directional stability characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept delta wing was conducted in a low-speed tunnel with a 12-foot (3.66 meter) octagonal test section. Aircraft component variations included: (1) fuselage shape modifications, (2) tip fins, (3) center vertical fin, (4) wing camber, and (5) wing planform. This investigation was conducted at a dynamic pressure of 262.4 Pa (5.48 psf), a Mach number of 0.06, and a Reynolds number of 2.24 million, based on body length. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 30 deg with elevon deflections from +5.0 deg to minus 30.0 deg. The complete configuration exhibited positive static longitudinal, lateral and directional stability up to angles of attack of at least 20 deg and was trimmable to lift coefficients of at least 0.70 with elevon deflections of minus 30 deg.

  18. Static Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics At A Mach Number of 1.99 of a Lenticular-Shaped Reentry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charles M., Jr.; Harris, Roy V., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 1.99 to determine the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a reentry model consisting of a lenticular-shaped body with two fin configurations (horizontal fins with end plates). Effects of deflecting the larger size fins as pitch-control surfaces were also investigated. The results indicate that the body alone was unstable from an angle of attack of 0 deg to about 55 deg where it became stable and remained so to 90 deg. The addition of fins provided positive longitudinal stability throughout the angle-of-attack range and increased the lift-drag ratio of the configuration. Reducing the horizontal-fin area at the inboard trailing edge of the fin had only a small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle for the condition of no fin deflection. Deflecting the fins, appeared to be an effective means of pitch control and had only a small effect on lift-drag ratio.

  19. Modulating flow and aerodynamic characteristics of a square cylinder in crossflow using a rear jet injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong F.; Hsu, Ching M.; Chen, Yu T.

    2017-01-01

    The temporally evolved flow behaviors around a square cylinder subject to modulation of a planar jet issued from the cylinder's downstream surface into the wake were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method and synchronized hot-wire anemometers. The drag force asserted on the square cylinder was obtained by measuring the surface pressures. Four characteristic flow modes (wake-dominated, transitional, critical, and jet-dominated) were observed in different regimes of freestream Reynolds number and jet injection ratio. In the wake-dominated mode, the jet swung periodically back and forth on the downstream surface due to the wake vortex shedding. In the transitional mode, the vortex shedding in the wake vanished so that the flow around the cylinder presented no periodic oscillations. In the critical mode, the wake width became smaller and therefore made the vortex shedding frequency larger than that observed in the wake dominated mode. In the jet-dominated mode, the jet had a large momentum that entrained wake fluids and therefore stabilized the instabilities of the wake, separated boundary layers on lateral surfaces, and stagnation point on the upstream surface. Two standing vortices appeared in the near wake beside the high-momentum jet. The width of the wake was decreased substantially by jet entrainment. The drag coefficient decreased with an increase in the jet injection ratio. The downstream surface jet injection caused the pressure coefficients to decrease at the upstream surface and to increase at the downstream surface. Therefore, the drag coefficients were decreased significantly by 26%, 33%, and 38% at the injection ratios of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5, respectively.

  20. Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics as Determined by the Rocket-Model Technique for an Inline, Cruciform, Canard Missile Configuration with a Low-Aspect-Ratio Wing Having Trailing-Edge Flap Controls for a Mach Number Range of 0.7 to 1.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Moul, M. T.

    1955-01-01

    Two full-scale models of an inline, cruciform, canard missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls were flight tested in order to determine the missile's longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Stability derivatives and control and drag characteristics are presented for a range of Mach number from 0.7 to 1.8. Nonlinear lift and moment curves were noted for the angle-of-attack range of this test (0 deg to 8 deg ). The aerodynamic-center location for angles of attack near 5 deg remained nearly constant for supersonic speeds at 13.5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord; whereas for angles of attack near O deg, there was a rapid forward movement of the aerodynamic center as the Mach number increased. At a control deflection of O deg, the missile's response to the longitudinal control was in an essentially fixed space plane which was not coincident with the pitch plane as a result of the missile rolling. As a consequence, stability characteristics were determined from the resultant of pitch and yaw motions. The damping-in-pitch derivatives for the two angle-of-attack ranges of the test are in close agreement and varied only slightly with Mach number. The horn-balanced trailing-edge flap was effective in producing angle of attack over the Mach number range.

  1. Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics as Determined by the Rocket-model Technique for an Inline, Cruciform, Canard Missile Configuration with a Low-aspect-ratio Wing Having Trailing-edge Flap Controls for a Mach Number Range of 0.7 to 1.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, Hal T , Jr; Moul, Martin T

    1955-01-01

    Two full-scale models of an inline, cruciform, canard missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls were flight tested in order to determine the missile's longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Stability derivatives and control and drag characteristics are presented for a range of Mach number from 0.7 to 1.8. Nonlinear lift and moment curves were noted for the angle - of-attack range of this test (0 deg to 8 deg). The aerodynamic-center location for angles of attack near 50 remained nearly constant for supersonic speeds at 13.5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord; whereas for angles of attack near 0 deg, there was a rapid forward movement of the aerodynamic center as the Mach number increased. At a control deflection of 0 deg, the missile's response to the longitudinal control was in an essentially fixed space plane which was not coincident with the pitch plane as a result of the missile rolling. As a consequence, stability characteristics were determined from the resultant of pitch and yaw motions. The damping-in-pitch derivatives for the two angle -of-attack ranges of the test are in close agreement and varied only slightly with Mach number. The horn-balanced trailing-edge flap was effective in producing angle of attack over the Mach number range.

  2. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. However, with a decrease in Mach number to 0.6, the agreement for C sub N rapidly deteriorates, although the normal-force centers remain in close agreement. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing, and body-wing-tail configurations. When separation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  3. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. The angles of attack extend from 0 deg to 180 deg for M = 2.9 from 0 deg to 60 deg for M = 0.6 to 2.0. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations. When spearation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  4. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of three rotorcraft airfoils at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 0.90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three airfoils designed for helicopter rotor application were investigated in the Langley 6- by 28-inch Transonic Tunnel to determine the two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.34 to 0.88 and respective Reynolds numbers from about 4.4 x 10(6) power to 9.5 x 10(6) power. The airfoils have thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12. Trailing-edge reflex was applied to minimize pitching moment. The maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC(3)-12 airfoil is from 0.1 to 0.2 higher, depending on Mach number M, than that of the NACA 0012 airfoil tested in the same facility. The maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC(3)-10 is about equal to that of the NACA 0012 at Mach numbers to 0.40 and is higher than that of the NACA 0012 at Mach numbers above 0.40. The maximum normal force coefficient of the RC(3)-08 is about 0.19 lower than that of the NACA 0012 at a Mach number of 0.35 and about 0.05 lower at a Mach number of 0.54. The drag divergence Mach number of the RC(3)-08 airfoil at normal-force coefficients below 0.1 was indicated to be greater than the maximum test Mach number of 0.88. At zero lift, the drag-divergence Mach numbers of the RC(3)-12 and the RC(3)-10 are about 0.77 and 0.82, respectively.

  5. Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Configuration with a 63 deg Sweptback Wing and Twin-Boom Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Howard F.; Edwards, George G.

    1959-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of an unconventional tail arrangement on the subsonic static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a model having a 63 deg sweptback wing of aspect ratio 3.5 and a fuselage. Tail booms, extending rearward from approximately the midsemispan of each wing panel, supported independent tail assemblies well outboard of the usual position at the rear of the fuselage. The horizontal-tail surfaces had the leading edge swept back 45 deg and an aspect ratio of 2.4. The vertical tail surfaces were geometrically similar to one panel of the horizontal tail. For comparative purposes, the wing-body combination was also tested with conventional fuselage-mounted tail surfaces. The wind-tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.95 with a Reynolds number of 2,000,000, at a Mach number of 0.46 with a Reynolds number of 3,500,000, and at a Mach number of 0.20 with a Reynolds number of 7,000,000. The results of the investigation indicate that longitudinal stability existed to considerably higher lift coefficients for the outboard tail configuration than for the configuration with conventional tail. Wing fences were necessary with both configurations for the elimination of sudden changes in longitudinal stability at lift coefficients between 0.3 and 0.5. Sideslip angles up to 15 deg had only small effects upon the pitching-moment characteristics of the outboard tail configuration. There was an increase in the directional stability for the outboard tail configuration at the higher angles of attack as opposed to a decrease for the conventional tail configuration at most of the Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers of this investigation. The dihedral effect increased rapidly with increasing angle of attack for both the outboard and the conventional tail configurations but the increase was greater for the outboard tail configuration. The data indicate that the outboard tail is an effective

  6. Aerodynamic stability and drag characteristics of a parallel burn/SRM ascent configuration (M equals 0.6 to 4.96)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, F.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during April 1972 on a 0.004-scale model of a solid rocket motor version of the space shuttle ascent configuration. The configuration consisted of a parallel burn solid rocket motor booster on an external HO centerline tank orbiter. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from -10 deg to +10 deg at zero degrees sideslip and over a sideslip range from -10 deg to +10 deg at zero degrees angle of attack. Mach numbers ranged from 0.6 to 4.96. The purpose of the test was to determine the performance and stability characteristics of the complete ascent configuration and buildup, and to determine the effects of variations in HO tank and SRM nose shaping, orbiter incidence and position, and position of the solid rocket motors.

  7. Aerodynamic stability and drag characteristics of a parallel burn/SRM ascent configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 4.96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. F.; Hamilton, T.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during March 1972 on a .003366 scale model of a solid rocket motor version of the space shuttle ascent configuration. The configuration consisted of a parallel burn solid rocket motor booster on an external H-O centerline tank orbiter. Six component aerodynamic force and moment date were recorded over an angle of attack range from -10 to 10 deg at zero degrees sideslip and over a sideslip range from -10 to 10 deg at 0, +6, and -6 deg angle of attack. Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 4.96. The performance and stability characteristics of the complete ascent configuration and build-up, and the effects of variations in tank diameter, orbiter incidence, fairings and positioning of the solid rocket motors and tank fins were determined.

  8. Effects of wing leading-edge deflection on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Weston, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wing leading-edge deflection effects on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration were determined. Static force tests were conducted in a V/STOL tunnel at a Reynolds number of about 2.5 x 1 million for an angle-of-attack range from -10 deg to 17 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -5 deg to 5 deg. Limited flow visualization studies were also conducted in order to provide a qualitative assessment of leading-edge upwash characteristics.

  9. Effects of upper-surface blowing and thrust vectoring on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale supersonic transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Shivers, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale arrow-wing supersonic transport configured with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing, and conventional lower surface engines with provisions for thrust vectoring. A limited number of tests were conducted for the upper surface engine configuration in the high lift condition for beta = 10 in order to evaluate lateral directional characteristics, and with the right engine inoperative to evaluate the engine out condition.

  10. Relation Between Discharge Length and Laser Pulse Characteristics in Longitudinally Excited CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Dobashi, Kazuma; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinally excited CO2 laser pumped by a fast discharge emits a short laser pulse, similarly to TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. We investigated the relation between the discharge length and the laser pulse characteristics to develop a longitudinally excited CO2 laser producing a high spike laser pulse. We examined discharge lengths of 30, 45, and 60 cm, using the same mirrors and the same excitation circuit with the same input energy. A longer discharge length increased the discharge volume and improved the laser output energy. However, the longer discharge length caused a long discharge formation time (a slow fall time of the discharge voltage) due to the higher discharge impedance, which resulted in a long laser pulse tail. Therefore, the longitudinally excited CO2 laser had optimum conditions for obtaining a high spike laser pulse effectively.

  11. Lateral and longitudinal aerodynamic stability and control parameters of the basic vortex flap research aircraft as determined from flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.; Batterson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The aerodynamics of the basic F-106B were determined at selected points in the flight envelope. The test aircraft and flight procedures were presented. Aircraft instrumentation and the data system were discussed. The parameter extraction procedure was presented along with a discussion of the test flight results. The results were used to predict the aircraft motions for maneuvers that were not used to determine the vehicle aerodynamics. The control inputs used to maneuver the aircraft to get data for the determination of the aerodynamic parameters were discussed in the flight test procedures. The results from the current flight tests were compared with the results from wind tunnel test of the basic F-106B.

  12. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Daniel V.

    Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Controls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    4 gives data for the F-4E aircraft 6 obtained from a well- instrumented aircraft and the use of a sophisticated computer program for the analysis. The...pitch and heave through DLC greatly simplified the pre ’ise maneuvering required during aerial refueling and instrument approaches. The B-52 LAMS...board digital computer * artificial feel system * electrically controlled flight instruments * on board data acquisition system, data recording and

  14. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  15. Aerodynamic Characteristics at Mach Numbers of 1.41 and 2.01 of a Series of Cranked Wings Ranging in Aspect Ratio from 4.00 to 1.74 in Combination with a Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevier, John R., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A program has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the effects of certain wing plan-form variations on the aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body combinations at supersonic speeds. The present report deals with the results of tests of a family of cranked wing plan forms in combination with an ogive-cylinder body of revolution. Tests were made at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01 at corresponding values of Reynolds number per foot of 3.0 x 10(exp 6) and 2.5 x 10(exp 6). Results of the tests indicate that the best overall characteristics were obtained with the low-aspect-ratio wings. Plan-form changes which involved decreasing the aspect ratio resulted in higher values of maximum lift-drag ratio, in addition to large increases in wing volume. Indications are that this trend would have continued to exist at aspect ratios even lower than the lowest considered in the present tests. Increases in the maximum lift-drag ratio of about 15 percent over the basic wing were achieved with practically no increase in drag. The severe longitudinal stability associated with the basic cranked wing was no longer present (within the limits of the present tests) on the wings of lower aspect ratio formed by sweeping forward the inboard portion of the trailing edge.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept double-delta wing at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20, with summary of data from 0.20 to 6.0. [Langley 8-ft transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Hallissy, J. B.; Dillon, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The static longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept double-delta wing were investigated. Force tests were conducted in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel for a Reynolds number (based on fuselage length) range of 6.30 x 10 to the 6th power to 7.03 x 10 to the 6th power, at angles of attack from about -4 deg to 23 deg, and at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 5 deg. The configuration variables included the wing planform, tip fins, the center vertical tail, and scramjet engine modules. Variations of the more important aerodynamic parameters with Mach number for Mach numbers from 0.20 to 6.0 are summarized. A state-of-the-art example of theoretically predicting performance parameters and static longitudinal and directional stability over the Mach number range is included.

  17. Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Model Wing-Propeller Combination and of the Wing and Propeller Separately at Angles of Attack up to 90 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E; Draper, John W

    1956-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley 300 mph 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel for the purpose of determining the aerodynamic characteristics of a model wing-propeller combination, and of the wing and propeller separately at angles of attack up to 90 degrees. The tests covered thrust coefficients corresponding to free-stream velocities from zero forward speed to the normal range of cruising speeds. The results indicate that increasing the thrust coefficient increases the angle of attack for maximum lift and greatly diminishes the usual reduction in lift above the angle of attack for maximum lift.

  18. A computer program for calculating symmetrical aerodynamic characteristics and lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with blowing jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Mehrotra, S. C.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary information for using a computer program to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics under symmetrical flight conditions and the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with upper-surface-blowing (USB) or over-wing-blowing (OWB) jets are described. The following new features were added to the program: (1) a fuselage of arbitrary body of revolution has been included. The effect of wing-body interference can now be investigated, and (2) all nine lateral-directional stability derivatives can be calculated. The program is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC Cyber 175 and Honeywell 66/60 computers.

  19. Effects of twin-vertical-tail parameters on twin-engine afterbody/nozzle aerodynamic characteristics. [Langley 16-ft transonic tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Bare, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel was used to determine the effects of several empennage and afterbody parameters on twin-engine aft-end aerodynamic characteristics. Model variables included twin-vertical-tail cant angle, toe angle, airfoil camber, and root-chord length and afterbody/engine interfairing shape. Tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.2 and over an angle-of-attack range from 2 deg to 10 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 10.0.

  20. Low subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of five irregular planform wings with systematically varying wing fillet geometry tested in the NASA/Ames 12 foot pressure tunnel (LA65)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, J. W.; Watson, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical aerodynamic program to develop predesign guides for irregular planform wings (also referred to as cranked leading edge or double delta wings is reported; the benefits are linearization of subsonic lift curve slope to high angles of attack and avoidance of subsonic pitch instabilities at high lift by proper tailoring of the planform-fillet-wing combination while providing the desired hypersonic trim angle and stability. Because subsonic and hypersonic conditions were the two prime areas of concern in the initial application of this program to optimize shuttle orbiter landing and entry characteristics, the study was designated the Subsonic/Hypersonic Irregular Planforms Study (SHIPS).