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Sample records for longitudinal retrospective study

  1. Use of Chinese medicine among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2011-05-01

    The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers Western medicine and Chinese medicine (CM) in Taiwan. The present study aimed to investigate the trends and characteristics of CM use among prostate cancer patients before and after diagnosis. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out using the NHI research database. The present study cohort consisted of 4720 prostate cancer patients diagnosed in 2004. Claims of CM services of these patients between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of CM use of this cohort was 25.8%, 26.8%, 23.6%, 22.4%, 22.0% and 21.1% in 2003-2008, respectively. Overall, 52.6% of this cohort had ever used CM. In the first year of diagnosis, there was the greatest increase of new CM users (12.1%). The total number of CM users and visits reached the peak in 2004 and decreased in the subsequent years (2005-2008). The average number of CM visits per user was 6.7, 6.7, 7.0, 7.1, 7.3 and 7.2 in 2003-2008, respectively. The most frequently recorded principal diagnosis of CM visits was musculoskeletal diseases (21.4%), symptoms/signs (17.6%) and neoplasms (11.7%). Chinese herbal medicine (75.1%) was the most commonly used, followed by acupuncture/traumatological manipulative therapies (29.7%). Patients using CM before diagnosis tended to be CM users after diagnosis. The increase of CM use over the first year of prostate cancer diagnosis can be primarily attributed to an increase of new CM users, rather than of CM visits per users.

  2. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006.

    PubMed

    Moagabo, K T; Monyame, K B; Baipoledi, E K; Letshwenyo, M; Mapitse, N; Hyera, J M K

    2009-12-01

    A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 +/- 1.48%. About 85.7% (2 074/2 419) of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2% (343/2 419) cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1%) were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997) the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 +/- 1.85% (1645/2620 positive) whereas during the second half (1998-2006) it was estimated at 45.91 +/- 2.38% (774/1686 positive) and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (delta % = 16.88, SE(95) diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P < 0.001). Ruminant rabies accounted for 79.99% (50.92% bovine, 928.40% caprine and 0.67% ovine) whereas canine (domestic dog) and feline (domestic cat) accounted for 16.01 and 0.87%, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13% with 1.35 and 1.78%, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60% of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988), its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana. PMID:21344790

  3. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight.We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4).Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07-24.3, P=0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r=-0.527, P=<0.001). PMID:26313789

  4. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly.

  5. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly. PMID:26734989

  6. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  7. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  8. Retrospective studies.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2015-01-01

    Large retrospective, epidemiological studies accumulated in the late 1980s, providing increasing evidence to the deeply rooted thought that perinatal events could persistently affect the individual's functioning and health/disease patterns throughout the lifetime. Evidences of such associations can be found in the literature since the beginning of the twentieth century, but studies from Barker, Hales, and colleagues serve as an important hallmark. They proposed the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, stating that poor nutrition in fetal and early infant life is detrimental to the development and function of the individuals' organism, predisposing them to the later development of adult chronic diseases. At first used to explain the increased risk for type 2 diabetes in low birth weight individuals, the hypothesis was soon adapted to other systems, becoming one of the core assumptions of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD) model. The central nervous system is also vulnerable to the effects of environmental variation during fetal or neonatal life. Many researchers have explored the effects of perinatal programming on the human neurodevelopment, and some aspects of the brain structure and/or functioning (such as cognitive function, physiological reactivity to stress, and the risk for behavioral disorders or psychopathology) were shown to be modifiable by the exposure to certain adverse events early in life such as neonatal infections, exposure to gestational psychosocial stress, nutrition during gestation, exposure to drugs, or tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Until recently, most studies focused on birth weight as a strong surrogate of the intrauterine environment, investigating the effects of low birth weight (as a marker of suboptimal fetal environment) on a variety of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite the fact that literature reviews on this topic are as old as 1940, the more recent retrospective studies are summarized in this chapter.

  9. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  10. A retrospective longitudinal study of cognitive and language skills in poor reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Åsa; Gustafson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K; Keenan, Janice M; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Fifty-six specific poor reading comprehenders (SPRC) were selected in Grade 4 and retrospectively compared to good comprehenders at preschool (age 5) and at the end of kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. The results revealed deficits in vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory and early deficits in phonological awareness in most of the SPRC sample, beginning in preschool. The reading comprehension deficits in children with SPRC were not as marked in earlier assessments in Grade 1 and 2, probably because of the greater dependence on word decoding in reading comprehension in the early grades.

  11. Changes in disc status in the reducing and nonreducing anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint: a longitudinal retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying Kai; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Treatment procedures for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are far from reaching a consensus. The aim of the study was to evaluate disc status changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDWR) and without reduction (ADDWoR) comparatively, to get a better understanding of the disease progress without intervention. This longitudinal retrospective study included 217 joints in 165 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDWoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for disc length and displacement distance at initial and follow-up visits. Disc morphology, which was classified in 5 types, was also evaluated. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess intra-group differences and independent t-test for inter-group differences. Moreover, analysis of covariance was applied to analyze influential factors for changes in disc length and displacement distance. According to our results, discs tended to become shorter, move further forward and distort more seriously in ADDWoR group than in ADDWR group after follow-up. Moreover, discs were prone to become shorter and more anteriorly displaced in teenagers, type I and III morphologies, advanced Wilkes stages, or those with joint effusion. Follow-up period seemed to be not critical. PMID:27671371

  12. Alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the maxillary midline diastema: a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the diastema between maxillary central incisors. Methods Sixty patients who had a visible diastema between maxillary central incisors that had been closed by orthodontic approximation were selected for this study. Various papilla dimensions were assessed on clinical photographs and study models before the orthodontic treatment and at the follow-up examination after closure of the diastema. Influences of the variables assessed before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of papilla height (PH) and papilla base thickness (PBT) were evaluated by univariate regression analysis. To analyze potential influences of the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of PH and PBT, a multiple regression model was formulated including the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions as predictor variables. Results On average, PH decreased by 0.80 mm and PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema (P<0.01). Univariate regression analysis revealed that the PH (P=0.002) and PBT (P=0.047) before orthodontic treatment influenced the alteration of PH. With respect to the alteration of PBT, the diastema width (P=0.045) and PBT (P=0.000) were found to be influential factors. PBT before the orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the alteration of PBT in the multiple regression model. Conclusions PH decreased but PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema. The papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment influenced the alterations of PH and PBT after closure of the diastema. The PBT increased more when the diastema width before the orthodontic treatment was larger. PMID:27382507

  13. Chronic pain relief after the exposure of nitrous oxide during dental treatment: longitudinal retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mattos Júnior, Francisco Moreira; Mattos, Rafael Villanova; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de; Siqueira, Jose Tadeu Tesseroli de

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of nitrous/oxygen in chronic pain. Seventy-seven chronic pain patients referred to dental treatment with conscious sedation with nitrous oxide/oxygen had their records included in this research. Data were collected regarding the location and intensity of pain by the visual analogue scale before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed comparing pre- and post-treatment findings. It was observed a remarkable decrease in the prevalence of pain in this sample (only 18 patients still had chronic pain, p < 0.001) and in its intensity (p < 0.001). Patients that needed fewer sessions received higher proportions of nitrous oxide/oxygen. Nitrous oxide may be a tool to be used in the treatment of chronic pain, and future prospective studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and the effect of nitrous oxide/oxygen in patients according to the pain diagnosis and other characteristics. PMID:26200051

  14. A Retrospective Longitudinal Database Study of Persistence and Compliance with Treatment of Osteoporosis in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István; Marton, István; Tóth, Emese; Zoltan, Cina; Lang, Zsolt; Psachoulia, Emi; Intorcia, Michele

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed persistence and compliance with anti-osteoporosis therapies, and associations between compliance and clinical outcomes (fracture, fracture-related hospitalization and death), in Hungarian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study used the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund Administration database and included women with PMO aged at least 50 years, for whom a prescription for anti-osteoporosis medication had been filled between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013 (index event). Persistence (prescription refilled within 8 weeks of the end of the previous supply) was evaluated over 2 years; good compliance (medication possession ratio ≥ 80 %) was evaluated at 1 year. Associations between compliance and clinical outcomes (data collected for up to 6 years) were assessed with adjustment for baseline covariates. A total of 296,300 women met the inclusion criteria (524,798 index events). Persistence and compliance were higher for less frequent and parenteral therapies (1- and 2-year persistence: half-yearly [parenteral] vs. daily/weekly/monthly [oral and parenteral], 81 and 38 % vs. 21-34 and 10-18 %, respectively; parenteral vs. oral, 75 and 36 % vs. 32 and 16 %; good compliance: half-yearly vs. daily/weekly/monthly, 70 vs. 24-39 %; parenteral vs. oral 78 vs. 36 %). Good compliance significantly reduced the risks of fracture, fracture-related hospitalization and death (relative risk vs. non-compliance [95 % confidence interval]: 0.77 [0.70-0.84], 0.72 [0.62-0.85] and 0.57 [0.51-0.64], respectively; P < 0.01). Improving compliance through long-interval parenteral therapies may result in clinical benefits for patients. PMID:26686694

  15. Incidence and outcome of newly-diagnosed tuberculosis in schizophrenics: a 12-year, nationwide, retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To control tuberculosis (TB), it is critical to identify at risk populations. Schizophrenia is recognized as an important risk factor for TB. However, previous studies have been confounded by comorbidities, and reports of TB infection outcomes are rare. Therefore, the current nation-wide study aimed to compare the adjusted incidence and outcome of TB diseases in schizophrenics and the general population. Method Using the National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2009, this retrospective longitudinal study included 60,409 schizophrenics and general population matched for age, Charlson’s score, and comorbidities. Diagnosis of TB was based on the international classification of disease, ninth revision and use of anti-TB drugs. Unfavorable outcome for TB was defined as death, loss to follow-up, or use of anti-TB treatment for more than 9 months. Results The adjusted incidence of TB in schizophrenics was significantly higher than in the general population [hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-1.79; p < 0.001; Kaplan-Meier log-rank test, p < 0.001]. Cox regression revealed age and male gender as risk factors for newly-diagnosed TB. The outcome of TB was comparable in schizophrenics and the general population [odds ratio (OR), 0.78; 95% CI, 0.55-1.09; p =0.144]. Logistic regression revealed a statistical trend for diabetes mellitus to predict poor outcome in schizophrenics with TB (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 0.96-5.74; p = 0.062). Conclusions Schizophrenics are at increased risk for TB, and screening may be warranted for those living in areas with high prevalence of TB. PMID:23895638

  16. Thin-Section CT Characteristics and Longitudinal CT Follow-up of Chemotherapy Induced Interstitial Pneumonitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Na; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Song, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    To describe the computed tomography (CT) features of chemotherapy-induced interstitial pneumonitis (CIIP) with longitudinal follow-up.The study was approved by the local ethics committee. One hundred consecutive patients with CIIP between May 2005 and March 2015 were retrospectively enrolled. The initial CT was reviewed by 2 independent chest radiologists and categorized into 1 of 4 CT patterns in accordance with the 2013 guidelines for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) mimicking desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). We assessed semiquantitative analysis on a 5% scale to assess the extent of parenchymal abnormalities (emphysema, reticulation, ground-glass opacity, consolidation, honeycombing cyst) and their distribution on initial (n = 100), subsequent (n = 87), and second follow-up CT (n = 48). Interval changes in extent on follow-up CT were compared using paired t test. The clinic-radiologic factors were compared between Group 1 (NSIP and OP patterns) and Group 2 (HP and DAD patterns) using χ and independent t tests.The most common pattern of CIIP on the initial CT was HP (51%), followed by NSIP (23%), OP (20%), and DAD (6%). Diffuse ground-glass opacity was the most common pulmonary abnormality. The predominant distribution was bilateral (99%) and symmetric (82%), with no craniocaudal (60%) or axial (79%) dominance. Subsequent and second follow-up CTs showed decreased extent of total pulmonary abnormalities (P < 0.001, respectively). In comparison with Group 1 CIIP, Group 2 CIIP was more likely to be caused by molecularly targeted drugs (P = 0.030), appeared earlier (P = 0.034), and underwent more complete resolution (P < 0.001). Use of a CT pattern-recognition approach to CIIP is appropriate and practical in interpreting radiological findings. PMID:26765442

  17. Longitudinal trends in use and costs of targeted therapies for common cancers in Taiwan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason C; Lu, Christine Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some targeted therapies have improved survival and overall quality of cancer care generally, but these increasingly expensive medicines have led to increases in pharmaceutical expenditure. This study examined trends in use and expenditures of antineoplastic agents in Taiwan, and estimated market shares by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies over time. We also determined which cancer types accounted for the highest use of targeted therapies. Design This is a retrospective observational study focusing on the utilisation of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer. Setting The monthly claims data for antineoplastic agents were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2009–2012). Main outcome measures We calculated market shares by prescription volume and costs for each class of antineoplastic agent by cancer type. Using a time series design with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, we estimated trends in use and costs of targeted therapies. Results Among all antineoplastic agents, use of targeted therapies grew from 6.24% in 2009 to 12.29% in 2012, but their costs rose from 26.16% to 41.57% in that time. Monoclonal antibodies and protein kinase inhibitors contributed the most (respectively, 23.84% and 16.12% of costs for antineoplastic agents in 2012). During 2009–2012, lung (44.64% of use; 28.26% of costs), female breast (16.49% of use; 27.18% of costs) and colorectal (12.11% of use; 13.16% of costs) cancers accounted for the highest use of targeted therapies. Conclusions In Taiwan, targeted therapies are increasingly used for different cancers, representing a substantial economic burden. It is important to establish mechanisms to monitor their use and outcomes. PMID:27266775

  18. The Perceived Needs of Maine Parents of Premature Children for Services and Supports: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhee, Karen Boulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perceived needs and correlates of Maine parents of premature infants related to the chronological distance from the NICU. The study focused on identifying the perceived service needs of parents of premature children and how these needs changed over time, revealed the relationships between perceived…

  19. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health. PMID:27682598

  20. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  1. Relationship between obesity and antipsychotic drug use in the adult population: A longitudinal, retrospective claim database study in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between obesity and the use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in adult outpatients followed-up on in five Primary Care settings. Methods A longitudinal, retrospective design study carried out between July 2004 and June 2005, in patients who were included in a claim database and for whom an APD treatment had been registered. A body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2 was defined as obesity. The main measurements were: use of APDs, demographics, medical background and co-morbidities, and clinical parameters. Logistic regression analysis and ANCOVA with Bonferroni adjustment were applied to correct the model. Results A total of 42,437 subjects (mean age: 50.8 (18.4) years; women: 54.5%; obesity: 27.3% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 26.9%–27.7%]) were analyzed. A total of 1.3% of the patients were receiving APDs, without statistical differences in distribution by type of drug (typical: 48.8%; atypical: 51.2%). Obesity was associated with the use of APDs [OR = 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8)], hypertension [OR = 2.4 (CI: 2.2–2.5)], diabetes [OR = 1.4 (CI: 1.3–1.5)] and dyslipidemia [OR = 1.3 (CI: 1.2–1.4)], p < 0.0001 in all cases. BMI was significantly higher in subjects on APDs; 28.8 vs. 27.3 kg/m2, p = 0.002, and remained higher after adjusting by age and sex (mean difference 0.4 (CI: 0.1–0.7), p < 0.01). After adjusting by age, sex and the Charlson index, obese subjects generated higher average annual total costs than nonobese subjects; 811 (CI: 787–835) vs. 694 (CI: 679–709), respectively, p < 0.001. Conclusions Obesity was associated with the use of APDs, regardless of the type of drug, and with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Obesity was also associated with substantially higher health care costs. PMID:18728769

  2. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  3. [The historical analysis of migration: the pertinence of longitudinal analysis based on retrospective histories].

    PubMed

    Piche, V; Gregory, J; Lavoie, J

    1984-01-01

    The appropriateness of longitudinal analysis as a technique for studying migration is considered. Migration in Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) is used as the example. Data are taken from the 1974-75 National Survey of Migration, in which 36,785 men and 38,987 women were questioned. The authors begin with a theoretical discussion of the biases to be expected in retrospective histories. They next look at the migration data using first longitudinal analysis and then cross-sectional analysis. Results, at least for this example, show that cross-sectional analysis of migration has the advantage over longitudinal analysis of allowing the correlations between changes in migration patterns and particular historical events to be seen more readily.

  4. The Influences of Withdrawal and Daily Dose Reduction of Pioglitazone on Metabolic Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Fukunaga, Takayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Mishima, Shuichi; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to understand the influences of withdrawal or dose reduction of pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We retrospectively picked up patients who had undergone withdrawal or daily dose reduction of pioglitazone after a continuous prescription for 3 months or longer between January 2010 and March 2014. We compared the data before the withdrawal or dose reduction of pioglitazone with the data at 3 or 6 months after those by a chart-based analysis. Results Among 713 patients taking pioglitazone at least once during the studied period, 20 patients had undergone withdrawal of pioglitazone (group A) and 51 patients had undergone daily dose reduction (group B). The mean pioglitazone dose at baseline was 23 mg in subjects of group A, and 30 mg in group B. The number of subjects who had taken high-dose metformin (≥ 1,000 mg) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increased after the withdrawal or dose reduction of pioglitazone in both groups. Although no significant change was observed in plasma glucose and HbA1c levels, body weight significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months after the dose reduction in group B. The same tendency was observed in group A. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months after the withdrawal in group A. The serum alanine aminotransferase levels significantly increased 3 months after the withdrawal in group A. Conclusions Present study demonstrated that the withdrawal of pioglitazone exacerbated serum HDL-C and liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes, although glycemic control could be maintained by using high-dose metformin or DPP-4 inhibitors. PMID:27429679

  5. Cost-minimization analysis in the treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy with botulinum toxin type A: an observational, longitudinal, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Gloria; García-Romero, Mar; Crespo, Carlos; Cuesta, Maribel; Forné, Carles; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Objetivo: Estudio de minimización de costes de onabotulinumtoxinA y de abobotulinumtoxinA, teniendo en cuenta la dosis real administrada, en ninos con espasticidad asociada con la deformidad dinámica del pie equino debida a parálisis cerebral. Método: Estudio unicéntrico, observacional, longitudinal y retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes pediátricos espásticos entre 2 y 18 anos tratados con onabotulinumtoxinA o abobotulinumtoxinA, entre diciembre del 1995 y octubre del 2012, en el Servicio de Neurología Pediátrica de un hospital espanol de primer nivel. Se realizó un análisis longitudinal de la gravedad de la espasticidad para confirmar la similar efectividad de ambos tratamientos y proceder al análisis de minimización de costes que contempló las dosis infiltradas y los costes directos (costes farmacológicos y de visitas) desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (euros 2016). Resultados: Se analizaron 895 pacientes con espasticidad infantil, 543 fueron tratados únicamente con onabotulinumtoxinA, 292 con abobotulinumtoxinA y 60 con ambos tratamientos. Las dosis medias infiltradas obtenidas fueron de 5,44 U/kg (DE = 2,17) para las infiltraciones con onabotulinumtoxinA y de 14,73 U/kg (5,26) para las infiltraciones con abobotulinumto xinA. El coste directo anual total (farmacológico y visitas) fue de 839,56 € para onabotulinumtoxinA y de 631,23 € para abobotulinumtoxinA, lo que supone una diferencia de 208,34 € al ano a favor del tratamiento con abobotulinumtoxinA. Conclusiones: Se ha mostrado que en práctica clínica real el coste por paciente y ano del tratamiento de la espasticidad infantil resulta más económico con la utilización de abobotulinumtoxinA.

  6. Parenting Environment and Scholastic Achievement during Adolescence: A Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, Toon W.; Bok, Inge A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived parenting style (overly protective versus a warm and loving environment) on the scholastic achievement of 986 Dutch adults age 18-30 years. Retrospective and longitudinal data suggested that respondents with overprotective parents drop out more frequently and have a lower level of educational attainment…

  7. Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991–2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berni, Ellen; Scott, Laura A.; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; De Voogd, Hanka; Rocha, Monica S.; Butler, Chris C.; Morgan, Christopher Ll.; Currie, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM). The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27%), penicillin-V (24%), erythromycin (11%), flucloxacillin (11%) and oxytetracycline (6%). In 1991, the overall non-response rate was 9.3%: 11.9% for LRTIs, 9.5% for URTIs, 7.1% for SSTIs, 9.7% for AOM. In 2012, the overall non-response rate was 9.2%. Highest non-response rates were for AOM in 1991–1999 and for LRTIs in 2000–2012. Physicians generally prescribed antibiotics to adolescents according to recommendations. Evidence of antibiotic non-response was less common among adolescents during this 22-year study period compared with an all-age population, where the overall non-response rate was 12%. PMID:27384588

  8. Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991-2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Berni, Ellen; Scott, Laura A; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; De Voogd, Hanka; Rocha, Monica S; Butler, Chris C; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-07-04

    We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM). The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27%), penicillin-V (24%), erythromycin (11%), flucloxacillin (11%) and oxytetracycline (6%). In 1991, the overall non-response rate was 9.3%: 11.9% for LRTIs, 9.5% for URTIs, 7.1% for SSTIs, 9.7% for AOM. In 2012, the overall non-response rate was 9.2%. Highest non-response rates were for AOM in 1991-1999 and for LRTIs in 2000-2012. Physicians generally prescribed antibiotics to adolescents according to recommendations. Evidence of antibiotic non-response was less common among adolescents during this 22-year study period compared with an all-age population, where the overall non-response rate was 12%.

  9. Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991-2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Berni, Ellen; Scott, Laura A; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; De Voogd, Hanka; Rocha, Monica S; Butler, Chris C; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM). The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27%), penicillin-V (24%), erythromycin (11%), flucloxacillin (11%) and oxytetracycline (6%). In 1991, the overall non-response rate was 9.3%: 11.9% for LRTIs, 9.5% for URTIs, 7.1% for SSTIs, 9.7% for AOM. In 2012, the overall non-response rate was 9.2%. Highest non-response rates were for AOM in 1991-1999 and for LRTIs in 2000-2012. Physicians generally prescribed antibiotics to adolescents according to recommendations. Evidence of antibiotic non-response was less common among adolescents during this 22-year study period compared with an all-age population, where the overall non-response rate was 12%. PMID:27384588

  10. Immunotherapy prolongs the serum CEA-TPA-CA15.3 lead time at the metastatic progression in endocrine-dependent breast cancer patients: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, A; Carpi, A; Ferrari, P; Rossi, G

    2008-05-01

    In metastatic breast cancer tumour markers' increase predicts, by a few months (lead time) disease progression. In breast cancer patients with endocrine dependent metastatic disease, we reported a prolonged clinical benefit and overall survival when first line conventional antiestrogen hormone therapy was started at the lead time and also when an immunotherapy schedule was added to the same conventional hormone treatment. Thirty-two of these last patients were considered (group a). In 27 (group b) of these 32 patients who progressed during first line salvage hormone plus immunotherapy the lead time at the progression of metastatic disease during therapy was compared with that at the onset of metastases when the same patients were without treatment and with that of a control group (group c) who did not receive immunotherapy. At disease progression, CEA-TPA-CA15.3 sensitivity was 92.5% in the group b (studied patients) and 88.5% in the group c (controls). At the progression in the group b, CEA-TPA-CA15.3 lead time (m+/-sd, months) was significantly longer than in group c (12.1+/-12.9 vs 2.4+/-4.0) (P=0.000). Besides, in group b the lead time was significantly longer at the progression than at the metastatic onset (P=0.003) while in the group c the difference was near to significance (P=0.05). The CEA-TPA-CA15.3 tumour marker panel accurately predicted metastatic disease progression and immunotherapy significantly prolonged the CEA-TPA-CA15.3 lead time. This can be used for anticipating salvage treatment in these patients.

  11. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level

    PubMed Central

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    with low (0.90–0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72–0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83–0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91–1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93–0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. Conclusions This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda. PMID:27017824

  12. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level.

    PubMed

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-09-01

    low (0.90-0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83-0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91-1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93-0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. CONCLUSIONS : This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda.

  13. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level.

    PubMed

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-09-01

    low (0.90-0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83-0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91-1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93-0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. CONCLUSIONS : This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda. PMID:27017824

  14. Cancer cervix -- a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, M

    1999-06-01

    This retrospective study determined the proportion of cervical cancer among female cancer patients attending the radiotherapy department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Bangladesh, and explored some of the predisposing factors relating to a high proportion of this disease. The study was conducted among 242 patients suffering from cervical cancer drawn from the 964 female patients managed at MMCH. The proportion of cervical cancer was quite high, mostly among women of low socioeconomic status. The majority of the patients was aged 15-44 years; 64% were married before 20 years of age, experiencing sexual activity and becoming pregnant earlier. About 58% of respondents had more than 4 pregnancies and 57% were of low socioeconomic class. About 65% of the cases presented with an advanced stage of cervical cancer and were managed palliatively, while 35% of the cases were at an early stage and treatment was intended to cure. The proportion of cervical cancer was higher in Hindu women than in Muslim women. In summary, factors such as early sexual activity, having the first child at a young age, multiple pregnancies, multiple sex partners, and poor genital hygiene were commonly the predisposing factors for cervical cancer. Recommended interventions are aimed at addressing these predisposing factors.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  16. Investing in Better Outcomes: The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamel-McCormick, Michael; Amsden, Deborah

    This report details the outcomes for children enrolled in two types of early intervention programs in Delaware: those serving young children with disabilities and those serving young children living in poverty. The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was designed as a retrospective, two-group, posttest-only design. Participating in the…

  17. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  19. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  20. Mesiodens: a retrospective study of fifty teeth.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, A; Gupta, Y; Parkash, H

    2000-12-01

    A retrospective study of 30 cases of mesiodens is presented. male preponderance of 1.5:1. was 64% mesiodens were impacted and 36% erupted. Inverted impacted mesiodens was seen in 62.5% of the impacted mesiodens. 66.6% cases had 2 mesiodens per case. The harmful effects on the dentition were mostly crowding, rotation, diastema and impacted permanent incisor. PMID:11601184

  1. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  2. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  3. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  4. A brief retrospective method for identifying longitudinal trajectories of adjustment following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A; Sinan, Beyza

    2015-06-01

    Research increasingly indicates that prototypical trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed, and chronic distress characterize reactions to acute adversity. However, trajectory research has been limited by the practical and methodological difficulties of obtaining pre-event and longitudinal data. In two studies, we employed a novel method in which trained interviewers provided a graphical depiction of prototypical stress trajectories to participants and asked them to select the one that best described their experience. In Study 1, self-identified trajectories from 21 high-exposure survivors of the September 11th World Trade Center attacks distinguished variation in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms at 7 and 18 months, and were consistent with trajectories based on longitudinal outcomes and friend/relative ratings. In Study 2, we examined self-identified trajectories from 115 bereaved spouses at 1.5 to 3 years. Persons who identified a resilient trajectory, compared with recovery and chronic distress trajectories, had fewer interviewer-rated symptoms of grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were rated as functioning more effectively by friends, reported higher life satisfaction, and had fewer somatic complaints. The present results provide initial evidence for the construct validity of a cross-sectional and less demanding method for identifying acute stress trajectories.

  5. A brief retrospective method for identifying longitudinal trajectories of adjustment following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A; Sinan, Beyza

    2015-06-01

    Research increasingly indicates that prototypical trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed, and chronic distress characterize reactions to acute adversity. However, trajectory research has been limited by the practical and methodological difficulties of obtaining pre-event and longitudinal data. In two studies, we employed a novel method in which trained interviewers provided a graphical depiction of prototypical stress trajectories to participants and asked them to select the one that best described their experience. In Study 1, self-identified trajectories from 21 high-exposure survivors of the September 11th World Trade Center attacks distinguished variation in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms at 7 and 18 months, and were consistent with trajectories based on longitudinal outcomes and friend/relative ratings. In Study 2, we examined self-identified trajectories from 115 bereaved spouses at 1.5 to 3 years. Persons who identified a resilient trajectory, compared with recovery and chronic distress trajectories, had fewer interviewer-rated symptoms of grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were rated as functioning more effectively by friends, reported higher life satisfaction, and had fewer somatic complaints. The present results provide initial evidence for the construct validity of a cross-sectional and less demanding method for identifying acute stress trajectories. PMID:25288824

  6. [Erysipelas. Retrospective study of 647 patients].

    PubMed

    Zaraa, Inés; Zeglaoui, Faten; Zouari, Bechir; Ezzine, Nadia; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2004-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective at the department of dermatology of Charles Nicolle hospital of Tunis between January 1994 and December 2000 to determine the epidemiological, clinical profile and the evolution of erysipelas. A total of 647 patients were studied. The mean age was 44.73 years and sex ratio about 1.55. Erysipelas predominately involved in the lower limbs (91.2%). Antecedents of erysipelas were found in 26.12 %. Portal of entry was found in 76.66% represented essentially by toe-web intertrigo. 26.6% of patients were hospitalised. Erysipelas can be controlled with antibiotics; treatment is essentially based on penicillin G 4 mega units intramuscularly every day (60.58%) for mean duration of 10.13 days. Satisfying results were observed in 87.78%. Erysipelas is common disease source of over-morbidity. Many predisposing factors were incriminated, account for the frequency of recurrence, justifying implement of primary and secondary prevention.

  7. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  9. Pneumonia in stroke patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ding, R; Logemann, J A

    2000-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 378 consecutive stroke patients who were referred between June 1994 and June 1997 for videofluorographic study of oropharyngeal swallow. Patients who had radiation therapy, brain tumor, brain surgery, head and/or spinal cord trauma, oral-pharyngeal disease or surgery, or other neurologic diseases in addition to the stroke were excluded from the study. Patients were assigned to two groups: one with pneumonia and one without pneumonia. One hundred one patients were included in the pneumonia group, and 277 patients were included in the nonpneumonia group. Within the pneumonia group, patients were assigned to an acute pneumonia group (pneumonia within 6 months poststroke) and a chronic pneumonia group (pneumonia more than 6 months poststroke). Variables examined in the study included patients' medical history and the findings from the videofluorographic studies. Pearson chi-square analysis was used to identify those variables that were significantly different between the pneumonia and nonpneumonia patient groups and between the acute and chronic pneumonia groups. Results showed that stroke patients who developed pneumonia had a significantly higher incidence of multiple-location and unspecified lesion strokes, chronic airway disease in their medical history, and aspiration during the videofluorographic studies when compared with patients who did not develop pneumonia. Within the pneumonia group, the acute pneumonia group was found to have a significantly higher incidence of hypertension and diabetes in their medical history and a significantly higher incidence of aspiration and reduced laryngeal elevation during the videofluorographic studies. Between 48% and 55% of all stroke patients in the study aspirated. Patients who suffered multiple strokes, brainstem stroke, or subcortical stroke had the greatest frequency of aspiration.

  10. A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lee O'Brien; Bonde, Ida; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2015-07-01

    Blastocystis is a common single-celled intestinal parasitic genus, comprising several subtypes. Here, we screened data obtained by metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA for Blastocystis by searching for subtype-specific genes in coabundance gene groups, which are groups of genes that covary across a selection of 316 human faecal samples, hence representing genes originating from a single subtype. The 316 faecal samples were from 236 healthy individuals, 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 67 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of Blastocystis was 20.3% in the healthy individuals and 14.9% in patients with UC. Meanwhile, Blastocystis was absent in patients with CD. Individuals with intestinal microbiota dominated by Bacteroides were much less prone to having Blastocystis-positive stool (Matthew's correlation coefficient = -0.25, P < 0.0001) than individuals with Ruminococcus- and Prevotella-driven enterotypes. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between Blastocystis and communities of gut bacteria using a metagenomics approach. The study serves as an example of how it is possible to retrospectively investigate microbial eukaryotic communities in the gut using metagenomic datasets targeting the bacterial component of the intestinal microbiome and the interplay between these microbial communities.

  11. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  12. Longitudinal studies based on vital registration records.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J

    1989-01-01

    We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588

  13. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  14. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  15. Daptomycin Therapy for Osteomyelitis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Daptomycin is a rapidly bactericidal agent with broad coverage against Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequent cause of osteomyelitis. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical outcome of patients with non-hardware associated osteomyelitis, and the safety profile of daptomycin in the treatment of these infections. Methods All patients with osteomyelitis, excluding concurrent orthopedic foreign body infections, treated with daptomycin and identified between 2007–2008 in a retrospective, multicenter, observational registry, were included. Investigators assessed patient outcome (cured, improved, failed, non-evaluable) at the end of daptomycin therapy. Patients with a successful outcome at the end of daptomycin therapy were reassessed in 2009. All patients were included in the safety analysis; evaluable patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Data was assessed using descriptive statistics. A Kaplan Meier analysis was used to assess time to clinical failure. Results Two-hundred and nine osteomyelitis patients successfully completed daptomycin therapy in 2007–2008, 71 of which (34%) had a follow-up visit in 2009 and had an evaluable clinical outcome. The median (min, max) daptomycin dose and duration were 6 mg/kg (4, 10) and 42 days (1, 88), respectively. Of the 52 patients with a documented pathogen, S. aureus was the most common (42%); primarily methicillin-resistant S. aureus. All patients were included in the safety analysis; evaluable patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Clinical resolution was reported in 94% (CI - 86.2%, 98.44%) of patients. A Kaplan Meier analysis of time to clinical failure showed that approximately 85% (CI – 64%, 95%) of patients had a continued successful outcome at the time of re-evaluation. Eighteen patients (25%) in the safety population experienced an adverse event; 13 patients (18%) had an adverse event that was possibly-related to daptomycin

  16. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  17. Using Retrospective Sampling to Estimate Models of Relationship Status in Large Longitudinal Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, A. James; Paul, Sudeshna

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of longitudinal models of relationship status between all pairs of individuals (dyads) in social networks is challenging due to the complex inter-dependencies among observations and lengthy computation times. To reduce the computational burden of model estimation, a method is developed that subsamples the “always-null” dyads in which no relationships develop throughout the period of observation. The informative sampling process is accounted for by weighting the likelihood contributions of the observations by the inverses of the sampling probabilities. This weighted-likelihood estimation method is implemented using Bayesian computation and evaluated in terms of its bias, efficiency, and speed of computation under various settings. Comparisons are also made to a full information likelihood-based procedure that is only feasible to compute when limited follow-up observations are available. Calculations are performed on two real social networks of very different sizes. The easily computed weighted-likelihood procedure closely approximates the corresponding estimates for the full network, even when using low sub-sampling fractions. The fast computation times make the weighted-likelihood approach practical and able to be applied to networks of any size. PMID:26692600

  18. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  19. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  20. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access. PMID:27656667

  1. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  2. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  3. Relation of Melody Complexity in Infants' Cries to Language Outcome in the Second Year of Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Kathleen; Leising, Daniel; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of the German Language Development Study's prospective longitudinal research programme on infants from birth until the age of 3 years. Thirty-four infants were retrospectively classified into two groups (normal/delayed) by their language skills at 2.5 years of age. Frequency spectrograms and melodies of about 11,000 cries from…

  4. Hidradenitis suppurativa: retrospective study of 20 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Nurimar Conceição; Franco, Camilla Pimentel A.; Lima, Cíntia Maria O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, twenty cases of severe hidradenitis suppurativa are reported, mainly in non-white people and in axillary areas. Wide surgical excision has offered good results, although relapses have occurred at variable intervals in the follow-up period. PMID:23793188

  5. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  6. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  7. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  8. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Students' Approaches to Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungert, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study draws on data from a larger project and examines how students' perceptions of their opportunities to influence their study environment may be enacted in approaches aimed at influencing their studies, and whether this changes during the course of their studies. Ten students from a 4.5-year Master's program in Engineering…

  10. Identifying Gender-Preferred Communication Styles within Online Cancer Communities: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T.; Safran, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this research is to determine if different gender-preferred social styles can be observed within the user interactions at an online cancer community. To achieve this goal, we identify and measure variables that pertain to each gender-specific social style. Methods and Findings We perform social network and statistical analysis on the communication flow of 8,388 members at six different cancer forums over eight years. Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to measure the difference between the number of intimate (and highly intimate) dyads, relationship length, and number of communications. We determine that two patients are more likely to form an intimate bond on a gender-specific cancer forum (ovarian P = <0.0001, breast P = 0.0089, prostate P = 0.0021). Two female patients are more likely to form a highly intimate bond on a female-specific cancer forum (Ovarian P<0.0001, Breast P<0.01). Typically a male patient communicates with more members than a female patient (Ovarian forum P = 0.0406, Breast forum P = 0.0013). A relationship between two patients is longer on the gender-specific cancer forums than a connection between two members not identified as patients (ovarian forum P = 0.00406, breast forum P = 0.00013, prostate forum P = .0.0003). Conclusion The high level of interconnectedness among the prostate patients supports the hypothesis that men prefer to socialize in large, interconnected, less-intimate groups. A female patient is more likely to form a highly intimate connection with another female patient; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that woman prefer fewer, more intimate connections. The relationships of same-gender cancer patients last longer than other relationships; this finding demonstrates homophily within these online communities. Our findings regarding online communication preferences are in agreement with research findings from person-to-person communication preference studies

  11. Spectinomycin in the treatment of anal gonorrhea: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Felman, Y M; William, D C; Corsaro, M C

    1978-01-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective study of 125 male patients treated for anal gonorrhea with 4 g of spectinomycin in a social hygiene clinic. Of those treated, nine (7.2%) still had cultures positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae when tested again five to 14 days after treatment.

  12. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  13. Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

    This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  15. Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study: Second Major Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter

    Sections of this report introduce many of the activities undertaken in 1982 within the purview of the Mt. Druitt (Australia) longitudinal study. Included are reports of (1) the 1982 math investigation, (2) a longitudinal study of child growth and development and the incidence of physical defects at ages 9 and 10, (3) an investigation of classroom…

  16. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  17. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  18. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  19. [Post-arrest memory disorders. Results of a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Barbey, I

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective study on 362 criminal responsibility reports showed a high proportion of accused persons claiming amnesia for the offence. Subjects of the amnesic group were compared with a non-amnesic control group. Statistically significant relations were found between amnesia and sex, imprisonment, nature of the offence, exogenous factors and psychogenic disturbances. Results of this study and of other published studies confirm the problems in differentiating etiology of amnesia after criminal offences. Valid and reliable diagnostic techniques especially for detecting simulated amnesia are missed. Misconceptions about amnesia are still widespread among judges, lawyers and offenders. Because amnesia occurs after crime it is not necessary for assessing criminal responsibility.

  20. Neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Valero, J; Gallart, J; González, D; Agustín, L; Marquina, R; Deus, J; Lahoz, M

    2012-08-01

    This retrospective study was carried out over 83 surgical cases at the distal portion of the fifth metatarsal, compromising the treatment of tailor's bunion, fifth metatarsal overload and the concomitant presence of both pathologies in some cases. Neuromas were founded under the fifth metatarsal head in 18 of the cases studied (21.7%). The results look at whether if there is an association between different fifth metatarsal pathologies and the presence of neuromas and found a significant association between the appearance of neuromas in patients with the same metatarsal overload, especially if it is accompanied by a tailor's bunion pathology.

  1. Cross-sectional retrospective study of muscle function in patients with glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Decostre, Valérie; Laforêt, Pascal; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; De Antonio, Marie; Leveugle, Sylvain; Ollivier, Gwenn; Canal, Aurélie; Kachetel, Kahina; Petit, François; Eymard, Bruno; Behin, Anthony; Wahbi, Karim; Labrune, Philippe; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by liver and muscle impairment. This study aimed to identify promising muscle function measures for future studies on natural disease progression and therapeutic trials. The age-effect on the manual muscle testing (MMT), the hand-held dynamometry (HHD), the motor function measure (MFM) and the Purdue pegboard test was evaluated by regression analysis in a cross-sectional retrospective single site study. In patients aged between 13 and 56 years old, the Purdue pegboard test and dynamometry of key pinch and knee extension strength were age-sensitive with annual losses of 1.49, 1.10 and 0.70% of the predicted values (%pred), respectively. The MFM score and handgrip strength were also age-sensitive but only in patients older than 29 and 37 years old with annual losses of 1.42 and 1.84%pred, respectively. Muscle strength assessed by MMT and elbow extension measured by HHD demonstrated an annual loss of less than 0.50%pred and are thus unlikely to be promising outcome measures for future clinical trials. In conclusion, our results identified age-sensitive outcomes from retrospective data and may serve for future longitudinal studies in which an estimation of the minimal number of subjects is provided.

  2. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence...: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900--New...

  3. Risk factors, clinical variants and therapeutic outcome of retronychia: a retrospective study of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Emilie; Prevezas, Christos; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Cogrel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Retronychia is a form of post-traumatic ingrowing nail disease that involves proximal nail plate embedding into the proximal nail fold, with multiple generations of nail plate beneath the proximal nail. This disease is probably underdiagnosed because of incomplete clinical forms. The aim of this study was to report clinical and aetiological variants of retronychia and to evaluate their therapeutic outcome. A retrospective review was performed on 18 patients who were seen in our institution between 2007 and 2013. The diagnostic criteria for retronychia were paronychia and interruption of nail growth. A female predominance (83.3%) was reported. Various precipitating factors were found, including traumatisms in 10 patients (55%), pregnancy and postpartum period in two patients (11%), and compartment syndrome in one patient (5%). The mean duration of paronychia was eight months (15 days to four years). The fingers most affected were the great toes. Retronychia occurred bilaterally in five cases (27%) and unilaterally in one case (61%). The commonest signs were, in decreasing order, xanthonychia (yellow discolouration of nail plate), longitudinal nail over-curvature, swelling of proximal nail fold, elevation of the proximal nail plate, granulation tissue, subungual hyperkeratosis, superficial leuconychia, distal onycholysis, subungueal haemorrhage, and Beau's lines. Most of the cases improved after proximal nail plate avulsion. Recurrence occurred in three cases (16.6%). In our opinion, ischaemic damage is the main cause of retronychia. Evaluation of clinical variants is mandatory to propose appropriate treatment. The limitations of this study include the retrospective design. PMID:27122126

  4. A Retrospective Study of Congenital Cardiac Abnormality Associated with Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Ucpunar, Hanifi; Sevencan, Ahmet; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Albayrak, Akif; Polat, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To identify the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients who had scoliosis and underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Overview of Literature Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis (IS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. We sought to establish and compare the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis (CS) who underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Methods Ninety consecutive scoliosis patients, who underwent surgical correction of scoliosis, were classified as CS (55 patients, 28 female [51%]) and IS (35 patients, 21 female [60%]). The complete data of the patients, including medical records, plain radiograph and transthoracic echocardiography were retrospectively assessed. Results We found that mitral valve prolapse was the most common cardiac abnormality in both patients with IS (nine patients, 26%) and CS (13 patients, 24%). Other congenital cardiac abnormalities were atrial septal aneurysm (23% of IS patients, 18% of CS patients), pulmonary insufficiency (20% of IS patients, 4% of CS patients), aortic insufficiency (17% of IS patients), atrial septal defect (11% of IS patients, 13% of CS patients), patent foramen ovale (15% of CS patients), dextrocardia (4% of CS patients), bicuspid aortic valve (3% of IS patients), aortic stenosis (2% of CS patients), ventricular septal defect (2% of CS patients), and cardiomyopathy (2% of CS patients). Conclusions We determined the increased incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities among patients with congenital and IS. Mitral valve prolapse appeared to be the most prevalent congenital cardiac abnormality in both groups. PMID:27114761

  5. Understanding putative risk factors for schizophrenia: retrospective and prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    King, Suzanne; Laplante, David; Joober, Ridha

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research program intended to provide a better understanding of the influence of several putative risk factors for schizophrenia on child development and psychosis. Two related components of the overall program are described: the retrospective EnviroGen projects, which use a variety of putative risk factors to explain variance in several dimensions of schizophrenia and in psychotic symptoms in community controls, and Project Ice Storm, which prospectively examines the effects of prenatal maternal stress in the children of women who were exposed to the 1998 Quebec ice storm during their pregnancies. The EnviroGen projects have been successful in explaining variance in several dimensions of illness, including premorbid adjustment and severity of dissociative symptoms. Project Ice Storm has demonstrated the noxious effects of prenatal stress on cognitive and language development in children. We have also found that “ice storm children” exposed in specific weeks of gestation show greater dermatoglyphic asymmetry, as has been reported for samples of patients with schizophrenia. In both studies, prenatal maternal stress has been associated with more severe childhood behaviour problems. The combination of retrospective and prospective studies is a rich source of triangulated results providing information about developmental psychopathology. PMID:16151539

  6. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugurluer, Gamze; Miller, Robert C.; Li, Yexiong; Thariat, Juliette; Ghadjar, Pirus; Schick, Ulrike; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare malignancy. We aimed to assess the clinical profile, outcome and prognostic factors in PHL through the Rare Cancer Network (RCN). A retrospective analysis of 41 patients was performed. Median age was 62 years (range, 23-86 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1.0. Abdominal pain or discomfort was the most common presenting symptom. Regarding B-symptoms, 19.5% of patients had fever, 17.1% weight loss, and 9.8% night sweats. The most common radiological presentation was multiple lesions. Liver function tests were elevated in 56.1% of patients. The most common histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (65.9%). Most of the patients received Chop-like (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimens; 4 patients received radiotherapy (dose range, 30.6-40.0 Gy). Median survival was 163 months, and 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 69, 56, 87 and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fever, weight loss, and normal hemoglobin level were the independent factors influencing the outcome. In this retrospective multicenter RCN study, patients with PHL had a relatively better prognosis than that reported elsewhere. Multicenter prospective studies are still warranted to establish treatment guidelines, outcome, and prognostic factors. PMID:27746888

  7. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    “Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  8. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    "Unmodified"-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe "how bad was unmodified-ECT" to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990-1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. "Unmodified"-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care.

  9. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    "Unmodified"-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe "how bad was unmodified-ECT" to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990-1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. "Unmodified"-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  10. Cutaneous Lymphoma in Korea: A Nationwide Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Suh, Kee Suck; Lee, Dong-Youn; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Soo-Chan; Lee, Seok-Jong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Young; Won, Young Ho; Kim, You Chan

    2016-05-01

    The epidemiological and clinicopathological features of cutaneous lymphoma may vary by geographical area. However, only a few large-scale epidemiological studies of cutaneous lymphoma have been performed, mainly in the USA and Europe. This aim of this study was to determine the recent characteristics of cutaneous lymphoma in Korea according to the WHO/EORTC classification. A total of 422 patients with newly diagnosed cutaneous lymphoma from January 2009 to December 2013 comprising 293 cases of mature T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma and 39 cases of mature B-cell lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of mature B-cell lymphoma was lower in Korea than in Europe and the USA. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more prevalent in Korea than in Western countries. The incidence of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type was higher in Korea than in Western countries and Japan. PMID:26560051

  11. A retrospective study of six patients with mandibular metastatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CAI, ZHEN; ZHU, CHAO; WANG, LIZHEN; ZHU, LING; ZHANG, ZHIYUAN; ZHU, HANGUANG; WANG, YAN'AN

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular metastatic carcinoma is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of all oral malignancies. To provide greater experience in this field, the present study was conducted in which 6 cases of mandibular metastatic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The origin of the lesions was the prostate in 2 cases, the lungs in 2 cases, the breast in 1 case and the thyroid gland in 1 case. The clinical and computed tomography features, surgical management and follow-up outcomes were investigated. The study indicated that surgeons should include the suspicion of metastasis in the differential diagnosis for mandibular tumor, particularly in patients who have a history of malignancy. A poor prognosis was associated with the examined patients. To extend the survival time as long as possible, a treatment strategy using multiple therapies, including segmental mandibulectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is recommended. PMID:27284368

  12. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  13. A Retrospective Study of Bacterial Infections in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    PREDA, Carmen Monica; GHITA, Ruxandra; GHITA, Camelia; MINDRU, Cezarina; VLAICU, Livia; ANDREI, Adriana; ANDREI, Sorin; DICULESCU, Mircea

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the incidence of bacterial infections (BI) in hepatic cirrhosis (HC), the pathogen agents involved, to define the risk factors and impact on prognosis. Methods: There was a retrospective study that enrolled a total of 1046 patients with HC admitted in our clinic between 1.10.2008-31.03.2009 (6 months). Clinical, biological and bacteriological data were monitored. Results: 51 patients (4.9%) were found with BI. In one patient BI was located in three sites: peritoneal, blood and urine, and in 7 patients BI was located in 2 sites. BI location was: peritoneal-26 cases, urinary-20 cases, pneumonia – 8 cases, skin – 4 cases and bacteremia -1 case. 43 episodes were community acquired, while 17 episodes were - nosocomial (peritoneal – 3 cases, lung – 6 cases, skin – 2 cases, urinary – 5 cases). Of the 26 cases with bacterial peritonitis, the etiologic agent was identified in three: E. coli, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes. 18% of patients with HC and BI presented upper GI bleeding. 12 cases required admission to the Intensive Care Unit, where the death rate reached 83%. The risk factors for BI in HC were: decompensated HC OR=58,23 (95% CI 8.63÷1141.31), p-value 10-12, Child Pugh score C: OR =1.99 (95% CI 1.04÷3.8), p-value= 0.02. Conclusions: In this study the rate of bacterial infections in HC is low compared with the literature (4.9% vs. 15-30%), because the study was retrospective, hence recorded only severe infections. We must actively seek infections in all hospitalized patients with HC, especially in the ones with decompensated cirrhosis and with upper GI bleeding. PMID:22368695

  14. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  15. Set-based tests for genetic association in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    He, Zihuai; Zhang, Min; Lee, Seunggeun; Smith, Jennifer A; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Kardia, Sharon L R; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2015-09-01

    Genetic association studies with longitudinal markers of chronic diseases (e.g., blood pressure, body mass index) provide a valuable opportunity to explore how genetic variants affect traits over time by utilizing the full trajectory of longitudinal outcomes. Since these traits are likely influenced by the joint effect of multiple variants in a gene, a joint analysis of these variants considering linkage disequilibrium (LD) may help to explain additional phenotypic variation. In this article, we propose a longitudinal genetic random field model (LGRF), to test the association between a phenotype measured repeatedly during the course of an observational study and a set of genetic variants. Generalized score type tests are developed, which we show are robust to misspecification of within-subject correlation, a feature that is desirable for longitudinal analysis. In addition, a joint test incorporating gene-time interaction is further proposed. Computational advancement is made for scalable implementation of the proposed methods in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The proposed methods are evaluated through extensive simulation studies and illustrated using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Our simulation results indicate substantial gain in power using LGRF when compared with two commonly used existing alternatives: (i) single marker tests using longitudinal outcome and (ii) existing gene-based tests using the average value of repeated measurements as the outcome.

  16. [Retrospective study on Latrodectus stings in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lira-da-Silva, R M; Matos, G B; Sampaio, R O; Nunes, T B

    1995-01-01

    This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB). Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57%) affecting men (70%) more than women, with 10 to 29 year-old age group (58%). Local pain (56%), erythematous papula (29%) and light oedema (17%) were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%), tremor and rigidities (29%), sweating (28%), limbs and arms paresthesia (21%) and abdominal pain (17%) were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67%) and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours.

  17. [The readmission of schizophrenics: a retrospective study over 5 years].

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D; Rey-Bellet, J; Müller, C

    1988-05-01

    Since the introduction of neuroleptics, the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals has decreased progressively, but, in the same time, the number of readmissions has increased. For schizophrenic outpatients, we can estimate that 68% will be readmitted during the 5 years following their departure from the hospital. In our retrospective survey, we have studied the different factors which influence the readmissions. We have shown, with a statistical significancy, that an agricultural background, a fulltime job and brief hospitalizations prevent the readmissions. However patients aged less than 30 years, with long hospitalizations and living alone have a high risk of readmission. The most frequent causes are patient's omission to take prescribed drugs, environmental conflicts and alteration in the familial situation. PMID:3059911

  18. Anaesthesia for awake craniotomy: A retrospective study of 54 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sokhal, Navdeep; Rath, Girija Prasad; Chaturvedi, Arvind; Dash, Hari Hara; Bithal, Parmod Kumar; Chandra, P Sarat

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The anaesthetic challenge of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate sedation, analgesia, respiratory and haemodynamic stability in an awake patient who should be able to co-operate during intraoperative neurological assessment. The current literature, sharing the experience on awake craniotomy, in Indian context, is minimal. Hence, we carried out a retrospective study with the aim to review and analyse the anaesthetic management and perioperative complications in patients undergoing awake craniotomy, at our centre. Methods: Medical records of 54 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for intracranial lesions over a period of 10 years were reviewed, retrospectively. Data regarding anaesthetic management, intraoperative complications and post-operative course were recorded. Results: Propofol (81.5%) and dexmedetomidine (18.5%) were the main agents used for providing conscious sedation to facilitate awake craniotomy. Hypertension (16.7%) was the most commonly encountered complication during intraoperative period, followed by seizures (9.3%), desaturation (7.4%), tight brain (7.4%), and shivering (5.6%). The procedure had to be converted to general anaesthesia in one of patients owing to refractory brain bulge. The incidence of respiratory and haemodynamic complications were comparable in the both groups (P > 0.05). There was less incidence of intraoperative seizures in patients who received propofol (P = 0.03). In post-operative period, 20% of patients developed new motor deficit. Mean intensive care unit stay was 2.8 ± 1.9 day (1–14 days) and mean hospital stay was 7.0 ± 5.0 day (3–30 days). Conclusions: ‘Conscious sedation’ was the technique of choice for awake craniotomy, at our institute. Fentanyl, propofol, and dexmedetomidine were the main agents used for this purpose. Patients receiving propofol had less incidence of intraoperative seizure. Appropriate selection of patients, understanding the procedure of surgery, and judicious

  19. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  20. Electrophysiological studies in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a retrospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Bandorski, Dirk; Schmitt, Jörn; Kurzlechner, Claudia; Erkapic, Damir; Hamm, Christian W; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Ardeschir; Höltgen, Reinhard; Gall, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated patients with pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias. Data on electrophysiological studies in these patients are rare. In a retrospective dual-centre design, we analysed data from patients with indications for electrophysiological study. Fifty-five patients with pulmonary hypertension were included (Dana Point Classification: group 1: 14, group 2: 23, group 3: 4, group 4: 8, group 5: 2, and 4 patients with exercised-induced pulmonary hypertension). Clinical data, 6-minute walk distance, laboratory values, and echocardiography were collected/performed. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was the most frequent indication (n = 15) for an electrophysiological study, followed by atrial flutter (n = 14). In summary 36 ablations were performed and 25 of them were successful (atrial flutter 12 of 14 and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia 4 of 4). Fluoroscopy time was 16 ± 14.4 minutes. Electrophysiological studies in patients with pulmonary hypertension are feasible and safe. Ablation procedures are as effective in these patients as in non-PAH patients with atrial flutter and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and should be performed likewise. The prognostic relevance of ventricular stimulations and inducible ventricular tachycardias in these patients is still unclear and requires further investigation.

  1. Electrophysiological Studies in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension: A Retrospective Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Schmitt, Jörn; Kurzlechner, Claudia; Erkapic, Damir; Hamm, Christian W.; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Ardeschir; Höltgen, Reinhard; Gall, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated patients with pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias. Data on electrophysiological studies in these patients are rare. In a retrospective dual-centre design, we analysed data from patients with indications for electrophysiological study. Fifty-five patients with pulmonary hypertension were included (Dana Point Classification: group 1: 14, group 2: 23, group 3: 4, group 4: 8, group 5: 2, and 4 patients with exercised-induced pulmonary hypertension). Clinical data, 6-minute walk distance, laboratory values, and echocardiography were collected/performed. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was the most frequent indication (n = 15) for an electrophysiological study, followed by atrial flutter (n = 14). In summary 36 ablations were performed and 25 of them were successful (atrial flutter 12 of 14 and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia 4 of 4). Fluoroscopy time was 16 ± 14.4 minutes. Electrophysiological studies in patients with pulmonary hypertension are feasible and safe. Ablation procedures are as effective in these patients as in non-PAH patients with atrial flutter and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and should be performed likewise. The prognostic relevance of ventricular stimulations and inducible ventricular tachycardias in these patients is still unclear and requires further investigation. PMID:24977152

  2. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:26925653

  3. Positive illusions in marital relationships: a 13-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul J E; Niehuis, Sylvia; Huston, Ted L

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the long-term consequences of idealization in marriage, using both daily diary and questionnaire data collected from a sample of 168 newlywed couples who participated in a 4-wave, 13-year longitudinal study of marriage. Idealization was operationalized as the tendency for people to perceive their partner as more agreeable than would be expected based on their reports of their partner's agreeable and disagreeable behaviors. Spouses who idealized one another were more in love with each other as newlyweds. Longitudinal analyses suggested that spouses were less likely to suffer declines in love when they idealized one another as newlyweds. Newlywed levels of idealization did not predict divorce.

  4. Longitudinal Case-Studies of Developmental Dyslexia in Norwegian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergard-Nilssen, Trude

    2006-01-01

    This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children…

  5. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  6. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Coentre, Ricardo; Silva-Dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18-48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  7. Retrospective mortality study of cadmium workers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Thun, M.J.; Schnorr, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-02-06

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a group of workers exposed to cadmium (7440439), to determine specific causes of death among these workers. The report reviewed the findings of the study and presented additional findings concerning exposures to other hazards at the facility. The study examined the causes of death for 292 cadmium workers who worked at least 2 years at a small facility that recovered cadmium from bag house dust. Exposures included dusts of cadmium-oxide (1306190) and cadmium-sulfide (1306236) and to fumes of cadmium itself. Over a two fold excess of deaths from respiratory cancer was noted among these workers when compared with the general population and over a three fold excess of deaths from prostatic cancer among the men. A follow up of the study cohort revealed that all cause mortality was slightly below that of the United States male population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for circulatory disease was 65. Deaths due to respiratory cancer were 65% above the number expected. All of the 20 deaths from respiratory cancer were due to cancer of the lung, trachea and bronchus. Deaths due to genitourinary cancer were 35% above expected levels.

  8. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  9. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  10. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2010-01-01

    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  12. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  13. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Retirement in Older Male Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Paula P.; Lunney, Carole A.; Sengupta, Anjana; Spiro, Avron

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effect of retirement on psychological and physical symptoms in 404 older male veterans who were taking part in an ongoing longitudinal study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze symptom trajectories from preretirement, peri-retirement, and postretirement periods in veterans with either lifetime…

  15. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  16. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  17. The Longitudinal Study (LAS): Thirteen Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    This study is the fifth assessment in an 18-year longitudinal study begun in 1986 to follow a group of Montessori students who attended the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Participating were 45 students with an average age of 18 years, about half of whom were in high school and half in college. Students completed an online…

  18. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  19. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  20. [Infectious sacroiliitis in tunisian centre: retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Bellazreg, Foued; Alaya, Zeineb; Hattab, Zouhour; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Ayeche, Mohamed Laziz Ben; Bouajina, Elyes; Letaief, Amel; Hachfi, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Infectious sacroiliitis are rare but they can be complicated by disabling functional sequelae. To describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of infectious sacroiliitis among patients treated in Sousse Medical Center, Tunisia. A retrospective, descriptive study, of infectious sacroiliitis among patients hositalized in Sousse between 2000 and 2015. The diagnosis was made on the basis of medical signs, imaging, microbiological indicators. In the study were enrolled twenty five patients, 10 men and 15 women; the average age was 41 years (19-78). Sacroiliitis were due to pyogenic bacteria in 14 cases (56%), brucella bacteria in 6 cases (24%) and tuberculosis bacteria in 5 cases (20%). The mean duration of symptoms was 61, 45 and 402 days respectively. The most common clinical signs were buttock pain (92%) and fever (88%). Standard radiographic evaluation was abnormal in 75% of cases. CT scan and MRI of the sacroiliac joints was performed in all cases. The diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 24 cases (96%). The average duration of antibiotic treatment was 83 days in the pyogenic sacroiliitis, and 102 days in brucellar sacroiliitis. The evolution was favorable in 12 patients (48%), 9 patients (36%) had sequelae of sacroiliac joint pain and 4 patients (16%) died. In our study, time frame of infectious sacroiliitis evolution did not predict the causative bacterium, hence the need for bacteriological documentation in order to prescribe appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:27583067

  1. Radiographic evaluation of mandibular ramus for gender estimation: Retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Damera, Ajit; Mohanalakhsmi, Jonnala; Yellarthi, Pavan Kumar; Rezwana, Begum Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: A radiographic retrospective study was conducted using 80 digital orthopantomographs to measure, compare, and evaluate the measurements of the mandibular ramus such as maximum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and coronoid heightusing Planmeca ProMax® digital machine to assess the usefulness of mandibular measurements in gender estimation. Results: Descriptive statistics of various measurements and associated univariate F ratios for both the sexes were determined. Four variables were significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). The F-statistic values indicated that measurements expressing the greatest sexual dimorphism were noticed in the maximum ramus height. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be considered as a valuable tool in gender estimation and the most reliable measurements were obtained of linear objects in the horizontal plane by digital panoramic imaging. PMID:27555722

  2. [Infectious sacroiliitis in tunisian centre: retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Bellazreg, Foued; Alaya, Zeineb; Hattab, Zouhour; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Ayeche, Mohamed Laziz Ben; Bouajina, Elyes; Letaief, Amel; Hachfi, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Infectious sacroiliitis are rare but they can be complicated by disabling functional sequelae. To describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of infectious sacroiliitis among patients treated in Sousse Medical Center, Tunisia. A retrospective, descriptive study, of infectious sacroiliitis among patients hositalized in Sousse between 2000 and 2015. The diagnosis was made on the basis of medical signs, imaging, microbiological indicators. In the study were enrolled twenty five patients, 10 men and 15 women; the average age was 41 years (19-78). Sacroiliitis were due to pyogenic bacteria in 14 cases (56%), brucella bacteria in 6 cases (24%) and tuberculosis bacteria in 5 cases (20%). The mean duration of symptoms was 61, 45 and 402 days respectively. The most common clinical signs were buttock pain (92%) and fever (88%). Standard radiographic evaluation was abnormal in 75% of cases. CT scan and MRI of the sacroiliac joints was performed in all cases. The diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 24 cases (96%). The average duration of antibiotic treatment was 83 days in the pyogenic sacroiliitis, and 102 days in brucellar sacroiliitis. The evolution was favorable in 12 patients (48%), 9 patients (36%) had sequelae of sacroiliac joint pain and 4 patients (16%) died. In our study, time frame of infectious sacroiliitis evolution did not predict the causative bacterium, hence the need for bacteriological documentation in order to prescribe appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  3. Advanced Orofacial Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Retrospective Study of 31 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Otmani, Naima; Khattab, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma encountered in childhood and adolescence. Early diagnosis of pediatric cases is critical to improving outcomes, especially when socioeconomic status and geographical access to specialist services can reduce opportunities for early cancer detection and treatment. Objective  The objective of this study is to determine factors that can delay referral and treatment in specialist pediatric oncology center upon our population specificities. Methods  This retrospective study involved 31 children between 2003 and 2013. Children affected by histologically confirmed RMS occurring as a primary lesion in the orofacial area were included. Results  The median age was 8 ± 4.22 years (range: 3 months – 15 years). The male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Most of the patients had advanced stage disease at presentation (81.7% group had 3–4 pretreatment staging) with parameningeal involvement in 80.6% of the cases. The 2-year event-free survival rate was 17.7 ± 7.8% for all the patients. Delay of admission to our unit and abandonment of treatment seem to be important factors for the dismal prognosis. Conclusion  Patient's location, socioeconomic status and health care coverage have had an impact on longer delays in seeking care and on follow-up. More studies are needed for implementation of a better management practices and a better supportive care upon specificities of our population. PMID:27413400

  4. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26783077

  5. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  7. Fractures of angle of mandible – A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourav; Fry, Ramesh R.; Joshi, Ajit; Sharma, Geeta; Singh, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Aims This retrospective study was done to evaluate the efficacy of single miniplate osteosynthesis at superior border of angle of mandible. Material and methods In this study 50 patients were treated by single miniplate osteosynthesis according to Champy's principle. Bite force generated was used as a parameter for judging the efficacy of internal fixation. In this article we present our experience over the years in the management of the fractures of angle of mandible based on this model. Results Most patients were of 21–30 yrs of age with unilateral angle fracture of mandible except one patient who had isolated bilateral angle fracture. The patients were treated successfully according to Champy's principle of osteosynthesis. There was a progressive improvement in the bite force generated after osteosynthesis. Conclusions The angle of the mandible is an anatomically weak and an area susceptible to fracture. The presence of an impacted or partially erupted third molar tooth further weakens it. Angle of mandible is the most common site for fracture however, bilateral angle fracture is very rare and uncommon. Osteosynthesis according to Champy's model led to an early functional improvement as demonstrated by the bite force generated. PMID:25737858

  8. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  9. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545

  10. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Demitrost, Laloo; Ranabir, Salam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8%) are euthyroid, 33 (16.3%) have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females), 23 (11.4%) have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females), 4 (2%) have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5%) are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016). Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25. PMID:23565418

  11. Influence of cholesterol on survival after stroke: retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dyker, A. G.; Weir, C. J.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum cholesterol concentration and cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Acute stroke unit of inner city general hospital. SUBJECTS: 977 patients with acute stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total cholesterol concentration, type of stroke investigated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, three month outcome (good (alive at home) or bad (dead or in care)), long term mortality. RESULTS: After adjustment for known prognostic factors, higher serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with reduced long term mortality after stroke (relative hazard 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.98) per mmol/l increase in cholesterol) independently of stroke type, vascular territory and extent, age, and hyperglycaemia. Three month outcome was also influenced independently by serum cholesterol (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an association between poor stroke outcome and lower serum cholesterol concentration. Until a prospective controlled study has confirmed the benefits of lowering cholesterol concentration in elderly subjects, the application of cholesterol lowering guidelines cannot be justified as secondary prevention of acute stroke. PMID:9169402

  12. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Hosseinpoor, Masoumeh; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  13. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects.

  14. Infantile acne: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.

  15. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  16. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Hosseinpoor, Masoumeh; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects.

  17. Longitudinal Study of Obesity and Athletic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, David B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that tracked the fatness of elementary students over two years using current fitness test standards, assessing the athletic competence of obese and nonobese children. Children who were obese at the beginning of the study were likely to remain so. The study's findings regarding athletic competence were equivocal. (SM)

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Adjustment during Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    A 7-year, longitudinal study of children's social development from kindergarten through sixth grade was designed to identify unusually prosocial children and characteristics that differentiated them from average and antisocial peers. Another objective was to identify functional socioemotional predictors of changes in children's social adjustment.…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  2. Helping Rural Adolescents Make Successful Postsecondary Transitions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapan, Richard T.; Aoyagi, Mark; Kayson, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal study in this article tested whether advantages in the career development of high school seniors resulted in better transition outcomes for these young adults 3 years after they graduated from high school. Enhanced career development in high school was significantly connected to more successful transitions into the adult roles of…

  3. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  4. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  5. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  9. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  10. Pain Perceptions of the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…

  11. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  12. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  13. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  14. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  16. From ICT Coordination to ICT Integration: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondeur, J.; Cooper, M.; Newhouse, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a school-improvement perspective to examine the role of curriculum coordination in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into primary schools. The nature and impact of this role is examined in seven primary schools in Australia. These seven schools were drawn from a longitudinal intervention that…

  17. Document Use during a Research Project: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; White, Marilyn Domas

    1995-01-01

    Provides preliminary results of a longitudinal, qualitative research study of document use by academic agricultural economists in actual situations. Topics include users' changing information needs, use patterns, decision making regarding relevant items, and criteria and decision rules used to read or cite documents across stages of research.…

  18. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  19. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  20. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  1. Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, B.N.; Saxena, Rekha; Srivastava, Aruna; Singh, Neeru; Ghosh, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Alok Suman; Chand, S.K.; Ojha, V.P.; Mohanty, S.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Dasgupta, R.K.; Dhillon, G.P.S.; Dash, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for

  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic position and tuberculosis transmission: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current understanding of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clustering in the US is based on individual risk factors. This study sought to identify whether area-based socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with genotypic clustering among culture-confirmed TB cases. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on data collected on persons with incident TB in King County, Washington, 2004–2008. Multilevel models were used to identify the relationship between area-level SES at the block group level and clustering utilizing a socioeconomic position index (SEP). Results Of 519 patients with a known genotyping result and block group, 212 (41%) of isolates clustered genotypically. Analyses suggested an association between lower area-based SES and increased recent TB transmission, particularly among US-born populations. Models in which community characteristics were measured at the block group level demonstrated that lower area-based SEP was positively associated with genotypic clustering after controlling for individual covariates. However, the trend in higher clustering odds with lower SEP index quartile diminished when additional block-group covariates. Conclusions Results stress the need for TB control interventions that take area-based measures into account, with particular focus on poor neighborhoods. Interventions based on area-based characteristics, such as improving case finding strategies, utilizing location-based screening and addressing social inequalities, could reduce recent rates of transmission. PMID:24767197

  3. Somatization in Post-Concussion Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibaldi, James C

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of concussion patient data conducted to analyze the prevalence of somatization in patients presenting with post-concussion symptoms. Patient records from June 2010 to December 2015 were examined for concussion history, psychosocial history, neuropsychological test results, validity scores, and a symptom severity scale. Records meeting inclusion criteria from 33 males and 27 females were located. The sample had an age range of 11–78 years with a mean age of 33.40 (SD +/- 7.5 years). A clinically significant number of patients (55%) were found to be somaticizing their symptoms and a significant majority (78%) of somaticizing patients reported no loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia, or post-traumatic amnesia but their symptom validity scales were significantly exaggerated. Caution should be exercised by clinicians to ensure that the obtained results of neuropsychological testing are reliable and valid. It is very important for the clinician to take into account the entire patient history, including psychosocial factors (such as pre-existing psychological traits or conditions) and social influences (such as stressors in family dynamics or work/school activities that may be affecting the patient's complaints). PMID:27766190

  4. Ankylosis of impacted canines: a retrospective post-surgical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Ankylosis is generally discovered following resistance to orthodontic displacement of an impacted canine. This retrospective study, drawing on direct perioperative observation of impacted teeth and of their sites, is intended, among other things, to analyze the causes of resistance to orthodontic movement and to report on the therapeutic interest of the surgical tooth displacement technique in this type of clinical situation. We demonstrate that primary coronal ankylosis can be detected by the orthodontic practitioner using radiographic records, that cervical ankylosis consequent to operative trauma during release is necessarily unpredictable and that it should be suspected when the tooth resists traction for more than 3 months in the absence of any other obvious cause of resistance. Hence, the risk of ankylosis linked to the level of surgical difficulty increases with the depth of coronal submergence within the bone. Moreover, the immediate placement of traction following release reduces the risk of ankylosis. In addition, temporarily suspending traction is a risk factor for secondary apical ankylosis. Finally, surgical positioning should be borne in mind as the final effective option when faced with any form of dental retention.

  5. Lichen planopilaris epidemiology: a retrospective study of 80 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Vanessa Cristina; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; de Souza, Tatiane Elen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lichen planopilaris is a frequent presentation of primary cicatricial alopecia. Scalp distribution characterizes the main clinical presentations: classic lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and Graham-Little Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome (GLPLS). OBJECTIVE Description of the clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological findings of Lichen planopilaris in public and private practices. METHOD A retrospective observational study was performed by reviewing medical records of patients with lichen planopilaris. RESULTS Eighty patients were included, 73 (91,25%) were female. Prototype II was seen in 53 (66,25%) patients. Classic lichen planopilaris was seen in 62,5% of the cases. Frontal fibrosing alopecia was seen in 31% of the patients and only one patient presented Graham-Little Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome (GLPLS). Scalp lesions were scattered throughout the scalp in 47 (58,75%) of the patients, while 24 (30%) presented mainly central scalp lesions, 29 (36,25%) presented marginal lesions and only 4 (5%) patents had vertex lesions. CONCLUSIONS Clinical presentation of Lichen planopilaris varies. To recognize the heterogeneity of the clinical appearance in lichen planopilaris is important for differential diagnosis. PMID:26560212

  6. The approach to frostbite in Turkey: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2006-01-01

    Increased participation in outdoor activities and an epidemic of homelessness have caused the incidence of cold injuries in the civilian population of Turkey to rise dramatically during the past 20 years. Knowledge of treatment is crucial for emergency physicians in rural and urban areas. Recent developments have significantly advanced the understanding of the pathophysiology of hypothermic and frostbite injuries. The authors undertook a retrospective review of frostbite cases in the East Anatolia region of Turkey. The mean altitude of East Anatolia is 1600 m, and temperatures may be -35 degrees C at night and -18 degrees C in the morning in the cities and surrounding villages. Winter is prolonged and harsh, and freezing is a normal condition in this region. The socioeconomic level in this region is lower than other regions of Turkey. During the winter, roads may be closed for as long as five months, and most villages in East Anatolia have no medical units. Erzurum, one of the coldest cities in East Anatolia, is the only city with advanced medical hospitals in this region. Three hospitals in Erzurum were included in the present study: Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum Numune Hospital and Erzurum SSK Hospital. Frostbite case records and their properties are presented. PMID:19554225

  7. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in Cuba, 1981: a retrospective seroepidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, M G; Kouri, G P; Bravo, J; Soler, M; Vazquez, S; Morier, L

    1990-02-01

    In Cuba, 2 epidemics of dengue virus occurred: 1 caused by DEN-1 in 1977 and 1 caused by DEN-2 in 1981. The latter was associated with cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). To study viral risk factors for DHF/DSS, a retrospective seroepidemiological survey was conducted in Cerro, a densely populated district in Havana City. The prevalence of plaque reduction neutralizing antibodies to DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses was measured in 1,295 individuals (children and adults). Of these, 43.7% were immune to DEN-1 virus and 23.6% to DEN-2 virus. Of those individuals who were immune, 26.1% were immune to DEN-1 virus only, 6% to DEN-2 virus only, and 17.6% to both viruses. The DEN-2 virus infection rate in DEN-1 immune individuals was 3.8 times higher than in non-immune individuals. The 5 DHF/DSS cases in the sample had evidence of DEN-1 virus plus DEN-2 virus infections. Three were children and 2 were young adults. No cases were found in individuals infected with DEN-1 virus or DEN-2 virus only. Children infected by DEN-1 virus followed by DEN-2 virus had a high risk of acquiring DHF/DSS. Blacks and whites were equally infected with DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses.

  8. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  9. Retrospective study of scapular notches in reverse shoulder arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Carlos; Santana, Fernando; Picazo, Benito; Cáceres, Enric

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 36 patients with reverse shoulder prostheses to assess whether placement of the glenoid component affected development of scapular notches. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Glenosphere position and its relation to scapular notching was analyzed radiographically. The glenosphere overhung the inferior glenoid rim in 19 cases (52.8%) and was flush with the rim in the other 17 cases (47.2%). A scapular notch developed in 13 (36.1%) of the 36 cases. The notch developed in 8 (42.1%) of the 19 cases in which the glenosphere overhung the inferior rim, and in 5 (29.4%) of the 17 cases in which the glenosphere was flush with the rim. There were no significant differences (P = .601) between the 2 groups (overhanging vs flush glenoid component) with respect to development of scapular notching. Preoperative and postoperative Constant-Murley Shoulder Outcome scores were 19.42 and 49.21 for the group with scapular notches, and 25.09 and 51.96 for the group without notches. From a clinical viewpoint, there were no significant differences in scapular notch development and functional Constant-Murley Shoulder Outcome scores between glenospheres overhanging the glenoid rim and glenospheres flush with the glenoid rim. PMID:24078954

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  11. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  12. Food Insecurity and Body Mass Index: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study, Chelsea, Massachusetts, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Aileen; Oo, Sarah; Tilahun, Hailu; Cohen, Marya J.; Berkowitz, Seth A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cross-sectional studies show an association between food insecurity and higher body mass index (BMI), but this finding has not been evaluated longitudinally. Patient perspectives on food choice in resource-constrained environments are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between food insecurity and BMI. Methods This mixed methods study used both a retrospective matched cohort and focus groups. For the quantitative analysis, all patients in a community health center who reported food insecurity from October 2009 through March 2010 (n = 457) were followed through August 2013 and compared with controls matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (n = 1,974). We evaluated the association between food insecurity and change in BMI by using linear, mixed effects longitudinal models. The qualitative analysis included patients with food insecurity, stratified by BMI. Qualitative data were analyzed by using open coding and grounded theory. Results The mean age of participants was 51 years; 61% were women, and 73% were Hispanic. Baseline BMI was similar in food insecure participants and matched controls. After adjustment in longitudinal analyses, food insecurity was associated with greater increase in BMI (0.15 kg/m2 per year more than controls, P < .001). Themes identified in 4 focus groups included attitudes and knowledge about food, food access, and food practices. Participants with BMI of 30 kg/m2 or less highlighted skills such as budgeting and portion control. Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with increase in BMI. The skills of food insecure participants who were not obese, such as portion control and budgeting, may be useful in weight management interventions for vulnerable patients. PMID:26247425

  13. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  14. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  15. Oral Lymphoma Prevalence in Iranian Population: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Bastani, Zahra; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lymphoma is the second most common malignancy of the head and neck region after malignant epithelial tumors. Objectives: Considering the lack of a multicenter study on the frequency of oral lymphoma in Iran, this study aimed to assess the relative frequency of oral lymphomas in Iran during a 6-year period. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, cases of oral lymphoma registered in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti university of medical sciences were extracted. The patient records and pathology reports of these patients were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic type site of the lesions were evaluated. Results: Oral lymphoma accounts for 1% of head and neck malignancies and 8% of all lymphomas. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 437 new cases of oral lymphomas had been registered in the CRC. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was found to be the most common form of oral lymphoma in the 6-year period with 240 (54.9%) registered cases. The majority of detected cases were in the 6th and 7th decades of life with a male to female ratio of 1:84. Tonsils were the most common site of occurrence of lymphoma in the oral cavity (77.8%). Conclusions: The age of onset, site of involvement, sex of patients, and histopathological subtype of oral lymphomas in the Iranian population were found to be similar to those of most other countries. PMID:26855724

  16. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  18. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  19. Pierce College Longitudinal Study: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

    During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…

  20. A retrospective follow-up study of body dysmorphic disorder#

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Grant, Jon E.; Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Stout, Robert; Price, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    Background Although research on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is increasing, no follow-up studies of this disorder’s course of illness have been published. Methods The status of 95 outpatients with BDD treated in a clinical practice was assessed by chart review. Standard scales were used to rate subjects at baseline and the most recent clinic visit (mean duration of follow-up, 1.7 ± 1.1; range, 0.5–6.4 years). Ratings were also done at 6-month intervals over the first 4 years of follow-up. Results Allowing for censoring, life table analysis estimated that the proportion of subjects who achieved full remission from BDD at the 6-month and/or 12-month assessment was 24.7%; the proportion who attained partial or full remission at 6 months and/or 12 months was 57.8%. After 4 years of follow-up, 58.2% had experienced full remission, and 83.8% had experienced partial or full remission, at one or more 6-month assessment points. Of those subjects who attained partial or full remission at one or more assessment points, 28.6% subsequently relapsed. Between baseline and the most recent assessment, BDD severity and functioning significantly improved: at the most recent assessment, 16.7% of subjects were in full remission, 37.8% were in partial remission, and 45.6% met full criteria for BDD. Greater severity of BDD symptoms and the presence of major depression or social phobia at baseline were associated with more severe BDD symptoms at study end point. All subjects received at least one medication trial, and 34.3% received some type of therapy during the follow-up period. Conclusions A majority of treated patients with BDD improved, although improvement was usually partial. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the course of BDD. PMID:16122530

  1. Longitudinal studies of exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347

  2. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  3. Caval filters in intensive care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, F; Di Gennaro, TL; Torino, A; Petruzzi, J; d’Elia, A; Fusco, P; Marfella, R; Lettieri, B

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a caval vein filter (CVF) peri-implant monitoring protocol in order to reduce pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality and CVF-related morbidity. Background The reduction in mortality from PE associated with the use of CVF is affected by the risk of increase in morbidity. Therefore, CVF implant is a challenging prophylactic or therapeutic option. Nowadays, we have many different devices whose rational use, by applying a strict peri-implant monitoring protocol, could be safe and effective. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied 62 patients of a general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scheduled for definitive, temporary, or optional bedside CVF implant. A peri-implant monitoring protocol including a phlebocavography, an echo-Doppler examination, and coagulation tests was adopted. Results In our study, no thromboembolic recurrence was registered. We implanted 48 retrievable and only 20 definitive CVFs. Endothelial adhesion (18%), residual clot (5%), cranial or caudal migration (6%), microbial colonization of the filter in the absence of clinical signs of infection (1%), caval thrombosis (1%), and pneumothorax (1%) were reported. Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was reported (8%) as early complication. All patients with DVT had a temporary or optional filter implanted. However, in our cohort, definitive CVFs were reserved only to 32% of patients and they were not associated with DVT as complication. Conclusion CVF significantly reduces iatrogenic PE without affecting mortality. Generally, ICU patients have a transitory thromboembolic risk, and so the temporary CVF has been proved to be a first-line option to our cohort. A careful monitoring may contribute to a satisfactory outcome in order to promote CVF implant as a safe prophylaxis option. PMID:25395837

  4. Analysis of Virechana karma with Danti avaleha: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chaganti, Sreelakshmi; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Virechana (therapeutic purgation) is a common procedure that is widely practiced among the panchakarma treatments (pentad treatments). Various Virechaka dravyas (purgative drugs) have been described for Virechana. Even after critical analysis of Virechaka dravyas in the literature, still there is difficulty in the fixation of dose. Hence, the retrospective analysis of varied outcomes of Virechana with Danti (Baliospermum montanum) avaleha (linctus) is discussed in this paper. The study included twenty-seven case reports of patients who were administered Virechana with Danti avaleha. These case reports are of patients suffering from various ailments such as irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovarian syndrome, primary and secondary infertility, and psoriasis. Danti avaleha was administered at dose of 10 g and 5 g in the Krura (~strong) and Madhyama (~moderate/normal) Koshta (~GI tract) patients, respectively. Among seven Krura koshta patients, three of them resulted with Pravara (excellent) Shuddhi and other four resulted with Madhyama (medium) Shuddhi. In twenty Madhyama koshta patients, sixteen of them resulted with avara (minimum) Shuddhi and remaining four patients resulted with Madhyama shuddhi. Complications like Udara shoola (spasmodic pain of abdomen) and Vamana (emesis) were observed during Virechana. Majority of the patients suffered with Udara shoola were of Madhyama koshta. Vamana was seen in both Krura and Madhyama koshta patients. Irrespective of the type of Shuddhi and complications, all the patients resulted with Samyak Kaphaantiki Virikta lakshana (signs of perfect purgation with end expulsion of Kapha). The study concluded that the Krura koshta patients were tolerable for dose of 10 g and are expected to attain Pravara Shuddhi. Whereas Madhyama koshta patients were intolerable even to mild dose of 5 g, producing Avara shuddhi. PMID:26834432

  5. Vaccination of patients with diabetes mellitus--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mad'ar, Rastislav; Benesová, Dagmar; Brandejská, Dana; Cermáková, Miriam; Dvorková, Alena; Gazárková, Olga; Jakubalová, Silvana; Kochová, Ilona; Lastovicková, Jana; Nebáznivá, Dagmar; Orolinová, Marta; Polomis, Karel; Rehka, Václav; Sattranová, Ludmila; Schejbalová, Miriam; Slámová, Alena; Skalleová, Deanna; Sevcíková, Hana; Tkadlecová, Hana; Tmejová, Marta; Trmal, Josef; Turková, Dagmar

    2011-06-01

    402 subjects with diabetes mellitus have been vaccinated of the total of 34,000 vaccinees immunized during the study period of 9 and half months. Altogether 229 diabetic patients (56.97%) have been vaccinated'against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and 74 (18.4%) against viral hepatitis (41 types A+B, 30 type A, 3 type B). The average age in four most commonly administered vaccines (FSME IMMUN 0.5 ML, Twinrix Adult, Typhim Vi, and Havrix 1440) was 65, 52, 56, and 54 years, respectively. Live attenuated vaccines have been given to 6 patients with diabetes (1.49%)--- 5 travellers to endemic countries received the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril (1 female, 4 male) and one male patient varicella vaccine Varilrix. Among the least common vaccines in diabetic patients were those against invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal infections. Not a single unexpected side effect has been observed following the vaccination procedure in any diabetic patient. Based on the results of this retrospective study we can conclude that vaccination in diabetic patients is free of any ri-k- provided that there are no other contraindications, e.g. allergy to vaccine components or severe acute febrile illness. In the case of unstable glycaemia and significantly impaired immune system due to diabetes mellitus, vaccination with live attenuated vaccines should be carefully considered and measured against the risks of exposure to each and every specific infectious agent. There is no reason to be afraid of vaccination in diabetic patients provided that general contraindications are respected. On the contrary, this risk group can benefit from vaccination more remarkably since it may have some life-saving potential.

  6. Natal and Neonatal Teeth: A Retrospective Study of 15 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Basavanthappa, Nagaveni N; Kagathur, Umashankara; Basavanthappa, Radhika N; Suryaprakash, Satisha T

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To present 17 natal/neonatal teeth in 15 patients and describe their clinical characteristics, associated disorders, complications and treatment. Methods: A retrospective study of neonates who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India, between 2003 and 2006 was carried out. It was a study of clinical data, such as the age and gender of the patients, the history and chief complaints of mothers, the clinical appearance and location of natal/neonatal teeth, and associated complications and treatments. Results: A total of 17 teeth (6 natal, 11 neonatal) were found in 15 patients. No significant gender predilection (8 male, 7 female) was found. Sixteen natal/neonatal teeth were placed in mandibular incisor area (10 on the right side and 6 on the left side) and one tooth in the maxillary incisor area. In 13 patients, the occurrence of natal/neonatal teeth was unilateral, and in 2 patients, it was bilateral. Three cases were associated with enamel hypoplasia, 3 cases with Riga-Fede disease, and 1 case with gingival hyperplasia. One case involved a patient with cleft lip and palate. Radiographic examination confirmed these teeth to be supernumerary, and all teeth exhibited hypermobility. Extraction had been done in all the cases. Eleven of the extracted teeth exhibited only rudimentary roots, and six teeth showed no roots. Conclusions: The occurrence of a natal/neonatal tooth is a rare phenomenon. When it occurs, the teeth have a variety of clinical characteristics and lead to different complications. Knowledge of the management of these structures is essential for the overall well being of a child. PMID:21494384

  7. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  8. Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in bronchiectasis: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ong, H K; Lee, A L; Hill, C J; Holland, A E; Denehy, L

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information about the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with bronchiectasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an out-patient PR program in patients with a primary diagnosis of bronchiectasis and to compare them with a matched COPD group who completed the same PR program. A retrospective review was conducted of patients with bronchiectasis or COPD who completed 6 to 8 weeks of PR at two tertiary institutions. The outcome measures were the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). Ninety-five patients with bronchiectasis completed the PR (48 male; FEV(1) 63 [24] % predicted; age 67 [10] years). Significant improvements in 6MWD (mean change 53.4 m, 95% CI 45.0 to 61.7) and CRQ total score (mean change 14.0 units, 95% CI 11.3 to 16.7) were observed immediately following PR. In patients with complete follow-up (n = 37), these improvements remained significantly higher than baseline at 12 months (20.5 m, 95% CI 1.4 to 39.5 for 6MWD; 12.1 points, 95% CI 5.7 to 18.4 for CRQ total score). The time trend and changes in the 6MWD and CRQ scores were not significantly different between the bronchiectasis and the COPD groups (all p > 0.05). This study supports the inclusion of patients with bronchiectasis in existing PR programs. Further prospective RCTs are warranted to substantiate these findings. PMID:21339371

  9. Postperfusion Syndrome in Cadaveric Liver Transplantations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Aydınlı, Bahar; Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yıldırım; Kazancı, Dilek; Koçulu, Rabia; Haytural, Candan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Zorlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affects the postperfusion syndrome in cadaveric liver transplantations and the effect of the postperfusion syndrome on discharge from the hospital. Methods Patients who underwent cadaveric liver transplantations between 2007 and 2013 were scanned retrospectively. Intraoperative anaesthesia records, intensive care unit follow-up forms and discharge reports were examined from patient files. Overall, 43 patients having complete data were included in the study. The postperfusion syndrome is defined as asystoli or a decrease in mean arterial pressure of more than 30%, which occurred in the first 5 min of reperfusion and continued for 1 min. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had the postperfusion syndrome and those who did not. Results The number of patients who had the postperfusion syndrome was 25 of 43 (58.1%). The MELD score of patients without the postperfusion syndrome was calculated as 16.9±3.2 and that of patients with the postperfusion syndrome was 19.7±3.6. A statistically significant relationship was detected between the postperfusion syndrome occurrence and a high MELD score (p=0.013). The diastolic blood pressure just before reperfusion was statistically lower in the group with the postperfusion syndrome than in the other group (p=0.023, 50±8 vs. 58±11). According to the logistic regression analysis, the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion were defined as independent predictive factors. Conclusion According to the study, the ratio for having the postperfusion syndrome was found to be 58.1%. The independent predictor factors affecting the postperfusion syndrome were detected as the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion. The postperfusion syndrome during orthotropic liver transplantation is an important issue for anaesthesiologists. The awareness of the related factors with the postperfusion syndrome may help in the development

  10. Miller fisher syndrome: a hospital-based retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C L; Wang, Y J; Tsai, C P

    2000-01-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), characterized as ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia, is generally considered as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, some investigators believed that the syndrome could be explained by a central origin. To obtain more information about MFS for comparison with GBS, we conducted a retrospective study by analyzing the clinical data of MFS patients admitted to our hospital over a period of 11 years. The calibrated male/female ratio was 1.65. A seasonal clustering in winter was noted. The percentage of MFS among GBS was especially high (18%, 11/60) in Taiwan when compared with other series. Involvement of limb muscle strength, autonomic function and cranial nerves, except ocular motor nerves, was rarely found in our patients. When MFS is accompanied by limb weakness, it might represent a transitional form between MFS and GBS. Bulbar palsy and dysautonomia might predict a relatively poor prognosis. To obtain more reliable information, lumbar puncture should be done 1 week after disease onset, and electrophysiological tests should be done serially in every MFS patient. Eighty percent (80%, 4/5) of our patients were positive for IgG anti-GQ(1b) antibody activity. In our study, there is more evidence indicating that MFS is a peripheral nervous system disorder; however, no definite conclusion could be made as to whether MFS is exclusively a peripheral or central nervous system disorder. We think MFS is an immune-mediated clinical entity which mainly involves the peripheral nervous system with rare involvement of other parts of the central nervous system. PMID:10965158

  11. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  12. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  13. A retrospective study of the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at major abattoirs in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mochankana, M Ernest; Robertson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study covering a period of ten years (2001-2010) was conducted using postmortem meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services in Gaborone to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Botswana. Meat inspection records of monthly and annual returns from the two main export abattoirs in the country were examined, as well as the data collected on the total number of cattle slaughtered and the number of livers condemned due to Fasciola gigantica infection. Only 1250 of the approximately 1.4 million cattle slaughtered were infected with F. gigantica (0.09%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.0% - 0.3%). No distinct seasonal pattern was observed in condemnation rates of livers. However, the pattern of distribution of fasciolosis was higher (but not significant) in cattle that originated from areas with high rainfall and more permanent water bodies than those from relatively low rainfall areas with a transitory water system. It is recommended that a longitudinal survey should be carried out at the abattoirs and farms to determine the prevalence of the disease in cattle of different ages, sex and breed as well as the place of origin in the country. The present study indicated that the prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle is low and the disease is therefore of less significance in Botswana than other African countries for which information is available. PMID:27380655

  14. RISK OF HEMOPTYSIS IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS CLINICAL TRIALS: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, N.; Kloster, M.; Bilton, D.; Flume, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by airways infection and inflammation resulting in respiratory complications including hemoptysis. The objectives of this study were to characterize risk of hemoptysis attributable to the underlying disease and in the presence of standard of care therapy. Methods This retrospective cohort study estimated hemoptysis rates overall and by relevant risk factors utilizing adverse event data from longitudinal prospective CF clinical trials. Results Of the 1008 participants, 73% were ≤18 years old; of 929 with available spirometry, 27% had an FEV1 < 70% predicted. During the average 8.2 months of follow-up, 8% experienced ≥1 hemoptysis events (95% CI: 6%, 10%). Of the 125 events, 76% were mild in severity and only 9% were serious. Hemoptysis rates were greater among adults than children, those with FEV1 < 70% predicted, and participants infected with P. aeruginosa but not with S. aureus. Conclusions Hemoptysis is a common adverse event among CF clinical trial participants, and particularly in adults with more severe lung disease. These results can be used to predict event occurrence in future clinical trials. PMID:25725985

  15. Proteinuria as a Therapeutic Target in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: a Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hsu; Wu, Hon-Yen; Wang, Chieh-Li; Yang, Feng-Jung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hung, Szu-Chun; Kan, Wei-Chih; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence of proteinuria reduction as a surrogate target in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete due to lack of patient-pooled database. We retrospectively studied a multicenter cohort of 1891 patients who were enrolled in the nationwide multidisciplinary pre-end stage renal disease care program with a baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and followed longitudinally to investigate the effect of the change in proteinuria on renal death (defined as composite of dialysis and death occurring before initiation of dialysis). The group with a change in proteinuria ≤0.30 g/g (n = 1261) had lower cumulative probabilities of renal death (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model, a higher baseline proteinuria and a greater increase in proteinuria were associated with faster annual GFR decline. Cox’s analysis showed that every 1 unit increase in natural log(baseline proteinuria, 10 g/g) and every 0.1 g/g increase in the change in proteinuria resulted in 67% (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.46–1.91) and 1% (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01–1.01) greater risk of renal death respectively after adjusting for the effects of the other covariates. Our study provided a patient-based evidence to support proteinuria as a therapeutic target in advanced CKD. PMID:27198863

  16. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. Material and Methods A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. Results The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Conclusions Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Key words:Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy

  17. Retrospective Study of a Series of Choanal Atresia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054

  18. Autism and epilepsy: a retrospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hitoshi

    2007-09-01

    So-called "idiopathic" autism, which exhibited no major complications before diagnosis is well-known as one of the risk factors for epilepsy. This retrospective follow-up study aimed to clarify the characteristics of epilepsy in the autism; onset of seizure, seizure types, EEG findings and epilepsy outcome and the differences as a group between the autism with epilepsy and those without epilepsy. One hundred thirty individuals with autistic disorder or atypical autism diagnosed in childhood were followed up over 10 years and were evaluated almost every year up to 18-35 years of age. Their medical records related to perinatal conditions, IQ, social maturity scores and several factors of epilepsy were reviewed in October 2005. Thirty-three of the follow-up group (25%) exhibited epileptic seizures. The onset of epilepsy was distributed from 8 to 26 years of age. Two types of seizure were observed; partial seizure with secondarily generalized seizure and generalized seizure. Twenty of the epileptics (61%) showed the partial seizure. Although 18% of the non-epileptic group exhibited epileptic discharges on EEG, 68% of the epileptic group revealed epileptiform EEG findings before the onset of epilepsy. No differences were observed concerning the sex ratio, autistic disorder/atypical autism and past history of febrile seizures between the epileptic and non-epileptic groups. Lower IQ, lower social maturity score and higher frequency of prescribed psychotropics were observed in the epileptic group compared to the non-epileptics. Idiopathic autism was confirmed as the high risk factor for epilepsy. Epileptiform EEG findings predict subsequent onset of epileptic seizures in adolescence. Epilepsy is one of negative factors on cognitive, adaptive and behavioral/emotional outcomes for individuals with autism. PMID:17321709

  19. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  20. Combining growth curves when a longitudinal study switches measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Jacob J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth; Dunn, Camille

    2014-01-01

    When longitudinal studies are performed to investigate the growth of traits in children, the measurement tool being used to quantify the trait may need to change as the subjects age throughout the study. Changing the measurement tool at some point in the longitudinal study makes the analysis of that growth challenging which, in turn, makes it difficult to determine what other factors influence the growth rate. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that relates the growth curves per individual for each of the different measurement tools and allows for covariates to influence the shapes of the curves by borrowing strength across curves. The method is motivated by and demonstrated by speech perception outcome measurements of children who were implanted with cochlear implants. Researchers are interested in assessing the impact of age at implantation, and comparing the growth rates of children who are implanted under the age of two versus those implanted between the ages of two and four. PMID:24821002

  1. Retrospective Study on Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma – Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    NEDELCU, Daniela; ANDREESCU, Nicoleta; BOERIU, Estera; STEFANESCU, Radu; ARGHIRESCU, Smaranda; PUIU, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Primary bone tumors are relatively rare types of cancer. Their relative frequency is not yet well established and still there is more information needed regarding the evolution and prognosis of those patients. Objectives: We analyzed several factors (site of lesion, tumor stage, tumor volume, disease related complications, therapy related complications) that influenced the evolution of bone tumor in a lot of patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcome. Material and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on hospital-based registry from the Emergency Hospital for Children "Louis Turcanu" Timisoara. Patients with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, hospitalised in our clinic during a period of 10 years (1996-2006) were included. Records were analyzed for patient demographics, site of lesion, treatment and outcomes. The study group was composed of 36 patients with bone tumors, with ages betwen 3-23 years, who came from Timis and several counties around it. Results: We found Ewing Sarcoma (ES) in 52.94% of cases and osteosarcoma (OS) in 47.06% of cases analyzed. We found diseases in advanced stages in 33.3% of cases in stage III and in 27.7% in stage IV. Tumoral volume had more than 200 cm3 in 53.3% of OS patients and in 21% of cases of ES. Treatment was accomplished according to the European protocols, COSS 96 in 66.6% of OS cases, EWING 99 in 73.6% of ES cases. Disease related complications were found in 26.6% of OS cases and in 51% of ES patients. Conclusion: In this study, the patients survival rate at 5 years after diagnosis was lower than in other studies. A possible explaination for such a high rate of mortality could be the delayed diagnosis and the advanced stage of the neoplasia, especially for Ewing sarcoma where only 16.66% of the patients were stage I or II. For the short time survival it was found a corelation with the period of time between the simptoms appearance and the moment of diagnosis, tumor stage

  2. Managing Endings in a Longitudinal Study: Respect for Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.

  3. Transurethral resection syndrome in elderly patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves the risk of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome owing to hyponatremia. Irrigation fluid type, duration of operation, and weight of resected mass have been evaluated as risk factors for TUR syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors related to TUR syndrome in the elderly. Methods After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, data on all elderly males (aged 70 years and older) who underwent TURP under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome was defined as evidence of a central nervous system disturbance such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, confusion, or even coma with a circulatory abnormality both intra- and post-operatively. Patients were divided into two groups, positive and negative, for the occurrence of the syndrome. Data such as previous medical history, preoperative and postoperative serum data, weight of resected mass, duration of operation, irrigation fluid drainage technique, anesthetic technique, operative infusion and transfusion volume, and neurological symptoms were collected. Only observational variables with p < 0.05 on univariate analyses were included in the multivariate logistic regression model to ascertain their independent effects on TUR syndrome. Results Of the 98 patients studied, 23 had TUR syndrome (23.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.9–32.0%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that volume of plasma substitute ≥ 500 ml (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 2.9–74.5), continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3–16.7), and weight of resected mass > 45 g (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.7) were associated with significantly increased risks for TUR syndrome (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p = 0.94, accuracy 84.7%). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of a plasma substitute and continuous irrigation through a

  4. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

  5. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  6. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  7. Design and analysis considerations for a longitudinal study of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R S; Alman, J E; Chauncey, H M

    1986-05-01

    Perception and concern for the health changes in our aging population led the Veterans Administration to initiate an interdisciplinary and longitudinal investigation of the aging process, the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, in 1963. A cohort of the 2,280 healthy men of this study self-selected to enroll in the dental longitudinal study, an investigation of oral health in these healthy males. In 1968, 1,221 men between the ages of 25 and 75 began with a baseline cycle of 5 general series of examinations, including an interim health history and survey of dietary habits; masticatory performance and taste thresholds; salivary analyses; oral cytologic and radiographic survey and comprehensive clinical data on caries and periodontal status. Design considerations for the Dental Longitudinal Study included prospective planning of specific oral variables to be recorded, and provision of collection techniques to allow for additional analyses based on a wide menu of retrospective data. The volunteer cohort was screened to obtain men who met stringent general health criteria, who represented wide socioeconomic ranges and would likely remain geographically stable. Importantly, enrollment in the parent study was without regard for dental status or oral health. Administrative design considerations included orderly transfer for exam data to machine-readable format by use of optical scan forms designed to register specific oral variables, with security preserved for the primary source records and rapid record retrieval. Additional data collection requiring manual coding was designed to transfer spreadsheets of clinical impressions and diagnoses to computer retrieval protocols. Provisions for recording of exceptional circumstances, i.e., salient oral pathology, were recognized and the optical scan forms modified to index and retrieve such cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3522654

  8. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents.We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment.This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32-2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50-14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03-10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46-8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53-8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04-4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39-4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31-5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57-17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20-11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients.Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are the cornerstones of reducing

  9. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  10. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents’ perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. Method A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Results Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident’s role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents’ understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice. PMID:27004074

  11. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  12. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey.... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study...

  13. [Longitudinal change in independence in the elderly--Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS)].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K; Okumiya, K; Kawamoto, A; Kimura, S; Wada, T; Fujisawa, M; Doi, Y; Shimada, K; Ozawa, T

    1994-10-01

    A community based study named Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS) was conducted since 1990 for the purpose of evaluating the comprehensive geriatric functional assessment (CGA) and preventing a decline in CGA in the community-dwelling elderly population. It was carried out in a Japanese rural town, in which 32% of the population was over 65 years of age. This study included a questionnaire about activity of daily living (ADL), information-related physical function, mental (cognitive and affective) and social functional domains. In addition to subjective informative instruments, various types of objective assessment such as quantitative neuro-behavioral function tests and medical examinations were performed. Subjects were all the eligible elderly aged over 65 years in the community. Although the ratio of subjects who were independent in ADL decreased with advancing age in both 1991 and 1993, the ratio of the independent elderly in ADL became significant higher (74%) in 1993 than in 1991 (71%). Scores on 2 kinds of neurobehavioral function tests in the 159 subjects aged over 75 years who attended the examination every year showed a significant and slight decrease during two years. However, some test indices significantly improved during the 2 years. These results suggested that age-related dependency in ADL and some kind of neurobehavioral functions might be prevented, in part, by health promoting education and improvement of life style. PMID:7853739

  14. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  15. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  16. Cohort Profile: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  17. 'Schizoid' personality and antisocial conduct: a retrospective case not study.

    PubMed

    Wolff, S; Cull, A

    1986-08-01

    A retrospective case not analysis for 30 boys diagnosed as having a 'schizoid' personality disorder (Asperger's syndrome) in childhood, and for 30 matched clinic attenders (with systematic follow-up data for 19 matched pairs), showed the incidence of antisocial conduct to be the same in the two groups. However, the 'schizoid' boys stole less often and had fewer alcohol problems. In this group antisocial conduct was less related to family disruption and social disadvantage, and more to an unusual fantasy life. Clinical descriptions of a series of 'schizoid' boys and girls with conspicuous antisocial conduct follow. They suggest that characteristic patterns of antisocial conduct in such children are persistent expressions of hostility and, especially in girls, pathological lying, for which environmental circumstances provide no explanation.

  18. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients’ sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). CONCLUSION: This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27350735

  19. Risk of prostate cancer in low-dose aspirin users: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lapi, F; Levi, M; Simonetti, M; Cancian, M; Parretti, D; Cricelli, I; Sobrero, A; Cricelli, C

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that use of low-dose aspirin (LDA) reduces the risk of certain adenocarcinomas. While there are several and consistent findings on the protective effect of LDA on colorectal and other cancers, few and conflicting evidence is available on prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to assess whether LDA reduces the incidence rate of PCa. We conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study by using Health Search IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database (HSD). Patients with ischemic cardio- or cerebrovascular disease (index date) were identified. Time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were adopted to estimate Hazard Ratios (HRs) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PCa associated with use of LDA. The exposure was lagged by one year to consider the latency of drug effect on the outcome onset. Within a cohort 13,453 patients, the overall incidence rate of PCa was 2.5 per 1,000 person-years. Use of LDA was associated with a decreased incidence rate of PCa (HR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86), which was primarily driven by a frequency of LDA use equal to or higher than twice per week (HR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.43-0.83). Such an association was more pronounced (HR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.91) when LDA was used for five or more years. Our findings indicate that LDA use might be associated with a reduction of risk of PCa in patients with cardio- or cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:26915905

  20. Living the Dream? A Qualitative Retrospective Study Exploring the Role of Adolescent Aspirations across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research linking adolescent career aspirations to adult outcomes other than career and income attainment. Drawing on Nurmi's (2004) and Salmela-Aro, Aunola, and Nurmi's (2007) life-span model of motivation and using quantitative survey data at ages 16, 23, 33, 42, and 50 years, combined with retrospective interview…

  1. Whole-genome sequencing to delineate Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreaks: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Timothy M; Ip, Camilla LC; Harrell, Ruth H; Evans, Jason T; Kapatai, Georgia; Dedicoat, Martin J; Eyre, David W; Wilson, Daniel J; Hawkey, Peter M; Crook, Derrick W; Parkhill, Julian; Harris, David; Walker, A Sarah; Bowden, Rory; Monk, Philip; Smith, E Grace; Peto, Tim EA

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Tuberculosis incidence in the UK has risen in the past decade. Disease control depends on epidemiological data, which can be difficult to obtain. Whole-genome sequencing can detect microevolution within Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We aimed to estimate the genetic diversity of related M tuberculosis strains in the UK Midlands and to investigate how this measurement might be used to investigate community outbreaks. Methods In a retrospective observational study, we used Illumina technology to sequence M tuberculosis genomes from an archive of frozen cultures. We characterised isolates into four groups: cross-sectional, longitudinal, household, and community. We measured pairwise nucleotide differences within hosts and between hosts in household outbreaks and estimated the rate of change in DNA sequences. We used the findings to interpret network diagrams constructed from 11 community clusters derived from mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat data. Findings We sequenced 390 separate isolates from 254 patients, including representatives from all five major lineages of M tuberculosis. The estimated rate of change in DNA sequences was 0·5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per genome per year (95% CI 0·3–0·7) in longitudinal isolates from 30 individuals and 25 families. Divergence is rarely higher than five SNPs in 3 years. 109 (96%) of 114 paired isolates from individuals and households differed by five or fewer SNPs. More than five SNPs separated isolates from none of 69 epidemiologically linked patients, two (15%) of 13 possibly linked patients, and 13 (17%) of 75 epidemiologically unlinked patients (three-way comparison exact p<0·0001). Genetic trees and clinical and epidemiological data suggest that super-spreaders were present in two community clusters. Interpretation Whole-genome sequencing can delineate outbreaks of tuberculosis and allows inference about direction of transmission between

  2. Theoretical study of longitudinal beam splitting and related phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Shih, H.J.; Kummer, M.

    1993-10-01

    A recent experiment at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with electron cooling showed that rf phase modulation near 1:1 resonance leads to longitudinal beam splitting. Here we explain this by applying the method of averaging, a powerful tool from the study of dynamical systems, to the underlying equation of motion -- a pendulum equation with small damping and periodic forcing. The beam splitting is explained by showing that the associated Poincare map has two attracting fixed points, each with a well-defined basin of attraction. Our approach can be immediately applied to other accelerator physics problems governed by a similar equation.

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Objective Sleep and Lipids: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen; Glasser, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationships between actigraph-derived sleep duration, fragmentation, and lipid levels. Design and Setting: Longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Sleep Study (2003-05), an observational cohort at the Chicago site. Participants: There were 503 black and white adults, ages 32-51 years, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Sleep duration and fragmentation were measured using 6 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The outcome variables, measured at 3 examinations over 10 years (Baseline [2000-01], 5-year [2005-06], and 10-year follow-up [2010-11]), were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC/HDL ratio. The associations between each sleep parameter and 10-year change in lipids were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models adjusting for relevant confounders. After adjustment, each hour increase in sleep duration was significantly associated with higher TC (5.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.7, 8.6) and LDL (3.4 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.2, 6.6) in the total sample, a 1.1 mg/dL increase in TG (95%CI: 1.0, 1.1) among men, and a borderline significant greater odds for a TC/HDL ratio ≥ 5 among men (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.90). Overall, sleep fragmentation and sleep quality scores were not associated with change in lipids. Conclusions: Beyond relevant covariates, over a 10-year follow-up, longer objective sleep duration was longitudinally and significantly associated with a poorer lipid profile. Greater objective sleep fragmentation and self-reported poor sleep quality were not related to a poorer lipid profile. Citation: Petrov MER; Kim Y; Lauderdale D; Lewis CE; Reis JP; Carnethon MR; Knutson K; Glasser SJ. Longitudinal associations between objective sleep and lipids: The CARDIA Study. SLEEP 2013

  4. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  5. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  6. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  7. An insight-based longitudinal study of visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Purvi; North, Chris; Lam, Vy; Duca, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Visualization tools are typically evaluated in controlled studies that observe the short-term usage of these tools by participants on preselected data sets and benchmark tasks. Though such studies provide useful suggestions, they miss the long-term usage of the tools. A longitudinal study of a bioinformatics data set analysis is reported here. The main focus of this work is to capture the entire analysis process that an analyst goes through from a raw data set to the insights sought from the data. The study provides interesting observations about the use of visual representations and interaction mechanisms provided by the tools, and also about the process of insight generation in general. This deepens our understanding of visual analytics, guides visualization developers in creating more effective visualization tools in terms of user requirements, and guides evaluators in designing future studies that are more representative of insights sought by users from their data sets.

  8. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  9. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  10. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and satisfaction following pinnaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775

  11. Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis. PMID:16737523

  12. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  13. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2007-02-01

    Based on longitudinal data from the Institute of Human Development Intergenerational Study, the use and change in defense mechanisms of more than 150 individuals, as assessed from TAT stories, was studied across ages 11, 12, and 18. The findings of this study, based on an earlier generation, were generally consistent with cross-sectional findings from current samples, showing that the defenses of projection and identification were used more frequently than denial at all three ages and that the use of projection and identification increased from early to late adolescence. However, unlike current findings, the 18-year-olds did not show greater use of identification than of projection, perhaps due to IQ differences between this community sample and the samples of more recent studies.

  14. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

  15. Longitudinal case-studies of developmental dyslexia in Norwegian.

    PubMed

    Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2006-11-01

    This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children who were normal readers at age 10, three of the four dyslexic children exhibited either stagnation or a decline in speech accuracy in the presence of a vocabulary growth spurt at age 2-3 years. Skills in phonological awareness seemed to vary inconsistently with both early speech development and emergent literacy across the four cases. Delayed development in emergent literacy turned out to be the most potent prognostic indicator of later reading disorders. The study was guided by lexical restructuring theories of dyslexia. PMID:17152341

  16. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  17. Children's vomiting following posterior fossa surgery: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Schopflocher, Donald; Dundon, Belinda; Yu, Herta; Drummond, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting is a problem for children after neurosurgery and those requiring posterior fossa procedures appear to have a high incidence. This clinical observation has not been quantified nor have risk factors unique to this group of children been elucidated. Methods A six year retrospective chart audit at two Canadian children's hospitals was conducted. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was extracted. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify risk and protective factors at 120 hours after surgery and early vs. late vomiting. Results The incidence of vomiting over a ten day postoperative period was 76.7%. Documented vomiting ranged from single events to greater than 20 over the same period. In the final multivariable model: adolescents (age 12 to <17) were less likely to vomit by 120 hours after surgery than other age groups; those who received desflurane, when compared to all other volatile anesthetics, were more likely to vomit, yet the use of ondansetron with desflurane decre kelihood. Children who had intraoperative ondansetron were more likely to vomit in the final multivariable model (perhaps because of its use, in the clinical judgment of the anesthesiologist, for children considered at risk). Children who started vomiting in the first 24 hours were more likely to be school age (groups 4 to <7 and 7 to <12) and receive desflurane. Nausea was not well documented and was therefore not analyzed. Conclusion The incidence of vomiting in children after posterior fossa surgery is sufficient to consider all children requiring these procedures to be at high risk for POV. Nausea requires better assessment and documentation. PMID:19594935

  18. Implementing enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery protocol: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Proczko, Monika; Kaska, Lukasz; Twardowski, Pawel; Stepaniak, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    While the demand for bariatric surgery is increasing, hospital capacity remains limited. The ERABS (Enhanced Recovery After Bariatric Surgery) protocol has been implemented in a number of bariatric centers. We retrospectively compared the operating room logistics and postoperative complications between pre-ERABS and ERABS periods in an academic hospital. The primary endpoint was the length of stay in hospital. The secondary endpoints were turnover times-the time required for preparing the operating room for the next case, induction time (from induction of anesthesia until a patient is ready for surgery), surgical time (duration of surgery), procedure time (duration of stay in the operating room), and the incidence of re-admissions, re-operations and complications during admission and within 30 days after surgery. Of a total of 374 patients, 228 and 146 received surgery following the pre-ERABS and ERABS protocols, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened from 3.7 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.1-4.7) days to 2.1 (95 % CI 1.6-2.6) days (P < 0.001). Procedure (surgical) times were shortened by 15 (7) min and 12 (5) min for gastric bypass and gastric sleeve surgery, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), by introducing the ERABS protocol. Induction times were reduced from 15.2 (95 % CI 14.3-16.1) min to 12.5 (95 % CI 11.7-13.3) min (P < 0.001).Turnover times were shortened significantly from 38 (95 % CI 44-32) min to 11 (95 % CI 8-14) min. The incidence of re-operations, re-admissions and complications did not change.

  19. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  1. A longitudinal study of early intellectual development in hemiplegic children.

    PubMed

    Muter, V; Taylor, S; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-old children with unilateral lesions sustained pre- or peri-natally were studied longitudinally over a 2-year period, and their IQ scores compared with those of 20 "medical' controls. The failure to discover laterality effects following early unilateral injury supports the hypothesis of at least broad functional equipotentiality. There were few decrements in intellectual functioning provided the injury was not accompanied by seizures. The presence of seizures in contrast had a deleterious effect on both verbal and nonverbal aspects of cognitive functioning. While the IQs of the hemiplegic groups showed considerable stability over the 2-year span of the study, there was evidence that performance IQ, even in seizure-free patients, might be selectively impaired because of competition within the intact neural space for the sparing of verbal IQ. PMID:9051677

  2. Adolescent-evaluated quality of life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ward-Smith, Peggy; McCaskie, Becki; Rhoton, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for adolescents with cancer to interact with each other are few. This project provided a weekend retreat for adolescents with cancer and obtained longitudinal self-evaluated quality of life data. Data were collected using the Adolescent Quality of Life instrument, which is a 16-item Likert-scaled survey that assesses quality of life. Twenty-two adolescents attended the weekend, and 17 participated in the study. Evaluations of the weekend retreat were positive, with "making friends" and "meeting others like me" the most frequent comments. Data from the Adolescent Quality of Life instrument revealed that for this population, quality of life was unchanged directly after the weekend and was statistically worse 1 month later. Enrollment methods skewed study participation toward individuals receiving treatment, which may explain these results. The reliability of the Adolescent Quality of Life instrument remained stable over time, and it appears to accurately assess and reflect changes in quality of life.

  3. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  4. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Liu, Lu; Buchy, Lisa; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. The majority of the CHR sample (93%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed overtime. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups. PMID:25919383

  5. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use.

  6. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed.

  7. A longitudinal study on hand use while building a tower.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe a developmental trend of hand use for picking up and stacking blocks from the age of 18 months to 7 years. A second aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between right-hand use while building a tower and manual laterality at school age. A total of 28 children were asked to build a tower at five longitudinal assessments. The use of the right hand fluctuated considerably with age (p<.05), but no age-related increase was observed. Right-hand use was rather prominent at 18 months, decreased significantly at 26 months, increased at age 4;7, decreased again at 5;7, and finally increased again at age 7. From age 4;7 onwards, the percentage of right-hand use for stacking the blocks was significantly (p<.05) related to the laterality quotient at school age.

  8. A longitudinal study on hand use while building a tower.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe a developmental trend of hand use for picking up and stacking blocks from the age of 18 months to 7 years. A second aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between right-hand use while building a tower and manual laterality at school age. A total of 28 children were asked to build a tower at five longitudinal assessments. The use of the right hand fluctuated considerably with age (p<.05), but no age-related increase was observed. Right-hand use was rather prominent at 18 months, decreased significantly at 26 months, increased at age 4;7, decreased again at 5;7, and finally increased again at age 7. From age 4;7 onwards, the percentage of right-hand use for stacking the blocks was significantly (p<.05) related to the laterality quotient at school age. PMID:17558817

  9. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  10. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  11. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

  12. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia. PMID:26017202

  13. A longitudinal study of low back pain in student nurses.

    PubMed

    Klaber Moffett, J A; Hughes, G I; Griffiths, P

    1993-06-01

    Results from a longitudinal study of low back pain in 199 student nurses followed up for 20 months show that 37% reported back pain which lasted for at least 3 consecutive days. The first incidence peaked markedly between 9 and 12 months into training, and coincided with work on wards described by the nurses as "heavy". A combination of personal characteristics are also associated with back pain reports, within this group of nurses. These include attitudes to health as measured by the Health Locus of Control, low levels of trait anxiety, increased neuroticism, and emotional disturbance as measured by the General Health Questionnaire, the strength endurance of the thigh muscles (quadriceps), and height. Recommendations are made for: (1) the consideration of a modified training programme for lifting and handling; and (2) the need for a standardized system of recording back problems as suggested by the DHSS-commissioned Robens Institute (University of Surrey) Report.

  14. Strategies for longitudinal neuroimaging studies of overt language production.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A; McArdle, Joseph J; Braun, Allen R

    2009-08-15

    Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account.

  15. All-cause mortality risk in elderly individuals with disabilities: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chiang, Sheng-Ta; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Disability is considered an important issue that affects the elderly population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between disability and all-cause mortality in US elderly individuals. Design Retrospective and longitudinal designs. Setting Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants A total of 1834 participants in the age range 60–84 years from NHANES 1999–2002. Main outcome measures We acquired five major domains of disability (activities of daily living (ADL), general physical activities (GPA), instrumental ADL (IADL), lower extremity mobility (LEM) and leisure and social activities (LSA)) through self-reporting. We applied an extended-model approach with Cox (proportional hazards) regression analysis to investigate the relationship between different features of disability and all-cause mortality risk in the study population. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 77 deaths occurred. An increased risk of all-cause mortality was identified in elderly individuals with disability after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 2.23; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.85; p=0.004). Participants with more than one domain of disability were associated with a higher risk of mortality (ptrend=0.047). Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for each domain of disability were 2.53 (1.49 to 4.31), 1.99 (0.93 to 4.29), 1.74 (0.72 to 4.16), 1.57 (0.76 to 3.27) and 1.52 (0.93 to 2.48) for LEM, LSA, ADL, IADL and GPA, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study support an increased association between disability and all-cause mortality in the elderly in the USA. Disability in LEM may be a good predictor of high risk of all-cause mortality in elderly subjects. PMID:27625055

  16. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

    2011-09-01

    In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Man: A Course of Study. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, H. Russell, Jr.; Peskowitz, Nancy

    The document summarizes a two-year longitudinal evaluative study of the elementary school social studies curriculum, "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS), which was compared with other social studies programs. The aims of the study were to examine what MACOS students seemed to learn, what they retained, and how what was learned was different from what…

  18. Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

    2006-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

  19. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  20. Candidacy for Bilateral Hearing Aids: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boymans, Monique; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to find factors for refining candidacy criteria for bilateral hearing aid fittings. Clinical files of 1,000 consecutive hearing aid fittings were analyzed. Method: Case history, audiometric, and rehabilitation data were collected from clinical files, and an extensive questionnaire on long-term outcome measures…

  1. The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies, 1987: A Personal Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Relates how historical developments initiated the curriculum reform movement, which caused curriculum studies to become vulnerable to reconceptualization. Traces the movement from Sputnik in 1957 through reconceptualists' opposition to the mainstream field in the 1970s. The opposition has now become the field itself, which is characterized by…

  2. Group Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanlass, Janine; Moreno, J. Kelly; Thomson, Hannah M.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing amount of research supports group therapy as an effective treatment option for eating disorders (Moreno, 1994). In an attempt to further delineate therapeutic factors associated with productive group work, this study represents an exploratory, descriptive analysis of client and therapist perspectives on group process and outcome.…

  3. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  4. Biochemical markers of aging for longitudinal studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Engelfriet, Peter M; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Picavet, H Susan J; Dollé, Martijn E T

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the past decades in unraveling the mechanisms that are responsible for aging. The discovery that particular gene mutations in experimental species such as yeast, flies, and nematodes are associated with longevity has led to many important insights into pathways that regulate aging processes. However, extrapolating laboratory findings in experimental species to knowledge that is valid for the complexity of human physiology remains a major challenge. Apart from the restricted experimental possibilities, studying aging in humans is further complicated by the development of various age-related diseases. The availability of a set of biomarkers that really reflect underlying aging processes would be of much value in disentangling age-associated pathology from specific aging mechanisms. In this review, we survey the literature to identify promising biochemical markers of aging, with a particular focus on using them in longitudinal studies of aging in humans that entail repeated measurements on easily obtainable material, such as blood samples. Our search strategy was a 2-pronged approach, one focused on general mechanisms of aging and one including studies on clinical biomarkers of age-related diseases.

  5. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  6. Biochemical Markers of Aging for Longitudinal Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Engelfriet, Peter M.; Jansen, Eugène H. J. M.; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the past decades in unraveling the mechanisms that are responsible for aging. The discovery that particular gene mutations in experimental species such as yeast, flies, and nematodes are associated with longevity has led to many important insights into pathways that regulate aging processes. However, extrapolating laboratory findings in experimental species to knowledge that is valid for the complexity of human physiology remains a major challenge. Apart from the restricted experimental possibilities, studying aging in humans is further complicated by the development of various age-related diseases. The availability of a set of biomarkers that really reflect underlying aging processes would be of much value in disentangling age-associated pathology from specific aging mechanisms. In this review, we survey the literature to identify promising biochemical markers of aging, with a particular focus on using them in longitudinal studies of aging in humans that entail repeated measurements on easily obtainable material, such as blood samples. Our search strategy was a 2-pronged approach, one focused on general mechanisms of aging and one including studies on clinical biomarkers of age-related diseases. PMID:23382477

  7. [Morbidity rate and mental capacity of Moscow schoolchildren (longitudinal study)].

    PubMed

    Sukhareva, L M; Rapoport, I K; Polenova, M A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there are presented data of longitudinal study of the health of Moscow schoolchildren (426 children), followed throughout from the 1st to 9th class, inclusively. Students were annually clinically examined in the school. There was performed a comprehensive study of mental health and functional state of the organism in the process of education students in high school (over 2700 pupils of 5-9th classes). The health status of students was shown to deteriorate due to the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease, the rise in occupancy of the III-IV health groups, the decrease of the number of children referred to I and II health groups. Unfavorable trends in the health state among boys are more pronounced than in girls, while they are also characterized by lower functional capabilities of the CNS and lower resistance to the development of training fatigue. Relatively favorable stage of school ontogeny is characterized by period with reduced morbidity in children studying in 4th-6th classes. Deterioration in the health of students as a significant rate of the rise of chronic diseases morbidity is observed in 7-9th classes. Along with this, in the 7th and 9th classes there is revealed the deterioration of mental capacity and high frequency of the pronounced signs of fatigue among schoolchildren. PMID:25306705

  8. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  9. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  10. Retrospective Pilot Study of USAID-Funded Education Projects in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzar, Uzma; Harpring, Sharon; Cohen, Joseph; Leu, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The retrospective pilot study was designed to provide information on thirteen years of USAID-funded education projects in Malawi. This study provides a preliminary understanding of (i) the conceptualization of education quality that was explicit or implicit in project designs over time; (ii) the interventions carried out to enhance education…

  11. Women's Reported Health Behaviours before and during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Jenna; Jancey, Jonine M.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Zhao, Yun; Monteiro, Sarojini M. D. R.; Howat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine women's reported health behaviours (physical activity, diet, weight management) before and during pregnancy, and to identify sources of health information. Design: Retrospective study incorporating quantitative (a self-completed survey) and qualitative (one-on-one interviews) methods. Methodology:…

  12. Oral and pharyngeal cancers in Yemen: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Halboub, E S; Abdulhuq, M; Al-Mandili, A

    2012-09-01

    Hospital-based studies have revealed very high relative frequencies of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Yemen. This study estimated the relative frequencies of oral and pharyngeal cancers among Yemeni cancer patients registered in 2007 and 2008 and determined patients' demographic and tumour characteristics. Of the registered 7515 cases, 302 (4.0%) were oral cancer and 239 (3.2%) pharyngeal cancer. Oral cancer was significantly more frequent among females while pharyngeal cancer was significantly more frequent among males. Oral cancer patients were significantly older than pharyngeal cancer patients. The tongue was the most affected oral site (53.6%) while the nasopharynx comprised 89.5% of pharyngeal cancers. The most frequent morphological type was squamous cell carcinoma (93.2%). High proportions of oral cancer (71.5%) and pharyngeal cancer (77.4%) patients were diagnosed at advanced stages. Compared with other countries in the region, oral cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer represent substantial national health burdens in Yemen.

  13. Wilms' tumor: single centre retrospective study from South India.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, B; Rohan, B; Kavitha, S; Madhumathi, D S; Lokanath, D; Appaji, L

    2013-09-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in paediatric age group, and is classically managed by multimodal treatment which involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The last few decades have seen a dramatic change in the prognosis of this disease, which once was a uniformly lethal malignancy. While there is plenty of data in world literature on the outcome of Wilms' tumor, there is paucity of data from India. Hence, we conducted the present study to analyze the outcome of Wilms' tumor at our institute. To study the clinicopathologic profile and outcome of Wilms' tumor with NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study Group) IV protocol. Sixty-one patients with histopathological proven diagnosis of Wilms' tumor and had received treatment at our institute from Jan 2003 through Dec 2010 were included for analysis. Patients received treatment based on NWTS IV protocol. Patients were analysed for overall survival and event free survival and these outcomes were correlated with age, sex, stage at presentation and histology. Favourable histology which included focal anaplasia was found in 80.3 % while unfavourable histology was elicited in 19.7 % of the cases. The estimated 5 year event-free survival was 83.3 % and overall survival was 85.2 %. Tumour histology was the single most important factor predicting the survival. Patients with childhood Wilms' still present very late in our setting, this poses management challenges as large tumor are technically difficult to deliver at surgery. Histology has a crucial role in outcome of this disease. With multidisciplinary approach, similar survival rates to National Wilms' Tumor Study Group seems to be achievable even in Indian scenario. PMID:24426744

  14. Uterine anomalies. A retrospective, matched-control study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Rafael, Z; Seidman, D S; Recabi, K; Bider, D; Mashiach, S

    1991-10-01

    The obstetric risk associated with congenital uterine malformations was studied in a group of 67 women who had undergone hysterosalpingography (HSG) during an eight-year period. HSG was performed to investigate primary (21% of the cases) and secondary (19%) infertility (group 1) or recurrent early fetal loss (60%) (group 2). The study group was compared with a random control group of 130 patients with HSG-proven normal uteri, matched for the presenting symptom. Prematurity and intrauterine fetal death were found to be significantly more common (P less than .05) for women in group 1 with uterine anomalies. The mean birth weight for preterm infants (less than 37 weeks) was significantly lower (P less than .01) for women with malformed uteri. The incidence of antepartum bleeding during pregnancy (P less than .01), breech presentation and cesarean section (P less than .001) was significantly higher for the study group. Premature rupture of the membranes was diagnosed more frequently (P less than .05) only in group 1. Patients with congenital uterine anomalies are a high-risk obstetric group. Primary infertility may be a more common presenting complaint in women with uterine anomalies than previously recognized.

  15. [Retrospective study of mental patients who have committed criminal acts].

    PubMed

    Hodgins, S; Hébert, J

    1984-12-01

    The study presented here aims to gather descriptive information which would be useful to the development of research hypotheses, policies, and treatment programmes for persons suffering from mental illness who commit crimes. The project tracked a cohort of 225 persons for the seven to nine years after they had been judged unfit to stand trail or not guilty by reason of insanity. A comparison is made here between the cases treated in a maximum security hospital and those treated in other hospitals. The population studied is characterised principally by its misery. The majority are individuals who have been diagnosed as psychotic, who have few, if any, personal or social resources and who live on the edge of society. Thirty-six percent of these cases were treated in a security hospital. Of all the variables studied, only a few distinguished these cases: the place and type of crime of which they were initially accused, the length of out-patient treatment, the type of residence once released from hospital, and the occupation. Questions are raised with respect to appropriate treatments for such persons.

  16. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  17. A retrospective study of daylily toxicosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Hadley, R M; Richardson, J A; Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2003-02-01

    The Easter, Japanese, stargazer and tiger lilies (Lilium sp) are nephrotoxic to cats. This study examined risks posed to cats by the common daylily (Hemerocallis sp: H. dumortierei, H. fulvi, H. graminea, H. seiboldii) following ingestion. Records describing ingestion of Hemerocallis sp between January 1998 and June 2002 were reviewed for signalment, quantity ingested, clinical signs (onset, severity, duration), treatments administered, and outcome. Twenty-two cases of confirmed exposure resulting in toxicosis were evaluated. Cats that ingest daylilies are at risk for gastrointestinal distress and acute renal failure. Successful treatment can be accomplished with early decontamination and aggressive fluid therapy. PMID:12583697

  18. Retrospective study of maxilla growth in a Spanish population sample.

    PubMed

    Alió-Sanz, Juan; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Pernía, José-Lorenzo; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2011-03-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the vertical and sagittal changes in the maxilla due to growth. A sample group was chosen of 38 individuals with normal occlusion, composed of 16 females and 22 males between the ages of 8 and 18. The total sample was divided into three groups: prepubescent (8-11 years), pubescent (12-14 years) and post-pubescent (15-18 years). A series of cephalometric angle parameters (SNA, maxillary height, slope of the palatal plane and maxillary depth) and lineal parameters (effective maxillary length, palatal plane length, middle third of the face height and convexity) were traced. Superimpositions of the initial and final cephalometries in the Ba-N plane and in the Nasion fixed point were carried out to measure growth. An analytic statistical analysis was applied using a Student t test for independent samples in order to evaluate the differences found according to sex. An analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test was done to study the evolution of each variable throughout the duration of the experiment. In light of the results obtained, we have come to the following conclusions: sagittal growth of the maxilla is constant from the age of 8 to 18 years with an average increase of 0.2 mm/year. Vertical growth, as well as general maxillary growth, is greater in the prepubescent group.

  19. Longitudinal study of circulating protein biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Viennois, Emilie; Baker, Mark T.; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Lixin; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic and progressive inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In IBD, protein serological biomarkers could be relevant tools for assessing disease activity, performing early-stage diagnosis and managing the treatment. Using the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10−/−) mouse, a model that develops a time-dependent IBD-like disorder that predominates in the colon; we performed longitudinal studies of circulating protein biomarkers in IBD. Circulating protein profiles in serum samples collected from 30-, 93-, and 135-day-old IL-10−/− mice were investigated using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and MALDI TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 15 different proteins were identified and confirmed by ELISA and Western blot to be differentially accumulated in serum samples from mid- to late-stage IL-10−/− mice compared to early non-inflamed IL-10−/− mice. The use of another model of colitis and an extra-intestinal inflammation model validated this biomarker panel and demonstrated that comprised some global inflammatory markers, some intestinal inflammation-specific markers and some chronic intestinal inflammation markers. Statistical analyses using misclassification error rate charts validated the use of these identified proteins as powerful biomarkers of colitis. Unlike standard biomarker screening studies, our analyses identified a panel of proteins that allowed the definition of protein signatures that reflect colitis status. PMID:25230104

  20. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464

  1. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  2. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  3. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  4. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  5. Heritability of Delay Discounting in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards, and is considered to be a distinct component of a broader “impulsivity” construct. Although greater propensity for discounting the value of delayed gratification has been associated with a range of problem behaviors and substance abuse, particularly in adolescents, the origins of individual differences in DD remain unclear. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a real-life behavioral measure of DD using a longitudinal twin design. Adolescent participants were asked to choose between a smaller ($7) reward available immediately and a larger ($10) reward to be received in 7 days. Biometrical genetic analysis using linear structural equation modeling showed significant heritability of DD at ages 12 and 14 (30 and 51%, respectively) and suggested that the same genetic factors influenced the trait at both ages. DD was significantly associated with symptoms of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and with higher novelty seeking and poor self-regulation. This study provides the first evidence for heritability of DD in humans and suggests that DD can be a promising endophenotype for genetic studies of addiction and externalizing disorders. PMID:20700643

  6. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  7. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  8. Intraoral salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 201 cases.

    PubMed

    Isacsson, G; Shear, M

    1983-02-01

    Two hundred and one cases of intraoral salivary gland tumors were studied from the files of the School of Pathology, University of the Witwaterstrand and South African Institute for Medical Research. 145 cases (72.5%) were classified as benign, comprising 140 pleomorphic adenomas and 5 monomorphic adenomas. The other 56 cases were classified as malignant or potentially malignant tumors, represented by 21 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 mucoepidermoid tumors, 5 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas and 2 epidermoid carcinomas. The patients in the malignant/potentially malignant group were significantly older than those in the benign group and a smaller proportion of their tumors were palatal, the difference being statistically significant. The high frequency of pleomorphic adenoma might result from a relatively higher number of black than white patients in this sample.

  9. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and orthognathic surgery: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Relations between maxillo-mandibular deformities and TMJ disorders have been the object of different studies in medical literature and there are various opinions concerning the alteration of TMJ dysfunction after orthognathic surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate TMJ disorders changes before and after orthognathic surgery, and to assess the risk of creating new TMJ symptoms on asymptomatic patients. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 176 patients operated at the Maxillo-Facial Service of the Lille's 2 Universitary Hospital Center (Chairman Pr Joël Ferri) from 01.01.2006 to 01.01.2008. 57 patients (35 females and 22 males), age range from 16 to 65 years old, filled the questionnaire. The prevalence and the results on pain, sounds, clicking, joint locking, limited mouth opening, and tenseness were evaluated comparing different subgroups of patients. Results TMJ symptoms were significantly reduced after treatment for patients with pre-operative symptoms. The overall subjective treatment outcome was: improvement for 80.0% of patients, no change for 16.4% of patients, and an increase of symptoms for 3.6% of them. Thus, most patients were very satisfied with the results. However the appearance of new onset of TMJ symptoms is common. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of preoperative TMJ symptoms and on postoperative results in class II compared to class III patients. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that: there is a high prevalence of TMJ disorders in dysgnathic patients; most of patients with preoperative TMJ signs and symptoms can improve TMJ dysfunction and pain levels can be reduced by orthognathic treatment; a percentage of dysgnathic patients who were preoperatively asymptomatic can develop TMJ disorders after surgery but this risk is low. PMID:21083902

  10. Outcome following physician supervised prehospital resuscitation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in

  11. Retrospective Study of Campylobacter Infection in a Zoological Collection▿

    PubMed Central

    Taema, Maged M.; Bull, James C.; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Flach, Edmund J.; Boardman, Wayne S.; Routh, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. However, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. Using records from the Zoological Society of London Whipsnade Zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. The occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. Furthermore, in mammals, a combination of changes in both rainfall and temperature in the week preceding the onset of gastroenteritis were associated with isolation of Campylobacter from feces. In birds, there was a weak negative correlation between mean weekly rainfall and isolation of Campylobacter from feces. Importantly, in birds we found that the mean weekly rainfall 3 to 4 weeks before symptoms of gastroenteritis appeared was the best predictor of Campylobacter infection. Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis cases with mixed concurrent infections were positively associated with the presence of parasites (helminths and protozoans) in mammals, while in birds Campylobacter was associated with other concurrent bacterial infections rather than with the presence of helminths and protozoans. This study suggests that climatic elements are important factors associated with Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis. Further investigations are required to improve our understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in captive wild animal populations. PMID:18165368

  12. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  13. Economic burden of asthma in Abu Dhabi: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Alzaabi, Ashraf; Alseiari, Mohammed; Mahboub, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Data was compiled for 2011 from health insurance claims covering all medical interventions or treatments coded as asthma. Costs were calculated from a health care perspective. The total direct cost of treating 139,092 asthma patients was estimated to be United Arab Emirates Dirhams (AED) 105 million (US$29 million), corresponding to around AED 750 per patient per annum. The total cost is principally generated by outpatient visits (>AED 85 million; 81% of the total cost). Ten point four percent of patients had made an emergency room visit. The cost per visit seems to be higher during hospital admissions (AED 7,123) compared to outpatient visits and emergency room visits. The direct cost of asthma medications was around AED 33 million (31% of the total cost). The economic burden of asthma in Abu Dhabi is high and the number of emergency visits suggests that the disease is not optimally controlled. PMID:25378938

  14. Investigating the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek: findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Georgiou, George K; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit group (PD; n = 33), a naming deficit group (ND; n = 33), and a control group exhibiting no deficits (CnD; n = 159). The four groups were identified in Grade 1, and they were compared retrospectively in kindergarten only on the criterion measures, and in Grades 1 and 2 on measures of word-reading fluency and accuracy, orthographic processing, and passage comprehension. The effects of verbal and nonverbal ability, age, gender, and parental education were controlled among the groups. Results showed that the DD group exhibited greater dysfunction in reading and orthographic processing compared to the single-deficit and CnD groups. Also, although the three deficit groups were not easily differentiated in kindergarten, their differences were maximized in Grade 1 and retained in Grade 2. The type and severity of reading deficits found in the ND group were mostly associated with naming speed at both the word- and text-reading levels, deficits that persisted across development. The PD group showed mostly deficient orthographic and poor decoding skills that improved across development. Implications of the findings for the double-deficit hypothesis in languages with transparent orthographies are discussed. PMID:19723979

  15. Treatment of Bone Defects in War Wounds: Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Milicevic, Snjezana; Grubor, Milan; Meccariello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Results of the treatment of open fractures primarily depend on the treatment of connected soft tissue injuries. Objective: The aim was to present the experience and methods gained during the treatment of diaphyseal bone defects as a consequence of gunshot fracture soft war trauma. Patients and Methods: The study consisted of 116 patients with the diaphyseal bone defect who were treated with the usage of primary and delayed autotransplantation of bones, transplants of the fibula and Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Results: The results of compensation of bone defect less than 4 cm and conducted by an early cortico-spongioplastics were as follows: good in 8 respondents (45%), satisfactory in 6 (34%) and poor in 4 respondents (21%). In cases of delayed cortico-spongioplastics, the above mentioned results were: good in 36 (41%) respondents, satisfactory in 24 (34%) and poor in 16 (25%) respondents. The results of compensation of bone defect greater than 4 cm with the usage of fibular transplant were as follows: good in 3 (38%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (38%) and poor in 2 (24%), and with the usage of using the Ilizarov method, the results were as follows: good in 8 (57%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (21.5%) and poor in 3(21.5%) respondents. Conclusion: The results showed that, in cases of compensation of bone defects less than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the primary spongioplastics over the delayed one. In cases of compensation of bone defects greater than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis when compared to the fibular transplant. PMID:26543315

  16. A retrospective study of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Song, Seung Hyun; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Kyung Sil; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical outcomes of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles according to the hatching status of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Methods Frozen-thawed blastocysts were divided into three groups according to their hatching status as follows: less-than-expanded blastocyst (≤EdB), hatching blastocyst (HgB), and hatched blastocyst (HdB). The female age and infertility factors of each group were evaluated. The quality of the single frozen-thawed blastocyst was also graded as grade A, tightly packed inner cell mass (ICM) and many cells organized in the trophectoderm epithelium (TE); grade B, several and loose ICM and TE; and grade C, very few ICM and a few cells in the TE. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between each group. The data were analyzed by either t-test or chi-square analysis. Results There were no statistically significant differences in average female ages, infertility factors, or the distribution of blastocyst grades A, B, and C in each group. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of each group according to their blastocyst grade. However, there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate between each group. In the HdB group, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were similar regardless of the blastocyst quality. Conclusion There was an effect on the clinical outcomes depending on whether the blastocyst hatched during single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. When performing single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, the hatching status of the frozen-thawed blastocyst may be a more important parameter for clinical outcomes than the quality of the frozen-thawed blastocyst. PMID:27358829

  17. Hybrid Endovascular Repair in Aortic Arch Pathologies: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xiaoping; Yin, Tai; Jia, Xin; Xiong, Jiang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Wang, Lijun

    2010-01-01

    The aortic arch presents specific challenges to endovascular repair. Hybrid repair is increasingly evolving as an alternative option for selected patients, and promising initial results have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce our experiences and evaluate mid-term results of supra aortic transpositions for extended endovascular repair of aortic arch pathologies. From December 2002 to January 2008, 25 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections involving the aortic arch were treated with hybrid endovascular treatment in our center. Of the 25 cases, 14 were atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysms and 11 were thoracic aortic dissection. The hybrid repair method included total-arch transpositions (15 cases) or hemi-arch transpositions (10 cases), and endovascular procedures. All hybrid endovascular procedures were completed successfully. Three early residual type-I endoleaks and one type-II endoleak were observed. Stroke occurred in three patients (8%) during the in-hospital stage. The perioperative mortality rate was 4%; one patients died post-operatively from catheter related complications. The average follow-up period was 15 ± 5.8 months (range, 1–41 months). The overall crude survival rate at 15 months was 92% (23/25). During follow-up, new late endoleaks and stent-raft related complications were not observed. One case (4%) developed a unilateral lower limb deficit at 17 days and was readmitted to hospital. In conclusion, the results are encouraging for endovascular aortic arch repair in combination with supra-aortic transposition in high risk cases. Aortic endografting offers good mid-term results. Mid-term results of the hybrid approach in elderly patients with aortic arch pathologies are satisfying. PMID:21151464

  18. Microsporidia and Its Relation to Crohn's Disease. A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Ballester, Juan C.; Garcia-Ballesteros, Carlos; Amigo, Victoria; Ballester, Ferran; Gil-Borrás, Rafael; Catalán-Serra, Ignacio; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; del Aguila, Carmen; Ferrando-Marco, Jose; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Background The cause of Crohn's Disease (CD) remains unknown. Recently a decrease in the global lymphocyte population in the peripheral blood of CD patients has been reported. This decrease was more evident in γδ T lymphocytes, especially γδ CD8+T subsets. Furthermore, a decrease of IL-7 was also observed in these patients. We propose the hypothesis that microsporidia, an obligate intracellular opportunistic parasite recently related to fungi, in CD patients can take advantage of the lymphocytes and IL-7 deficits to proliferate and to contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. Methods and Findings In this case-control study, serum samples were collected from 36 CD patients and from 36 healthy individuals (controls), IgE and IgG anti-Encephalitozoon antibodies were determined by ELISA; and forty-four intestinal tissue samples were analyzed through real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), twenty CD patients, nine with others diseases and 15 healthy subjects. We observed that IgE anti-Encephalitozoon levels were significantly higher in patients with CD: 0.386(±0.256) vs control group, 0.201(±0.147), P<0.001. However, IgG anti-Encephalitozoon values were significantly lower in CD patients: 0.361(±0.256) vs control group, 0.876(±0.380), P<0.001. In the group of CD patients, 6/20 (30%) were positive by real time PCR for microsporidia and, all the patients of the control group were negative by real time PCR. Conclusions These results suggest that CD patients are a group at risk for microsporidiasis and, moreover that microsporidia may be involved as a possible etiologic factor of CD. PMID:23637975

  19. Foodborne illness outbreaks in Korea and Japan studied retrospectively.

    PubMed

    Lee, W C; Lee, M J; Kim, J S; Park, S Y

    2001-06-01

    The average prevalence of reported foodborne illness from 1981 to 1995 was 2.44 per 100,000 population in Korea, and 28.01 in Japan. The mean case fatality rate in Korea was 0.74% and in Japan, 0.03%. When both prevalence and case fatality rates in Korea and Japan were compared during the same period, the prevalence in Japan was much higher than that in Korea. However, the case fatality rate of patients in Korea was much higher than that in Japan. The distribution of monthly and seasonal patterns of foodborne illness outbreaks strongly indicate the outbreaks may be associated with climatic conditions, frequencies of national holidays, and vacation seasons. Comparison study indicates that the foodborne illness outbreaks in Korea most frequently involved homemade foods (47% of the total cases); in Japan, restaurants accounted for 31.3%. Foodborne illness cases of bacterial origin in Korea were 59.3% of the total and included Salmonella spp. (20.7%). Vibrio (17.4%), Staphylococcus (9.7%), pathogenic Escherichia coli (2.4%), and other species (9.1%); in Japan, 72.8% of the total cases and the majority of the bacterial foodborne illness was caused by Vibrio (32.3%), Staphylococcus (15.9%), Salmonella (14.2%), pathogenic E. coli (3.0%), and other species (7.2%). In conclusion, the outbreaks of foodborne illness in Korea and Japan may be mainly caused by improper food handling, and their occurrences may be differentiated according to food sources. PMID:11403148

  20. Retrospective Study of the Hungarian National Transplant Team's Cardiorespiratory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Trájer, E; Bosnyák, E; Komka, Z S; Kováts, T; Protzner, A; Szmodis, M; Tóth, S Z; Udvardy, A; Tóth, M

    2015-01-01

    The low availability of donor organs requires long-term successful transplantation as an accepted therapy for patients with end-stage renal and liver diseases. The health benefits of regular physical activity are well known among healthy individuals as well as patients under rehabilitation programs. Our aim was to describe the cardiorespiratory capacity of the Hungarian National Transplant Team. Twenty-five kidney (n = 21) or liver (n = 4) transplant athletes participated in this study. Maximal cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max) was measured on a treadmill with the use of gas analysis. After a resting pulmonary function test, subjects completed a vita maxima test until exhaustion. Aerobic capacity of transplant athletes was higher than the age- and sex-predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max, 109.9 ± 21.7% of the predicted values; P = .0101). Resting respiratory function indicators exceeded 80% of predicted age- and sex-matched normal values. There were positive correlations between VO2max and workload (r(2) = 0.40; P = .0463), metabolic equivalent (r(2) = 0.72; P < .0001), and oxygen pulse (r(2) = 0.30; P = .0039). However, age showed negative correlation with VO2max (r(2) = 0.32; P = .0031), and there was no significant correlation between graft age and maximal oxygen consumption (r(2) = 0.15; P = .4561). Although the small amount of participants can not represent the general kidney and liver transplant population, the excellent cardiorespiratory performance suggests that a normal level of physical capacity is available after transplantation and can be even higher with regular physical activity. This favorable physiologic background leads to a state that provides proper graft oxygenization, which is an important factor in long-term graft survival. PMID:26293020

  1. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  2. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  3. A Longitudinal Study on the Stability over Time of School and Teacher Effects on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudinal study on the progress of students (N=1681) in…

  4. Reducing Bias Due to Systematic Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Benefits of Multiple Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…

  5. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  6. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  7. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  8. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  9. Variable selection for semiparametric mixed models in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Daowen; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2010-03-01

    We propose a double-penalized likelihood approach for simultaneous model selection and estimation in semiparametric mixed models for longitudinal data. Two types of penalties are jointly imposed on the ordinary log-likelihood: the roughness penalty on the nonparametric baseline function and a nonconcave shrinkage penalty on linear coefficients to achieve model sparsity. Compared to existing estimation equation based approaches, our procedure provides valid inference for data with missing at random, and will be more efficient if the specified model is correct. Another advantage of the new procedure is its easy computation for both regression components and variance parameters. We show that the double-penalized problem can be conveniently reformulated into a linear mixed model framework, so that existing software can be directly used to implement our method. For the purpose of model inference, we derive both frequentist and Bayesian variance estimation for estimated parametric and nonparametric components. Simulation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of our method to the existing ones. We then apply the new method to a real data set from a lactation study.

  10. Longitudinal Study of Student Attitudes in a Biology Program

    PubMed Central

    Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    This is among the first longitudinal studies to report student attitudes across 4 yr of a university program. We found that the attitudes of students in biology become significantly more expert-like from the first year to the fourth year of the program, that is, there was a significant positive shift in students’ overall percent favorable scores from 64.5 to 72%, as opposed to the expert response, which averaged 90%. There was a significant positive shift for the real world connection category (78–85%), the enjoyment (personal interest) category (74–82%), and the conceptual connections/memorization category (66–74%). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between students’ overall percent favorable scores and performance (cumulative grade point average) at the end, but not at the beginning, of the fourth year, with high-performing students having significantly more expert-like attitudes than low-performing students. The correlation between percent favorable score and performance was the strongest for the problem solving: synthesis and application category, in which the highest-performing students finished their fourth year with 90% favorable compared with 35% favorable for the lowest-performing students. A comparison of these results with previously reported results and their implications for teaching are discussed. PMID:26086663

  11. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Nooe, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female). Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03). Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior. PMID:27766234

  12. The evolution of pure alexia: a longitudinal study of recovery.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, M; Black, S E; Bub, D

    1990-10-01

    This case report documents the partial recovery, over a 12-month period, of pure alexia in an adult female following a left occipital infarction. Measures of speed and accuracy were obtained on an oral reading and a lexical decision task immediately postonset and then on 10 subsequent occasions. Explicit letter-by-letter reading was observed only during the first week poststroke but a significant effect of word length was seen in all testing sessions. Reading accuracy was relatively good at all stages and reading latency showed a remarkable decrease over time but did not reach normal reading rates. The inability to use higher-order orthographic knowledge, as manifest in the absence of a word superiority effect, was still noted at one year postonset. We therefore concluded that the change in behavior was attributable to increased proficiency in the use of the adaptive letter-by-letter procedure rather than to the resolution of the underlying deficit. It is suggested that longitudinal neurobehavioral studies add to our understanding of the alexic deficit and provide insight into the recovery process. PMID:2285860

  13. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  14. Retrospective Study of Lithium Use for Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langee, Harvey R.

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…

  15. Examining the Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the changes in principal-teacher relationships and school climate over time as witnessed by staff members in elementary level "Turn Around Schools" in Indiana and how these relationships impacted student achievement. School climate and subsequent principal-teacher relationships…

  16. Reduced Requirements for Long-Term Institutional Care: Results of a Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurewitsch, Eleanor Chestnut

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective study of 102 Swiss seniors to determine nonmedical factors affecting substantial care days required prior to death. Protected senior housing and an independent and helpful personality seemed to contribute significantly to compression of morbidity and to reduced need for long-term institutional care. (JAC)

  17. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  18. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571

  19. Marital status and suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Kposowa, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of marital status on the risk of suicide, using a large nationally representative sample. A related objective was to investigate the association between marital status and suicide by sex.
METHODS—Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, based on the 1979-1989 follow up. In estimating the effect of marital status, adjustments were made for age, sex, race, education, family income, and region of residence.
RESULTS—For the entire sample, higher risks of suicide were found in divorced than in married persons. Divorced and separated persons were over twice as likely to commit suicide as married persons (RR=2.08, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.58, 2.72). Being single or widowed had no significant effect on suicide risk. When data were stratified by sex, it was observed that the risk of suicide among divorced men was over twice that of married men (RR=2.38, CI 1.77, 3.20). Among women, however, there were no statistically significant differentials in the risk of suicide by marital status categories.
CONCLUSIONS—Marital status, especially divorce, has strong net effect on mortality from suicide, but only among men. The study showed that in epidemiological research on suicide, more accurate results would be obtained if samples are stratified on the basis of key demographic or social characteristics. The study further observed that failure to control for relevant socioeconomic variables or combining men and women in the same models could produce misleading results.


Keywords: suicide; marital status; socioeconomic status; effect modification PMID:10827907

  20. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  1. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be

  2. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  3. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  4. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  5. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  6. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  7. Longitudinal growth study of male Japanese junior high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Nariyama, K; Hauspie, R C; Mino, T

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the pattern of adolescent growth in height of male Japanese athletes, and to compare their growth with appropriate controls. The sample consisted of 126 baseball, 39 basketball, 83 soccer, and 53 volleyball players, and 36 nonathletes. The data were collected retrospectively in six public schools in Fukui Prefecture of Western Japan between 1970 and 1987. All subjects were measured at yearly intervals between the age of 6 and 18 years. The total number of measurement occasions for the 337 subjects amounted to 4,134. Athletes trained between 13 and 18 h/week. Individual growth patterns were determined by fitting Preece Baines model I to each individual's serial data. Various biological parameters were derived from the fitted curves. The results indicated that the average growth pattern of these adolescent athletes did not differ substantially from the control group. Volleyball players were significantly taller at 18 years (+3 cm) than the nonathletes (Student's t-test, P < 0.05). Soccer players showed a slight tendency towards late maturation with age at take-off and at peak velocity about half a year later than in nonathletes (Student's t-test, P < 0.05). The 2.3 cm gain in body height due to the later onset of the pubertal growth spurt in soccer players was counterbalanced by a 0.7 cm smaller prepubertal height and a 0.9 cm smaller adolescent gain, so that they ended up slightly, but not significantly, taller than the controls (+0.7 cm). The small differences in growth pattern observed between the nonathletes and the various sports suggest that, in contrast with top-level athletes, body size and maturation rate were not important selective factors in the various groups of athletes of the present study.

  8. Relation of melody complexity in infants' cries to language outcome in the second year of life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wermke, Kathleen; Leising, Daniel; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of the German Language Development Study's prospective longitudinal research programme on infants from birth until the age of 3 years. Thirty-four infants were retrospectively classified into two groups (normal/delayed) by their language skills at 2.5 years of age. Frequency spectrograms and melodies of about 11,000 cries from the first 16 weeks of life were analysed using a CSL 4400. A Melody Complexity Index was calculated at monthly intervals. Infants with less than 45% complex melodies in their cries during the second month were found to be almost five times more likely to develop a language delay as infants with a higher proportion. For infants above the cut-off of .45, development of a language delay condition could be ruled out with a probability of 89%. Although the results need to be interpreted cautiously, the data indicate a possible relation between early melody development and later language outcome.

  9. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: An Historical Overview and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Kathy; And Others

    Meant to study post secondary educational and vocational activities, the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is reported to have consistently succeeded in overcoming diminishing response rates and sample attrition found in other longitudinal surveys. The purpose of understanding the focus and experiences affecting…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  11. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  12. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  13. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  14. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  15. Recruitment Modeling Applied to Longitudinal Studies of Group Differences in Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…

  16. The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…

  17. Impact of pregnancy on vitamin D status: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joy Y; Lucey, Alice J; Horgan, Richard; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead

    2014-10-14

    Nutritional requirements for vitamin D during pregnancy have been inadequately described, and there are conflicting data on the impact of gestation on vitamin D status. In the present study, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of total and free (unbound) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin concentrations in a random sample of thirty women from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints Ireland pregnancy cohort study at 15, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 weeks of gestation and at 2 months postpartum. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, DBP and albumin were determined, and free 25(OH)D was calculated from the concentrations of total 25(OH)D, DBP and albumin. Serum albumin concentration decreased during pregnancy (P< 0·001), with a nadir at 36 weeks (P< 0·005), during which the concentration was approximately 80 % of the postnatal concentration. Serum DBP concentration increased during pregnancy and at 28 weeks of gestation, which was almost double the postnatal level (P< 0·001). Total and free 25(OH)D concentrations decreased (both P< 0·005) as pregnancy progressed, and both were lowest at 36 weeks of gestation. At 15 weeks, 10 and 63 % of the women had serum 25(OH)D concentration < 30 and 50 nmol/l, respectively, which increased to 53 and 80 % at 36 weeks of gestation. The time course of decreasing concentrations of 25(OH)D during gestation among women recruited during May-July, who delivered between October and November, and among those recruited in August-September, who delivered between February and March, was similar. The lower percentage of free 25(OH)D during pregnancy is mainly due to increased DBP.

  18. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  19. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; P<0.0001) throughout the year. Correlation with demographic variables (age, sex) were found. The total incidence of burnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  20. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  1. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sophie; Innes, Steve; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Smit, Colette; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Scherpbier, Henriette J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment. Methods We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA) and the Netherlands (NL), and in healthy controls (SA). Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time. Results In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013). In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001), with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003). Conclusions Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally. PMID:26148119

  2. Longitudinal Study of the Decline in Renal Function in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Mika; Shimbo, Takuro; Horio, Masaru; Ando, Masahiko; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Katsunori; Matsuo, Seiichi; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is an important concern in preventive medicine, but the rate of decline in renal function in healthy population is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine reference values for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and rate of decline of eGFR in healthy subjects and to evaluate factors associated with this decline using a large cohort in Japan. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed with healthy subjects aged ≥18 years old who received a medical checkup. Reference values for eGFR were obtained using a nonparametric method and those for decline of eGFR were calculated by mixed model analysis. Relationships of eGFR decline rate with baseline variables were examined using a linear least-squares method. Results In the cross-sectional study, reference values for eGFR were obtained by gender and age in 72,521 healthy subjects. The mean (±SD) eGFR was 83.7±14.7ml/min/1.73m2. In the longitudinal study, reference values for eGFR decline rate were obtained by gender, age, and renal stage in 45,586 healthy subjects. In the same renal stage, there was little difference in the rate of decline regardless of age. The decline in eGFR depended on the renal stage and was strongly related to baseline eGFR, with a faster decline with a higher baseline eGFR and a slower decline with a lower baseline eGFR. The mean (±SD) eGFR decline rate was ‒1.07±0.42ml/min/1.73m2/year (‒1.29±0.41%/year) in subjects with a mean eGFR of 81.5±11.6ml/min/1.73m2. Conclusions The present study clarified for the first time the reference values for the rate of eGFR decline stratified by gender, age, and renal stage in healthy subjects. The rate of eGFR decline depended mainly on baseline eGFR, but not on age, with a slower decline with a lower baseline eGFR. PMID:26061083

  3. Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    "Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

    2007-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

  6. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  7. Cognitive Abilities in Reading-Disabled Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, L.A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (approximately 9.5 and 15 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed, and…

  8. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  10. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  11. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals.

  12. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Attrition: A Case Study at a State University. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Jean J.; Harpel, Richard L.

    As part of a Student Outcomes Model, a study was conducted of attrition in the 1975 freshman class at the University of Colorado using longitudinal survey data from nonreturning students and those currently enrolled. Discriminant analysis was employed to identify factors that distinguished persisters, academic dismissals, stopouts, and transfers.…

  14. IQ Change and Occupational Level: A Longitudinal Study with Third Harvard Growth Study Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinais, Sarah M.; Bradley, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    Participants in a longitudinal study, selected according to Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores administered in the 1930s, and their occupations, took the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Data suggest persons increase in mental abilities over time while maintaining IQ positions relative to peers. Changes in IQ are not related to occupational…

  15. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  16. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  17. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults.

  18. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  19. Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a large longitudinal population-based study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Susan A; Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Strople, Geoff; Kits, Olga; Dukeshire, Steven; Angus, Camille L; Szala-Meneok, Karen; Uniat, Jennifer; Keshavarz, Homa; Furlini, Linda; Pelletier, Amélie

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTSuccessful recruitment and retention for population-based longitudinal studies requires understanding facilitators and barriers to participation. This study explored Canadians' views regarding one such study, the proposed Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Focus groups of participants > or =40 years of age were held in six proposed CLSA data collection sites (Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver) to discuss participating in a long-term study of healthy aging. There was fundamental support for longitudinal research on health and aging. Altruism was a key motivation to participation, and universities were viewed as credible parties to conduct such studies. Participants had few worries about providing biological samples but expressed concern about potential misuse of genetic materials, commercialization of participant data, and privacy issues. These findings have already informed current, and will inform future, work on the CLSA, and will also provide useful information to researchers who undertake other population-based longitudinal studies.

  20. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  1. Met expectations and the wellbeing of diaspora immigrants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Leinonen, Elina; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the importance of expectations for the adaptation of immigrants. However, most studies have been methodologically retrospective with only limited possibilities to show the optimal relationship between migrants' expectations and actual acculturation experiences for their wellbeing and other aspects of psychological adaptation. Moreover, previous research has been conducted mostly among sojourners and students. This longitudinal study focused on the relationship between premigration expectations and postmigration experiences of diaspora immigrants from Russia to Finland (N = 153). We examined how the fulfillment of premigration expectations in social (i.e., family relations, friendships, and free time) and economic (i.e., occupational position, working conditions, and economic and career situation) domains affects immigrants' wellbeing (i.e., satisfaction with life and general mood) after migration. Three alternative models of expectation confirmation (i.e., disconfirmation model, ideal point model, and the importance of experiences only) derived from previous organizational psychological research were tested with polynomial regression and response surface analysis. In the economic domain, immigrants' expectations, experiences, and their interrelationship did not affect wellbeing in the postmigration stage. However, in the social domain, the more expectations were exceeded by actual experiences, the better were life satisfaction and the general mood of immigrants. The results underline the importance of social relationships and the context-dependent nature of immigrants' wellbeing. Interventions in the preacculturation stage should create positive but realistic expectations for diaspora immigrants and other groups of voluntary (re)migrants. Furthermore, policies concerning the postmigration stage should facilitate the fulfillment of these expectations and support the social adaptation of immigrants.

  2. Uric acid in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Costabile, Teresa; Russo, Cinzia; Carotenuto, Antonio; Sasso, Gabriella; Postiglione, Emanuela; De Luca Picione, Carla; Vastola, Michele; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Palladino, Raffaele; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS), and possibly relates to MS outcomes, with lower UA levels in subjects experiencing a relapse or presenting higher disability scores. The present retrospective longitudinal study evaluated UA variations in MS, in relation to clinical relapses, disability progression, and cognitive functions. We included 141 subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and performed expanded disability status scale (EDSS), symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and UA evaluation at baseline visit and after 2-year follow-up. Paired t test showed significantly lower UA levels after 2-year follow-up than at baseline (3.987 ± 1.135 and 4.167 ± 1.207 mg/dL, respectively) (p = 0.001). The difference in UA levels between 2-year follow-up and baseline related to EDSS sustained progression (p < 0.001; OR = 0.099), and presented a trend for clinical relapses at logistic regression (p = 0.211; OR = 0.711) and for the time to relapse at Cox regression (p = 0.236; HR = 0.792). Analysis of variance showed reduced baseline UA levels in subjects with impaired SDMT at baseline (p = 0.045; adjusted R(2) = 0.473) and after 2-year follow-up (p = 0.034; adjusted R(2) = 0.470). This is the first study showing a progressive reduction of UA levels during the course of RRMS, suggesting a progressive decrease of antioxidant reserves, in relation to relapse risk, disability progression and cognitive function. PMID:25673130

  3. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Annotated Bibliography of Studies, 1980-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maline, Mindi S., Comp.

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) is the "grandmother" of the longitudinal studies designed and conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and is probably the richest archive ever assembled on a generation of Americans. Participants were selected as high school seniors in 1972 and were…

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  5. TOUS Revisited - A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth E.

    1972-01-01

    Part of the persistent deficiencies in understanding the nature" of science that were detected in a longitudinal study of students using a four-year biology progrram may be due to linguistic problems. (AL)

  6. The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach. PMID:22747597

  7. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  9. Genital injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J; Simon, M

    1992-02-01

    Three children who incurred genital injuries as a result of sexual assaults were followed up on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes which ensued. The subjects, who were 4 months, 4 years 5 months, and 9 years of age, were followed up for periods ranging from 14 months to 3 years. A multi-method examination approach and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope were used to examine and record their injuries. Signs of the acute damage disappeared rapidly, and the wounds healed without complications. Following the resolution of the acute injuries, the changes created by the trauma remained relatively stable throughout the prepubertal years. The most persistent findings were irregular hymenal edges and narrow rims at the point of the injury. Over time the jagged, angular margins smoothed off. Disruption of the hymen exposed underlying longitudinal intravaginal ridges whose hymenal attachments created mounds or projections. There was little apparent scar formation. Even the injuries to the posterior fourchettes healed with minimal scar tissue and left only the slightest evidence of the trauma. With the onset of puberty, the hymenal changes in the oldest subject were obscured by the hypertrophy of this membrane. An examination technique which used a Q-tip to separate the redundant tissues demonstrated that the signs of trauma had survived. PMID:1734401

  10. Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Marie-Hélène; Poulin, Stéphane; Fortin, Marie-Pierre; Houde, Michèle; Verret, Louis; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Laforce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the rate of cognitive decline and caregiver burden within the context of a specialized memory clinic. When this was done, the focus was largely on functional decline related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our goal was to compare the longitudinal decline of AD patients to those with Vascular Dementia (VaD) on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We further explored the differential impact on caregiver burden. We retrospectively studied 237 charts from patients seen at our Memory Clinic between 2006 and 2012. The data was collected over 17 years. Cohorts were formed by excluding conditions other than AD and VaD, and including patients who had been assessed at least twice with the MMSE (AD: n = 83; mean age: 67.7 yo; VaD: n = 32; mean age: 73.3yo). A small group of 36 caregivers was surveyed by phone to explore caregiver burden. Results indicated that the natural history of MMSE changes in AD patients differed significantly from that of patients with VaD (F = 10.41, p<0.0014), with AD patients showing more cognitive decline over time. Sadness, stress/anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disorders were reported as the main preoccupations by caregivers and its impact was rated as ‘severe’ in 50% of cases. Altogether, this study provides further insight into the natural history of cognitive decline in AD and VaD. Future studies should explore the progression of dementing disorders in larger cohorts using prospective methodological designs. PMID:27747317

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  12. Clinically defined non-specific symptoms in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: A retrospective before-after study.

    PubMed

    Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; Bolte, John; Kelfkens, Gert; van Dijk, Christel; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-09-15

    The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a >30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of >6years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment. PMID:27219506

  13. Gallstone is correlated with an increased risk of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chong-Chi; Lee, Kuan-Ji; Weng, Shih-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Ming; Lin, Yung-Song

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to test the hypothesis that gallstone disease (GSD) is a risk factor for the development of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Research has shown risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with GSD; however, well-conducted English studies on the association between GSD and the development of ISSNHL are lacking. Design and setting Retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Participants We compared 26 449 patients diagnosed with GSD between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2007, with 52 898 age-matched, gender-matched and comorbidities propensity scores-matched controls. Outcome measured We followed each patient until the end of 2011 and evaluated the incidence of ISSNHL for at least 4 years after the initial GSD diagnosis. Results The incidence of ISSNHL was 1.42 times higher in the GS cohort than in the non-GS cohort (9.27 vs 6.52/10 000 person-years). Using Cox proportional hazard regressions, the adjusted HR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.74). In the cohort of patients with GSD who needed a cholecystectomy, 37 patients suffered from ISSNHL. Among those patients, 31 (83.7%) patients sustained ISSNHL before cholecystectomy and 6 (16.2%) patients sustained ISSNHL after cholecystectomy. Conclusions A diagnosis of GSD may be an independent risk for ISSNHL. This finding suggests that an underlying vascular and inflammatory mechanism may contribute to the development of ISSNHL. Physicians may want to counsel patients with GSD to seek medical attention if they have hearing impairments, because patients may be at an increased risk of developing ISSNHL. PMID:26419682

  14. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  15. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320-1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234-0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  16. Early epileptic encephalopathies including West syndrome: a 3-year retrospective study from Klang Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thambyayah, M

    2001-11-01

    It is difficult to give a country report from Malaysia. A study done in 1999 reported the incidence of West Syndrome to be 3% among newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy. In this 3 year retrospective hospital-based study (1997-1999), the prevalence of early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and West Syndrome were 4.1 and 2.5% respectively. There is difficulty classifying EEE cases into distinct sub-groups of EIEE (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), WS (West Syndrome) and SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy), using a combination of clinical features, EEG and CT/MRI findings.

  17. Retrospective study of lithium use for institutionalized mentally retarded individuals with behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Langee, H R

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N = 74) who received lithium carbonate for various behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Their disorders had not been responsive to other medications or treatments. Behavioral data had been recorded regularly and coordinated with medication use. Subjects who demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms were classified as lithium responders (n = 31). Characteristics that indicated greater likelihood of response included older age and presenting symptoms of psychosis, although all characteristics studied were seen in both the responder and nonresponder group.

  18. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

  19. Cognitive abilities in reading-disabled children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; Decker, S N; DeFries, J C

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (9.4 +/- 1.3 and 14.8 +/- 1.2 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results of a two-factor (GROUP X TIME), mixed-model, multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed and spatial reasoning abilities at both ages. Although both reading-disabled and control children were found to improve significantly between the two testing sessions, the lack of a significant GROUP X TIME interaction on measures of academic achievement and spatial reasoning abilities indicated that the rate of development was similar for the two groups. For measures of symbolic processing speed, however, differences between reading-disabled and control children were somewhat greater at the later age.

  20. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  1. Correlates of breastfeeding frequency among nomadic pastoralists of Turkana, Kenya: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J

    1995-11-01

    Recent research has shown that significant variation in breast-feeding behavior exists among natural fertility populations, all of whom have been characterized as practicing "on-demand" breastfeeding. A number of recent prospective studies have contributed to a better understanding of breastfeeding structure and of its consequences for population differences in fertility. Currently, there is a growing interest in quantifying the complex environmental and biocultural interactions which influence that structure; in other words, in establishing an ecology of breastfeeding. In this paper, a carefully structured retrospective study of breastfeeding behavior among nomadic Turkana is used to identify environmental, biobehavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with variation in breastfeeding frequency among Turkana women. In agreement with the results of a prospective study conducted as part of the same research, the age (growth) and physical development of nurslings show significant correlations with breastfeeding frequency. Maternal physical status, the depth of the maternal social network, and, to a lesser degree, rainfall patterns are also significant. All of these factors appear to influence breastfeeding through their effects on maternal participation in herding activities and related absences from camp. Finally, the study also presents new strategies for collecting and utilizing retrospective data, which are notoriously unreliable and difficult to classify according to operational definitions recently developed for prospective studies. Results of the present study suggest methods by which the quality and reliability of recall data may be enhanced.

  2. Eleven-Year Retrospective Survival Study of 275 Veneered Lithium Disilicate Single Crowns.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Piero; Gracis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present clinical retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term survival and clinical performance of veneered lithium disilicate single restorations in anterior and posterior areas after up to 11 years. Following a rigid protocol, 275 lithium disilicate single crowns (35 IPS Empress II and 240 e.max Press) were cemented over 11 years, in 106 patients, using an adhesive technique; of these 106 were anterior (38.5%) and 169 posterior (61.5%) teeth. Teeth receiving endodontic therapy and composite reconstruction (50%) and teeth with preexisting metalceramic crowns, called prosthetic retreatments (PR; 65%), were included as well. Of the 106 patients enrolled in the study, 25 (23.5%) were diagnosed with bruxism habits, and 7 of these patients (6.6% of all patients) received full-mouth single lithium disilicate restorations (FMR). The exclusion criteria for this retrospective clinical study were: monolithic lithium disilicate crowns, teeth with cast post and cores, implant-supported all-ceramic crowns, active periodontitis, and/or poor oral hygiene. Clinical reevaluation was performed by the clinicians who prepared and luted them during maintenance appointments between January 2012 and October 2013. Number of restoration failures and characteristics of failures were recorded. Marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration were evaluated based on the Cvar-Ryge criteria. The overall cumulative survival rate was 98.2%. The failures recorded were the result of either mechanical failure or debonding. Five crowns failed mechanically-three because of chipping and two because of core fracture-and were replaced. None of the failed crowns was associated with the bruxers with FMR. A total of 15 crowns debonded (5.5% of all crowns); however, 11 belonged to the same patient who had endodontically treated and reconstructed abutments. In this retrospective clinical evaluation of up to 132 months, veneered lithium disilicate single crowns had a low failure rate.

  3. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  4. 4D retrospective lineage tracing using SPIM for zebrafish organogenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Swoger, Jim; Muzzopappa, Mariana; López-Schier, Hernán; Sharpe, James

    2011-01-01

    A study demonstrating an imaging framework that permits the determination of cell lineages during organogenesis of the posterior lateral line in zebrafish is presented. The combination of Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy and specific fluorescent markers allows retrospective tracking of hair cell progenitors, and hence the derivation of their lineages within the primodium. It is shown that, because of its superior signal-to-noise ratio and lower photo-damaged properties, SPIM can provide significantly higher-quality images than Spinning Disk Confocal technology. This allows accurate 4D lineage tracing for the hair cells over tens of hours of primordium migration and neuromast development.

  5. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M

    2009-06-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, the authors articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  6. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. Materials and Methods From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. Results A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Conclusion Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction. PMID:25741465

  7. Prognostic factors in peptic ulcer perforations: a retrospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Unver, Mutlu; Fırat, Özgür; Ünalp, Ömer Vedat; Uğuz, Alper; Gümüş, Tufan; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Öztürk, Şafak; Yoldaş, Tayfun; Ersin, Sinan; Güler, Adem

    2015-05-01

    Regarding the complications of peptic ulcer, a perforation remains the most important fatal complication. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine relations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer. In total, 239 patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer in Ege University General Surgery Department, between June 1999 and May 2013 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively. One hundred seventy-five of the 239 patients were male (73.2%) and 64 were female (26.8%). Mean American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 1 in the patients without morbidity, but mean ASA score was 3 in the morbidity and mortality groups. Primary suture and omentoplasty was the selected procedure in 228 of the patients. Eleven patients underwent resection. In total, 105 patients (43.9%) had comorbidities. Thirty-seven patients (67.3%) in the morbidity group had comorbid diseases. Thirteen (92.9%) patients in the mortality group had comorbid diseases. Perforation as a complication of peptic ulcer disease still remains among the frequent indications of urgent abdominal surgery. Among the analyzed parameters, age, ASA score, and having comorbid disease were found to have an effect on both mortality and morbidity. The controversial subject in the present study is regarding the duration of symptoms. The duration of symptoms had no effect on mortality nor morbidity in our study.

  8. Risk Factors for Anastomotic Leakage: A Retrospective Cohort Study in a Single Gastric Surgical Unit

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Son, Sang-Yong; Park, Young-Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although several studies report risk factors for anastomotic leakage after gastrectomy for gastric cancer, they have yielded conflicting results. The present retrospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors that are consistently associated with anastomotic leakage after gastrectomy for stomach cancer. Materials and Methods All consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy at a single gastric surgical unit between May 2003 and December 2012 were identified retrospectively. The associations between anastomotic leakage and 23 variables related to patient history, diagnosis, and surgery were assessed and analyzed with logistic regression. Results In total, 3,827 patients were included. The rate of anastomotic leakage was 1.88% (72/3,827). Multiple regression analysis showed that male sex (P=0.001), preoperative/intraoperative transfusion (P<0.001), presence of cardiovascular disease (P=0.023), and tumor location (P<0.001) were predictive of anastomotic leakage. Patients with and without leakage did not differ significantly in terms of their 5-year survival: 97.6 vs. 109.5 months (P=0.076). Conclusions Male sex, cardiovascular disease, perioperative transfusion, and tumor location in the upper third of the stomach were associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage. Although several studies have reported that an anastomotic complication has a negative impact on long-term survival, this association was not observed in the present study. PMID:26468414

  9. Prognostic Factors in Peptic Ulcer Perforations: A Retrospective 14-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Unver, Mutlu; Fırat, Özgür; Ünalp, Ömer Vedat; Uğuz, Alper; Gümüş, Tufan; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Öztürk, Şafak; Yoldaş, Tayfun; Ersin, Sinan; Güler, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the complications of peptic ulcer, a perforation remains the most important fatal complication. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine relations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer. In total, 239 patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer in Ege University General Surgery Department, between June 1999 and May 2013 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively. One hundred seventy-five of the 239 patients were male (73.2%) and 64 were female (26.8%). Mean American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 1 in the patients without morbidity, but mean ASA score was 3 in the morbidity and mortality groups. Primary suture and omentoplasty was the selected procedure in 228 of the patients. Eleven patients underwent resection. In total, 105 patients (43.9%) had comorbidities. Thirty-seven patients (67.3%) in the morbidity group had comorbid diseases. Thirteen (92.9%) patients in the mortality group had comorbid diseases. Perforation as a complication of peptic ulcer disease still remains among the frequent indications of urgent abdominal surgery. Among the analyzed parameters, age, ASA score, and having comorbid disease were found to have an effect on both mortality and morbidity. The controversial subject in the present study is regarding the duration of symptoms. The duration of symptoms had no effect on mortality nor morbidity in our study. PMID:26011220

  10. The incidence and risk of osteoporosis in patients with anxiety disorder: A Population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hong-Jhe, Chen; Chin-Yuan, Kuo; Ming-Shium, Tu; Fu-Wei, Wang; Ru-Yih, Chen; Kuang-Chieh, Hsueh; Hsiang-Ju, Pan; Ming-Yueh, Chou; Pan-Ming, Chen; Chih-Chuan, Pan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety disorder (AD) and the subsequent development of osteoporosis.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort analysis according to the data in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan. We included 7098 patients in both the AD and no-anxiety cohort who were matched according to age and sex between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. The incidence rate and the risk ratios (RRs) of subsequent new-onset osteoporosis were calculated for both cohorts. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of AD. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the cumulative osteoporosis incidence curves.The AD cohort consisted of 7098 patients, and the comparison cohort comprised the same matched control patients without anxiety. The risk of osteoporosis was higher in the AD cohort than in the comparison cohort. In addition, the incidence of newly diagnosed osteoporosis remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0-1, 1-5, 5-10, ≥10years). Patients with AD were 1.79 times more likely to get osteoporosis than those without AD. We also observed a significant increase in osteoporotic risk in AD patients who are comorbid with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease.The incidence of osteoporosis in Taiwan is associated with an a priori AD history. The risk ratios are the highest for osteoporosis within 1 year of AD diagnosis, but the risk remains statistically significant for >1 year. Clinicians should pay particular attention to osteoporotic comorbidities in AD patients. PMID:27661037

  11. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  12. Perianal injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J

    1993-02-01

    Four children who incurred perianal injuries as a result of a sexual assault were followed on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes that ensued. The subjects, whose ages ranged from 4 to 8 years, were followed from 1 week to 14 months. They were examined in both supine and prone knee-chest positions and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope was used to record their injuries. At the time of the initial examination, there were a variety of findings including erythema of the tissues, edema of the skin folds, localized venous engorgement, dilation of the external anal sphincter, and lacerations of different depths. Superficial lacerations reepithelized within 1 to 11 days. The second-degree wounds in two of the children were healed by the 1- and 5-week return visits, leaving narrow bands of scar tissue. In the two subjects who were followed the longest, signs of both a second-degree laceration and a surgically repaired third-degree injury had virtually disappeared by 12 to 14 months after the assaults. The wounds in one subject, infected with a herpes simplex type 2 virus, remained erythematous for a longer period of time than did similar injuries in the other children. A skin tag created by the avulsion of the tissues in one subject persisted, although it became less obvious as it retracted into the redundant folds of the perianal tissues over time. PMID:8424016

  13. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

  14. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  15. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Retrospective study of mandibular angle fractures treated with three different fixation systems

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Krushna; Arya, Satyavrat; Bhutia, Ongkila; Pandey, Sandeep; Roychoudhury, Ajoy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the outcomes of mandibular angle fractures treated with metal 2.0 mm locking, metal 2.0 mm nonlocking, and 2.5 mm resorbable systems. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Trauma records were screened for linear angle fractures treated with open-reduction and internal semi-rigid fixation with single metal/bioresorbable plates, and baseline variables were tabulated. The outcome variable was the presence or absence of any complication. Statistical Analysis Used: The Fisher's exact test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using STATA 11. Results: A total of 60 case records of over four years were included. The mean age of the patients was 27.4 (SD 9.7) years. Fifty-five were male and five female. There were 20 nonlocking and 16 locking metal miniplates and 24 bioresorbable plates. In 55 (91.6%) cases there was a third molar in the fracture line. In 51/55 (92.7%) cases the third molar was retained. In seven patients postoperative complications were seen. There was no difference between the complication rates of the three treatment groups. Infection was the most common complication followed by delayed union and hardware failure. Conclusions: This retrospective study found no difference in the complication rate when fractures of the mandibular angle were treated with locking or nonlocking miniplates or bioresorbable plates. PMID:26668450

  17. Muscle Fiber Size and Function in Elderly Humans: A Longitudinal Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...

  18. Merging multiple longitudinal studies with study-specific missing covariates: A joint estimating function approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Song, Peter X-K; Wang, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Merging multiple datasets collected from studies with identical or similar scientific objectives is often undertaken in practice to increase statistical power. This article concerns the development of an effective statistical method that enables to merge multiple longitudinal datasets subject to various heterogeneous characteristics, such as different follow-up schedules and study-specific missing covariates (e.g., covariates observed in some studies but missing in other studies). The presence of study-specific missing covariates presents great statistical methodology challenge in data merging and analysis. We propose a joint estimating function approach to addressing this challenge, in which a novel nonparametric estimating function constructed via splines-based sieve approximation is utilized to bridge estimating equations from studies with missing covariates to those with fully observed covariates. Under mild regularity conditions, we show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. We evaluate finite-sample performances of the proposed method through simulation studies. In comparison to the conventional multiple imputation approach, our method exhibits smaller estimation bias. We provide an illustrative data analysis using longitudinal cohorts collected in Mexico City to assess the effect of lead exposures on children's somatic growth.

  19. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  20. Pain point system scale (PPSS): a method for postoperative pain estimation in retrospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Gkotsi, Anastasia; Petsas, Dimosthenis; Sakalis, Vasilios; Fotas, Asterios; Triantafyllidis, Argyrios; Vouros, Ioannis; Saridakis, Evangelos; Salpiggidis, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pain rating scales are widely used for pain assessment. Nevertheless, a new tool is required for pain assessment needs in retrospective studies. Methods The postoperative pain episodes, during the first postoperative day, of three patient groups were analyzed. Each pain episode was assessed by a visual analog scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale, and a new tool – pain point system scale (PPSS) – based on the analgesics administered. The type of analgesic was defined based on the authors’ clinic protocol, patient comorbidities, pain assessment tool scores, and preadministered medications by an artificial neural network system. At each pain episode, each patient was asked to fill the three pain scales. Bartlett’s test and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin criterion were used to evaluate sample sufficiency. The proper scoring system was defined by varimax rotation. Spearman’s and Pearson’s coefficients assessed PPSS correlation to the known pain scales. Results A total of 262 pain episodes were evaluated in 124 patients. The PPSS scored one point for each dose of paracetamol, three points for each nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or codeine, and seven points for each dose of opioids. The correlation between the visual analog scale and PPSS was found to be strong and linear (rho: 0.715; P < 0.001 and Pearson: 0.631; P < 0.001). Conclusion PPSS correlated well with the known pain scale and could be used safely in the evaluation of postoperative pain in retrospective studies. PMID:23152699

  1. A study on the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the investigation of the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation (reduced-rank ROI). Retrospective optimal interpolation (ROI) algorithm which assimilates observations over the analysis window for variance-minimum estimate of an atmospheric state at the initial time of the analysis window is suggested in Song et al. (2009). The assimilation window of ROI is gradually increased. Song and Lim (2011) suggested reduced-rank ROI improved by incorporating eigen-decomposition and covariance inflation. In this study, the background error covariance for reduced-rank ROI algorithm is investigated with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Reduced-rank ROI is applied by incorporating eigen-decomposition of background error covariance from ensemble. The structure of the background error covariance is investigated from each eigenvectors. The data assimilation experiments with reduced-rank ROI are based on Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE). A regularly dense network, a regularly sparse network, and irregularly realistic network are used for observation networks. It is assumed that all observations are located at the model grid points. Analysis error with reduced-rank ROI decreases significantly. Vertical profiles of background error and analysis error shows overall analysis error reduction.

  2. Assessment of mortality in patients enrolled in a risedronate clinical trial program: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Steinbuch, Michael; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Mandel, Jack S; Gabrielson, Edward; McClung, Michael R; Stemhagen, Annette; Hofman, Albert

    2002-06-01

    Risedronate, a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, has been shown in large clinical trials to be effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Analysis of safety data from these trials has shown that risedronate (2.5- and 5-mg doses) has an overall safety profile comparable to placebo during the course of the clinical trials. The clinical trials were powered appropriately to analyze the efficacy endpoints; however, patients were not systematically followed after completion of the clinical trials and therefore vital status for most of the patient cohort after the cessation of the clinical trials was unknown. In order to investigate further the safety profile of risedronate observed in the clinical trials database, we conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study among 7981 patients comprising the intent-to-treat population in three North American risedronate osteoporosis trials. No difference in all cause mortality was observed in patients receiving risedronate treatment compared with patients receiving placebo. There were also no differences between these groups in mortality due to all cancers, lung cancer, and gastrointestinal tract cancer. A trend toward lower cardiovascular mortality was observed in the risedronate groups compared with placebo; this difference was largely due to a significant reduction in stroke mortality in the active treatment groups. Follow-up mortality data in this retrospective cohort study demonstrate that treatment with risedronate has no effect on overall mortality rates.

  3. The menstrual cycle regularization following D-chiro-inositol treatment in PCOS women: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Cianci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular cycles, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary at ultrasound and insulin resistance. The effectiveness of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) treatment in improving insulin resistance in PCOS patients has been confirmed in several reports. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the effect of DCI on menstrual cycle regularity in PCOS women. This was a retrospective study of patients with irregular cycles who were treated with DCI. Of all PCOS women admitted to our centre, 47 were treated with DCI and had complete medical charts. The percentage of women reporting regular menstrual cycles significantly increased with increasing duration of DCI treatment (24% and 51.6% at a mean of 6 and 15 months of treatment, respectively). Serum AMH levels and indexes of insulin resistance significantly decreased during the treatment. Low AMH levels, high HOMA index, and the presence of oligomenorrhea at the first visit were the independent predictors of obtaining regular menstrual cycle with DCI. In conclusion, the use of DCI is associated to clinical benefits for many women affected by PCOS including the improvement in insulin resistance and menstrual cycle regularity. Responders to the treatment may be identified on the basis of menstrual irregularity and hormonal or metabolic markers.

  4. Visual outcome following extracapsular cataract extraction in mature cataracts with pseudoexfoliation syndrome: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To report the best corrected visual acuity, at the end of one year, in 33 patients (35 eyes), who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC-IOL) for mature and hypermature cataracts, with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, single-institutional (Sultan Qaboos University Hospital) study. Participants: Thirty-three patients with mature and hypermature cataracts, with PEX operated upon between January 2007 and December 2008, by one surgeon (AM). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of thirty-three patients (35 eyes) with mature and hypermature cataracts, with ocular PEX, evaluating the visual outcome at the end of 12 months following ECCE with PC-IOL. Results: Thirty eyes (85.71%) showed improvement in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 Snellen lines. Four eyes (11.43%) had unchanged BCVA from the baseline. There were no intraoperative complications in any patient. One eye (2.86%) that did not improve developed retinal detachment at three months follow-up, and was referred to the Vireoretinal Unit and follow-up has been lost. Conclusion: Extracapsular cataract extraction is a safe and effective technique in eyes with mature and hypermature cataracts with PEX. PMID:23772121

  5. Retrospective Single Center Study of Granulocyte Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Treatment in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Edfors, Kajsa; Ståhlberg, Dagny; Söderman, Charlotte

    2016-02-01

    Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have elevated and activated myeloid leukocytes, which infiltrate the intestinal mucosa. A significant proportion of IBD patients do not respond adequately to conventional treatment regimes. Studies have suggested that treatment with granulocyte monocyte apheresis (GMA) could be a safe and efficacious alternative for these patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of granulocyte/monocyte apheresis in patients with IBD in a retrospective cohort study, conducted from a single center in Stockholm. Clinical details from consecutive apheresis treated patients were retrospectively reviewed from 2004 to 2012. A total of 37 patients were included, 23 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 14 with Crohn's disease (CD). Clinical response was seen in 11 patients (30%) and complete remission in 11 patients (30%). The remission rate was higher in UC patients compared to CD patients, 39% (N = 9) and 14% (N = 2) respectively. A total of 9 patients experienced adverse events. Most frequently reported was headache (N = 4). GMA seems to be a valuable adjuvant treatment regime in the care of patients with refractory IBD.

  6. A longitudinal study of WIC participation on household food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Gorman, Kathleen S; Wilde, Parke; Kallio, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit was associated with measures of WIC duration (number of trimesters on WIC for pregnant women, and number of WIC visits for children). Among women with prenatal household food insecurity with hunger, odds of any post-partum household food insecurity was reduced with first (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94) or second trimester of entry (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90) versus third. Among children with initial household food insecurity without hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.98) at the last visit. Among those with initial household food insecurity with hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83-0.94) at the last visit. Earlier and longer WIC participation may improve household food security status, particularly of vulnerable groups.

  7. Coming Together in the Middle Years: A Longitudinal Study of Sex Role Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livson, Florine B.

    This study examines the hypothesis that in early adulthood each sex represses opposite-sex characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for care of the young. Sex roles become less distinct in the second half of life, when parenting is completed. The study draws on longitudinal data from the Oakland Growth Study at Berkely, which…

  8. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  9. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Junior High School Students' Conceptions of the Structure of Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the progression in junior high school (JHS) students' conceptions of the structure of matter while studying a new instructional approach dealing with "Materials." In particular, we studied the progression of students' learning along two dimensions: (a) the conceptual model; and (b) the context of application.…

  11. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Wayne A.; Miller, Merideth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  13. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  14. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  15. Melancholic versus non-melancholic depression: differences on cognitive function. A longitudinal study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction is common among depressed patients. However, the pattern and magnitude of impairment during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) through to clinical remission remains unclear. Heterogeneity of depressive patients and the lack of longitudinal studies may account for contradictory results in previous research. Methods/Design This longitudinal study will analyze cognitive differences between CORE-defined melancholic depressed patients (n = 60) and non-melancholic depressed patients (n = 60). A comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessment will be performed at admission and after 6 months. Cognitive dysfunction in both groups will be longitudinally compared, and the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical remission will be determined. Discussion The study of neuropsychological dysfunction and the cognitive changes through the different phases of depression arise a wide variety of difficulties. Several confounding variables must be controlled to determine if the presence of depression could be considered the only factor accounting for group differences. PMID:20565743

  16. Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Ontario and Quebec: a retrospective study of 332 patients.

    PubMed

    Ruffie, P; Feld, R; Minkin, S; Cormier, Y; Boutan-Laroze, A; Ginsberg, R; Ayoub, J; Shepherd, F A; Evans, W K; Figueredo, A

    1989-08-01

    Three-hundred thirty-two cases of pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) seen at large centers in Ontario and Quebec from 1965 to 1984 were reviewed retrospectively. Previous asbestos exposure was found in 44% of patients. Diagnosis was most often made by exploratory thoracotomy; pleural biopsy or cytology were rarely contributory. The delay in diagnosis was often long (median time, 3.5 months) and thrombocytosis (platelets greater than or equal to 400,000/microL) was common (41% of cases). The median survival (MS) was only 9 months. Eleven clinical variables were analyzed for prognostic significance. The three most important prognostic factors using a univariate analysis were stage, weight loss, and histologic type. For 118 patients with complete data, multivariate analysis showed that the stage of disease, high platelet count, and asbestos exposure were the most important prognostic factors. There was no cure of DMM, and we did not find any drastic differences in survival among groups of patients subjected to the different therapeutic measures. Radical surgery and radiotherapy were ineffective and we confirmed the low response rate to chemotherapeutic agents. This large retrospective trial can serve as a baseline for future studies in this field. In particular, it provides the basis for appropriate stratification variables to be used in future therapeutic trials.

  17. Clinical and Breed Characteristics of Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in 291 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Linda G.; Berezowski, John; Rishniw, Mark; Nibblett, Belle M.; Kelly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To establish signalment and phenomenology of canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (IHTS), an episodic head movement disorder of undetermined pathogenesis. Design. Retrospective case series. Animals. 291 dogs with IHTS diagnosed between 1999 and 2013. Procedures. Clinical information was obtained from an online community of veterinary information aggregation and exchange (Veterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Boulevard, Davis, CA 95616) and conducted with their approval. Information on breed, sex, age of onset, tremor description, mentation during the event, effect of distractions and drugs, diagnostics, presence of other problems, and outcome was analyzed. Results. IHTS was found in 24 pure breeds. Bulldogs, Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and Doberman Pinschers comprised 69%; mixed breeds comprised 17%. Average onset age was 29 months (range: 3 months to 12 years). First episode occurred before 48 months of age in 88%. Vertical (35%), horizontal (50%), and rotational (15%) movements were documented. Possible trigger events were found in 21%. Mentation was normal in 93%. Distractions abated the tremor in 87%. Most dogs did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance. This retrospective study documents IHTS in many breeds including Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and mixed breeds. PMID:26064776

  18. A retrospective study of peanut and tree nut allergy: Sensitization and correlations with clinical manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lihua; Clements, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Peanut (PN) and tree nut (TN) allergies are among the leading causes of fatal food-induced anaphylaxis and are increasing in prevalence, especially in children. Their cosensitization and concurrent clinical allergy have been understudied. This retrospective study investigated the correlation between PN and TN allergy, both in terms of in vitro sensitization (IVS) and clinical allergic manifestations. We conducted a retrospective medical record review at the Allergy Clinic at University Hospital of Brooklyn. Fourteen hundred six charts were reviewed, of which 76 (5.4%) had documented relevant clinical allergy: PN allergy but not TN allergy (n = 29) or TN allergy but not PN allergy (n = 11) or both (n = 30). Six patients with PN allergy but no TN exposure history were not included in the analysis. The majority of patients (67/76, 88.1%) had a concurrent history of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, or AD. Sensitivity of TN IVS predicting PN IVS was 38/39 (97%). Similarly, sensitivity of PN IVS predicting TN IVS was 38/42 (91%). Sensitivity of TN clinical allergy predicting PN allergy was 30/59 (51%). Sensitivity of PN clinical allergy predicting TN allergy was 30/41 (73%). The total number of organ systems involved in reported clinical reactions correlated with IVS to TN (p = 0.004) but not IVS to PN (p = 0.983). In summary, we found PN sensitization predicts TN sensitization in vitro, with lower predictability for clinical reactions. PMID:25860169

  19. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, Marta; Bianchi, Lucia; Lucano, Melissa; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Summary The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. PMID:27358221

  20. The retrospective study of the carcinogenic hydrocarbon benz[a]pyrene in the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Vinogradov, V N; Riabchun, V K; Mischenko, V S; Gvildis, V Y; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1979-11-01

    The major aim of this study was to determine taking, as an example, the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benz[a]pyrene (BaP), the present biologically active compounds in the early historical and geological epochs with the following assessment of the degree of danger of such compounds in the modern times. In the first section of work, study results of soil samples in the areas of eternal frost confirmed the presence of BaP in the frozen layers of soil aged 10 years, 100 years, 3000--4000 and 10,000 years of age. In the second part of the work, results are furnished on the BaP content in the ice of modern glaciers and their moraines, located in Kamchatka. BaP was found in 11 samples in the concentration of 0.001--0.003 microgram/l. These data represent the first results in the retrospective study of carcinogenic substances in the biosphere.

  1. A Multicenter, Retrospective Study of Early Weightbearing for Modified Lapidus Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Prissel, Mark A; Hyer, Christopher F; Grambart, Sean T; Bussewitz, Bradly W; Brigido, Stephen A; DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Lee, Michael S; Reeves, Christopher L; Shane, Amber M; Tucker, Daniel J; Weinraub, Glenn M

    2016-01-01

    The modified Lapidus arthrodesis is a long-established surgical technique for management of hallux valgus that provides reproducible results and quality patient outcomes. The data from 367 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral modified Lapidus arthrodesis from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008 at participating centers were retrospectively evaluated. The included patients were categorized into early weightbearing (≤ 21 days) and delayed weightbearing (> 21 days) groups. A total of 24 nonunions (6.5%) were identified, with 13 (7.1%) in the early weightbearing group and 11 (6.0%) in the delayed weightbearing group. To date, the present study is the largest multicenter investigation to evaluate early weightbearing after modified Lapidus arthrodesis and the only large study to directly compare early and delayed weightbearing. The findings of the present study have shown that early weightbearing for modified Lapidus arthrodesis does not increase the risk of nonunion when evaluating various fixation constructs.

  2. Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Koeth, T. W.

    2016-05-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas as they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. The longitudinal physics, for a long beam, can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past five years on the University of Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena over time scales of thousands of plasma periods, illustrating good agreement with simulations.

  3. Trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department in Taiwan: a 5-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Lin, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chiann-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Jeffrey Che-Hung; Wu, Yu-Hui; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department (ED) and changes in clinical imaging practice and patients' disposition. Setting A hospital-based retrospective observational study of a public 1520-bed referral medical centre in Taiwan. Participants Adult ED visits (aged ≥18 years) during 2009–2013, with or without receiving CT, were enrolled as the study participants. Main outcome measures For all enrolled ED visits, we retrospectively analysed: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) triage categories, (3) whether CT was performed and the type of CT scan, (4) further ED disposition, (5) ED cost and (6) ED length of stay. Results In all, 269 239 adult ED visits (148 613 male patients and 120 626 female patients) were collected during the 5-year study period, comprising 38 609 CT scans. CT utilisation increased from 11.10% in 2009 to 17.70% in 2013 (trend test, p<0.001). Four in 5 types of CT scan (head, chest, abdomen and miscellaneous) were increasingly utilised during the study period. Also, CT was increasingly ordered annually in all age groups. Although ED CT utilisation rates increased markedly, the annual ED visits did not actually increase. Moreover, the subsequent admission rate, after receiving ED CT, declined (59.9% in 2009 to 48.2% in 2013). Conclusions ED CT utilisation rates increased significantly during 2009–2013. Emergency physicians may be using CT for non-emergent studies in the ED. Further investigation is needed to determine whether increasing CT utilisation is efficient and cost-effective. PMID:27279477

  4. Profile of deliberate self-harm patients presenting to Emergency Department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Jegaraj, Moses Kirubairaj Amos; Mitra, Shubhanker; Kumar, Sathish; Selva, Bagyalakshmi; Pushparaj, Manimaran; Yadav, Bijesh; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Reginald, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major under-recognized epidemic in the low- and middle-income countries. This is a large retrospective study form the Emergency Department (ED) of Tertiary Care Center of South India to describe the clinicodemographic features of DSH cases. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at ED of Christian Medical College, Vellore, India from January 01, 2011 to December 31, 2013. All cases of DSH were included in the study. The demographic details, mode of DSH and clinical outcome were extracted from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics are presented. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. For all tests, a two-sided P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total of 1228 patients were admitted to ED for DSH during the study period. Male and female occurred in equal ratio. More than half of the cases occurred among age group below 30 years. Consumption of pesticides (agricultural chemicals) was the single most common mode of DSH (46%), especially among men, followed by medication overdose (29.8%). Consumption of plant poison and tablet overdose was higher among women. Overall mortality due to DSH was low (1.5%) in our study. Conclusion: DSH is under-recognized major public health problem in low-middle income countries like India. Most cases occur among young and productive age group and in equal frequencies among men and women. Timely and the appropriate institution of treatment can decrease the morbidity and mortality due to DSH remarkably. PMID:27453847

  5. Rotavirus-associated immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Qi; Yin, Jing; Chen, Sen; Qiao, Lijin; Luo, Na

    2016-01-01

    Certain studies have previously indicated that an association may exist between rotavirus infection and primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The present retrospective study aimed to investigate whether rotavirus may cause ITP in children. Firstly, the incidence of ITP in children with or without rotavirus diarrhea was compared. A 14.58% incident rate was observed in children with rotavirus diarrhea compared with a 7.22% incident rate in children without rotavirus diarrhea. Subsequently, the clinical features of ITP children with or without rotavirus infection were compared. The results indicated that ITP children with rotavirus infection were significantly younger, showed significantly decreased mean platelet volume (MPV) levels and presented a significantly higher frequency of bleeding score of 3 against ITP children without rotavirus infection. In conclusion, these findings suggest that rotavirus serves a causative role in ITP.

  6. Prevalence and phenomenology of neonaticide in Switzerland 1980-2010: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Paula

    2015-01-01

    For a child, the likelihood of being murdered is highest during the first year of life, and many such cases are neonaticides. Although several recent studies have examined neonaticide in different countries and cultures, there has been no in-depth analysis of Swiss cases, even though this country has special neonaticide legislation and four "baby hatches" have been opened to prevent such killings. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the prevalence and phenomenon of neonaticide in Switzerland. Using data from judicial files, 11 cases were identified in 15 German-speaking cantons between 1980 and 2010. The sample included two uncommon cases of nonmaternal neonaticide. The discussion addresses possible prevention strategies. PMID:25929137

  7. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population.

  8. Scrotal tumors in dogs: a retrospective study of 676 cases (1986-2010).

    PubMed

    Trappler, Michelle C; Popovitch, Cathy A; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Goldschmidt, Kyle H; Risbon, Rebecca E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine common tumor types that occur on the canine scrotum in relation to other cutaneous locations and to identify potential risk factors for specific scrotal tumor development. A retrospective study was conducted and the database of pathology reports from the Surgical Pathology Service of the Department of Pathology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania from 1986 to 2010 was searched for canine neoplastic scrotal and non-scrotal cutaneous lesions. Neoplastic lesions were evaluated based on diagnosis, breed, age, and number and location of tumors (scrotal versus non-scrotal cutaneous). Mast cell tumor, melanocytoma, malignant melanoma, vascular hamartoma, hemangiosarcoma, hemangioma, and cutaneous histiocytoma were the most common tumor types identified on the canine scrotum. Breed predispositions and mean age at diagnosis were identified for each tumor type and should be considered when planning surgical excision of a canine scrotal tumor.

  9. [Retrospective study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the district hospital of Am Timan, Chad].

    PubMed

    Demba Kodindo, I; Baïndaou, G; Tchonfinet, M; Ngamada, F; Ndjékoundadé, A; Moussa Djibrine, M; Mahmout Nahor, N; Kérah Hinzoumbé, C; Saada, D; Seydou, D

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is not included in the statistical yearbook of Health of the Ministry of Public Health. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis attended at the District Hospital of Am Timan in order to assess the importance and the prevalence of this neglected disease. This is a retrospective study of cases reported in the records of the Laboratory of the Hospital District of Am Timan between January 2008 and December 2012. It allowed the identification of 680 clinical cases. Direct microscopic diagnosis was positive in 580 cases (85%). The number of cases has been increasing from 2008 to 2010 (2008 = 80 cases, 123 cases in 2009; 2010 = 198 cases) before decreasing during the following year (2011 = 137 cases and in 2012 = 42 cases). The months of strong incidence of the cases were June, July, August and September. The M/F sex-ratio was 1.7.

  10. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population. PMID:27468026

  11. The clinical spectrum of lichen sclerosus in male patients - a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kantere, Despina; Löwhagen, Gun-Britt; Alvengren, Gunilla; Månesköld, Anna; Gillstedt, Martin; Tunbäck, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic dermatosis mainly localised to the anogenital area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of LS in adult men. A retrospective analysis of records from 771 patients diagnosed with LS was made and a questionnaire was sent to all patients. The results showed that the clinical spectrum was wide. Itch, tenderness and pain were frequently reported and more than half of the patients reported that LS had a negative impact on their sexual health. Phimosis was common and almost 1/3 of the patients were circumcised before or during the study period. Eight cases (1%) of penile squamous cell carcinoma were recorded. This emphasises the need for follow-up of male patients with LS. PMID:24549239

  12. Is Endoscopy Really Necessary in My Case? A Four Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, HN; Kumar, CD Jagadish; Sachin, V; Basavaraju

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: About 40% of the general population report dyspepsia at some time in their life making it a fairly common disease. Uncomplicated dyspepsia refers to patients whose dyspepsia is not accompanied by alarm features or associated with NSAIDS usage. Aim: To assess the need for UGI Endoscopy and find out the patterns of different endoscopic presentations in patients presenting with uncomplicated dyspepsia. Materials and Methods: Our study conducted in KR Hospital, Mysore, Department of General Surgery is a retrospective endoscopic study of 1450 patients with uncomplicated dysepsia. Results: A significant 64% of the patients presenting with uncomplicated dyspepsia were found to have findings on endoscopy. The most common age range for positive endoscopic findings was 40-50 years in our hospital. Malignancy was diagnosed in 2.5% patients. Conclusion: We recommend upper GI endoscopy in patients presenting with uncomplicated dyspepsia for patients above 40 years of age in our hospital. PMID:26417553

  13. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  14. Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program. Final Report 2: VR Services and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Becky J.; Schmidt-Davis, Holly

    This report is the second in a series of four final reports that present the findings of the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Services Program. Initiated in fall 1992, the study has tracked VR participation and post-VR experiences of applicants to and consumers of VR services (n=8,500) for up to 3 years following exit from…

  15. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  16. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  17. Powerful and Cost-Efficient Designs for Longitudinal Intervention Studies with Two Treatment Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…

  18. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  20. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  1. Making Meaning of Constructivism: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of historical content knowledge and classroom control were major barriers for the…

  2. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  3. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  4. Understanding Differences in State Support for Higher Education across States, Sectors, and Institutions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  7. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  9. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  10. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  11. Children's Drawing and Painting from a Cognitive Perspective: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, E. Beverley

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study undertaken with 40 pre-schoolers during their last six months in an early childhood centre and their first six months at school. The study presents an investigation of the pathways that child drawers and painters make towards representational depictions. As such its primary focus is on cognitive processes.…

  12. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  13. Longitudinal Case Studies of the Information Search Process of Users in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol Collier

    1988-01-01

    Presents longitudinal case studies of four students in high school and after completion of college to compare their perceptions of the information search process in libraries. Library user studies are discussed, a model of the search process is described, and implications for the design of information systems are suggested. (36 references) (LRW)

  14. Memory and Depressive Symptoms Are Dynamically Linked among Married Couples: Longitudinal Evidence from the AHEAD Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…

  15. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  16. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  17. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  18. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  19. Computer-Assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…

  20. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  1. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  2. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  3. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  4. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  5. Attitudes and Aspirations of Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study-in-Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmurak, Carole B.

    This paper describes a longitudinal study which followed a group of young women through high school and college. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between: (1) aspirations and achievement of young women; (2) the relative influence of high school and college on career choice in young women; and (3) the interactions between…

  6. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  7. Early Career Secondary Science Teachers: A Longitudinal Study of Beliefs in Relation to Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Steven S.; Luft, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study explores the evolving beliefs of five prospective secondary science teachers in a university preparation program from recruitment through their first year in the classroom. As an interpretive qualitative study, data were collected through semistructured interviews and an array of artifacts. The data sources were used…

  8. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  9. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  10. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  11. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  12. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  13. Psychological and Social Factors in Fertility in the Early Years of Marriage: An Exploratory Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, John G.; Richards, James M., Jr.

    Project TALENT, a 20 year, national longitudinal study of the development of youth in to adults, is described. Begun in 1960, only the 5 year follow-up data is currently available. As part of the overall project, an exploratory study is in progress to examine factors which might influence the development of ideal or desired family size preferences…

  14. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  15. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  16. Interim Report on Panel One of a Longitudinal Study of Developing Career Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Chiteji, Lisa

    The first panel of a three-year longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the process by which youth form career expectations. The study was designed around a cross-sectional path model of career expectations drawn from the sociological literature on status attainment and is based on differential equations in which all expectation variables…

  17. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  18. High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study For the 1980's. Sample Design Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Martin R.; And Others

    The 1980 National Center for Education Statistics' National Longitudinal Survey, "High School and Beyond," was intended to be a general, multi-purpose study, serving a number of diverse needs. The present study sought to increase the data's usefulness, accuracy, and scope. While allowing for analyses of schools and students on a national level,…

  19. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  20. Analysis of Apprenticeship Training from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert F.; And Others

    A study investigated effects of on-the-job or "hands-on" vocational training relative to standard classroom vocational instruction on subsequent employment, earnings, wages, and job satisfaction. The data used were from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and five follow-up surveys of this population. An analysis of…

  1. Overview: Statistical Almanac, Volume 1. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) was Congressionally mandated to provide information regarding the transition of youth with disabilities from secondary school to early adulthood. Data were collected for more than 8,000 special education students, ages 13-21. The study design involved a survey of…

  2. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  3. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  4. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  5. Cognitive/Developmental Characteristics of Play and Their Relation to Ego Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra Ellen

    This study links cognitive development and psychological adaptation by relating play attributes, assessed from a predominantly cognitive-developmental perspective, to "ego resiliency," which is a measure of flexibility in coping with stress. Subjects were 104 participants in a longitudinal study (Block & Block, 1980); 78 were given solitary free…

  6. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  8. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  9. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  10. Dynamics of Complexity and Accuracy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Advanced Untutored Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…

  11. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  12. Is the human left middle longitudinal fascicle essential for language? A brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Gatignol, Peggy; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Human brain pathways required for language processing are poorly known. A new white matter tract in humans, the middle longitudinal fascicle, has recently been anatomically determined by diffusion tensor imaging and suggested to be essential for language. Our aim is to determine the importance of the middle longitudinal fascicle for language processing. This study is based on 8 patients with glioma resection at least involving the superior temporal gyrus of the left dominant hemisphere. Language is systematically examined pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Intraoperative electrostimulation is used to map cortical and subcortical structures as functional boundaries of the glioma resection, including those essential for language processing. The resections are extensive (on average 62 ml, ranging from 21 to 111 ml) and include a large part of the middle longitudinal fascicle in all patients. Intraoperatively, no interference with picture naming is observed by electrostimulation of the middle longitudinal fascicle, while in all patients the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle is identified by eliciting semantic paraphasia as functional boundary. Postoperatively, no new permanent language deficits are detected by systematic language examination. Therefore, we suggest that the middle longitudinal fascicle may participate but is not essential for language processing.

  13. Investigation of risk factors for mortality in aged guide dogs: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoummady, S; Hua, J; Muller, C; Pouchelon, J L; Blondot, M; Gilbert, C; Desquilbet, L

    2016-09-15

    The overall median lifespan of domestic dogs has been estimated to 9-12 years, but little is known about risk factors for mortality in aged and a priori healthy dogs. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine which characteristics are associated with mortality in aged and a priori healthy guide dogs, in a retrospective cohort study of 116 guide dogs followed from a systematic geriatric examination at the age of 8-10 years old. A geriatric grid collected the clinical data and usual biological parameters were measured at the time of examination. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier estimates) and multivariable (Cox proportional hazard model) survival analyses were used to assess the associations with time to all-cause death. The majority of dogs were Golden Retrievers (n=48) and Labrador Retrievers (n=27). Median age at geriatric examination was 8.9 years. A total of 76 dogs died during follow-up, leading to a median survival time from geriatric examination of 4.4 years. After adjustment for demographic and biological variables, an increased alanine amionotransferase level (adjusted Hazard Ratio (adjusted HR), 6.2; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 2.0-19.0; P<0.01), presenting skin nodules (adjusted HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4; P=0.04), and not being a Labrador Retriever (adjusted HR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.4-10; P<0.01) were independently associated with a shorter time to death. This study documents independent associations of alanine aminotransferase level, skin nodules and breed with mortality in aged guide dogs. These results may be useful for preventive medical care when conducting a geriatric examination in working dogs. PMID:27616361

  14. Osteoporosis and venous thromboembolism: a retrospective cohort study in the UK General Practice Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C.; Meyer, O.; Speirs, C.; Deltour, N.; Reginster, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), there was a greater association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in osteoporotic than in non-osteoporotic female patients. No greater association was shown in treated patients with strontium ranelate or alendronate compared to untreated osteoporotic female patients. Introduction We explored the risk of VTE in usual practice in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women with and without anti-osteoporotic treatment. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the GPRD in the UK. The cohorts consisted of untreated osteoporotic women (N = 11,546), osteoporotic women treated with alendronate (N = 20,084), or strontium ranelate (N = 2,408), and a sample of non-osteoporotic women (N = 115,009). Cohorts were compared using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results There was a significantly increased relative risk for VTE in untreated osteoporotic women versus non-osteoporotic women (annual incidence 5.6 and 3.2 per 1,000 patient–years, respectively; relative risk 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.84]). Results were confirmed using adjusted models. The annual incidences of VTE in osteoporotic patients treated with strontium ranelate and alendronate were 7.0 and 7.2 per 1,000 patient–years, respectively, with no significant difference between untreated and treated patients whatever the treatment. Adjusted hazard ratios for treated versus untreated osteoporotic women were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.60–2.01) for strontium ranelate and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.63–1.33) for alendronate. Conclusion This study shows a greater association of VTE in osteoporotic compared to non-osteoporotic patients, but does not show any greater association in treated patients with strontium ranelate or alendronate compared to untreated osteoporotic patients. PMID:19806285

  15. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien; Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert; Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin in the therapy of adult acute fulminant myocarditis: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan-Qing; Wang, Ying; Ma, Gui-Zhou; Xu, Rong-He; Cai, Zhi-Xiong; Ni, Chu-Min; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Zhi-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) is a serious heart disease with limited treatment. This observational retrospective study aimed to investigate whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was able to improve left ventricular function and reduce the episodes of arrhythmia in adult patients with AFM. The medical records of all patients with AFM who were admitted to the Critical Care Unit of Guangdong General Hospital (Guangzhou, China) between January 2001 and December 2010 were reviewed. A cohort of 58 patients was included in the study. Of these 58, 32 patients were treated with IVIG (400 mg/kg per day) for five days, while the remaining patients did not receive IVIG therapy. The patients who received IVIG therapy had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and a reduced left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD) compared with the non-IVIG therapy patients four weeks subsequent to the treatment (PLVEF=0.011 and PLVDD=0.048). The post-treatment incidence of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) and atrioventricular block (AVB) was reduced in the patients who received IVIG therapy compared with the baseline values (PVT/VF=0.025, PAVB=0.003); however, no significant differences were observed in the non-IVIG therapy patients (PVT/VF=0.564, PAVB=0.083) following treatment. There were two mortalities in the IVIG therapy group and seven in the non-IVIG therapy group (P=0.072). This retrospective study suggested that the use of IVIG for the treatment of AFM may be associated with improved left ventricular function and reduced episodes of fulminant arrhythmias. PMID:24348772

  17. Long-term results of MISTI gold breast implants: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Pülzl, Petra; Balogh, Brigitte; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2002-11-01

    MISTI Gold breast implants (Bioplasty, St. Paul, Minn.) filled with polyvinylpyrrolidone-hydrogel were developed as a promising alternative to silicone-filled implants. Some studies have reported on the positive effects of the implant, such as improved radiolucency and biocompatibility of the gel; however, there are also reports that such implants increased in volume and were subject to capsular contracture in the human body, resulting in demands for their removal. The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the long-term results of a series of patients with MISTI Gold breast implants. Between 1991 and 1993, the authors inserted 83 MISTI Gold implants in 61 patients with an average age of 46 years (range, 16 to 69). The authors were able to follow up 48 patients with 71 MISTI Gold implants. The average follow-up was 68 months (range, 10 to 108 months). The retrospective study found that 59 percent of all MISTI Gold implants were removed after an average period of 4.14 years. The main reason for implant removal was an increase in volume of 38 percent, followed by capsular contracture in 14 percent of all 71 MISTI Gold implants. The average increase in volume of all removed MISTI Gold implants was 43 percent. Capsular contracture was graded as Baker I and II in 63 percent and as Baker III and IV in 37 percent. In conclusion, the authors believe that MISTI Gold implants do not fulfill the criteria of safe breast implants, and they agree with the December of 2000 opinion of the Medical Devices Agency of the Department of Health in London that the hydrogel-filled breast implants should not be used until more information about the filler material and its metabolic fate is available.

  18. Increased Acquired Cholesteatoma Risk in Patients with Osteoporosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tang-Chuan; Lin, Che-Chen; Lin, Chia-Der; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Wang, Ching-Yuang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinically, we found the increased incidence of acquired colesteatoma in the patients with osteoporosis. In this study, we used a retrospective cohort to examine this association and to investigate the possible mechanism. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified an osteoporosis cohort comprising 37 124 patients newly diagnosed with osteoporosis aged 20 years or older. Patients in the comparison cohort had no history of osteoporosis and were frequency matched with the patients in the osteoporosis cohort according to sex, age, and index year. Results The acquired cholesteatoma incidence rates for the osteoporosis and comparison cohorts were 1.12 and 0.83 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After we adjusted for confounding factors, the osteoporosis cohort exhibited a 1.32-fold increased acquired cholesteatoma risk relative to the comparison cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–1.57). In addition, patients with no history of otitis media (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.11–1.59), cancer (HR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.12–1.60), or COPD (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05–1.52) in the osteoporosis cohort exhibited an increased risk of subsequent acquired cholesteatoma relative to those in the comparison cohort. Conclusions Our cohort study indicated that patients with osteoporosis had a 1.31-fold increased acquired cholesteatoma risk relative to the comparison cohort. This risk was further increased in patients with comorbid otitis media. Hence, we recommend that otolaryngologists evaluate the condition of the middle ear of patients with osteoporosis. PMID:26171780

  19. Outcomes and Treatment of Lumbosacral Spinal Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study of 53 Patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Maolin; Wang, Kun; Fowdur, Mitra; Wu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Study Strategy A retrospective clinic study. Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of conservative and surgical treatment for lumbosacral tuberculosis. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 53 patients with lumbosacral tuberculosis who were treated in our institution between January 2005 and January 2011. There were 29 males and 24 females with average ages of 37.53 ± 17.28 years (range 6–72 years). 11 patients were given only anti-TB drugs; the remainder underwent anterior debridement, interbody fusion with and without instrumentation, or one-stage anterior debridement combined with posterior instrumentation. Outcome data for these patients included neurologic status, lumbosacral angle, erythrocyte sedimentation rate value(ESR) and C-reactive protein value(CRP) were assessed before and after treatment. Results The mean lumbosacral angles were 23.00°± 2.90°in the conservatively treated patients and 22.36°± 3.92o in the surgically treated patients. At the final follow-up, this had improved to 24.10o ± 2.96°in the conservatively treated patients and 28.13° ± 1.93°in the surgically treated patients (all P < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences before and after treatment in terms of ESR and CRP (all P < 0.05). All patients achieved bone fusion. The mean follow-up period was 32.34 ± 8.13 months (range 18 to 55 months). The neurological deficit did not worsen in any of the patients. Conclusions It has been proven that conservative and surgical treatments are safe and effective and produce good clinical outcomes for patients with lumbosacral tuberculosis. The advantages of operation include thoroughness of debridement, decompression of the spinal cord, and adequate spinal stabilization. PMID:26121685

  20. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A Retrospective Study in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, FO

    2014-01-01

    Background: A retrospective study of lumbosacral angle (LSA) in normal lateral supine lumbosacral radiographs of 274 Nigerians (aged 15-74 years) of Southeast region. A supine lateral lumbar spine radiograph is a very accurate means of measuring lordotic angles. The LSA is one of such angles, and can be used in the investigation, treatment and follow-up of low back disorders. Little is known about what the normal value for our population is and therefore, what constitutes hypo-/hyper-lordosis; most of the data in use in medical practice are based on studies on other races. Aim: To quantify the normal LSA in our population. Materials and Methods: LSA was measured by the Ferguson's technique and the data analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 17.0 (Chicago IL, USA). Results: LSA varied between 18° and 71°. With a 95.0 confidence interval of 43.3-45.6°, the mean (standard deviation) was 44.5 (9.9)° and showed no significant variation with sex and between various age groups; it compared favorably (though with small difference) with some of the literature values currently in use. Conclusion: This study had established the normal lordosis and the possible values at which to consider hypo-lordosis (below 15°), and hyper-lordosis (above 75°) in our population. Also established is that the development of lumbar lordosis ceases at spinal maturity, and that in normal lumbar lordosis measurement, the retrospective approach is a credible alternative to the prospective method. PMID:25328789