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Sample records for longitudinal retrospective study

  1. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  2. Molluscum contagiosum and associations with atopic eczema in children: a retrospective longitudinal study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Piguet, Vincent; Gallacher, John; Francis, Nick A

    2016-01-01

    Background Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin condition in children. Consultation rates and current management in primary care, and how these have changed over time, are poorly described. An association between the presence of atopic eczema (AE) and MC has been shown, but the subsequent risk of developing MC in children with a diagnosis of AE is not known. Aim To describe the consultation rate and management of MC in general practice in the UK over time, and test the hypothesis that a history of AE increases the risk of developing MC in childhood. Design and setting Two studies are reported: a retrospective longitudinal study of MC cases and an age–sex matched case-cohort study of AE cases, both datasets being held in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2013. Method Data of all recorded MC and AE primary care consultations for children aged 0 to 14 years were collected and two main analyses were conducted using these data: a retrospective longitudinal analysis and an age–sex matched case-cohort analysis. Results The rate of MC consultations in primary care for children aged 0 to 14 years is 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI = 9.4 to 9.6). The greatest rate of consultations for both sexes is in children aged 1–4 years and 5–9 years (13.1 to 13.0 (males) and 13.0 to 13.9 (females) per 1000 respectively). Consultation rates for MC have declined by 50% from 2004 to 2013. Children were found to be more likely to have an MC consultation if they had previously consulted a GP with AE (OR 1.13; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.16; P<0.005). Conclusion Consultations for MC in primary care are common, especially in 1–9-year-olds, but they declined significantly during the decade under study. A primary care diagnosis of AE is associated with an increased risk of a subsequent primary care diagnosis of MC. PMID:26639950

  3. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight.We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4).Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07-24.3, P=0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r=-0.527, P=<0.001).

  4. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly.

  5. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  6. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  7. A retrospective longitudinal study of caries development in an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, L M; Armfield, J M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of longitudinal investigations that examine the progression of dental disease in an indigenous population. Dental examinations of a cohort of indigenous Australians born in Darwin (Australia) between 1987 and 1990 were conducted at ages 6-8 and 11-13 years as part of the Child Dental Health Survey, and 18-20 years as part of the longstanding prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Data was available at all ages for 145 participants. The percent DMFT >0 increased from 17.2 to 44.1 to 81.4%, representing a linear trajectory, whereas mean DMFT increased from 0.3 to 1.0 to 5.6, representing an exponential trajectory. Both trends were significant. At age 18-20 years, the percent DMFT >0 among ABC study participants was 1.2 times that of their counterparts at a national level. The differences were more marked when dental caries severity was considered, with mean DMFT among 18- to 20-year-old ABC study participants being 1.7 times that of similarly aged adults at a national level. Most of this disparity was constituted by the decayed component, with ABC study participants having eight times the mean DT of their national-level counterparts. The findings indicate that Aboriginal young adults in this birth cohort experience a disproportionate amount of dental disease relative to their non-indigenous counterparts, and that this pattern is consistent across the life course.

  8. ‘Omics’ biomarkers associated with chronic low back pain: protocol of a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Massimo; Klersy, Catherine; Wang, Wei; Sim, Moira; Gieger, Christian; Manz, Judith; Pemberton, Iain K; MacDougall, Jane; Williams, Frances MK; Van Zundert, Jan; Buyse, Klaas; Lauc, Gordan; Gudelj, Ivan; Primorac, Dragan; Skelin, Andrea; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Karssen, Lennart C; Kapural, Leonardo; Rauck, Richard; Fanelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic low back pain (CLBP) produces considerable direct costs as well as indirect burdens for society, industry and health systems. CLBP is characterised by heterogeneity, inclusion of several pain syndromes, different underlying molecular pathologies and interaction with psychosocial factors that leads to a range of clinical manifestations. There is still much to understand in the underlying pathological processes and the non-psychosocial factors which account for differences in outcomes. Biomarkers that may be objectively used for diagnosis and personalised, targeted and cost-effective treatment are still lacking. Therefore, any data that may be obtained at the ‘-omics’ level (glycomics, Activomics and genome-wide association studies—GWAS) may be helpful to use as dynamic biomarkers for elucidating CLBP pathogenesis and may ultimately provide prognostic information too. By means of a retrospective, observational, case-cohort, multicentre study, we aim to investigate new promising biomarkers potentially able to solve some of the issues related to CLBP. Methods and analysis The study follows a two-phase, 1:2 case–control model. A total of 12 000 individuals (4000 cases and 8000 controls) will be enrolled; clinical data will be registered, with particular attention to pain characteristics and outcomes of pain treatments. Blood samples will be collected to perform -omics studies. The primary objective is to recognise genetic variants associated with CLBP; secondary objectives are to study glycomics and Activomics profiles associated with CLBP. Ethics and dissemination The study is part of the PainOMICS project funded by European Community in the Seventh Framework Programme. The study has been approved from competent ethical bodies and copies of approvals were provided to the European Commission before starting the study. Results of the study will be reviewed by the Scientific Board and Ethical Committee of the PainOMICS Consortium. The

  9. Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors versus nootropics in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, M; Pantazi, T; Kazis, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nootropics (piracetam, aniracetam, nimodopine and dihydroergicristine) versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) (tacrine and donepezil) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is a retrospective study of 510 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To determine clinical efficacy of treatment, we used the mean change over time in scores for the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the Elderly; and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia. In all patients and in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline MMSE < 11), no significant differences were seen in the neuropsychological test scores between the two treatment groups. In patients with moderate dementia (baseline MMSE between 11 and 20), however, there was a significantly greater deterioration, as shown on the CAMCOG scale, after 12 months' treatment for patients receiving AChE-Is compared with those receiving nootropics (-4.38 for AChE-Is group versus 1.48 for nootropics group). For patients with mild dementia (baseline MMSE score between 21 and 26), there was a significantly greater deterioration on the MMSE scale for each time-point in the nootropics group compared with the AChE-Is group. In conclusion, we did not find any strong evidence that a difference in efficacy exists between AChE-Is and nootropics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Anaesthesia modalities during laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity: a retrospective, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing-bo; Strauss, Randy; Luo, Xian-qiong; Nie, Chuan; Wang, Yan-li; Zhang, Jia-wen; Zhang, Zhi-wei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Laser photocoagulation surgery is a routine treatment for threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, little is known about which anaesthesia protocols provide efficient pain control while minimising exposure risk to vulnerable infants. In this study, therefore, we assessed the efficacy and tolerability of multiple anaesthesia techniques used on premature infants during laser therapy. Design and main outcome measures Anaesthesia modalities consisted of topical eye drops anaesthesia, general anaesthesia and intravenous fentanyl sedation with mechanical ventilation. Laser treatment efficacy and detailed operative information were retrospectively and consecutively analysed. Cardiorespiratory stability was assessed and compared. The Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) was used to evaluate tolerability in infants that underwent intravenous fentanyl sedation. Results 97 cases of prematurity were included in this study. In 94/97 (96.9%) cases, vascular proliferation regressed. In the topical anaesthesia groups, the ophthalmologist needed 12–16 min more to complete the treatment. During the 3 postoperative days, topical anaesthesia demonstrated the greatest instability; 4/31 (12.90%) infants in this group suffered from life threatening events requiring resuscitation. The only instability observed in general anaesthesia and fentanyl sedation was attributed to difficulty in extubating within 24 hours after surgery. During laser therapy, the N-PASS score increased to 1.8 in the fentanyl sedation group. Conclusions Topical anaesthesia was associated with more cardiorespiratory instability during ROP laser treatment. While general anaesthesia and fentanyl sedation had similar postoperative cardiorespiratory results, the latter demonstrated acceptable pain stress control. However, the difficulty of weaning off mechanical ventilation in some cases after surgery needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:28119385

  11. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Jin, Sang-Man; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jee, Jae Hwan; Yu, Tae Yang; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background An association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years), and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years). The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels. Results A total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1%) of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915). The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92) in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001). A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline. Conclusion There was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline. PMID:28029017

  12. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  13. Changes in disc status in the reducing and nonreducing anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint: a longitudinal retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying Kai; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qian Yang

    2016-09-27

    Treatment procedures for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are far from reaching a consensus. The aim of the study was to evaluate disc status changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDWR) and without reduction (ADDWoR) comparatively, to get a better understanding of the disease progress without intervention. This longitudinal retrospective study included 217 joints in 165 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDWoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for disc length and displacement distance at initial and follow-up visits. Disc morphology, which was classified in 5 types, was also evaluated. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess intra-group differences and independent t-test for inter-group differences. Moreover, analysis of covariance was applied to analyze influential factors for changes in disc length and displacement distance. According to our results, discs tended to become shorter, move further forward and distort more seriously in ADDWoR group than in ADDWR group after follow-up. Moreover, discs were prone to become shorter and more anteriorly displaced in teenagers, type I and III morphologies, advanced Wilkes stages, or those with joint effusion. Follow-up period seemed to be not critical.

  14. Changes in disc status in the reducing and nonreducing anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint: a longitudinal retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying Kai; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Treatment procedures for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are far from reaching a consensus. The aim of the study was to evaluate disc status changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDWR) and without reduction (ADDWoR) comparatively, to get a better understanding of the disease progress without intervention. This longitudinal retrospective study included 217 joints in 165 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDWoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for disc length and displacement distance at initial and follow-up visits. Disc morphology, which was classified in 5 types, was also evaluated. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess intra-group differences and independent t-test for inter-group differences. Moreover, analysis of covariance was applied to analyze influential factors for changes in disc length and displacement distance. According to our results, discs tended to become shorter, move further forward and distort more seriously in ADDWoR group than in ADDWR group after follow-up. Moreover, discs were prone to become shorter and more anteriorly displaced in teenagers, type I and III morphologies, advanced Wilkes stages, or those with joint effusion. Follow-up period seemed to be not critical. PMID:27671371

  15. Alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the maxillary midline diastema: a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the diastema between maxillary central incisors. Methods Sixty patients who had a visible diastema between maxillary central incisors that had been closed by orthodontic approximation were selected for this study. Various papilla dimensions were assessed on clinical photographs and study models before the orthodontic treatment and at the follow-up examination after closure of the diastema. Influences of the variables assessed before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of papilla height (PH) and papilla base thickness (PBT) were evaluated by univariate regression analysis. To analyze potential influences of the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of PH and PBT, a multiple regression model was formulated including the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions as predictor variables. Results On average, PH decreased by 0.80 mm and PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema (P<0.01). Univariate regression analysis revealed that the PH (P=0.002) and PBT (P=0.047) before orthodontic treatment influenced the alteration of PH. With respect to the alteration of PBT, the diastema width (P=0.045) and PBT (P=0.000) were found to be influential factors. PBT before the orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the alteration of PBT in the multiple regression model. Conclusions PH decreased but PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema. The papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment influenced the alterations of PH and PBT after closure of the diastema. The PBT increased more when the diastema width before the orthodontic treatment was larger. PMID:27382507

  16. Chronic pain relief after the exposure of nitrous oxide during dental treatment: longitudinal retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mattos Júnior, Francisco Moreira; Mattos, Rafael Villanova; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de; Siqueira, Jose Tadeu Tesseroli de

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of nitrous/oxygen in chronic pain. Seventy-seven chronic pain patients referred to dental treatment with conscious sedation with nitrous oxide/oxygen had their records included in this research. Data were collected regarding the location and intensity of pain by the visual analogue scale before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed comparing pre- and post-treatment findings. It was observed a remarkable decrease in the prevalence of pain in this sample (only 18 patients still had chronic pain, p < 0.001) and in its intensity (p < 0.001). Patients that needed fewer sessions received higher proportions of nitrous oxide/oxygen. Nitrous oxide may be a tool to be used in the treatment of chronic pain, and future prospective studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and the effect of nitrous oxide/oxygen in patients according to the pain diagnosis and other characteristics.

  17. A Retrospective Longitudinal Database Study of Persistence and Compliance with Treatment of Osteoporosis in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István; Marton, István; Tóth, Emese; Zoltan, Cina; Lang, Zsolt; Psachoulia, Emi; Intorcia, Michele

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed persistence and compliance with anti-osteoporosis therapies, and associations between compliance and clinical outcomes (fracture, fracture-related hospitalization and death), in Hungarian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study used the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund Administration database and included women with PMO aged at least 50 years, for whom a prescription for anti-osteoporosis medication had been filled between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013 (index event). Persistence (prescription refilled within 8 weeks of the end of the previous supply) was evaluated over 2 years; good compliance (medication possession ratio ≥ 80 %) was evaluated at 1 year. Associations between compliance and clinical outcomes (data collected for up to 6 years) were assessed with adjustment for baseline covariates. A total of 296,300 women met the inclusion criteria (524,798 index events). Persistence and compliance were higher for less frequent and parenteral therapies (1- and 2-year persistence: half-yearly [parenteral] vs. daily/weekly/monthly [oral and parenteral], 81 and 38 % vs. 21-34 and 10-18 %, respectively; parenteral vs. oral, 75 and 36 % vs. 32 and 16 %; good compliance: half-yearly vs. daily/weekly/monthly, 70 vs. 24-39 %; parenteral vs. oral 78 vs. 36 %). Good compliance significantly reduced the risks of fracture, fracture-related hospitalization and death (relative risk vs. non-compliance [95 % confidence interval]: 0.77 [0.70-0.84], 0.72 [0.62-0.85] and 0.57 [0.51-0.64], respectively; P < 0.01). Improving compliance through long-interval parenteral therapies may result in clinical benefits for patients.

  18. Economic impact of early intervention in psychosis services: results from a longitudinal retrospective controlled study in England

    PubMed Central

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Thomas, Tony; Leal, Jose; Lennox, Belinda R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the costs, outcomes and economic impact of early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services. Design Longitudinal retrospective observational study of service usage and outcome data from mental health and acute care services for all those with a diagnosis of psychosis in contact with mental health services over a 3-year period (April 2010–March 2013). Setting Thames Valley and South Midlands region in England (region covered by Oxford Academic Health Science Network). Participants 3674 people with psychosis, aged 16–35 years. Interventions EIP team or other community mental health teams. Main outcome measures Change in housing status, change in employment status and improvement on each of the four domains of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HONOS) questionnaire. Costs of mental and acute health inpatient, outpatient and community service use were also included in the study. Results Patients in EIP services were 116% more likely (95% CI 1.263 to 3.708) to gain employment, 52% more likely to become accommodated in a mainstream house (95% CI 0.988 to 2.326) and 17% more likely to have an improvement in the emotional well-being domain of the HONOS questionnaire (95% CI 1.067 to 1.285), as compared to those in non-EIP services. Annual National Health Service (NHS) costs were also significantly lower for patients using EIP services compared to non-users. The mean annual NHS cost savings associated with EIP were £4031 (95% CI £1281 to £6780). These mostly came from lower mental health inpatient costs (£4075, 95% CI £1164 to £6986), lower acute hospital outpatient costs (£59, 95% CI £9 to £109), lower accident and emergency costs (£31, 95% CI £12 to £51), and higher mental health community costs (£648, 95% CI £122 to £1175). If all people with a first-episode psychosis across England were to be treated by EIP services, the savings in societal costs would be an estimated £63.3 million per year, of which £33.5 million would

  19. Age-based prediction of incidence of complications during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke complications can occur not only in the acute ward but also during the subsequent rehabilitation period. However, existing studies have not adequately addressed the incidence of various complications among stroke in patients undergoing rehabilitation using a longitudinal method. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal impact of age on complication rates in patients undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation at different disease stages. Methods Five hundred and sixty-eight first-time stroke patients transferred to the rehabilitation ward between July 2002 and June 2012 were included in the study. Patients were stratified into age groups for comparison: <65 years (young), 65 years to <75 years (younger old), and ≥75 years (older old). In total, 30 different complication types were recorded for analysis. Results Constipation, shoulder pain, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and fever were common complications during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward, and incidence was >10% in all three age groups. The frequency of incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) was higher in the younger old (17.9%) and older old (20.6%) groups than in the young group (4.1%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p < 0.001). The incidence of UGIB was higher in the younger old (8.04%) and older old (8.33%) groups than in the young group (0.19%) during subsequent stay in the rehabilitation ward (p = 0.011). The incidence of symptomatic UTI was higher in the younger old (21.0%) and older old (20.0%) groups than in the young group (11.5%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p = 0.019). The incidence of symptomatic UTI was higher in the older old group (29.17%) than in the younger old (9.21%) and young (3.14%) groups during subsequent stay in the rehabilitation ward (p < 0.001). Conclusions Age does not affect every complication type. UGIB and symptomatic UTI occurred more frequently in stroke patients aged

  20. Longitudinal trends in use and costs of targeted therapies for common cancers in Taiwan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason C; Lu, Christine Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some targeted therapies have improved survival and overall quality of cancer care generally, but these increasingly expensive medicines have led to increases in pharmaceutical expenditure. This study examined trends in use and expenditures of antineoplastic agents in Taiwan, and estimated market shares by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies over time. We also determined which cancer types accounted for the highest use of targeted therapies. Design This is a retrospective observational study focusing on the utilisation of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer. Setting The monthly claims data for antineoplastic agents were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2009–2012). Main outcome measures We calculated market shares by prescription volume and costs for each class of antineoplastic agent by cancer type. Using a time series design with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, we estimated trends in use and costs of targeted therapies. Results Among all antineoplastic agents, use of targeted therapies grew from 6.24% in 2009 to 12.29% in 2012, but their costs rose from 26.16% to 41.57% in that time. Monoclonal antibodies and protein kinase inhibitors contributed the most (respectively, 23.84% and 16.12% of costs for antineoplastic agents in 2012). During 2009–2012, lung (44.64% of use; 28.26% of costs), female breast (16.49% of use; 27.18% of costs) and colorectal (12.11% of use; 13.16% of costs) cancers accounted for the highest use of targeted therapies. Conclusions In Taiwan, targeted therapies are increasingly used for different cancers, representing a substantial economic burden. It is important to establish mechanisms to monitor their use and outcomes. PMID:27266775

  1. Iron overload accelerates bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women and middle-aged men: a 3-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Ghi Su

    2012-11-01

    Despite extensive experimental and animal evidence about the detrimental effects of iron and its overload on bone metabolism, there have been no clinical studies relating iron stores to bone loss, especially in nonpathologic conditions. In the present study, we performed a large longitudinal study to evaluate serum ferritin concentrations in relation to annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy Koreans. A total of 1729 subjects (940 postmenopausal women and 789 middle-aged men) aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average 3 years of follow-up were enrolled. BMD in proximal femur sites (ie, the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The mean age of women and men in this study was 55.8 ± 6.0 years and 55.5 ± 7.8 years, respectively, and serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss in the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter were -1.14%/year, -1.17%/year, and -1.51%/year, respectively, in women, and -0.27%/year, -0.34%/year, and -0.41%/year, respectively, in men. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss in all proximal femur sites in both genders were significantly accelerated in a dose-response fashion across increasing ferritin quartile categories (p for trend = 0.043 to <0.001). Consistently, compared with subjects in the lowest ferritin quartile category, those in the third and/or highest ferritin quartile category showed significantly faster bone loss in the total femur and femur neck in both genders (p = 0.023 to <0.001). In conclusion, these data provide the first clinical evidence that increased total body iron stores could be an independent risk factor for accelerated bone loss, even in healthy populations.

  2. Incidence and risk factors of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in preterm children: a retrospective longitudinal study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzotti, Patrizio; Mantovani, Jessica; Benincori, Nicoletta; Mucchino, Eleonora; Di Lallo, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Background Bronchiolitis is a distressing, potentially life-threatening respiratory condition that affects infants. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of hospitalization for broncholitis in preterm infants (i.e., a gestational age of <36 weeks) born between 2000 and 2006, and the use and impact of Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody that in randomized clinical trials has been shown to lessen the severity of RSV-related bronchiolitis. Methods Retrospective cohort study that linked data from four health administrative databases in the Lazio region (a region of central Italy): the birth register, the hospital discharge register, and two ad-hoc databases that record the doses of Palivizumab administered at two local health units. Results Among 2407 preterm infants, 137 had at least one hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first 18 months of life, an overall incidence rate of 4.70 per 100 person-years (95%CI: 3.98-5.56); similar incidence rates were observed by calendar year. A multiple Poisson model showed that the following characteristics were associated with higher incidence: younger age of the infant, the period between October-April, male gender, low Apgar score at birth, low birth weight, and low maternal educational level. At least one dose of Palivizumab was administered to 324 (13.5%) children; a dramatic increase from 2000 (2.8%) to 2006 (19.1%) (p < 0.01) was observed. Other factors independently associated with more frequent Palivizumab use were older maternal age, Italian-born mothers, female gender, low Apgar score, low birth weight, shorter gestational age, a diagnosis of broncho-dysplasia, and the month of birth. It is of note that none of the 34 children with congenital heart disease were prescribed Palivizumab. Performing several multiple Poisson models that also considered Palivizumab use as covariate, although the point estimates were in agreement with previous clinical trial results, we did not find in most of them a significant

  3. Clinical features of HBsAg seroclearance in hepatitis B virus carriers in South Korea: A retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Seong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the characteristic features of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance among Korean hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. METHODS Carriers with HBsAg seroclearance were selected by analyzing longitudinal data collected from 2003 to 2015. The period of time from enrollment to the negative conversion of HBsAg (HBsAg-NC) was compared by stratifying various factors, including age, sex, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, sequential changes in the signal-to-cutoff ratio of HBsAg (HBsAg-SCR), as measured by qualitative HBsAg assay, and chronic liver disease on ultrasonography (US-CLD). Quantification of HBV DNA and HBsAg (HBsAg-QNT) in the serum was performed by commercial assay. RESULTS Among the 1919 carriers, 90 (4.7%) exhibited HBsAg-NC at 6.2 ± 3.6 years after registration, with no differences observed among the different age groups. Among these carriers, the percentages of those with asymptomatic liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at registration were 31% and 7.8%, respectively. The frequency of HBsAg-NC significantly differed according to the HBV DNA titer and US-CLD. HBeAg influenced HBsAg-NC in the 40-50 and 50-60 year age groups. HBsAg-SCR < 1000 was correlated with an HBsAg-QNT < 200 IU/mL. A gradual decrease in the HBsAg-SCR to < 1000 predicted HBsAg-NC. Six patients developed HCC after registration, including two before and four after HBsAg-NC. The rate at which the patients developed new HCC after HBsAg seroclearance was 4.8%. LC with excessive drinking and vertical infection were found to be risk factors for HCC in the HBsAg-NC group. CONCLUSION HCC surveillance should be continued after HBsAg seroclearance. An HBsAg-SCR < 1000 and its decrease in sequential testing are worth noting as predictive markers of HBsAg loss. PMID:27956808

  4. The Perceived Needs of Maine Parents of Premature Children for Services and Supports: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhee, Karen Boulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perceived needs and correlates of Maine parents of premature infants related to the chronological distance from the NICU. The study focused on identifying the perceived service needs of parents of premature children and how these needs changed over time, revealed the relationships between perceived…

  5. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health.

  6. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  7. Longitudinal Assessment of Morbidity and Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Retrospective Analysis of a Multicenter Phase III Study

    PubMed Central

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Leisenring, Wendy; Martin, Paul J.; Furlong, Terry; Schoch, Gary; Anasetti, Claudio; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Storb, Rainer; McDonald, George B.; Nash, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Since morbidity early after HCT results in large part from the development of acute GVHD, we previously proposed that a longitudinal assessment of morbidity involving the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal tract might provide a more complete, objective approach for comparing two arms of open-label randomized clinical trials for acute GVHD prevention. In the current study, we determined both morbidity-across-time and GVHD-across-time in a retrospective analysis of a database from an open-label randomized clinical trial comparing tacrolimus/methotrexate versus cyclosporine/methotrexate after myeloablative conditioning and marrow transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors. The results confirmed differences in overall morbidity across time among patients with peak grades II-IV GVHD as compared to those with grades 0-I GVHD, but no significant differences were found between morbidity associated with grade II GVHD as compared to grades 0-I GVHD. We observed less skin and a trend towards less liver morbidity across time in the tacrolimus group (p=0.04; p= 0.09, respectively) but not for gastrointestinal or overall morbidity, despite significantly decreased skin and liver stages and overall grades of GVHD-across-time in the tacrolimus arm. In conclusion, an objective assessment of differences in morbidity (regardless of cause) as a measure of acute GVHD in a randomized clinical tria of acute GVHD prevention had limited utility. The difficulty of demonstrating clinical benefits from objective parameters such as survival and morbidity and the subjectivity of grading acute GVHD emphasize that blinded assessments are required in clinical trials of GVHD prevention. PMID:19450760

  8. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  9. Type of treatment, prognosis, and estimation of time spent to manage dental trauma in late presentation cases at a dental teaching hospital: a longitudinal and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, Suhad H

    2004-02-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are emergencies that must be treated promptly and properly in order to reduce the suffering, costs, and time for patients, parents, and health care providers. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment, long-term prognosis, and number of visits needed to manage cases resulting from complications of late presentation of traumatic dental injuries. The sample consisted of 195 children, all presented with complications of dental trauma at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinics in the Dental Teaching Hospital of Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid city, Jordan. Retrospective data relied on trauma forms as well the clinical notes and radiographs in the patients' records. Prospective data was collected by examining patients at recall appointments. The treatment of traumatized teeth in this sample ranged from no active treatment to extraction and prosthetic replacement. It was estimated that the number of visits needed to carry out the planned treatment for these patients ranged between 3 and 17.2 visits according to the type of treatment. Apexification procedure was the most time consuming. Thirty-two per cent of teeth with apexification ended up with root fracture mainly subsequent to another minor trauma episode (in 85%), the rest were reported to be spontaneous fractures. Almost half of the teeth with luxation injuries became necrotic after 3 years. Teeth with avulsion actually kept on deteriorating even at the 36-month follow-up appointment. The long-term prognosis of teeth with middle root fracture was favorable in (80%) of the teeth in the sample, despite the fact that they were splinted late. Luxation injuries led to more necrotic teeth (50%) than uncomplicated crown fractures. Multiple dental trauma episodes (MDTE) were reported in about 30% of the patients in the sample and were responsible for some of the complications noticed in this report. As all cases followed up in this report are late presentation of dental

  10. Cost-minimization analysis in the treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy with botulinum toxin type A: an observational, longitudinal, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Gloria; García-Romero, Mar; Crespo, Carlos; Cuesta, Maribel; Forné, Carles; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Objetivo: Estudio de minimización de costes de onabotulinumtoxinA y de abobotulinumtoxinA, teniendo en cuenta la dosis real administrada, en ninos con espasticidad asociada con la deformidad dinámica del pie equino debida a parálisis cerebral. Método: Estudio unicéntrico, observacional, longitudinal y retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes pediátricos espásticos entre 2 y 18 anos tratados con onabotulinumtoxinA o abobotulinumtoxinA, entre diciembre del 1995 y octubre del 2012, en el Servicio de Neurología Pediátrica de un hospital espanol de primer nivel. Se realizó un análisis longitudinal de la gravedad de la espasticidad para confirmar la similar efectividad de ambos tratamientos y proceder al análisis de minimización de costes que contempló las dosis infiltradas y los costes directos (costes farmacológicos y de visitas) desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (euros 2016). Resultados: Se analizaron 895 pacientes con espasticidad infantil, 543 fueron tratados únicamente con onabotulinumtoxinA, 292 con abobotulinumtoxinA y 60 con ambos tratamientos. Las dosis medias infiltradas obtenidas fueron de 5,44 U/kg (DE = 2,17) para las infiltraciones con onabotulinumtoxinA y de 14,73 U/kg (5,26) para las infiltraciones con abobotulinumto xinA. El coste directo anual total (farmacológico y visitas) fue de 839,56 € para onabotulinumtoxinA y de 631,23 € para abobotulinumtoxinA, lo que supone una diferencia de 208,34 € al ano a favor del tratamiento con abobotulinumtoxinA. Conclusiones: Se ha mostrado que en práctica clínica real el coste por paciente y ano del tratamiento de la espasticidad infantil resulta más económico con la utilización de abobotulinumtoxinA.

  11. Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991–2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berni, Ellen; Scott, Laura A.; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; De Voogd, Hanka; Rocha, Monica S.; Butler, Chris C.; Morgan, Christopher Ll.; Currie, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM). The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27%), penicillin-V (24%), erythromycin (11%), flucloxacillin (11%) and oxytetracycline (6%). In 1991, the overall non-response rate was 9.3%: 11.9% for LRTIs, 9.5% for URTIs, 7.1% for SSTIs, 9.7% for AOM. In 2012, the overall non-response rate was 9.2%. Highest non-response rates were for AOM in 1991–1999 and for LRTIs in 2000–2012. Physicians generally prescribed antibiotics to adolescents according to recommendations. Evidence of antibiotic non-response was less common among adolescents during this 22-year study period compared with an all-age population, where the overall non-response rate was 12%. PMID:27384588

  12. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level.

    PubMed

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-09-01

    low (0.90-0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83-0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91-1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93-0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. CONCLUSIONS : This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda.

  13. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level

    PubMed Central

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    with low (0.90–0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72–0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83–0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91–1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93–0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. Conclusions This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda. PMID:27017824

  14. A retrospective, longitudinal study to evaluate healing lower extremity wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus and ischemia using standard protocols of care and platelet-rich plasma gel in a Japanese wound care program.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Junichi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Handa, Kazuyoshi; Uchino, Takashi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Higashita, Ryuji; Tsuno, Norio; Hiyoshi, Toru; Morimoto, Shuhei; Rinoie, Chugo; Saito, Natsuko

    2012-04-01

    Chronic wounds, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), are a major health challenge in Japan. The goal of wound care centers (WCCs) in Japan is to facilitate healing and prevent lower extremity amputations (LEAs) using standardized protocols of patient and wound care. The standard treatment algorithm includes a complete patient and wound assessment, history, physical exam, and a variety of diagnostic tests that determine the need for infection control intervention, revascularization, excision and debridement, growth factor/platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel therapy, skin graft/ flap, wound protection, and education. All patient and wound data are entered in a secure central database for all WCCs. To evaluate the outcomes of standard care regimens compared to the use of a topical PRP gel treatment in patients with a variety of complex wounds, a retrospective, longitudinal study was conducted. Wound outcomes from 39 patients with 40 chronic, nonhealing, lower extremity wounds were evaluated between two time periods: between first presentation at the WCC (T1) and after using standard topical treatments (T2) and between T2 and after using the PRP gel treatment (T3). Patient average age was 66.8 years (SD: 10.60) and mean wound duration was 99.7 days before treatment (SD: 107.73); and the majority of patients (85%) had DM. Wounds were classified as ischemic diabetic (n = 24), diabetic (n = 10), ischemic (n = 5), and pressure ulcer (n = 1). DFUs were Wagner III (77%) and lV (23%). Of those, 60% were in patients with arteriosclerotic obliterans (ASO). Infection (abscess, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and/or gangrene) was present in all wounds and treated using debridement, antibiotic therapy, and surgery as deemed appropriate. During the first treatment period (T1 to T2) of 75.3 days, which included revascularization and/or debridement along with standard of care, none of the wounds healed and the average wound area, depth, and volume increased. Following topical

  15. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  17. [Methodological problems of longitudinal studies on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; an der Heiden, W

    2000-05-01

    Longitudinal studies are a key to understanding schizophrenia. They are the more informative, the longer the periods covered. Hence, good studies into the course of schizophrenia almost exclusively involve a lot of effort and cost. In practice, however, time-consuming methods and design variables must be avoided. The pitfalls this constraint produces are instructive of the difficulties longitudinal studies are faced with in striving for valid results. For reasons of research economy, requirements must be adjusted to study objectives. Studies into the short term course are less time-consuming, but because of the rapid changes in the illness course study intervals should be defined clearly and observed strictly. In long-term studies, too, one source of error lies in the highly varying lengths of illness of the patients studied. Even some of the classic long-term studies are marred by this error. The beginning of the follow-up period should be comparable across the study cohort and as close to illness onset as possible. To obtain generally valid results the probands must be representative of all the illness cases in the general population not only at the outset, but also all the later stages of the study. Besides the efforts to avoid attrition in the study cohort, ways must be found for correcting and estimating data for an acceptable proportion of drop-outs. In the analysis of course and outcome the indicators chosen must be apt to the traditional subtypes as well as to a theoretical symptom patterns and empirical symptom structures. In the context of typical design variables of longitudinal studies the assets and weaknesses of two retrospective and one prospective design will be discussed. Concerning the social course, importance of disease-independent factors, such as age, sex and level of social development at illness onset, as well as of control groups will be demonstrated. Predictor models will be discussed with reference to the direct and indirect influences

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  19. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  20. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  1. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  2. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  3. A longitudinal study of confabulation.

    PubMed

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Brazzarola, Marta; Marangoni, Sara; Barbera, Claudia; Zannoni, Ilaria

    2017-02-01

    Confabulation, the production of statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, background, present and future situation, is a rather infrequent disorder, observed in several conditions affecting the nervous system. Little is known about the quantitative and qualitative evolution of confabulation in time. In this study we evaluated longitudinally the evolution of this disorder in a group of severe confabulators, using the Confabulation Battery (CB), a sensitive tool to detect confabulations in various memory domains. It was found that confabulations were stable over time and not temporally limited. It was also found that "Habits Confabulations" (HCs), i.e., habits and repeated personal events mistaken as specific, unique past and future personal episodes, or well-known public events when semantic knowledge is concerned, was the more frequently observed type of confabulation. Confabulations were also more prominent in the domain of Temporal Consciousness (TC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness that allows individuals to remember their personal past, to be oriented in their present world and to predict their personal future, than in Knowing Consciousness (KC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness allowing individuals to be aware of past, present and future impersonal knowledge and information. Confabulations showed also persistence, i.e., confabulations at the same questions over time, and consistency, i.e., same type of confabulation at the same question over time. These findings are discussed within the framework of the Memory, Consciousness and Temporality Theory.

  4. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  5. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  6. Differentiating neuropathology from psychopathology with longitudinal and retrospective data: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, M L

    1993-02-01

    This case study report of diagnostic psychological testing considers the implications of a 53-point verbal-performance IQ differential, with the benefit of neuropsychological and neuroradiologic imaging studies, a 6-month follow-up Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R; Wechsler, 1981) evaluation, and retrospective examination of early school records and test findings. The approach highlights the limitations of cross-sectional clinical studies in differential diagnosis, particularly when both psychodynamic and neuropsychological factors are at issue. This report demonstrates how an early acquired neurodevelopmentally based deficit can alter or restructure the appearance of adult cognitive-perceptual functions. Further, early neurodevelopmental impairment is considered from the standpoint of its influence on compromised autonomous ego functions.

  7. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  9. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fiquet-Francois, Caroline; Belouadah, Mohamed; Ludot, Hugues; Defauw, Benoit; Mcheik, Jiad Noel; Bonnet, Jean Paul; Kanmegne, Charly Udozen; Weil, Dominique; Coupry, Lionel; Fremont, Benjamin; Becmeur, Francois; Lacreuse, Isabelle; Montupet, Philippe; Rahal, Eliane; Botto, Nathalie; Cheikhelard, Alaa; Sarnacki, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Poli Merol, Marie Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Wandering spleen in children is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult, and any delay can cause splenic ischemia. An epidemiologic, semiological, and surgical diagnosis questionnaire on incidence of wandering spleen in children was sent to several French surgical teams. We report the results of this multicenter retrospective study. Fourteen cases (6 girls, 8 boys) were reported between 1984 and 2009; the age range varies between 1-day-old and 15 years; 86% were seen in the emergency department. Ninety-three percent had diffuse abdominal pain. For 57% of the cases, it was their first symptomatic episode of this type. No diagnosis was established based on the clinical results alone. All patients had presurgical imaging diagnosis. Open surgery was performed on 64% cases. Forty-three had splenectomy for splenic ischemia. Thirty-six percent had splenopexy, 14% had laparoscopic gastropexy, and 7% had spleen repositioning and regeneration. Complications were noted in 60% of the cases resulting in postsplenopexy splenic ischemia. Early diagnosis and surgery are the best guarantee for spleen preservation. Even if the choice of one technique, splenopexy or gastropexy, can be argued, gastropexy has the advantage of avoiding splenic manipulation and restoring proper physiologic anatomy. When there is no history of abdominal surgery, laparoscopy surgery seems the best procedure.

  10. Raton Basin, Colorado Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in the Raton Basin of Colorado to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred.

  11. Longitudinal Studies--Are They Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Judith

    A longitudinal study of otitis media in young children, begun in 1981, aimed to provide information on the incidence and prevalence of otitis media in young children in the Newcastle (England) region and to follow their academic progress. Subjects selected for the study were kindergartners in five schools and represented an ethnically homogeneous…

  12. A retrospective study on hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Kelly, D; Morrison, E Y

    1991-03-01

    A retrospective study of 58 hypothyroid patients attending the Endocrine Clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, between July and August 1989, was undertaken. The age range at initial presentation varied from one month to eighty-four years. The majority of cases (51 or 87.9%) were between 21 and 70 years. There were 50 females (86.2%) and 8 males (13.8%). The underlying causes were idiopathic hypothyroidism (35 or 60.3%), posthyroidectomy (13 or 22.4%), post I131 therapy (6 or 10.4%), panhypopituitarism (3 or 5.2%), hypophysectomy (1 or 1.7%). Biochemical parameters used in diagnosis were serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Forty-six patients (79.2%) had elevated TSH, indicative of a high correlation of elevated TSH with hypothyroidism. Duration of symptomatology prior to diagnosis was one year in 27 patients (46.5%), 2-10 years in 23 (39.6%) and 10 years in 4 cases (6.9%). The major presenting signs and symptoms were lethargy (20 or 34.5%), anaemia (mixed normochromic, microcytic (16 or 27.6%), slow relaxation of tendon reflexes (16 or 27.6%), coarsening of skin (15 or 25.9%), weight gain 10 or 17.2%), hoarseness (9 or 15.5%) and psychiatric symptoms (7 or 12%). The known association of primary hypothyroidism with other autoimmune disorders was not borne out in this study. The time-lapse in diagnosis from symptomatology emphasized the need for clinicians to be more alert to the subtle and varied presentation of hypothyroidism.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Negative Life Events, Stress, and School Experiences of Gifted Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean; Duncan, Nancy; Canady, Kate

    2009-01-01

    An 11-year mixed-methods, cross-sectional longitudinal study began with a group of 121 children, identified as gifted, and followed them until high-school graduation. Parents annually identified negative life events experienced by child and family, and, at graduation, students completed an open-ended retrospective questionnaire, focusing on…

  14. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  15. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  16. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  17. Diabetes and burns: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Beth; Wasif, Nabil; Rabbitts, Angela; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Yurt, Roger W; Schwartz, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Burn injuries are often associated with multisystemic complications, even in otherwise healthy individuals. It is therefore intuitive that for the diabetic patient, the underlying pathophysiologic alterations in vascular supply, peripheral neuropathy, and immune function could have a profoundly devastating impact on patient outcome. The effects of diabetes on morbidity and mortality of the burn-injured patient have not been examined in great detail. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients. We reviewed the charts of 181 diabetic (DM) and 190 nondiabetic (nDM) patients admitted with burns between January 1996 and May 2000, matched by sex and date of admission. Burn cause and size, time to presentation, clinical course, and outcomes were evaluated. Because age was a factor, the analysis was done by three age groups: younger than 18 years, 18 to 65 years, and older than 65 years. Of patients 18 to 65 years, 51% (98/191) were diabetic, whereas 84% (81/96) of those older than 65 and only 4% (3/85) of patients younger than 18 were diabetic. Because of the disproportion in numbers of diabetics compared with nondiabetics in the younger than 18 and older than 65 years-old groups, these patients will not be discussed. Diabetics were more likely to incur scald injury from tub or shower water rather than hot fluid spills (33% DM vs 15% nDM; P < or = 0.01), and have a delayed presentation (45 vs 23%; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in total burn size in all groups. Diabetics in the 18 to 65 years group had a higher rate of full-thickness burns (51 vs 31%; P = 0.025), skin grafts (50 vs 28%; P = 0.01) and burn-related procedures (57 vs 32%; P = 0.001), infections (65 vs 51%; P = 0.05), and longer lengths of stay (23 vs 12 days; P = 0.0001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in incidence of specific infections, the rates of cellulitis, wound infection, urinary tract

  18. Predictors of Transfer Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Department of Psychology . : PREDICTORS OF TRANSFER AIIJUSTNEN: . A LONGITUDIN4AL STUDY"- Jaues B. Shaw Cynthia D. Fisher and Richard W. Woodman...1985 Acssa o NTIS GRA&I TR-ONR-7 DTIC TAB Unannounced E Just ification Distribution/ Department of Psychology Availability Codes Department of...PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMIBERS Departments of Management and Psychology 62763 N Texas.A&M University RF 63521 College Station, TX 77843 RF

  19. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSION Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them. PMID:28101450

  20. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  1. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome.

  2. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Batshaw, Mark L.; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The urea cycle disorders consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCD) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCD enrolled in the UCDC’s longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenybutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652

  3. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  4. Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study site was chosen at the request of the state to specifically examine any water resource impacts from a well blowout in September 2010 that resulted in an uncontrolled release of hydraulic fracturing fluids and formation fluids.

  5. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  6. Military parachute mishap fatalities: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mellen, P F; Sohn, S S

    1990-12-01

    Military parachuting is relatively safe. Most injuries involve vertebral bodies or the lower extremity, and fatalities are rare. We studied 49 military parachute accident facilities occurring during 1964-1989. Causes of the accidents included accidental deployment of reserve parachute in aircraft, static line failures and entanglements, equipment (canopy) failures, in-air collisions, landing injuries, drowning, and dragging. Rarely, preexisting illness such as coronary artery disease caused or contributed to an accident. Pathologic findings revealed a high proportion of deceleration and blunt force injuries: cardiac, aortic and liver laceration, and skull, pelvic and extremity fractures. Isolated head injury, strangulation, and post traumatic pulmonary embolus were occasionally noted. Toxicological examination demonstrated contributing factors such as alcohol intoxication or antihistamine use in a small number of cases. Background investigations, scene inspections, autopsy and toxicology studies all yielded important data or pertinent negatives during investigations. We propose an investigation protocol.

  7. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  8. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  9. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  10. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  11. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  12. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatment--retrospective statistic study].

    PubMed

    Ispas, Dana Catrinel; Eftene, Oana Alexandra; Temelcea, Anca; Pădure, Hariclea

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment as a help is the teeth movement made in order to facilitate the odontal,prosthetic and periodontal proceedures which are needed in the dentomaxilar and/or facial reabilitation. The aim of the study was to follow for 5 years which is the percentage of patients who asked for orthodontic treatment in the Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedie Clinic from UMF 'Carol Davila'. We also followed the frequency related to the etiology of the loss of some teeth and also the relationship between the loss of the teeth and periodontal disease. In our country, the number of patients who ask for preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is lower comparing with Western and Northtern Europe, but the percentage is increasing due to the dentists calification. We can conclude by saying that the frequency of losing teeth by cavities is increased by age because all patients from the study group aged 35 and above lost their teeth from cavity etiology and the patients aged 18 and lower had genetic etiology in losing their teeth.

  13. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  14. Relation of Melody Complexity in Infants' Cries to Language Outcome in the Second Year of Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Kathleen; Leising, Daniel; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of the German Language Development Study's prospective longitudinal research programme on infants from birth until the age of 3 years. Thirty-four infants were retrospectively classified into two groups (normal/delayed) by their language skills at 2.5 years of age. Frequency spectrograms and melodies of about 11,000 cries from…

  15. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  16. Academic Resilience: A Retrospective Study of Adults With Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John G.; Stoch, Shari A.; Chan, Janet S. N.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports qualitative analyses of two sets of retrospective interviews with adults with learning difficulties. The purpose of the study was to examine the high school experiences of these adults from a holistic perspective to understand possible factors that contributed to one group staying in school and the other group leaving school…

  17. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  19. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  20. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  1. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  2. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  3. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  4. Neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Valero, J; Gallart, J; González, D; Agustín, L; Marquina, R; Deus, J; Lahoz, M

    2012-08-01

    This retrospective study was carried out over 83 surgical cases at the distal portion of the fifth metatarsal, compromising the treatment of tailor's bunion, fifth metatarsal overload and the concomitant presence of both pathologies in some cases. Neuromas were founded under the fifth metatarsal head in 18 of the cases studied (21.7%). The results look at whether if there is an association between different fifth metatarsal pathologies and the presence of neuromas and found a significant association between the appearance of neuromas in patients with the same metatarsal overload, especially if it is accompanied by a tailor's bunion pathology.

  5. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  6. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), sponsored by the National...

  7. J's Rhymes: A Longitudinal Case Study of Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of one children documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Argues that this game may more closely resemble adult rhyme. (Author/VWL)

  8. Pemphigus vulgaris and infections: a retrospective study on 155 patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hossein; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  9. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended. PMID:23844280

  10. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R; Schneider, R

    1976-09-01

    Using files of the Animal Neoplasm Registry (ANR) in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the degree of inbreeding in the ancestry of purebred dogs with mammary and other cancers, and of those without tumors. Wright's coefficients of inbreeding, calculated for all animals in the three groups, ranged from 0.000 to 0.535. The median inbreeding coefficients of the mammary cancer and comparison groups (consisting of other cancers) were approximately twice that of the nonneoplastic group, but neither difference was statistically significant. Dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma and mixed mammary cancer had similar degrees of inbreeding.

  11. Onychomycosis in the Denver pediatrics population, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay S; Arbuckle, Harvey A; Morelli, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis (OM) is a common nail disorder in adults but has been rare in children. Recent international studies have demonstrated a rise in the prevalence of OM in children and adolescents, with Trichophyton rubrum being the most common pathogen. This 5-year retrospective chart review of children (aged <18) found that 66 of 141 patients (46.8%) presenting to Children's Hospital Colorado or Denver Health Medical Center Dermatology clinics with nail complaints had OM, with the highest prevalence in those aged 6 to 10 and a slight male predominance. Toenails were more commonly affected, and Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen.

  12. Risk factors, clinical variants and therapeutic outcome of retronychia: a retrospective study of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Emilie; Prevezas, Christos; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Cogrel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Retronychia is a form of post-traumatic ingrowing nail disease that involves proximal nail plate embedding into the proximal nail fold, with multiple generations of nail plate beneath the proximal nail. This disease is probably underdiagnosed because of incomplete clinical forms. The aim of this study was to report clinical and aetiological variants of retronychia and to evaluate their therapeutic outcome. A retrospective review was performed on 18 patients who were seen in our institution between 2007 and 2013. The diagnostic criteria for retronychia were paronychia and interruption of nail growth. A female predominance (83.3%) was reported. Various precipitating factors were found, including traumatisms in 10 patients (55%), pregnancy and postpartum period in two patients (11%), and compartment syndrome in one patient (5%). The mean duration of paronychia was eight months (15 days to four years). The fingers most affected were the great toes. Retronychia occurred bilaterally in five cases (27%) and unilaterally in one case (61%). The commonest signs were, in decreasing order, xanthonychia (yellow discolouration of nail plate), longitudinal nail over-curvature, swelling of proximal nail fold, elevation of the proximal nail plate, granulation tissue, subungual hyperkeratosis, superficial leuconychia, distal onycholysis, subungueal haemorrhage, and Beau's lines. Most of the cases improved after proximal nail plate avulsion. Recurrence occurred in three cases (16.6%). In our opinion, ischaemic damage is the main cause of retronychia. Evaluation of clinical variants is mandatory to propose appropriate treatment. The limitations of this study include the retrospective design.

  13. Trazodone and alcohol relapse: a retrospective study following residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Schneekloth, Terry D; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A; Mansukhani, Meghna P; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K; Karpyak, Victor M; Loukianova, Larissa L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Mrazek, David

    2011-01-01

    Trazodone is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotic medications in patients with sleep disturbances in alcohol recovery. A recent study concluded that treating insomnia with trazodone in patients with alcohol dependence might impede improvements in alcohol consumption and lead to increased drinking when trazodone is stopped. We set out to investigate the relationship between trazodone use during alcoholism treatment and relapse rates in patients who were discharged from a residential alcohol treatment program. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a residential addiction treatment center from 2005 to 2008 and analyzed the association of trazodone use at discharge and alcohol relapse at 6 months. We also assessed the association between trazodone use and relapse at 6 months adjusting for sex, drug dependence, nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnoses, patient self-report of difficulties with sleep, and anti-dipsotropic medication use at discharge and evaluated pair-wise interactions of trazodone use with the adjustment variables. Of 283 patients eligible for inclusion, 85 (30%) were taking trazodone at discharge. Older age, self-reported sleep problems, and having a nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnosis were associated with trazodone use. After discharge, 170 (60%) subjects responded to follow-up efforts. Neither intent to treat nor responder only analysis revealed any association between trazodone use and relapse. Our retrospective study of a complex patient population discharged from a residential treatment setting did not find an association between trazodone use at discharge and relapse rates at 6 months.

  14. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugurluer, Gamze; Miller, Robert C.; Li, Yexiong; Thariat, Juliette; Ghadjar, Pirus; Schick, Ulrike; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare malignancy. We aimed to assess the clinical profile, outcome and prognostic factors in PHL through the Rare Cancer Network (RCN). A retrospective analysis of 41 patients was performed. Median age was 62 years (range, 23-86 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1.0. Abdominal pain or discomfort was the most common presenting symptom. Regarding B-symptoms, 19.5% of patients had fever, 17.1% weight loss, and 9.8% night sweats. The most common radiological presentation was multiple lesions. Liver function tests were elevated in 56.1% of patients. The most common histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (65.9%). Most of the patients received Chop-like (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimens; 4 patients received radiotherapy (dose range, 30.6-40.0 Gy). Median survival was 163 months, and 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 69, 56, 87 and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fever, weight loss, and normal hemoglobin level were the independent factors influencing the outcome. In this retrospective multicenter RCN study, patients with PHL had a relatively better prognosis than that reported elsewhere. Multicenter prospective studies are still warranted to establish treatment guidelines, outcome, and prognostic factors. PMID:27746888

  15. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  16. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    “Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  17. Concurrent Indicators of Gait Velocity and Variability Are Associated with 25-Year Cognitive Change: A Retrospective Longitudinal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hundza, Sandra; Love, Janet A.; DeCarlo, Correne A.; Halliday, Drew W. R.; Brewster, Paul W. H.; Lukyn, Timothy V.; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Physical function indicators, including gait velocity, stride time and step length, are linked to neural and cognitive function, morbidity and mortality. Whereas cross-sectional associations are well documented, far less is known about long-term patterns of cognitive change as related to objective indicators of mobility-related physical function. Methods: Using data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, a long-term investigation of biological and health aspects of aging and cognition, we examined three aspects of cognition-physical function linkages in 121 older adults. First, we examined a simple marker of physical function (3 m timed-walk) as a predictor of cross-sectional differences and up to 25-year change for four indicators of cognitive function. Second, we tested associations between two markers of gait function derived from the GAITRite system (velocity and stride-time variability) and differences and change in cognition. Finally, we evaluated how increasing cognitive load during GAITRite assessment influenced the associations between gait and cognition. Results: The simple timed-walk measure, commonly used in clinical and research settings, was a minor predictor of change in cognitive function. In contrast, the objectively measured indicator of walking speed significantly moderated long-term cognitive change. Under increasing cognitive load, the moderating influence of velocity on cognitive change increased, with increasing variability in stride time also emerging as a predictor of age-related cognitive decline. Conclusion: These findings: (a) underscore the utility of gait as a proxy for biological vitality and for indexing long-term cognitive change; and (b) inform potential mechanisms underlying age-related linkages in physical and cognitive function. PMID:28243199

  18. Concurrent Indicators of Gait Velocity and Variability Are Associated with 25-Year Cognitive Change: A Retrospective Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hundza, Sandra; Love, Janet A; DeCarlo, Correne A; Halliday, Drew W R; Brewster, Paul W H; Lukyn, Timothy V; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Physical function indicators, including gait velocity, stride time and step length, are linked to neural and cognitive function, morbidity and mortality. Whereas cross-sectional associations are well documented, far less is known about long-term patterns of cognitive change as related to objective indicators of mobility-related physical function. Methods: Using data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, a long-term investigation of biological and health aspects of aging and cognition, we examined three aspects of cognition-physical function linkages in 121 older adults. First, we examined a simple marker of physical function (3 m timed-walk) as a predictor of cross-sectional differences and up to 25-year change for four indicators of cognitive function. Second, we tested associations between two markers of gait function derived from the GAITRite system (velocity and stride-time variability) and differences and change in cognition. Finally, we evaluated how increasing cognitive load during GAITRite assessment influenced the associations between gait and cognition. Results: The simple timed-walk measure, commonly used in clinical and research settings, was a minor predictor of change in cognitive function. In contrast, the objectively measured indicator of walking speed significantly moderated long-term cognitive change. Under increasing cognitive load, the moderating influence of velocity on cognitive change increased, with increasing variability in stride time also emerging as a predictor of age-related cognitive decline. Conclusion: These findings: (a) underscore the utility of gait as a proxy for biological vitality and for indexing long-term cognitive change; and (b) inform potential mechanisms underlying age-related linkages in physical and cognitive function.

  19. Platelet profile in patients with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046

  20. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  1. A retrospective study of six patients with mandibular metastatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CAI, ZHEN; ZHU, CHAO; WANG, LIZHEN; ZHU, LING; ZHANG, ZHIYUAN; ZHU, HANGUANG; WANG, YAN'AN

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular metastatic carcinoma is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of all oral malignancies. To provide greater experience in this field, the present study was conducted in which 6 cases of mandibular metastatic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The origin of the lesions was the prostate in 2 cases, the lungs in 2 cases, the breast in 1 case and the thyroid gland in 1 case. The clinical and computed tomography features, surgical management and follow-up outcomes were investigated. The study indicated that surgeons should include the suspicion of metastasis in the differential diagnosis for mandibular tumor, particularly in patients who have a history of malignancy. A poor prognosis was associated with the examined patients. To extend the survival time as long as possible, a treatment strategy using multiple therapies, including segmental mandibulectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is recommended. PMID:27284368

  2. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  3. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  4. Retained fetal membranes in the mare: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Real; Threlfall, Walter R.; Murdick, Phillip W.; Wearly, W. Keith

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 3456 deliveries was conducted from the records of four Standardbred broodmare farms where mares were bred by artificial insemination and maintained under close veterinary supervision. Retained fetal membranes (RFM) were observed in 10.6% of the deliveries. Retained fetal membranes occurred more frequently (p < 0.05) after dystocia and in mares which had RFM the previous year. Retained fetal membranes after normal foaling had no significant effect on the reproductive performance (pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, or foaling rate), nor on the general health of the mares, regardless of the duration of RFM (3 to 144 hours). Postfoaling laminitis was not observed. Oxytocin therapy of mares with RFM starting at two hours postpartum significantly reduced the incidence of RFM ≥ 8 hours. Mares with RFM which had received intrauterine antimicrobials between foaling and first breeding had a foaling rate similar to mares with RFM which had not received intrauterine therapy. PMID:17423164

  5. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  6. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

  7. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  8. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  10. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  11. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  12. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  13. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  14. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  15. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  16. Retrospective mortality study of cadmium workers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Thun, M.J.; Schnorr, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-02-06

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a group of workers exposed to cadmium (7440439), to determine specific causes of death among these workers. The report reviewed the findings of the study and presented additional findings concerning exposures to other hazards at the facility. The study examined the causes of death for 292 cadmium workers who worked at least 2 years at a small facility that recovered cadmium from bag house dust. Exposures included dusts of cadmium-oxide (1306190) and cadmium-sulfide (1306236) and to fumes of cadmium itself. Over a two fold excess of deaths from respiratory cancer was noted among these workers when compared with the general population and over a three fold excess of deaths from prostatic cancer among the men. A follow up of the study cohort revealed that all cause mortality was slightly below that of the United States male population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for circulatory disease was 65. Deaths due to respiratory cancer were 65% above the number expected. All of the 20 deaths from respiratory cancer were due to cancer of the lung, trachea and bronchus. Deaths due to genitourinary cancer were 35% above expected levels.

  17. Acetazolamide in vestibular migraine prophylaxis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Çelebisoy, Neşe; Gökçay, Figen; Karahan, Ceyda; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazlı, Tayfun; Karapolat, Hale; Köse, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to check the efficacy of acetazolamide in the prophylaxis of vestibular migraine (VM). Treatment options in VM are mainly based on migraine guidelines. We tried to assess the efficacy of acetazolamide in these patients depending on clinical similarities with episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine responding to the drug. This is a retrospective cohort study. Among 50 patients with VM and prescribed acetazolamide 500 mg/day, 39 patients were studied as five had been lost on follow-up and six had stopped taking the drug due to side effects. Vertigo and headache frequency determined by number of attacks per month, and the severity determined by visual analog scales measured in centimeters from 0 to 10 were collected from the records. Initial reported figures for frequency and severity were compared with the results gathered after 3 months of treatment. The results were compared. Acetazolamide was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of vertigo and headache attacks and this effect was more prominent for vertigo frequency and severity.

  18. Bilateral Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas and its Outcome: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Deepa; Sharma, Mukesh; Patil, Deepak Bhanudas; Shende, Neeraj; Chauhan, Richa Singh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the age distribution, mode of injury, type of hematomas, and their surgical outcome in patients with bilateral traumatic head injuries. The present study included 669 cases of traumatic head injury who presented at the neurosurgery emergency out of which 94 cases had bilateral head injuries from the period of August 2009 to April 2014. The data from the hospital computerized database were retrospectively analysed. Cases of bilateral traumatic head injury included 94 patients out of which 88.29 % (n = 83) were males and 11.70 % (n = 11) were females. Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident in 56.38 % (n = 53) followed by fall from height in 29.78 % (n = 28). In our study, 25.53 % patients had epidural hematoma (EDH) with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) or contusion (n = 24), followed by EDH with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 18.08 % (n = 17). At the time of discharge, all those patients managed conservatively had good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) while with surgical intervention 58 % patients had good GOS, 19 % had moderate disability, and 9 % remained with severe disability. In cases of bilateral hematomas, EDH is most common and should be managed in neurosurgical emergency. Other combinations of bilateral intracranial hematomas should be managed according to the surgical indication and serial CT imaging.

  19. Retrospective study of ameloblastoma: the possibility of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takumi; Imai, Yusuke; Takeda, Daisuke; Yasuoka, Daisuke; Ri, Shinshou; Shigeta, Takashi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Komori, Takahide

    2013-11-09

    At our institutions, most cases of the solid or multicystic type were treated as conservatively as possible in order to avoid disadvantages of radical treatment. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyze the ameloblastoma cases diagnosed at our two institutions, to classify them according to the criteria of the 2005 WHO classification, and to evaluate the possibility of using a conservative approach for the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma. Maxillary cases, unicystic cases, peripheral cases and resection-treated cases were excluded from this study. In 23 tumors of mandibular solid or multicystic ameloblastoma, a patient's age, gender, location, clinical signs, duration, radiographic appearance, preoperative diagnosis, ameloblastoma subtypes, treatment, and recurrence were investigated. The recurrence rate (48.7%) in this study was lower than the reported recurrence rate after conservative treatment for solid or multicystic ameloblastoma and was higher than the reported recurrence rate of ameloblastoma, inclusive of other types. However, all patients who were diagnosed with recurrences have maintained their quality of life and were satisfied for at least several years after the conservative treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated one possibility that a conservative approach might be employed in the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma (even of the solid or multicystic type).

  20. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  1. Radiographic evaluation of mandibular ramus for gender estimation: Retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Damera, Ajit; Mohanalakhsmi, Jonnala; Yellarthi, Pavan Kumar; Rezwana, Begum Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: A radiographic retrospective study was conducted using 80 digital orthopantomographs to measure, compare, and evaluate the measurements of the mandibular ramus such as maximum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and coronoid heightusing Planmeca ProMax® digital machine to assess the usefulness of mandibular measurements in gender estimation. Results: Descriptive statistics of various measurements and associated univariate F ratios for both the sexes were determined. Four variables were significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). The F-statistic values indicated that measurements expressing the greatest sexual dimorphism were noticed in the maximum ramus height. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be considered as a valuable tool in gender estimation and the most reliable measurements were obtained of linear objects in the horizontal plane by digital panoramic imaging. PMID:27555722

  2. Feline urate urolithiasis: a retrospective study of 159 cases.

    PubMed

    Dear, Jonathan D; Shiraki, Ryojj; Ruby, Annette L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the signalment, clinicopathologic data, and diagnostic imaging of cats with urate urolithiasis, as well as the salts of uric acid present in the uroliths. A retrospective analysis of feline urate uroliths submitted to the GV Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory between 2000 and 2008 was included. From these data, records were assimilated from referring veterinarians (143); furthermore, all recorded cases from within the William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (16) were included. Median values for the complete blood count and chemistry panels available were within the reference intervals, when provided, with only a few outliers present. Of all cases evaluated, seven had a portosystemic shunt (PSS). Cats with urate uroliths and a PSS were younger than cats without a PSS (2 years vs 7 years). The pathogenesis of urate uroliths in cats is poorly understood. Most cats were not completely evaluated for a PSS, however, clinicopathologic parameters indicating hepatic dysfunction were seldom noted; more sensitive diagnostics such as serum bile acids were rarely performed to confirm or negate the presence of a shunt. Studies are warranted to evaluate pathogenesis of urate uroliths to tailor proper management and breeding strategies.

  3. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  4. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  5. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Demitrost, Laloo; Ranabir, Salam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8%) are euthyroid, 33 (16.3%) have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females), 23 (11.4%) have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females), 4 (2%) have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5%) are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016). Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25. PMID:23565418

  6. Infantile acne: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.

  7. Influence of cholesterol on survival after stroke: retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dyker, A. G.; Weir, C. J.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum cholesterol concentration and cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Acute stroke unit of inner city general hospital. SUBJECTS: 977 patients with acute stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total cholesterol concentration, type of stroke investigated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, three month outcome (good (alive at home) or bad (dead or in care)), long term mortality. RESULTS: After adjustment for known prognostic factors, higher serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with reduced long term mortality after stroke (relative hazard 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.98) per mmol/l increase in cholesterol) independently of stroke type, vascular territory and extent, age, and hyperglycaemia. Three month outcome was also influenced independently by serum cholesterol (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an association between poor stroke outcome and lower serum cholesterol concentration. Until a prospective controlled study has confirmed the benefits of lowering cholesterol concentration in elderly subjects, the application of cholesterol lowering guidelines cannot be justified as secondary prevention of acute stroke. PMID:9169402

  8. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  9. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545

  10. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients’ treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients’ folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important. PMID:25202219

  11. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  12. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  13. Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin.

    PubMed

    Tang, A T; Björkman, L; Lindbäck, K F; Andlin-Sobocki, A; Ekstrand, J

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used to bond full arch fixed appliances onto patients' upper teeth. Patients' appliances, which were bonded with Phase II composite and liquid resin, were used as the control group (n = 37). The duration of the appliance survival, from the date of appliance bonding to the date of first accidental bracket loss, was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test. Our data suggested that supragingival orthodontic metal brackets seemed to bond on healthy enamel surfaces and to work equally well either with or without the use of liquid resin. The total percentages of bond failure, roughly 6%, were similar in both test and control groups. Approximately 73% of all patients in the test group and 57% of the patients in the control group experienced no bond failure at all throughout the entire course of treatment.

  14. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  16. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  17. Longitudinal Field Research Methods for Studying Processes of Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Huber, George P.

    1990-01-01

    This and the next issue of "Organization Science" contain eight papers that deal with the process of organizational change. The five papers in this issue feature the theory of method and practice of researchers engaged in longitudinal field studies aimed at understanding processes of organizational change. (MLF)

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  19. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  20. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  1. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  2. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  3. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  4. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  5. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Relational and Physical Aggression in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Talent Search Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Landers, Jama McMahan

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  10. Violence Viewing and Adolescent Aggression: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viemero, Vappu

    A longitudinal field study conducted in Turku, Finland, traced the development of aggression as a function of the viewing of violence by children from the ages of 7 and 9 to the ages of 15 and 17 to explore the connection between violence viewing and viewers' aggression, and to shed light on the question of causality. The 220 subjects, both male…

  11. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  13. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  14. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  15. Total thyroidectomy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Russo, G; Sgueglia, M; Blasi, S; Tortorelli, G; Tromba, L; Krizzuk, D; Merola, R

    2014-01-01

    In the English literature there is no single definition that identifies elderly patients. In our retrospective study, we divided total thyroidectomized patients operated on from 2000 to 2010 in the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, in two groups: group 1 consists of 448 patients over 65 years and group 2 consists of 1275 patients under 65 years. We compared both groups in terms of indications for surgery, histological diagnoses, postoperative complications (laryngeal nerv palsy, hypocalcemia, bleeding and seroma) and mortality. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the type of surgical indication, the type of comorbidities, the incidence of postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. The only data discordant with those in the international literature was the incidence of neoplastic disease that is found to be slightly greater in group 2. In conclusion, total thyroidectomy in patients over 65 years is a safe procedure and is not burdened with a higher percentage of postoperative complications, even if requires a careful preoperative assessment of risk factors related to comorbidity.

  16. Somatization in Post-Concussion Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibaldi, James C

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of concussion patient data conducted to analyze the prevalence of somatization in patients presenting with post-concussion symptoms. Patient records from June 2010 to December 2015 were examined for concussion history, psychosocial history, neuropsychological test results, validity scores, and a symptom severity scale. Records meeting inclusion criteria from 33 males and 27 females were located. The sample had an age range of 11–78 years with a mean age of 33.40 (SD +/- 7.5 years). A clinically significant number of patients (55%) were found to be somaticizing their symptoms and a significant majority (78%) of somaticizing patients reported no loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia, or post-traumatic amnesia but their symptom validity scales were significantly exaggerated. Caution should be exercised by clinicians to ensure that the obtained results of neuropsychological testing are reliable and valid. It is very important for the clinician to take into account the entire patient history, including psychosocial factors (such as pre-existing psychological traits or conditions) and social influences (such as stressors in family dynamics or work/school activities that may be affecting the patient's complaints). PMID:27766190

  17. Results after wisdom tooth transplantation. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Silvio; Beck, Isabelle; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom tooth transplants offer youth the possibility of biologically fixed tooth replacement in cases of premolar agenesis or premature loss of a molar. In the present study, 57 transplants of third molars were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively on preoperative findings (root growth stages, extraction sites, indication for transplantation), on postoperative clinical findings (local gingivitis, periodontal probing values, tooth mobility, percussion sound and percussion pain) and on radiological findings (tertiary build-up of dentin, osseous periradicular conditions, progress of root growth). Only the transplants which healed with a vital pulp and in a periodontally healthy state were considered successful. Upper and lower wisdom teeth having 50% to 75% root growth progression were transplanted. The postoperative follow-up observation period averaged 26.4 months. The success of a wisdom tooth transplantation was not influenced by the root growth stage (p = 1), the extraction location of wisdom teeth (p = 0.45), or the feasibility for a transplantation (p = 0.56). Three teeth showed pulpal necrosis with apical periodontitis and were counted as failures. The success rate was rather high with 54 out of 57 transplants (94.7%), therefore wisdom tooth transplantations, with careful selection of a suitable graft and its gentle removal, can be described as a good predictable treatment.

  18. Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).

  19. Laryngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samantha S; Harvey, Andrea M; Barr, Frances J; Moore, Alasdair H; Day, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review the medical records of cats referred to the University of Bristol for investigation of laryngeal disease (n=35). Cases were categorised into one of four groups: cats with laryngeal paralysis (LP, n=14), laryngeal neoplasia (n=10), laryngeal inflammation (n=6), or miscellaneous laryngeal diseases (n=5). Laryngoscopy and echolaryngography were useful diagnostic techniques but histology was required for diagnosis of diseases other than LP. Two cats with lymphoma received chemotherapy achieving survival times of 60 and 1440 days. Four cats with LP were treated surgically, with a median survival time of 300 days (range 10-360 days) and six were treated conservatively with a median survival time of 780 days (range 300-2520 days). Three cats with inflammatory disease were treated medically and one by excision of the lesion. Two cats achieved survival times of 120 and 2800 days. Cats with LP, laryngeal lymphoma or laryngitis had excellent long-term survival following appropriate treatment.

  20. Inherited bleeding disorders: a 14-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Suhair S; Kamal, Nazmi R; Shubeilat, Taisir S; Wael, Abu-Ghoush Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Congenital bleeding disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that reflect abnormalities of blood vessels, coagulation proteins, and platelets. A 14-year retrospective study (1991-2005) was conducted for patients referred to the coagulation section of the Hematology Department (King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan), who had suffered from bleeding tendencies to assess the prevalence of bleeding disorders among Jordanians and to describe their clinical manifestations. Four hundred and three patients matched our criteria. All patients were screened with routine coagulation assays and a complete blood cell count; a factor assay was performed if indicated by the results of the screening assays. A total of 168 patients (41.6%) were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder caused by a factor deficiency, of which 17.1% were described as hemophilia A (n=69), 6.2% were described as vWD (n=25), and 4.2% were described as hemophilia B (n=17). A subset of the total patient population comprising 14.1% of the patients were diagnosed with a Rare Inherited Coagulation Deficiency (RICD), where 4.0% were FX deficient (n=16), 3.7% were FVII deficient (n=15), 3.7% were FV deficient (n=15), 2.5% were FXI deficient (n=10), and 0.2% were diagnosed with afibrinogenemia (n=1).

  1. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  2. Ankylosis of impacted canines: a retrospective post-surgical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Ankylosis is generally discovered following resistance to orthodontic displacement of an impacted canine. This retrospective study, drawing on direct perioperative observation of impacted teeth and of their sites, is intended, among other things, to analyze the causes of resistance to orthodontic movement and to report on the therapeutic interest of the surgical tooth displacement technique in this type of clinical situation. We demonstrate that primary coronal ankylosis can be detected by the orthodontic practitioner using radiographic records, that cervical ankylosis consequent to operative trauma during release is necessarily unpredictable and that it should be suspected when the tooth resists traction for more than 3 months in the absence of any other obvious cause of resistance. Hence, the risk of ankylosis linked to the level of surgical difficulty increases with the depth of coronal submergence within the bone. Moreover, the immediate placement of traction following release reduces the risk of ankylosis. In addition, temporarily suspending traction is a risk factor for secondary apical ankylosis. Finally, surgical positioning should be borne in mind as the final effective option when faced with any form of dental retention.

  3. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  4. Pierce College Longitudinal Study: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

    During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…

  5. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  6. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  7. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  8. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  9. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  10. A single-center retrospective study of pediatric hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Weiling; Tang, Suoqin; Chen, Liping; Yi, You; Zhang, Pinwei; Liu, Aiping; Zhi, Tian; Huang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is a malignant liver tumor generally diagnosed in infants and children <3 years old. The current retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations of tumor stage, pathological type, metastasis and chemotherapy with clinical outcomes. In the current study, a total of 102 patients with hepatoblastoma were enrolled between September 2006 and June 2014. Clinical records and follow-up information for each of patient were obtained to conduct a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. The median age of the subjects was 1.5 years, and 98 patients had stage III or IV hepatoblastoma. Complete or partial remittance occurred in 72 subjects, and 91 underwent surgical operation. The survival rate differed significantly among patients with different tumor stages (P=0.015, χ2=8.359). The mortality rate of stage IV subjects with intrahepatic metastasis was significantly higher than that of those without (P=0.004). Among the 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma, the mortality rate was higher in the subjects that abandoned chemotherapy than in patients who continued regular chemotherapy. In total, 27 of 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma succumbed to the disease; 20 of them abandoned chemotherapy treatment; and the remaining 7 patients underwent regular chemotherapy and succumbed to the disease by the end of follow-up. The present study indicates that the increased mortality rate was associated with postoperative residual-induced intrahepatic metastasis and relapsed hepatoblastoma; and that regular chemotherapy is necessary for patient to achieve complete or partial remission following surgical operation. PMID:27895749

  11. Evolution of oral and written confrontation naming errors in aphasia. A retrospective study on vascular patients.

    PubMed

    Basso, A; Corno, M; Marangolo, P

    1996-02-01

    Impaired naming is a common finding in aphasia but while it is known that naming errors diminish over time, longitudinal studies are rare. In this retrospective study, naming errors of 84 vascular aphasic patients are studied. Errors in oral and written confrontation naming tasks in two successive evaluations are tabulated and coded into one of 10 error types. No Response, Word-Finding Difficulty, Semantic Paraphasia, Unrelated Paraphasia, Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasia, Neologism, Paraphasic Jargon, Phonemic/Neologistic Jargon, Stereotypy, and Other. All analyses were carried out on the difference scores, that is, the score in the second examination minus the score in the first examination. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease of No Responses (in oral and written naming) and Neologisms (in oral naming), and a significant increase of Orthographic Paraphasias in written naming. Moreover, the difference score for Phonemic/Orthographic Paraphasias was higher in written than oral naming. The difference scores for the other types of error were not statistically significant.

  12. Benchmarking pathology services: implementing a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M; Holmes, S; McGrath, K; Neil, A

    1999-05-01

    This paper details the benchmarking process and its application to the activities of pathology laboratories participating in a benchmark pilot study [the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasian (RCPA) Benchmarking Project]. The discussion highlights the primary issues confronted in collecting, processing, analysing and comparing benchmark data. The paper outlines the benefits of engaging in a benchmarking exercise and provides a framework which can be applied across a range of public health settings. This information is then applied to a review of the development of the RCPA Benchmarking Project. Consideration is also given to the nature of the preliminary results of the project and the implications of these results to the on-going conduct of the study.

  13. Longitudinal studies of exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347

  14. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement.

  15. Retrospective study of prognostic factors in pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Hung-Yang; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Lei, Wei-Te

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei. The hospitalized pediatric patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia, arthritis, infectious endocarditis, meningitis or sepsis were recruited. Among them, 50 patients were pneumococcal infections proved by positive culture results or antigen tests. Clinical manifestations, laboratory data and hospitalization courses were analyzed. The median age was 3.5-year-old and there were 30 male patients (60%). Eight patients (16%) had underlying disease such as leukemia or congenital heart disease. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in ten patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed in three patients. Leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and AST level were noted in most of the patients. The overall mortality rate was 10%. We found that leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high CRP level were significant predictors for mortality. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae remains an important health threat worldwide and IPD is life-threatening with high mortality rate. We found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high CRP levels to be associated with mortality in pediatric IPD, and these factors are worthy of special attention at admission. Although we failed to identify a statistically significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis due to relatively small sample size, we suggest an aggressive antibiotic treatment in patients with these factors at admission

  16. Bilateral carpal tunnel surgery in one operation: Retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Herisson, O; Dury, M; Rapp, E; Marin-Braun, F

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment syndrome. The incidence of a bilateral condition varies between 22% and 87%. The aim of our study was to assess the level of satisfaction and the clinical outcomes in a group of patients operated on through a bilateral neurolysis on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, in one operating session. This is a retrospective study involving patients with an electromyographic and clinical diagnosis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were treated on an outpatient basis and the bilateral neurolysis was performed by endoscopy. The postoperative data was collected during consultation by a senior surgeon or during telephone interviews. Patients were asked to respond to a satisfaction questionnaire and the functional outcome was assessed through the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire. Twenty-nine patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were operated on in single operating sessions between January 2009 and January 2014. The average follow-up was 46 months. The average age at the time of the intervention was 45 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 27 were able to be assessed. In relation to the clinical and functional outcomes, the average Quick-DASH score was 6.78 (ranges: 0-43.2). Twenty-five patients (92.5%) were satisfied with this simultaneous treatment and 26 patients (96%) would choose the same technique again. One-stage surgery in cases of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome appears to constitute a benefit for the patient, the surgeon and the anaesthetist, but it is reserved for patients who request it and who are motivated by this type of intervention.

  17. Neurological Complications after Renal Transplantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    CENGİZ, Nilgün; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; YAKUPOĞLU, Yarkın Kamil; TÜRKER, Hande

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and types of neurological complications (NCs) and associated factors in renal transplantation (RT) patients. Methods Three hundred and forty-four patients who had RT performed at our institution between January 2005 and July 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Results File records of the patients revealed 19 who experienced a total of 22 episodes of NCs, of whom three had more than one episode. The mean age of 19 patients included in the study, of whom eight were female, was 37.52±13.08 (range, 18–65) years. NCs were classified into central or peripheral depending on the location of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). CNS involvement was found in 16 (84.2%) of the 19 patients. Tremor (36.8%) was the most common CNS complication in these patients. Encephalopathy, generalized tonic–clonic seizures, and status epilepticus were observed in two patients (10.5%). Delirium and dementia were observed in one patient (5.2%). Headache was experienced by one patient, and agitated depression was observed in one patient. Six patients (26.3%) had the peripheral nervous system involvement. One patient had the numbness of hands with normal electromyography findings, and four patients had polyneuropathy. In one patient, lumbar plexopathy was observed. Seventeen of the 22 NCs were considered to be caused by immunosuppressive agents. Each incidence of amyloidosis, infection, septic emboli, and hypoglycemia caused a neurological episode. The etiology of one episode was unknown. Conclusion Different neurological disorders can be seen after RT, and most of them are caused by immunosuppressive drugs. NCs seen after RT can be treated by decreasing the dose or changing the immunosuppressive drug.

  18. Caval filters in intensive care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, F; Di Gennaro, TL; Torino, A; Petruzzi, J; d’Elia, A; Fusco, P; Marfella, R; Lettieri, B

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a caval vein filter (CVF) peri-implant monitoring protocol in order to reduce pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality and CVF-related morbidity. Background The reduction in mortality from PE associated with the use of CVF is affected by the risk of increase in morbidity. Therefore, CVF implant is a challenging prophylactic or therapeutic option. Nowadays, we have many different devices whose rational use, by applying a strict peri-implant monitoring protocol, could be safe and effective. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied 62 patients of a general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scheduled for definitive, temporary, or optional bedside CVF implant. A peri-implant monitoring protocol including a phlebocavography, an echo-Doppler examination, and coagulation tests was adopted. Results In our study, no thromboembolic recurrence was registered. We implanted 48 retrievable and only 20 definitive CVFs. Endothelial adhesion (18%), residual clot (5%), cranial or caudal migration (6%), microbial colonization of the filter in the absence of clinical signs of infection (1%), caval thrombosis (1%), and pneumothorax (1%) were reported. Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was reported (8%) as early complication. All patients with DVT had a temporary or optional filter implanted. However, in our cohort, definitive CVFs were reserved only to 32% of patients and they were not associated with DVT as complication. Conclusion CVF significantly reduces iatrogenic PE without affecting mortality. Generally, ICU patients have a transitory thromboembolic risk, and so the temporary CVF has been proved to be a first-line option to our cohort. A careful monitoring may contribute to a satisfactory outcome in order to promote CVF implant as a safe prophylaxis option. PMID:25395837

  19. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  20. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  1. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  2. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  3. Postperfusion Syndrome in Cadaveric Liver Transplantations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Aydınlı, Bahar; Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yıldırım; Kazancı, Dilek; Koçulu, Rabia; Haytural, Candan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Zorlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affects the postperfusion syndrome in cadaveric liver transplantations and the effect of the postperfusion syndrome on discharge from the hospital. Methods Patients who underwent cadaveric liver transplantations between 2007 and 2013 were scanned retrospectively. Intraoperative anaesthesia records, intensive care unit follow-up forms and discharge reports were examined from patient files. Overall, 43 patients having complete data were included in the study. The postperfusion syndrome is defined as asystoli or a decrease in mean arterial pressure of more than 30%, which occurred in the first 5 min of reperfusion and continued for 1 min. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had the postperfusion syndrome and those who did not. Results The number of patients who had the postperfusion syndrome was 25 of 43 (58.1%). The MELD score of patients without the postperfusion syndrome was calculated as 16.9±3.2 and that of patients with the postperfusion syndrome was 19.7±3.6. A statistically significant relationship was detected between the postperfusion syndrome occurrence and a high MELD score (p=0.013). The diastolic blood pressure just before reperfusion was statistically lower in the group with the postperfusion syndrome than in the other group (p=0.023, 50±8 vs. 58±11). According to the logistic regression analysis, the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion were defined as independent predictive factors. Conclusion According to the study, the ratio for having the postperfusion syndrome was found to be 58.1%. The independent predictor factors affecting the postperfusion syndrome were detected as the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion. The postperfusion syndrome during orthotropic liver transplantation is an important issue for anaesthesiologists. The awareness of the related factors with the postperfusion syndrome may help in the development

  4. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  5. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  6. Longitudinal study of alexithymia and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Céline; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses. PMID:24653957

  7. Proteinuria as a Therapeutic Target in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: a Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hsu; Wu, Hon-Yen; Wang, Chieh-Li; Yang, Feng-Jung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hung, Szu-Chun; Kan, Wei-Chih; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence of proteinuria reduction as a surrogate target in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete due to lack of patient-pooled database. We retrospectively studied a multicenter cohort of 1891 patients who were enrolled in the nationwide multidisciplinary pre-end stage renal disease care program with a baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and followed longitudinally to investigate the effect of the change in proteinuria on renal death (defined as composite of dialysis and death occurring before initiation of dialysis). The group with a change in proteinuria ≤0.30 g/g (n = 1261) had lower cumulative probabilities of renal death (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model, a higher baseline proteinuria and a greater increase in proteinuria were associated with faster annual GFR decline. Cox’s analysis showed that every 1 unit increase in natural log(baseline proteinuria, 10 g/g) and every 0.1 g/g increase in the change in proteinuria resulted in 67% (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.46–1.91) and 1% (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01–1.01) greater risk of renal death respectively after adjusting for the effects of the other covariates. Our study provided a patient-based evidence to support proteinuria as a therapeutic target in advanced CKD. PMID:27198863

  8. Retrospective Study of a Series of Choanal Atresia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054

  9. Be alert to tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Yuan, Q; Feng, J; Yao, L; Fan, Q; Ma, J; Wang, L

    2012-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causing glomerulonephritis is a rare disorder. This retrospective study analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis (TB-GN) between 2002 and 2009, as well as the diagnostic tools used. These findings were then compared with those of patients with primary glomerulonephritis (P-GN). The records of all patients were reviewed. The diagnosis of TB-GN was based on renal hematuria and/or proteinuria and cure after antituberculosis therapy alone plus urine culture positive for M. tuberculosis, demonstration of typical tubercle granulomas on renal biopsy specimens, or the detection of M. tuberculosis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on renal specimens. Forty-six patients with TB-GN and 49 patients with P-GN were included. Compared with patients in the P-GN group, most (76%) patients with TB-GN had a history of TB. Systemic symptoms were much more frequent in patients with TB-GN than local genitourinary symptoms. Serological testing showed a statistical difference between the two groups. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy was found in the majority (72%) of patients with TB-GN. M. tuberculosis DNA detection was positive in 39 (84.8%) patients, a much higher positive rate of diagnosis than that with urine culture for M. tuberculosis. The manifestation of TB-GN is atypical and nonspecific. It warrants a high index of suspicion when patients with renal hematuria and proteinuria fail to respond to standard treatments for P-GN. Clinicians should pay close attention to the medical history and results of special laboratory tests. M. tuberculosis DNA detection on renal biopsy specimens should be considered in order to confirm the diagnosis of TB-GN.

  10. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. Material and Methods A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. Results The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Conclusions Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Key words:Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy

  11. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: retrospective descriptive study on clinical features and management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Ann-Sophie; Bell, Robert Z; Bezzaoucha, Sarah; Földes, Eva; Lamarche, Caroline; Vallée, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of inflammatory and fibrous retroperitoneal tissue that often encases the ureters or abdominal organs. This study describes the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatments and their effects on renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RPF at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. Results We identified 17 patients with RPF between 1998 and 2013. Eight patients were females (47%), and the mean age was 62±18 years. Eleven patients were idiopathic. Back pain was the most common symptom. All diagnoses were made based on the finding of a retroperitoneal mass on the computed tomography scan. Three patients had histological diagnosis of RPF and seven patients had unspecific changes on their biopsy. Twelve patients needed double-J stents, three patients had a temporary percutaneous nephrostomy, two patients had to have a nephrectomy for refractory ureteral obstruction, and one patient required hemodialysis. Ten patients with idiopathic RPF received medical treatment. In the treated group, only two patients had complete remission of the disease and five patients had improvement of their lesions. There were no deteriorations and only one relapse. Seven patients did not receive any treatment; two of them achieved complete remission, one of them deteriorated, and two of them had no changes. Conclusion Most of our cases of RPF were idiopathic. Almost all treated patients received prednisone and seemed to respond, at least partially. There was a lot of heterogeneity in patient management, which makes it difficult to compare treatment effects. However, treated patients seemed to have more favorable outcomes than those who were not. PMID:27822461

  12. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  13. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  14. The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship Between Personality and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303

  15. Predictors of attrition in a longitudinal study of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Claus, Ronald E; Kindleberger, Lisa R; Dugan, Mary C

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substance abusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and were more likely to provide three or more contacts when recruited, to be female, to have been married, and to have previously received substance abuse or psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that complete data participants (those who completed all three ASI interviews) were nearly three times more likely to have previously received psychiatric treatment and twice as likely to have completed an early engagement interview. In addition, they were twice as likely to be female, and nearly twice as likely to be employed, own a residence, have completed high school, and be married. Procedures that may help decrease study attrition are discussed.

  16. Retrospective serology study of respiratory virus infections in captive great apes.

    PubMed

    Buitendijk, Hester; Fagrouch, Zahra; Niphuis, Henk; Bogers, Willy M; Warren, Kristin S; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2014-03-24

    Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera) were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus), H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV, hMPV, and influenza B virus. A high percentage of captive chimpanzees also showed evidence of influenza A H1N1 infections, and had low levels of H3N2 antibodies, while in sera from gorillas and orangutans antibody levels to influenza A and B viruses were much lower or practically absent. Transmission of respiratory viruses was examined in longitudinal sera of young chimpanzees, and in chimpanzee sera taken during health checks. In young animals isolated cases of influenza infections were monitored, but evidence was found for single introductions followed by a rapid dissemination of RSV and hMPV within the group. Implementation of strict guidelines for handling and housing of nonhuman primates was shown to be an efficient method to reduce the introduction of respiratory infections in colonies of captive animals. RSV seroprevalence rates of chimpanzees remained high, probably due to circulating virus in the chimpanzee colony.

  17. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  18. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.

  19. Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.

  20. Cardiac device implantation in Fabry disease: A retrospective monocentric study.

    PubMed

    Sené, Thomas; Lidove, Olivier; Sebbah, Joel; Darondel, Jean-Marc; Picard, Hervé; Aaron, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Zenone, Thierry; Joly, Dominique; Charron, Philippe; Ziza, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and predictive factors of arrhythmias and/or conduction abnormalities (ACAs) requiring cardiac device (CD) implantation are poorly characterized in Fabry disease (FD). The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with ACA requiring CD implantation in a monocentric cohort of patients with confirmed FD who were followed up in a department of internal medicine and reference center for FD.Forty-nine patients (20M, 29F) were included. Nine patients (4M, 5F; 18%) had at least one episode of ACA leading to device therapy. Six patients (4M/2F) required a pacemaker (PM) for sinus node dysfunction (n = 4) or atrioventricular disease (n = 2). One female patient required an internal cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden cardiac death because of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (nSVT). One female patient required PM-ICD for sinus node dysfunction and nSVT. One patient underwent CD implantation before the diagnosis of FD. The annual rate of CD implantation was estimated at 1.90 per 100 person years. On univariate analysis at the end of the follow-up period, the factors associated with ACAs requiring CD implantation were as follows: delayed diagnosis of FD, delayed initiation of enzyme replacement therapy, age at the last follow-up visit, and severe multiorgan phenotype (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, and/or sensorineural hearing loss). On multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis of FD and age at the last follow-up visit were independently associated with an increased risk of ACAs requiring CD (P < 0.05).Considering the high frequency of ACAs requiring CD implantation and the risk of sudden death in patients with FD, regular monitoring is mandatory, especially in patients with a late diagnosis of FD and/or with a severe phenotype. Regular Holter ECGs, therapeutic education of patients, and deliverance of an emergency card including a phenotype summary are

  1. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  2. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  3. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  4. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    .... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....

  5. Neonatal brain image segmentation in longitudinal MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Fan, Yong; Tang, Songyuan; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-01-01

    In the study of early brain development, tissue segmentation of neonatal brain MR images remains challenging because of the insufficient image quality due to the properties of developing tissues. Among various brain tissue segmentation algorithms, atlas-based brain image segmentation can potentially achieve good segmentation results on neonatal brain images. However, their performances rely on both the quality of the atlas and the spatial correspondence between the atlas and the to-be-segmented image. Moreover, it is difficult to build a population atlas for neonates due to the requirement of a large set of tissue-segmented neonatal brain images. To combat these obstacles, we present a longitudinal neonatal brain image segmentation framework by taking advantage of the longitudinal data acquired at late time-point to build a subject-specific tissue probabilistic atlas. Specifically, tissue segmentation of the neonatal brain is formulated as two iterative steps of bias correction and probabilistic-atlas-based tissue segmentation, along with the longitudinal atlas reconstructed by the late time image of the same subject. The proposed method has been evaluated qualitatively through visual inspection and quantitatively by comparing with manual delineations and two population-atlas-based segmentation methods. Experimental results show that the utilization of a subject-specific probabilistic atlas can substantially improve tissue segmentation of neonatal brain images.

  6. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  7. Infectious sacroiliitis: a retrospective, multicentre study of 39 adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-brucellar and non-tuberculous infectious sacroiliitis (ISI) is a rare disease, with misleading clinical signs that delay diagnosis. Most observations are based on isolated case reports or small case series. Our aim was to describe the clinical, bacteriological, and radiological characteristics of ISI, as well as the evolution of these arthritis cases under treatment. Methods This retrospective study included all ISI cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 in eight French rheumatology departments. ISI was diagnosed if sacroiliitis was confirmed bacteriologically or, in the absence of pathogenic agents, if clinical, biological, and radiological data was compatible with this diagnosis and evolution was favourable under antibiotic therapy. Results Overall, 39 cases of ISI were identified in adults, comprising 23 women and 16 men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 39.7 ± 18.1 years. The left sacroiliac joint (SI) was affected in 59% of cases, with five cases occurring during the post-partum period. Lumbogluteal pain was the most common symptom (36/39). Manipulations of the SI joint were performed in seven patients and were always painful. Mean score for pain using the visual analogue score was 7.3/10 at admission, while 16 patients were febrile at diagnosis. No risk factor was found for 30.7% of patients. A diagnosis of ISI was only suspected in five cases at admission. The mean time to diagnosis was long, being 43.3 ± 69.1 days on average. Mean C-reactive protein was 149.7 ± 115.3 mg/l, and leukocytosis (leukocytes ≥ 10 G/l) was uncommon (n = 15) (mean level of leukocytes 10.4 ± 3.5 G/l). Radiographs (n = 33) were abnormal in 20 cases, revealing lesions of SI, while an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan (n = 27) was abnormal in 21 cases, suggesting arthritis of the SI joints in 13 cases (48.1%) and a psoas abscess in eight. Bone scans (n = 14) showed hyperfixation of the SI in 13 cases. Magnetic

  8. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  9. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD) to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II) and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd) (NCT01062607) aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices) in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales), adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio), quality of life (EQ-5D scale), healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale) will be collected

  10. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  11. Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  12. Retrospective Biodosimetry of an Occupational Overexposure-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, L A; Barr, T; Ainsbury, E A; Wilkins, R C

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, Health Canada was approached by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to conduct biodosimetry for a possible overexposure 4 y prior to assessment. Dose estimates were determined by means of two cytogenetic assays, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and translocations as measured by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). As dicentrics are considered to be unstable over time, the results of the DCA were adjusted to account for the time elapsed between the suspected exposure and sampling. The frequency of damage was then compared to Health Canada's calibration curves, respectively, to calculate dose. In addition, the translocation data were corrected for age-related increases in background. With a half-life of 36 months for dicentric chromosomes taken into consideration, the dose estimates from both assays were in agreement. Due to the uncertainty in the half-life of dicentrics, the FISH assay is considered to be more reliable as a technique for retrospective biodosimetry.

  13. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients’ sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). CONCLUSION: This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27350735

  14. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  15. National Longitudinal Study. Withdrawal from Institutions of Higher Education. An Appraisal with Longitudinal Data Involving Diverse Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, William B.

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, the National Center for Education Statistics undertook a study of dropouts in higher education. Specifically, the study was designed to discover: (1) to what extent students withdraw from institutions of higher education before completion, and how these rates might…

  16. The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

    2004-09-01

    We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.

  17. Comparing classification methods for longitudinal fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Schmah, Tanya; Yourganov, Grigori; Zemel, Richard S; Hinton, Geoffrey E; Small, Steven L; Strother, Stephen C

    2010-11-01

    We compare 10 methods of classifying fMRI volumes by applying them to data from a longitudinal study of stroke recovery: adaptive Fisher's linear and quadratic discriminant; gaussian naive Bayes; support vector machines with linear, quadratic, and radial basis function (RBF) kernels; logistic regression; two novel methods based on pairs of restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM); and K-nearest neighbors. All methods were tested on three binary classification tasks, and their out-of-sample classification accuracies are compared. The relative performance of the methods varies considerably across subjects and classification tasks. The best overall performers were adaptive quadratic discriminant, support vector machines with RBF kernels, and generatively trained pairs of RBMs.

  18. Whole-genome sequencing to delineate Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreaks: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Timothy M; Ip, Camilla LC; Harrell, Ruth H; Evans, Jason T; Kapatai, Georgia; Dedicoat, Martin J; Eyre, David W; Wilson, Daniel J; Hawkey, Peter M; Crook, Derrick W; Parkhill, Julian; Harris, David; Walker, A Sarah; Bowden, Rory; Monk, Philip; Smith, E Grace; Peto, Tim EA

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Tuberculosis incidence in the UK has risen in the past decade. Disease control depends on epidemiological data, which can be difficult to obtain. Whole-genome sequencing can detect microevolution within Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We aimed to estimate the genetic diversity of related M tuberculosis strains in the UK Midlands and to investigate how this measurement might be used to investigate community outbreaks. Methods In a retrospective observational study, we used Illumina technology to sequence M tuberculosis genomes from an archive of frozen cultures. We characterised isolates into four groups: cross-sectional, longitudinal, household, and community. We measured pairwise nucleotide differences within hosts and between hosts in household outbreaks and estimated the rate of change in DNA sequences. We used the findings to interpret network diagrams constructed from 11 community clusters derived from mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat data. Findings We sequenced 390 separate isolates from 254 patients, including representatives from all five major lineages of M tuberculosis. The estimated rate of change in DNA sequences was 0·5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per genome per year (95% CI 0·3–0·7) in longitudinal isolates from 30 individuals and 25 families. Divergence is rarely higher than five SNPs in 3 years. 109 (96%) of 114 paired isolates from individuals and households differed by five or fewer SNPs. More than five SNPs separated isolates from none of 69 epidemiologically linked patients, two (15%) of 13 possibly linked patients, and 13 (17%) of 75 epidemiologically unlinked patients (three-way comparison exact p<0·0001). Genetic trees and clinical and epidemiological data suggest that super-spreaders were present in two community clusters. Interpretation Whole-genome sequencing can delineate outbreaks of tuberculosis and allows inference about direction of transmission between

  19. Living the Dream? A Qualitative Retrospective Study Exploring the Role of Adolescent Aspirations across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research linking adolescent career aspirations to adult outcomes other than career and income attainment. Drawing on Nurmi's (2004) and Salmela-Aro, Aunola, and Nurmi's (2007) life-span model of motivation and using quantitative survey data at ages 16, 23, 33, 42, and 50 years, combined with retrospective interview…

  20. Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596

  1. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  2. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  3. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-05-04

    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  4. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  5. Anaesthesia for foetoscopic Laser ablation- a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, Vaishali; Radhika, M; Gundappa, Parameswara; Simha, Jayashree; Radhakrishnan, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Twin pregnancy with monochorionic placenta may be associated with arteriovenous vascular anastomosis of the placental vessels resulting in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAP). Foetoscopic LASER ablation (FLA) is the treatment of choice in reducing foetal mortality related to this. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 41 FLA procedures for TTTS and TRAP were analysed for anaesthetic management. Thirty-four patients received subarachnoid block, three combined spinal-epidural block, three general anaesthesia and one local anaesthesia with sedation. Nitroglycerine 5 mg patch was used for tocolysis 1 h before the procedure and continued for 24–48 h postoperatively. Results: Bupivacaine was used in 34 patients, and ropivacaine in three patients. Mean dose of bupivacaine 0.5% was 2.43 ± 0.32 ml and ropivacaine 0.75% was 2.85 ± 0.19 ml. The mean duration of surgery was 117.07 ± 28 min. Mild hypotension occurred in all patients under spinal anaesthesia and was treated with vasopressors. The foetal outcome among all 41 patients were 13 delivered live twins, 15 had a single live baby with intrauterine death of other twin baby. In 12 patients, both babies were intrauterine death. One patient was lost for follow-up. Conclusion: Foetoscopic procedures can be done under central neuraxial block, however occasionally general anaesthesia may be required. PMID:28003695

  6. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  7. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and satisfaction following pinnaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

  9. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  10. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  11. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  13. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  14. Effects of physical and verbal aggression, depression, and anxiety on drinking behavior of married partners: a prospective and retrospective longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    In an ethnically diverse sample of 195 married couples, we conducted a latent factor growth analysis to investigate the longitudinal link (4 time points over 4 1/2 years) between marital aggression (physical and verbal aggression self- and partner-reports) and individual internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) as they relate to trajectories of alcohol use among husbands and wives. Alcohol use was operationalized as a latent factor with self- and partner reports of problem drinking as measured by the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and the Alcohol Dependence Scale. Verbal aggression by husbands or wives, by itself, has no effect on their alcohol use over time. In conjunction with depression, however, verbally aggressive husbands do have elevated drinking levels. The effects of husbands' and wives' physical aggression on their own and their partners' drinking behavior were also significant. This study is one of the first to examine the change over time in alcohol use for marital partners as related to marital aggression and internalizing symptoms. Our results shed light on areas of marital functioning (aggression, internalizing, alcohol use) that have not been investigated in conjunction with each other in a longitudinal design.

  15. Longitudinal Studies of Attitude Change: Issues and Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb

  16. Semiparametric Stochastic Modeling of the Rate Function in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.

    2011-01-01

    In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170

  17. Study of weld offset in longitudinally welded SSME HPFTP inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.

  18. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  19. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  20. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  1. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time‐dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data. PMID:27917593

  2. "Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study": Correction to Wolff and Moser (2009).

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study" by Hans-Georg Wolff and Klaus Moser (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2009[Jan], Vol 94[1], 196-206). In the article, results from a confirmatory factor analysis on subjective career success in the Measures section contained an error in the reported Chi-square (i.e., χ² (5, N = 257) = 9.17). This error does not alter any conclusions or substantive statements in the original article. The correct fit indices are " χ²(5, N = 257) 9.67, p = .08, RMSEA = 0.059, CFI = 1.00." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-00697-007.) Previous research has reported effects of networking, defined as building, maintaining, and using relationships, on career success. However, empirical studies have relied exclusively on concurrent or retrospective designs that rest upon strong assumptions about the causal direction of this relation and depict a static snapshot of the relation at a given point in time. This study provides a dynamic perspective on the effects of networking on career success and reports results of a longitudinal study. Networking was assessed with 6 subscales that resulted from combining measures of the facets of (a) internal versus external networking and (b) building versus maintaining versus using contacts. Objective (salary) and subjective (career satisfaction) measures of career success were obtained for 3 consecutive years. Multilevel analyses showed that networking is related to concurrent salary and that it is related to the growth rate of salary over time. Networking is also related to concurrent career satisfaction. As satisfaction remained stable over time, no effects of networking on the growth of career satisfaction were found. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors. PMID:19589173

  4. Evaluation of the associations between changes in intraocular pressure and metabolic syndrome parameters: a retrospective cohort study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Kazuyoshi; Yoda, Yoshioki; Tsuji, Masahiro; Sato, Miri; Mizorogi, Sonoko; Suzuki, Kohta; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contributions of highly correlated cardiovascular risk factors to intraocular pressure (IOP) are not clear due to underlying confounding problems. The present study aimed to determine which metabolic syndrome parameters contribute to elevating IOP and to what extent. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A private healthcare centre in Japan. Participants Individuals who visited a private healthcare centre and underwent comprehensive medical check-ups between April 1999 and March 2009 were included (20 007 in the cross-sectional study and 15 747 in the longitudinal study). Primary and secondary outcome measures Changes in IOP were evaluated in terms of ageing and changes in metabolic syndrome parameters. Pearson's correlation coefficients and mixed-effects models were used to examine the relationship of changes in IOP with ageing and changes in metabolic syndrome parameters in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, respectively. Results In the cross-sectional study, IOP was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. In the longitudinal multivariate analysis, the associated IOP changes were −0.12 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with male sex; −0.59 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with 10 years of ageing; +0.42 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with 1 mmol/L increase in HDL-C levels; +0.092 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with 1 mmol/L increase in triglyceride levels; +0.090 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with 10 mm Hg increase in SBP; +0.085 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with 10 mm Hg increase in DBP; and+0.091 (p<0.0001) mm Hg with 1 mmol/L increase in FPG levels. Conclusions Elevation of IOP was related to longitudinal worsening of serum triglyceride levels, blood pressure and FPG and improvement in serum HDL-C levels. PMID:27013596

  5. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  6. Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development.

  7. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  8. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  9. J's rhymes: a longitudinal case study of language play.

    PubMed

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-08-01

    A longitudinal study of one child aged 2;5 documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Initially, reduplication is partial: the reduplicant enlarges in discrete increments over the five stages of the game until by the last stage reduplication is total. Reduplication is accompanied by a process of onset replacement, in which the reduplicant always begins with /b/. Early in the game, this replacive onset 'dissimilates' to /p/ whenever the reduplicant would independently have begun with /b/. In subsequent stages, other voiced obstruents trigger dissimilation as well. Though similar in many ways to adult language reduplication, it is argued that J's game may more closely resemble adult rhyme (both poetic and word rhyme). Regardless, the structure of the game clearly reveals the child's awareness, in the third year of life, of stress and metrical feet, segmental natural classes, and segments themselves (phonemic awareness).

  10. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  11. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  12. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  13. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  14. Strategies for longitudinal neuroimaging studies of overt language production.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A; McArdle, Joseph J; Braun, Allen R

    2009-08-15

    Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account.

  15. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  16. All-cause mortality risk in elderly individuals with disabilities: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chiang, Sheng-Ta; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Disability is considered an important issue that affects the elderly population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between disability and all-cause mortality in US elderly individuals. Design Retrospective and longitudinal designs. Setting Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants A total of 1834 participants in the age range 60–84 years from NHANES 1999–2002. Main outcome measures We acquired five major domains of disability (activities of daily living (ADL), general physical activities (GPA), instrumental ADL (IADL), lower extremity mobility (LEM) and leisure and social activities (LSA)) through self-reporting. We applied an extended-model approach with Cox (proportional hazards) regression analysis to investigate the relationship between different features of disability and all-cause mortality risk in the study population. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 77 deaths occurred. An increased risk of all-cause mortality was identified in elderly individuals with disability after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 2.23; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.85; p=0.004). Participants with more than one domain of disability were associated with a higher risk of mortality (ptrend=0.047). Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for each domain of disability were 2.53 (1.49 to 4.31), 1.99 (0.93 to 4.29), 1.74 (0.72 to 4.16), 1.57 (0.76 to 3.27) and 1.52 (0.93 to 2.48) for LEM, LSA, ADL, IADL and GPA, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study support an increased association between disability and all-cause mortality in the elderly in the USA. Disability in LEM may be a good predictor of high risk of all-cause mortality in elderly subjects. PMID:27625055

  17. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  19. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.

  20. Daghemsvistelse I Retrospektivt Perspektiv: En teori- och metodprovande studie (Daycare in Retrospect).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torstenson-Ed, Tullie

    This Swedish language report describes a preliminary study to test a retrospective life-history-inspired approach to studying children's experiences in a day care center, and whether children's experiences vary in different educational contexts and in relation to the teachers' experiences. The theoretical part of the study dealt with theories of…

  1. Retrospective Case Study in the Raton Basin, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Study site locations in Las Animas and Huerfano Counties were selected in response to ongoing complaints about changes in appearance, odor, and taste associated with drinking water in domestic wells. \

  2. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  3. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  4. The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies, 1987: A Personal Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Relates how historical developments initiated the curriculum reform movement, which caused curriculum studies to become vulnerable to reconceptualization. Traces the movement from Sputnik in 1957 through reconceptualists' opposition to the mainstream field in the 1970s. The opposition has now become the field itself, which is characterized by…

  5. Candidacy for Bilateral Hearing Aids: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boymans, Monique; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to find factors for refining candidacy criteria for bilateral hearing aid fittings. Clinical files of 1,000 consecutive hearing aid fittings were analyzed. Method: Case history, audiometric, and rehabilitation data were collected from clinical files, and an extensive questionnaire on long-term outcome measures…

  6. Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

  7. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  8. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  9. [Changes in interpersonal values in student nurses: a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Nagata, H; Kondo, M; Ogawa, S

    1994-01-01

    Our cross-sectional studies of interpersonal values in female student nurses showed that (1) third graders attached more importance to the values of Support and Independence and less to those of Benevolence and Leadership than did first graders, and (2) the discrepancy between the ratings of what they were and those of what their ideal nurses were was greater in the third than in the first graders. We interpreted these differences between the two graders as indicating a developmental change brought about during the three years. This study examined the internal validity of this interpretation through the use of a longitudinal method. The KG-SIV (Kikuchi-Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values) was administered twice to 85 female student nurses: immediately after entering their nursing schools and immediately before finishing them, with a testing interval of approximately three years. For each testing, subjects were asked to rate what they were and then what their ideal nurses were. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in cross-sectional studies: perceived values of Benevolence and Leadership decrease while those of Support and Independence increase over the three years, with the discrepancy increasing from the first to the second testing. Findings thus support the internal validity of our prior interpretation. The changes in interpersonal values found for the student nurses suggest a socialization process they undertake in nurse training and imply an increase of stress they experience in that process.

  10. Data management in a longitudinal cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B

    The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.

  11. Wilms' tumor: single centre retrospective study from South India.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, B; Rohan, B; Kavitha, S; Madhumathi, D S; Lokanath, D; Appaji, L

    2013-09-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in paediatric age group, and is classically managed by multimodal treatment which involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The last few decades have seen a dramatic change in the prognosis of this disease, which once was a uniformly lethal malignancy. While there is plenty of data in world literature on the outcome of Wilms' tumor, there is paucity of data from India. Hence, we conducted the present study to analyze the outcome of Wilms' tumor at our institute. To study the clinicopathologic profile and outcome of Wilms' tumor with NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study Group) IV protocol. Sixty-one patients with histopathological proven diagnosis of Wilms' tumor and had received treatment at our institute from Jan 2003 through Dec 2010 were included for analysis. Patients received treatment based on NWTS IV protocol. Patients were analysed for overall survival and event free survival and these outcomes were correlated with age, sex, stage at presentation and histology. Favourable histology which included focal anaplasia was found in 80.3 % while unfavourable histology was elicited in 19.7 % of the cases. The estimated 5 year event-free survival was 83.3 % and overall survival was 85.2 %. Tumour histology was the single most important factor predicting the survival. Patients with childhood Wilms' still present very late in our setting, this poses management challenges as large tumor are technically difficult to deliver at surgery. Histology has a crucial role in outcome of this disease. With multidisciplinary approach, similar survival rates to National Wilms' Tumor Study Group seems to be achievable even in Indian scenario.

  12. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  13. An overview of the design, implementation, and analyses of longitudinal studies on aging.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B

    2010-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have contributed substantially to understanding of aging and geriatric syndromes. These efforts have provided a base of knowledge of the critical factors to consider in designing and implementing new longitudinal studies in older adults. This review highlights some of the major considerations in planning and implementing this type of study. Longitudinal studies can assess change over time and specific disease endpoints. Such projects require multidisciplinary teams with expertise in the many health and contextual factors that must be considered. Recent advances in study design include the use of imaging and biomarkers to assess mechanisms and approaches that raise the ceiling on measurement and integrate assessment of exposures over time. Study implementation requires careful planning and monitoring to maintain fidelity to the scientific goals. Analysis of longitudinal data requires approaches that account for inevitable missing data. New studies should take advantage of the experience obtained from longitudinal studies on aging already conducted.

  14. A retrospective study of mushroom poisoning in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pajoumand, A; Shadnia, S; Efricheh, H; Mandegary, A; Hassanian-Moghadam, H; Abdollahi, M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center from 1992 to 2002. All patients > or = 12 years of age were included in the study. The frequency of mushroom poisoning with respect to age, sex, season, reason, place of residence, latent phase, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome of patients was investigated. Of the 72421 poisoning cases admitted to Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center from 1992 to 2002, only 37 were poisoned by consumption of toxic mushrooms. As some of the patients' files were incomplete, only 25 files were included in the study. Of this number, 68% were male. The patients' age ranged between 12 and 65 years, with a mean of 31 years of age. All cases were accidental and mostly from Tehran (36%) and the northern provinces (rainy woodlands) of Iran (32%). Autumn was the most common season for poisoning with a frequency of 80%. The latent phase of poisonings was between 0.5 and 12 hours. The most frequently reported symptoms were vomiting (84%), nausea (60%), abdominal pain (60%) and diarrhea (40%). Jaundice was observed in 44% of cases, with a 50% rate of hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 66% of patients were discharged and the duration range of hospitalization was 1-12 days. In conclusion, people should be more informed of the dangers posed by wild mushrooms. Training of physicians and nurses in the accurate diagnosis and management of patients poisoned with poisonous mushrooms would improve the rate of survival.

  15. A retrospective pilot study: management of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ancheta, Irma B

    2006-01-01

    An epidemic disease - a major cause of chronic disability - congestive heart failure adversely affects the health of millions. Congestive heart failure is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular hospital admissions and shares a significant responsibility for the high cost of healthcare. Despite medical and technological advances, studies show that the treatment of heart failure is suboptimal. Physician knowledge and awareness of appropriate treatment may contribute to patient compliance and improve delivery of healthcare. The purpose of this article is to examine how patients with heart failure in a heart failure clinic are managed. Recommendations are proposed and the role of nurses and clinicians in heart failure management is discussed.

  16. [Emergency Psychiatric Service in general hospitals: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Fernando Sérgio Pereira; da Silva, Cezar Augusto Ferreira; Oliveira, Eliany Nazaré

    2010-09-01

    The Emergency Psychiatric Service in General Hospitals (SEPHG, acronym in Portuguese) is a service included in the psychiatric reform movement. The purpose of the present study was to characterize patients with psychological distress treated at the Dr. Estevam SEPHG, located in Sobral, Cear state. This exploratory study was performed using documental analyses with a quantitative approach, and involved 191 clients treated at the referred SEPHG from January to December 2007. Data collection was performed using a client register book, which contained information obtained from the patients' medical record. There was a predominance of male patients (70.15%), aged 30-49 years (48.71%) and single (74.86%). Most patients were from the city of Sobral (69.64%). In 42.40% of cases, the diagnosis was of alcohol use/abuse. Most clients (66.50%) sought the service voluntarily. After being evaluated at the SEPHG, 43.45% of patients were referred to the local Center for Psychosocial Care-Alcohol and other Drugs. The results emphasize the importance of mental health.

  17. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a Moroccan retrospective study of 30 cases

    PubMed Central

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare origin of stroke, the clinical presentation and etiologies vary. The prognosis is shown to be better than arterial thrombosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR Venograpgy (MRV) are currently important tools for the diagnosis. We studied 30 cases of CVT diagnosed in the department of neurology at the University Hospital of Fez (Morocco). Patients diagnosed with CVT signs between January 2003 and October 2007 were included in the study. Cerebral CT-scan was performed in 27 cases (90%) while the MRI examination was done in 18 patients (67%); and most patients (90%) received anticoagulant therapy. The mean age of our patients was of 29 years (age range between 18 days and 65 years). A female predominance was observed (70%). The clinical presentation of patients was dominated by: headache in 24 cases (80%), motor and sensory disability in 15 cases (50%), seizures in 10 cases (33%), consciousness disorder in 10 cases (33%). CVT was associated to post-partum in 10 cases (33%), infectious origin in 8 cases (26%), Behçet disease in 2 cases (7%), pulmonary carcinoma in 1 case, thrombocytemia in 1 case and idiopathic in 7 cases (23%). The evolution was good in 20 cases (67%), minor squelaes were observed in 6 patients (20%), while major squelaes were observed in 2 cases. Two cases of death were registered. The CVT is a pathology of good prognosis once the diagnosis is promptly established and early heparin treatment initiated. PMID:25317229

  18. Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment, Suicidality, and Bipolarity: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of current study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity or suicidality. Methods In total, 132 outpatients diagnosed with MDD between 2014 and 2015 on the medical records were included. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of childhood maltreatment (CM group) and no childhood maltreatment (NCM group). Depression severity and bipolarity were identified using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Korean version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) respectively on the medical records. In addition, the baseline loud dependence of auditory evoked potentials of 36 patients on medical records were analyzed. Results The mean total BDI, BDI item 9 (suicide ideation), and total K-MDQ score were significantly higher in the CM group than the NCM group. The number of subjects with bipolarity was significantly higher in the CM than in the NCM group. Furthermore two thirds subjects experienced the significant maltreatment during childhood. The central serotonergic activity of the CM group was also lower than that of the NCM group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity or suicidality in patients with MDD. PMID:28326110

  19. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S

    1998-10-01

    Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.

  20. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  1. Women's Reported Health Behaviours before and during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Jenna; Jancey, Jonine M.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Zhao, Yun; Monteiro, Sarojini M. D. R.; Howat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine women's reported health behaviours (physical activity, diet, weight management) before and during pregnancy, and to identify sources of health information. Design: Retrospective study incorporating quantitative (a self-completed survey) and qualitative (one-on-one interviews) methods. Methodology:…

  2. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  3. Breast cancer in moroccan young women: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and induces more aggressive biologic characteristics. Survival in young women has been widely studied in developed countries. Less favorable prognosis and low survival were found. In Morocco, this study is the first investigation of clinical features, treatment and prognosis associated with breast cancer in young women. Findings Four hundred and nine women aged 35 years or less were included in this study. All these women were diagnosed as having breast cancer at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco between 2003 and 2007. The relation between clinical and therapeutic characteristics and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression analysis. The median age of the patients was 32 years. Fifty three patients (13%) have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 356 patients (87%) had localised disease. In 57.9% of the cases, the estrogen receptors status was positive. The median follow-up was 32.2 months. After 3 years the survival rate was 80.6%. In the case of localised disease, OS and EFS at 3 years were 83.2% and 62.5%, respectively. OS and EFS at 3 years was higher in patients with stage I than patients with stage II and stage III (p = 0.001). Positive estrogen receptors was significantly associated to OS and EFS at 3 years compared to negative estrogen receptors (p = 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant hormone therapy were associated with net benefit in OS and EFS at 3 years. Cox regression analysis showed that negative ER was significantly associated with poorer OS (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.66, p < 0.009) and poorer EFS (HR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.05 - 2.86, p = 0.03). Stage III disease were associated to poorer EFS (HR = 5.35, 95%CI = 1.60 -17.84, p = 0.006). Conclusions In Morocco, young women with breast cancer had less favorable prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that negative hormone receptor status was associated with lower

  4. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: sinotomy versus excisional surgery, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rabie, M Ezzedien; Al Refeidi, Abdullah A; Al Haizaee, Abdullah; Hilal, Saleh; Al Ajmi, Hassan; Al Amri, Abdul Aziz

    2007-03-01

    Pilonidal disease is a disease of relatively young people, the exact aetiology of which is unknown. Treatment options vary from simple incision to complex flap procedures. Each method has its advocates and they all have a variable recurrence rate. The multiplicity of procedures testifies to the lack of an optimal treatment method. The objective of this study is to compare sinotomy, that is, simply laying the sinus open with the more popular radical surgery, where the sinus-bearing tissues are excised. Patients who were admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia with a pilonidal sinus or abscess, in the period from April 1999 to January 2005, were identified. The medical records were reviewed and data related to the patient characteristics, disease process and the procedures carried out were noted. Identified patients were contacted by phone to check recurrence of the disease and their abidance to instructions regarding regular hair removal from the area. Eighty-one patients were included in the study. The median age was 24.2 years (range 16-60 years). There were 9 women and 72 men. All procedures were carried out under general anaesthesia except sinotomy, which was carried out under general or local anaesthesia. The surgical procedure was incision and drainage of abscess in 16 cases (19.8%), excision with primary closure in 29 cases (35.8%), excision by the open method in 15 cases (18.5%), sinotomy in 14 cases (17.3%) and rhomboid flap construction in 8 cases (9.9%). The overall recurrence rate was 26.9%, and the mean hospital stay was 4.1 days. Sinotomy had a low recurrence rate (12.5%) and a short hospital stay (2.8 days). Sinotomy has the advantages of simplicity, the possibility of operating under local anaesthesia, with an acceptable recurrence rate. We recommend sinotomy for pilonidal sinus and abscess alike, both in primary and recurrent cases.

  5. Outcome following physician supervised prehospital resuscitation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in

  6. Training Kentuckians for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1982-09-01

    The Training and Technology (TAT) program, operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility, has trained unemployed Kentuckians for a number of years. The program is part of DOE's continuing effort to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 192 Kentuckians under CETA, Balance of State, and Governor's Special Grants contracts with the Department for Human Resources. One hundred sixty-seven (87%) of these participants completed the program, of which 154 (92%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 154 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.05; FY 1979 - $4.94; and FY 1978 - $4.97. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

  7. Training Tennesseans for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1982-09-01

    The Training and Technology (TAT) program is operated for the US Department of Energy by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility. The program is part of the Department's continuing efforts to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. TAT has trained unemployed economically disadvantaged Tennesseans for 16 years. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 460 Tennesseans under CETA, Title 2B contracts with the Department of Employment Security. Three hundred sixty (78%) of these participants completed the program, of which 335 (93%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 335 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.32; FY 1979 - $5.12; FY 1978 - $5.71. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long-term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

  8. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  9. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  10. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  11. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  12. Impact of Lanthanum Carbonate on Prognosis of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Kawashima Study).

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kenji; Nagai, Kojiro; Yokota, Narushi; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Shu

    2016-04-01

    In hemodialysis patients, mineral and bone disorder is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and subsequent death through the progression of vascular calcification. Serum phosphorus plays a major role in this process. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the effects of oral phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate (LC), on the mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among a total of 841 patients who underwent maintenance hemodialysis on 1 July 2010, patients who were treated with LC (LC group, N = 324) and those who were treated without LC (NLC group, N = 517) were compared with respect to their all-cause mortality for a long-term observation period of up to 36 months. The mortality rate was compared using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted by the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the LC group versus NLC group was 0.515 (95% confidence interval, 0.328-0.807), suggesting that the use of LC is associated with an almost 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The present retrospective study including all hemodialysis patients demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the use of LC and improved prognosis in hemodialysis patients. Randomized controlled trials should be done in the future to validate our present findings.

  13. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  14. Treatment of Bone Defects in War Wounds: Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Milicevic, Snjezana; Grubor, Milan; Meccariello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Results of the treatment of open fractures primarily depend on the treatment of connected soft tissue injuries. Objective: The aim was to present the experience and methods gained during the treatment of diaphyseal bone defects as a consequence of gunshot fracture soft war trauma. Patients and Methods: The study consisted of 116 patients with the diaphyseal bone defect who were treated with the usage of primary and delayed autotransplantation of bones, transplants of the fibula and Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Results: The results of compensation of bone defect less than 4 cm and conducted by an early cortico-spongioplastics were as follows: good in 8 respondents (45%), satisfactory in 6 (34%) and poor in 4 respondents (21%). In cases of delayed cortico-spongioplastics, the above mentioned results were: good in 36 (41%) respondents, satisfactory in 24 (34%) and poor in 16 (25%) respondents. The results of compensation of bone defect greater than 4 cm with the usage of fibular transplant were as follows: good in 3 (38%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (38%) and poor in 2 (24%), and with the usage of using the Ilizarov method, the results were as follows: good in 8 (57%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (21.5%) and poor in 3(21.5%) respondents. Conclusion: The results showed that, in cases of compensation of bone defects less than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the primary spongioplastics over the delayed one. In cases of compensation of bone defects greater than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis when compared to the fibular transplant. PMID:26543315

  15. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  16. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  17. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  18. Natural history of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Maida, Marcello; Genco, Chiara; Parisi, Pietro; Peralta, Marco; Antonucci, Michela; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Cammà, Calogero; Craxì, Antonio; Di Marco, Vito

    2012-01-01

    visit. The overall median survival was 6.8 mo, and the 1-year survival was 32%. The 1-year survival according to BCLC classes was 100%, 79%, 12% and 0%, for BCLC A, B, C and D, respectively. There was a significant difference in survival between each BCLC class. The median survival of patients of BCLC stages A, B, C and D was 33, 17.4, 6.9, and 1.8 mo, respectively (P < 0.05 for comparison between stages). The median survival of Child-Pugh A, B and C classes were 9.8 mo (range 6.4-13), 6.1 (range 4.9-7.3), and 3.7 (range 1.5-6), respectively (P < 0.05 for comparison between stages). By univariate analysis, the variables significantly associated to an increased liklihood of mortality were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), presence of ascites, low level of albumin, elevated level of bilirubin, international normalized ratio (INR) and Log-[(α fetoprotein (AFP)]. At multivariate analysis, mortality was independently predicted by bad PS (P < 0.0001), high INR values (P = 0.0001) and elevated Log-(AFP) levels (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the heterogeneous behavior of untreated HCC. BCLC staging remains an important prognostic guide and may be important in decision-making for palliative treatment. PMID:23060970

  19. A longitudinal study of category-specific agnosia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Forde, Emer M E; Humphreys, Glyn W; Graham, Kim S

    2002-01-01

    We report a 12-year longitudinal case study on a 60-year-old male patient (DW) with category-specific agnosia. The extent to which DW's impairment has changed over time was evaluated using identical tests at time 1 (1988) and time 2 (2000). In particular, we assessed his ability to identify pictures and real objects, to draw from memory, and to access stored semantic information about living and non-living things. The principal findings were: (i). DW was significantly better at identifying real objects in comparison with line drawings. (ii). DW presented with a category-specific impairment for living things that remained consistent over the 12-year period. (iii). He significantly improved in his ability to identify real non-living objects over the 12-year period but real living objects remained at floor. (iv). His ability to access stored visual knowledge declined over time. On the basis of these data, we suggest that visual perception is required to maintain intact visual memories over a period of time. We also suggest that integrative visual agnosia co-occurs with a category-specific impairment for living things because the recognition of these items requires more global processing than for non-living things. In addition, we suggest that degradation to stored visual knowledge can cause category-specific naming impairments for living compared with non-living things because naming living things requires access to more detailed visual knowledge.

  20. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  1. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  2. Neurophysiological Characterization of Subacute Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888

  3. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  4. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  5. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  6. Phenol reduces hypertonia and enhances strength: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J; Willms, Rhonda

    2004-06-01

    Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spasticity following stroke. Phenol motor point injections of flexor muscles paradoxically increased the magnitude of flexion torque and decreased the times required to generate and reduce flexion and extension joint torques, in addition to reducing elbow extension stiffness and damping. Large reductions in the velocity-related component of hypertonia (damping changes > 90%) occurred immediately following injection, which is a finding that supports the velocity-dependent definition of spasticity. Although the changes in damping were large and transient, changes in stiffness and strength variables were small, slower to occur, and maintained. This suggests secondary changes following nerve block, possibly facilitated by regular elbow use subsequent to spasticity reduction.

  7. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  8. Markers of gluten sensitivity in acute mania: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2012-03-30

    Increased levels of antibodies to gliadin, which is derived from the wheat protein gluten, have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin in acute mania. The sample included 60 individuals assessed during a hospital stay for acute mania, 39 at a 6-month follow-up, and a sample of 143 non-psychiatric controls. Antibodies to gliadin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The relationship of the antibodies to the clinical course of mania was analyzed by the use of regression models. Individuals with mania had significantly increased levels of IgG antibodies to gliadin, but not other markers of celiac disease, at baseline compared with controls in multivariate analyses. However, these levels were not significantly different from those of controls at the six month follow-up. Among the individuals with mania, elevated levels at follow-up were significantly associated with re-hospitalization in the 6-month follow-up period. The monitoring and control of gluten sensitivity may have significant effects on the management of individuals hospitalized with acute mania.

  9. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288

  10. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571

  11. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  12. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  13. Retrospective Study of Lithium Use for Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langee, Harvey R.

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…

  14. Reduced Requirements for Long-Term Institutional Care: Results of a Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurewitsch, Eleanor Chestnut

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective study of 102 Swiss seniors to determine nonmedical factors affecting substantial care days required prior to death. Protected senior housing and an independent and helpful personality seemed to contribute significantly to compression of morbidity and to reduced need for long-term institutional care. (JAC)

  15. Retrospective Study of Quetiapine in Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Jou, Roger J.; Handen, Benjamin L.

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in a clinic specialized in treating individuals with developmental disabilities to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Ten consecutive outpatients (age = 12.0 [plus or minus] 5.1 years) treated with quetiapine (dose = 477…

  16. A retrospective study of etiological factors of abortion in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

    PubMed

    Rouse, R; Bronson, R T; Sehgal, P K

    1981-01-01

    Abortions in owl monkeys occurred in the late second and early third trimesters. Retrospective study of clinical records showed that handling, maternal anemia, karyotype, and season were unassociated with abortion. Most aborted infants had no gross lesions at necropsy. Some had renal tubular necorsis, probably a postmortem change.

  17. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  18. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Review and Annotation of Study Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    Over 150 journal articles, papers presented at professional meetings, dissertations, government publications, contract reports, and studies in progress as of March 1977 on the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) are annotated and indexed by subject, author, and sponsoring agency. Introductory chapters describe the…

  19. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  20. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of

  1. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  2. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  3. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  4. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  5. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  6. Recruitment Modeling Applied to Longitudinal Studies of Group Differences in Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  8. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  9. Retrospective and prospective data collection compared in the Dutch End Of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc; Gutschow, Giselka; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-01-01

    Studying end of life in dementia patients is challenging because of ill-defined prognoses and frequent inability to self-report. We aim to quantify and compare (1) feasibility and (2) sampling issues between prospective and retrospective data collection specific to end-of-life research in long-term care settings. The observational Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (DEOLD; 2007 to 2011) used both prospective data collection (28 facilities; 17 nursing home organizations/physician teams; questionnaires between January 2007 and July 2010, survival until July 2011) and retrospective data collection (exclusively after death; 6 facilities; 2 teams, questionnaires between November 2007 and March 2010). Prospective collection extended from the time of admission to the time after death or conclusion of the study. Prospectively, we recruited 372 families: 218 residents died (59%) and 184 (49%) had complete physician and family after-death assessments. Retrospectively, 119 decedents were enrolled, with 64 (54%) complete assessments. Cumulative data collection over all homes lasted 80 and 8 years, respectively. Per complete after-death assessments in a year, the prospective data collection involved 37.9 beds, whereas this was 7.9 for the retrospective data collection. Although age at death, sex, and survival curves were similar, prospectively, decedents' length of stay was shorter (10.3 vs. 31.4 mo), and fewer residents had advanced dementia (39% vs. 54%). Regarding feasibility, we conclude that prospective data collection is many fold more intensive and complex per complete after-death assessment. Regarding sampling, if not all are followed until death, it results in right censoring and in different, nonrepresentative samples of decedents compared with retrospective data collection. Future work may adjust or stratify for dementia severity and length of stay as key issues to promote comparability between studies.

  10. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income.

  11. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  12. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  14. Exercise and Three Psychosocial Variables: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in whom, when, and where exercise participation (EX) has significant effects on depression (DEP), self - esteem (SE), and quality of life (QOL). Data...subgroups, Depression Longitudinal, Residualized gain analysis, Self - Esteem , Navy Men and Women....A predominant opinion in research and society today maintains that exercise is beneficial for the reduction of depression and enhancement of self

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  16. Marriage and Career Role Expectations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia K.

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to assess the extent to which adolescent girls' sex role expectations reflect traditional or egalitarian concepts of marriage and career roles as evidenced in a longitudinal design; and (2) to compare both the adolescents' role projections and their subsequent enactment to the educational attainment and…

  17. Leber's congenital amaurosis. A retrospective study of 33 cases and a histopathological study of one case.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Carr, R E

    1978-05-01

    This report is a retrospective study of 33 patients seen over a 16-year period in whom a diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis was made. The findings of an autosomal recessive heredity in 33%, connatal blindness (visual acuity less than 20/200) in 95%m nystagmus in 75%, and a markedly abnormal electroretinogram in 100% is in agreement with the findings of previously published large series. The difficulty in making the correct diagnosis initially was related to the wide variety of fundus findings and a high association (30%) of central nervous system disease. In the differential diagnosis of connatal blindness, only Leber's congenital amaurosis exhibits an absent or markedly diminished response on electroretinogram. The histopathologic findings in a 6-month-old infant with this disorder are compared with those of previously published reports.

  18. Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Atherothrombotic Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001–2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS), all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2%) was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7%) in our patients (P = 0.0006). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169). Conclusions This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score. PMID:24647769

  19. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  20. Comparative analysis of kinesiotherapy rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy, quantified by harris and vail hip scores: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Melissa; Moraga, Ricardo; Diaz, Patricia; Camacho, Daniel; Mardones, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background It has been proven that femoroacetabular impingement cases improve following arthroscopic surgery. However, rehabilitation has a major role in the patient’s recovery. The protocol used by our institution consists of an evidence-based guideline for the different phases of rehabilitation. Objective Describe and determine the effectiveness of our institution’s kinesiotherapy rehabilitation program during 2011–2016, comparing Harris and Vail Hip Scores scales (HHS and VHS, respectively) at the beginning of each treatment phase. Materials and methods This is an observational, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study which, from a total of 684 subjects who underwent surgery, and 103 subjects who followed our institution’s rehabilitation program, ultimately uses a sample of 48 subjects for analysis; these subjects were included because they completed the scales on the three occasions determined. Results Significant exact differences were found in: multivariate contrasts HHS (F=147.420; p=0.000); VHS (F=82,160; p=0,000). Mauchly’s sphericity test: HHS (W=0.722; p=0.001); VHS (W=0.830; p=0.014). The within-subject effect showed significant exact differences in: HHS (F=169.451; p=0.000); VHS (F=115.387; p=0.000). Conclusion Results showed significant exact differences p=0.00. In spite of its limitations, this study provides a guideline for a patient’s safe return to daily life activities. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066749

  1. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  2. Recruiting and retaining mobile young injection drug users in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2010-04-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings.

  3. Longitudinal research databases in medical education: facilitating the study of educational outcomes over time and across institutions.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Andriole, Dorothy A; Durning, Steven J; Roberts, Nicole K; Triola, Marc M

    2010-08-01

    Many education research questions cannot be answered using participants from one institution or short periods of follow-up. In response to societal demands for accountability and evidence of effectiveness, new models of research must be developed to study the outcomes of educational activities. Following the 2007 Millennium Conference on Medical Education Research, organizers assigned a task force to explore the use of longitudinal databases in education research. This article summarizes the task force's findings. Similar to the Framingham studies in clinical medicine, longitudinal databases assemble prospectively collected information to retrospectively answer questions of interest. Many studies using such databases have been published. The task force identified three general approaches to database-type research. First, institutions can obtain identified information from existing sources, link it with school-specific information and other identified information, deidentify it, and merge it with similar information from other collaborating schools. Second, researchers can obtain from existing sources deidentified information on large samples and explore associations within this dataset. Third, investigators can design and implement databases to prospectively collect trainee information over time and across multiple institutions for the purpose of education research. Although costly, such comprehensive, purpose-built databases would ensure the availability of information needed to answer a variety of medical education research questions. Millennium Conference participants believed that stakeholders should explore the funding and development of such prospective databases. In the meantime, education researchers should use existing sources of individualized learner data to better understand how to develop competent, compassionate clinicians.

  4. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  5. 77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in...

  6. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.

  7. Trade Policy and Health: Adding Retrospective Studies to the Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies of the potential health consequences of trade and investment treaties, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are critical. These studies can make visible to trade policy-makers the potential negative impacts associated to such treaties and can influence the outcomes of such negotiations. However, few researchers have examined retrospectively the consequences of trade agreements. With more than 400 trade agreements and more than 2000 investment treaties currently in force, researchers have a large corpus of agreements to analyse in order to assess not only their potential impacts on health system and population health, but also their actual impacts. This comment suggests some research questions that would benefit from retrospective inquiry.

  8. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.

  9. A half century retrospective study of homicide-suicide in Geneva--Switzerland: 1956-2005.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Kebede; Burkhardt, Sandra; Lardi, Christelle; Mangin, Patrice; La Harpe, Romano

    2010-02-01

    This study provides a retrospective review from the forensic files of the University Centre of Legal Medicine in Western Switzerland in Geneva, from January 1956 to December 2005. The studied homicide-suicide cases cover a period of half a century (50 years). As a rule, all police-ordered forensic examinations of violent death cases in the Canton of Geneva are conducted by the University Centre of Legal Medicine. All of the data necessary for an exhaustive retrospective study are thus readily available. During the period covered in this work, 228 homicides were perpetrated in Geneva. In 23 cases, the homicide was followed by the suicide of the aggressor. The 34 victims of these homicides (18 women, 1 man and 15 children) had either an intimate or filial relationship with the perpetrator. Most of the suicidal perpetrators were men that killed their spouses or intimate partners, with children as additional victims in some cases. Shooting was the most common means to kill, followed by stabbing. The majority of the victims and perpetrators were Swiss nationals. This retrospective study shows that in the last 50 years, homicide-suicide cases in the Canton of Geneva have been a rare and an episodic phenomena with a very variable frequency from 1 year to another.

  10. Oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 633 patients from Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Parlatescu, Ioanina; Gheorghe, Carmen; Tovaru, Mihaela; Costache, Mariana; Sardella, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this retrospective study, patients’ medical records were reviewed to investigate the profiles of 633 OLP cases in a group of Romania. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the following clinical data were obtained from the medical charts of patients: gender, age, clinical presentation of OLP, site affected, presence of symptoms, extraoral manifestations of lichen planus, presence of systemic diseases, and history of medications. Results: Most (78.67%) OLP patients were female and the mean age at presentation was 52 years. The white type of the disease (reticular/papular/plaque lesions) was the main form encountered in this sample (48.97%). Among patients with available hepatitis C virus test results, 9.6% were serum-positive. OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (i.e. cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Six patients (0.95%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at a site with confirmed OLP lesions. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, no similar study has been conducted in a Romanian population. The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged white women and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of the buccal mucosa with reticular white lesions. Anti-HCV circulating antibodies were more common in patients with OLP than in the general population and, notably, OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, oral mucosal diseases, retrospective study. PMID:23229244

  11. Met expectations and the wellbeing of diaspora immigrants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Leinonen, Elina; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the importance of expectations for the adaptation of immigrants. However, most studies have been methodologically retrospective with only limited possibilities to show the optimal relationship between migrants' expectations and actual acculturation experiences for their wellbeing and other aspects of psychological adaptation. Moreover, previous research has been conducted mostly among sojourners and students. This longitudinal study focused on the relationship between premigration expectations and postmigration experiences of diaspora immigrants from Russia to Finland (N = 153). We examined how the fulfillment of premigration expectations in social (i.e., family relations, friendships, and free time) and economic (i.e., occupational position, working conditions, and economic and career situation) domains affects immigrants' wellbeing (i.e., satisfaction with life and general mood) after migration. Three alternative models of expectation confirmation (i.e., disconfirmation model, ideal point model, and the importance of experiences only) derived from previous organizational psychological research were tested with polynomial regression and response surface analysis. In the economic domain, immigrants' expectations, experiences, and their interrelationship did not affect wellbeing in the postmigration stage. However, in the social domain, the more expectations were exceeded by actual experiences, the better were life satisfaction and the general mood of immigrants. The results underline the importance of social relationships and the context-dependent nature of immigrants' wellbeing. Interventions in the preacculturation stage should create positive but realistic expectations for diaspora immigrants and other groups of voluntary (re)migrants. Furthermore, policies concerning the postmigration stage should facilitate the fulfillment of these expectations and support the social adaptation of immigrants.

  12. Uric acid in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Costabile, Teresa; Russo, Cinzia; Carotenuto, Antonio; Sasso, Gabriella; Postiglione, Emanuela; De Luca Picione, Carla; Vastola, Michele; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Palladino, Raffaele; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS), and possibly relates to MS outcomes, with lower UA levels in subjects experiencing a relapse or presenting higher disability scores. The present retrospective longitudinal study evaluated UA variations in MS, in relation to clinical relapses, disability progression, and cognitive functions. We included 141 subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and performed expanded disability status scale (EDSS), symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and UA evaluation at baseline visit and after 2-year follow-up. Paired t test showed significantly lower UA levels after 2-year follow-up than at baseline (3.987 ± 1.135 and 4.167 ± 1.207 mg/dL, respectively) (p = 0.001). The difference in UA levels between 2-year follow-up and baseline related to EDSS sustained progression (p < 0.001; OR = 0.099), and presented a trend for clinical relapses at logistic regression (p = 0.211; OR = 0.711) and for the time to relapse at Cox regression (p = 0.236; HR = 0.792). Analysis of variance showed reduced baseline UA levels in subjects with impaired SDMT at baseline (p = 0.045; adjusted R(2) = 0.473) and after 2-year follow-up (p = 0.034; adjusted R(2) = 0.470). This is the first study showing a progressive reduction of UA levels during the course of RRMS, suggesting a progressive decrease of antioxidant reserves, in relation to relapse risk, disability progression and cognitive function.

  13. Middle third fractures of facial skeleton at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nor, G M; Lian, C B

    1988-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of 80 patients with major central and lateral middle third fractures of facial skeleton treated at University Hospital from 1981 to 1985. The most common was the fractures of zygomatic complex. The peak incidence was in the 20-29 year age group and males were involved more than females (ratio 9: 1). Road traffic accidents were to be blamed for most of the fractures which was 82.25%.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  15. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  16. A study of simplified methods for longitudinal control decoupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, R.; Ohmiya, H.; Ellis, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Using an inflight simulator, a simple longitudinal decoupling concept was compared with conventional airplane characteristics for the approach and landing tasks. The decoupling system allowed the pilot to command flight path angle changes with the stick with little or no accompanying speed change; likewise, speed changes with only small accompanying flight path changes could be made with throttle only. The unique feature of the concept is that it is an open loop (that is, nonfeedback) control system. Results indicate that in calm air and up to moderate levels of turbulence the decoupling system provides a substantial reduction in pilot workload.

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  18. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.

  19. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  20. Perceptions of Study Newsletters for Older Cancer Patients in Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Mohamedali, Mustafa; Sandoval, Joanna; Thiruvarooran, Vikarnan; Stacey, Holly; O'Neill, Meagan; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Durbano, Sara; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2016-11-29

    To date, no study has examined the value of providing study newsletters in educating and motivating participants taking part in longitudinal intervention studies and reducing attrition in studies. The study team examined perceptions and satisfaction towards study newsletters, and their potential benefits, in a population of older men with prostate cancer participating in two ongoing longitudinal trials. Two study newsletters issues were mailed out 4 months apart to prostate cancer patients participating in a bone health and/or exercise intervention trial. Participants (n = 133) were invited to complete an 18-item custom-designed survey examining perceptions towards and satisfaction with the newsletter, and provide feedback about what makes an ideal study newsletter. Analyses were primarily descriptive. Resources required to produce a study newsletter were also calculated. Of 133 participants, 83 usable surveys were returned (response rate 62.4%). The mean satisfaction rating for the newsletter was 8.5/10 (SD 1.9) (10 = highly satisfied). Seventy eight percent said the newsletter encouraged them to continue to participate in the study, and 93% indicated that providing such study newsletters should be optional (64%) or mandatory (29%). Each newsletter required 31 h of study personnel time (mostly research student) to produce. Study participants were very satisfied with the newsletter and the majority indicated that study newsletters should be a regular practice in all long-term studies and may improve participant retention. Producing a newsletter is a low-cost method of educating participants in longitudinal studies. Its impact on recruitment and retention should be examined in clinical trials.

  1. Retrospective cohort study of cancer morbidity in furniture makers exposed to wood dust.

    PubMed

    Barthel, E; Dietrich, M

    1989-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to examine the cancer morbidity in a group of 759 furniture makers of the Neubrandenburg District. During the study interval of 1973 to 1984, a total of 40 malignant tumors occurred in the exposed group. Except for bronchial cancer (SIR = 68) and prostate cancer (SIR = 43), all observed tumors were overrepresented in comparison to the incidence of such illnesses in the normal population of the study area. Significantly increased SIRs occurred for malignant melanoma (2 cases, SIR = 952) and for rectal cancer (6 cases, SIR = 239). Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses were not observed.

  2. Retrospective Reports of Important Personal Events by Aging Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy

    Only a longitudinal study, in which retrospective reports can be verified against data collected earlier, can determine what topics tend to be reported accurately and whether certain types of individuals are more likely to be accurate reporters. A representative group of adults who became parents 50 years ago are now part of the oldest and longest…

  3. Personality and Accuracy of Retrospective Reports of Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy; Honzik, Marjorie P.

    Only a longitudinal study, in which retrospective reports can be verified against data collected earlier, can determine what topics tend to be reported accurately and whether certain types of individuals are more likely to be accurate reporters. A representative sample of women who became mothers 50 years ago are now part of the oldest and longest…

  4. Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Marie-Hélène; Poulin, Stéphane; Fortin, Marie-Pierre; Houde, Michèle; Verret, Louis; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Laforce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the rate of cognitive decline and caregiver burden within the context of a specialized memory clinic. When this was done, the focus was largely on functional decline related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our goal was to compare the longitudinal decline of AD patients to those with Vascular Dementia (VaD) on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We further explored the differential impact on caregiver burden. We retrospectively studied 237 charts from patients seen at our Memory Clinic between 2006 and 2012. The data was collected over 17 years. Cohorts were formed by excluding conditions other than AD and VaD, and including patients who had been assessed at least twice with the MMSE (AD: n = 83; mean age: 67.7 yo; VaD: n = 32; mean age: 73.3yo). A small group of 36 caregivers was surveyed by phone to explore caregiver burden. Results indicated that the natural history of MMSE changes in AD patients differed significantly from that of patients with VaD (F = 10.41, p<0.0014), with AD patients showing more cognitive decline over time. Sadness, stress/anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disorders were reported as the main preoccupations by caregivers and its impact was rated as ‘severe’ in 50% of cases. Altogether, this study provides further insight into the natural history of cognitive decline in AD and VaD. Future studies should explore the progression of dementing disorders in larger cohorts using prospective methodological designs. PMID:27747317

  5. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  6. A longitudinal study of families with technology-dependent children.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific.

  8. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  9. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320-1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234-0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent.

  10. Clinically defined non-specific symptoms in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: A retrospective before-after study.

    PubMed

    Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; Bolte, John; Kelfkens, Gert; van Dijk, Christel; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-09-15

    The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a >30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of >6years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment.

  11. Management of anaemia in oncohaematological patients treated with biosimilar epoetin alfa: results of an Italian observational, retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rosti, Giovanni; Petrini, Mario; Bosi, Alberto; Galieni, Piero; Bernardi, Daniele; Giglio, Gianfranco; Dorotea, Laura; Falini, Brunangelo; Scelzi, Elvira; Veltri, Enzo; Castelli, Roberto; Longagnani, Chiara; Raggi, Tommaso; Simonetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with solid tumours or nonmyeloid haematopoietic tumours develop symptomatic anaemia, which has a major impact on quality of life (QoL). The efficacy of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in improving QoL and reducing blood transfusions has been widely demonstrated. Binocrit® (biosimilar epoetin alfa) is an ESA indicated in the European Union for treating chemotherapy-induced anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Binocrit® on haemoglobin (Hb) levels in anaemic cancer patients in Italian clinical practice. Methods: The ANEMONE study was a national, longitudinal, retrospective, multicentre observational study. Patients had to be 18 years or older, with a solid tumour or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease or multiple myeloma, receiving chemotherapy, and treated with Binocrit® to manage chemotherapy-induced anaemia. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients with a Hb increase ⩾1 g/dl during the first 4 weeks and with a Hb increase ⩾2 g/dl during the first 12 weeks. Results: A total of 245 patients were enrolled and 215 patients were evaluable for statistical analysis. In the first 4 weeks, 49.3% of patients showed an increase in Hb of ⩾1 g/dl: 45.5% in patients with solid tumours and 52.1% in patients with haematological malignancies. In the first 12 weeks, 51.6% of patients showed an increase in Hb of ⩾2 g/dl (48.4% solid tumours, 54.2% haematological diseases). Treatment with Binocrit® was well tolerated. Conclusions: These results confirm the effectiveness and safety of Binocrit® for chemotherapy-induced anaemia in routine practice in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. PMID:28203295

  12. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  13. Correlates of breastfeeding frequency among nomadic pastoralists of Turkana, Kenya: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J

    1995-11-01

    Recent research has shown that significant variation in breast-feeding behavior exists among natural fertility populations, all of whom have been characterized as practicing "on-demand" breastfeeding. A number of recent prospective studies have contributed to a better understanding of breastfeeding structure and of its consequences for population differences in fertility. Currently, there is a growing interest in quantifying the complex environmental and biocultural interactions which influence that structure; in other words, in establishing an ecology of breastfeeding. In this paper, a carefully structured retrospective study of breastfeeding behavior among nomadic Turkana is used to identify environmental, biobehavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with variation in breastfeeding frequency among Turkana women. In agreement with the results of a prospective study conducted as part of the same research, the age (growth) and physical development of nurslings show significant correlations with breastfeeding frequency. Maternal physical status, the depth of the maternal social network, and, to a lesser degree, rainfall patterns are also significant. All of these factors appear to influence breastfeeding through their effects on maternal participation in herding activities and related absences from camp. Finally, the study also presents new strategies for collecting and utilizing retrospective data, which are notoriously unreliable and difficult to classify according to operational definitions recently developed for prospective studies. Results of the present study suggest methods by which the quality and reliability of recall data may be enhanced.

  14. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  15. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  16. Increased risk of chronic osteomyelitis after hip replacement: a retrospective population-based cohort study in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Hung, D-Z; Tien, N; Lin, C-L; Lee, Y-R; Wang, C C N; Chen, J-J; Lim, Y-P

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between hip replacement (Hip-Repl) and chronic osteomyelitis (COM) has not been studied in Asian populations. Thus, we assessed Hip-Repl-related risk of developing COM via a population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study. The Hip-Repl cohort was obtained from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, and included patients who underwent Hip-Repl between 2000 and 2010; the control cohort was also selected from this database. Patients with a history of COM were excluded in both cohorts. We used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) by age, sex, and comorbidities for developing COM. A total of 5349 patients who received a Hip-Repl and 10,372 matched controls were enrolled. In the Hip-Repl group, the risk for COM was 4.18-fold [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.24-7.80] higher than that in the control group after adjustment. For patients aged ≤65 years, the risk was 10.0-fold higher (95 % CI = 2.89-34.6). Furthermore, the risk was higher in the Hip-Repl cohort than in the non-Hip-Repl cohort, for both patients without comorbidity (aHR = 16.5, 95 % CI = 2.07-132.3) and those with comorbidity (aHR = 3.49, 95 % CI = 1.78-6.83). The impact of Hip-Repl on the risk for COM was greater among patients not using immunosuppressive drugs, and occurred during the first postoperative year. Patients who received Hip-Repl have an increased risk of developing COM. This risk was higher among males and patients aged 65 years or younger, and during the first postoperative year.

  17. Safety of bevacizumab in clinical practice for recurrent ovarian cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    SELLE, FRÉDÉRIC; EMILE, GEORGE; PAUTIER, PATRICIA; ASMANE, IRÈNE; SOARES, DANIELE G.; KHALIL, AHMED; ALEXANDRE, JEROME; LHOMMÉ, CATHERINE; RAY-COQUARD, ISABELLE; LOTZ, JEAN-PIERRE; GOLDWASSER, FRANÇOIS; TAZI, YOUSSEF; HEUDEL, PIERRE; PUJADE-LAURAINE, ERIC; GOUY, SÉBASTIEN; TREDAN, OLIVIER; BARBAZA, MARIE O.; ADY-VAGO, NORA; DUBOT, CORALINE

    2016-01-01

    The poor outcome of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer constitutes a continuous challenge for decision-making in clinical practice. In this setting, molecular targets have recently been identified, and novel compounds are now available. Bevacizumab has been introduced for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer and is, to date, the most extensively investigated targeted therapy in this setting. However, potential toxicities are associated with the use of this monoclonal antibody. These toxicities have been reported in clinical trials, and can also be observed outside of trials. As limited data is currently available regarding the safety of bevacizumab treatment in daily clinical practice, the current retrospective study was designed to evaluate this. Data from 156 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had received bevacizumab treatment between January 2006 and June 2009 were retrospectively identified from the institutional records of five French centers. In contrast to clinical trials, the patients in the present study were not selected and had a heterogeneous profile according to their prior medical history, lines of treatment prior to bevacizumab introduction and number of relapses. The results first confirm the effect of heavy pretreatment on the occurrence of serious and fatal adverse events in clinical practice, as previously reported for clinical trials and for other retrospective cohort studies. Importantly, the data also demonstrates, for the first time, that medical history of hypertension is an independent predictive risk factor for the development of high-grade hypertension during bevacizumab treatment. These results thus suggest that treating physicians must consider all risk factors for managing bevacizumab toxicity prior to its introduction. Such risk factors include the time of bevacizumab introduction, a patient's history of hypertension and a low incidence of pre-existing obstructive disease. PMID:26998090

  18. [Epidemio-clinical profile of human scabies through dermatologic consultation. Retrospective study of 1148 cases].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Zeglaoui, Faten; Ezzine, Nedia; Kharfi, Monia; Zghal, Mohamed; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2003-11-01

    We report a retrospective study of all scabies cases collected in the department of Dermatology of Charles Nicolle Hospital during a 8 year-period (1993-2000). 148 cases of scabies were collected with a mean incidence of 144 new cases/year (65-204). Diagnosis was made clinically in all cases. Parasitological exam was done in case of doubtful diagnosis. Our purpose is to try to define an epidemio-clinical profile of scabies in Tunisia and to estimate the incidence of this parasitosis through our dermatological consultation with reviewing the literature data.

  19. Atrial fibrillation in CLL patients treated with ibrutinib. An international retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Philip A; Lévy, Vincent; Tam, Constantine S; Al Nawakil, Chadi; Goudot, François-Xavier; Quinquenel, Anne; Ysebaert, Loic; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Van Den Neste, Eric; Dupuis, Jehan; Keating, Michael J; Meune, Christophe; Cymbalista, Florence

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 5-9% of patients treated with ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); the clinical consequences and optimal management are unclear. We retrospectively studied 56 CLL patients who received ibrutinib and developed AF. Median time to onset was 3·8 months. AF was persistent in 35/56 (62%) cases despite treatment. Clinical consequences included: three episodes of severe cardiac failure (one fatal) and one stroke; eight non-thrombocytopenic patients (14%) experienced severe bleeding adverse events. Altogether, ibrutinib was permanently discontinued in 26/56 cases (46%). Data to guide optimal management are lacking and clinical practice guidelines are urgently needed.

  20. Freeze-dried allograft versus autograft bone in scoliosis surgery. A retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Recht, J; Bayard, F; Delloye, C; Vincent, A

    1993-12-01

    Two groups of 36 patients who underwent posterior vertebral fusion for scoliosis were compared retrospectively; the postoperative follow-up was 2 years. Autogenous bone taken from the iliac crest was used in group A, whereas the patients in group B received freeze-dried allograft from our bone bank. There was no significant difference between the two groups in maintenance of the curve correction after the same delay, nor in incidence of complications. A reduction of blood loss or operating time, however, could not be demonstrated in our study.

  1. Long-term follow-up of heel spur surgery. A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vohra, P K; Giorgini, R J; Sobel, E; Japour, C J; Villalba, M A; Rostkowski, T

    1999-02-01

    A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.

  2. Minipigs and potbellied pigs as pets in the veterinary practice--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Schmoll, F; Stumpf, I

    2007-11-01

    Minipigs have become popular pets in recent years. Therefore, an increasing number of veterinarians are being challenged by specific problems of these animals. This retrospective study gives an overview on the diagnoses and therapeutic interventions of the patients submitted to the clinic for swine at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna during the last 6 years (n=48). Most frequently, colic symptoms of the gastro-intestinal tract (n=12) and orthopaedic locomotion disorders (n=10), mainly due to accidents or long claws, could be observed, followed by urogenital tract and skin disorders (n=4 each). Therapeutic interventions are discussed with regard to medical aspects as well as statutory provisions.

  3. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  4. The phenotypic spectrum of progressive supranuclear palsy: a retrospective multicenter study of 100 definite cases.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Kurz, Carolin; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alexander; Chiu, Wan Zheng; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Al Sarraj, Safa; Gelpi, Ellen; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Giese, Armin; Roeber, Sigrun; Arzberger, Thomas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Höglinger, Günter U

    2014-12-01

    The phenotypic variability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may account for its frequent misdiagnosis, in particular in early stages of the disease. However, large multicenter studies to define the frequency and natural history of PSP phenotypes are missing. In a cohort of 100 autopsy-confirmed patients we studied the phenotypic spectrum of PSP by retrospective chart review. Patients were derived from five brain banks with expertise in neurodegenerative disorders with referrals from multiple academic hospitals. The clinical characteristics of the 100 cases showed remarkable heterogeneity. Most strikingly, only 24% of cases presented as Richardson's Syndrome (RS), and more than half of the cases either showed overlapping features of several predescribed phenotypes, or features not fitting proposed classification criteria for PSP phenotypes. Classification of patients according to predominant clinical features in the first 2 years of the disease course allowed a more comprehensive description of the phenotypic spectrum. These predominance types differed significantly with regard to survival time and frequency of cognitive deficits. In summary, the phenotypic spectrum of PSP may be broader and more variable than previously described in single-center studies. Thus, too strict clinical criteria defining distinct phenotypes may not reflect this variability. A more pragmatic clinical approach using predominance types could potentially be more helpful in the early recognition of and for making prognostic predictions for these patients. Given the limitations arising from the retrospective nature of this analysis, a systematic validation in a prospective cohort study is imperative.

  5. Prognostic factors in peptic ulcer perforations: a retrospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Unver, Mutlu; Fırat, Özgür; Ünalp, Ömer Vedat; Uğuz, Alper; Gümüş, Tufan; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Öztürk, Şafak; Yoldaş, Tayfun; Ersin, Sinan; Güler, Adem

    2015-05-01

    Regarding the complications of peptic ulcer, a perforation remains the most important fatal complication. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine relations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer. In total, 239 patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer in Ege University General Surgery Department, between June 1999 and May 2013 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively. One hundred seventy-five of the 239 patients were male (73.2%) and 64 were female (26.8%). Mean American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 1 in the patients without morbidity, but mean ASA score was 3 in the morbidity and mortality groups. Primary suture and omentoplasty was the selected procedure in 228 of the patients. Eleven patients underwent resection. In total, 105 patients (43.9%) had comorbidities. Thirty-seven patients (67.3%) in the morbidity group had comorbid diseases. Thirteen (92.9%) patients in the mortality group had comorbid diseases. Perforation as a complication of peptic ulcer disease still remains among the frequent indications of urgent abdominal surgery. Among the analyzed parameters, age, ASA score, and having comorbid disease were found to have an effect on both mortality and morbidity. The controversial subject in the present study is regarding the duration of symptoms. The duration of symptoms had no effect on mortality nor morbidity in our study.

  6. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. Materials and Methods From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. Results A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Conclusion Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction. PMID:25741465

  7. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  8. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.

  9. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Biased and unbiased estimation in longitudinal studies with informative visit processes

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Charles E.; Neuhaus, John M.; Olin, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The availability of data in longitudinal studies is often driven by features of the characteristics being studied. For example, clinical databases are increasingly being used for research to address longitudinal questions. Because visit times in such data are often driven by patient characteristics that may be related to the outcome being studied, the danger is that this will result in biased estimation compared to designed, prospective studies. We study longitudinal data that follow a generalized linear mixed model and use a log link to relate an informative visit process to random effects in the mixed model. This device allows us to elucidate which parameters are biased under the informative visit process and to what degree. We show that the informative visit process can badly bias estimators of parameters of covariates associated with the random effects, while allowing consistent estimation of other parameters. PMID:26990830

  11. Multigene interactions and the prediction of depression in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Roetker, Nicholas S; Yonker, James A; Lee, Chee; Chang, Vicky; Basson, Jacob J; Roan, Carol L; Hauser, Taissa S; Hauser, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Single genetic loci offer little predictive power for the identification of depression. This study examined whether an analysis of gene–gene (G × G) interactions of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with depression and age-related diseases would identify significant interactions with increased predictive power for depression. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A survey of participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Participants A total of 4811 persons (2464 women and 2347 men) who provided saliva for genotyping; the group comes from a randomly selected sample of Wisconsin high school graduates from the class of 1957 as well as a randomly selected sibling, almost all of whom are non-Hispanic white. Primary outcome measure Depression as determine by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Short-Form. Results Using a classification tree approach (recursive partitioning (RP)), the authors identified a number of candidate G × G interactions associated with depression. The primary SNP splits revealed by RP (ANKK1 rs1800497 (also known as DRD2 Taq1A) in men and DRD2 rs224592 in women) were found to be significant as single factors by logistic regression (LR) after controlling for multiple testing (p=0.001 for both). Without considering interaction effects, only one of the five subsequent RP splits reached nominal significance in LR (FTO rs1421085 in women, p=0.008). However, after controlling for G × G interactions by running LR on RP-specific subsets, every split became significant and grew larger in magnitude (OR (before) → (after): men: GNRH1 novel SNP: (1.43 → 1.57); women: APOC3 rs2854116: (1.28 → 1.55), ACVR2B rs3749386: (1.11 → 2.17), FTO rs1421085: (1.32 → 1.65), IL6 rs1800795: (1.12 → 1.85)). Conclusions The results suggest that examining G × G interactions improves the identification of genetic associations predictive of depression. 4 of the SNPs identified in these interactions

  12. A two years longitudinal study of a transgenic Huntington disease monkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment. PMID:24581271

  13. Muscle Fiber Size and Function in Elderly Humans: A Longitudinal Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...

  14. Factors influencing the stability of miniscrews. A retrospective study on 300 miniscrews.

    PubMed

    Manni, Antonio; Cozzani, Mauro; Tamborrino, Fabio; De Rinaldis, Sergio; Menini, Anna

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, over a period of approximately 3 years, the reactions to orthodontic loading of a type V titanium miniscrew. In this retrospective study, conducted in a private practice, the records of 300 miniscrews inserted in 132 consecutive patients (80 females, 60.6 percent) by the same surgeon were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 23.2 years. Three types of miniscrews (type A: diameter 1.5 mm, length 9 mm; type B: diameter 1.5 mm, length 11 mm; and type C: diameter 1.3 mm, length 11 mm) were used. The clinical variables evaluated included the loading time and location of the miniscrew in relation to the gingiva and root. The success rates with different variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact test where appropriate. A cumulative survival rate of 81 percent (243/300) was found using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with an optimum success rate for the 1.3 mm wide miniscrew inserted in the attached gingiva, with immediate loading applied. Cox proportional hazard regression showed significant differences between success rate and the following parameters: gender, loading time, gingival or bone localization, and diameter of the miniscrews. Considering the clinically controllable parameters, and within the limits of this retrospective study, 1.3 mm diameter miniscrews inserted in attached gingiva and immediately loaded had the most favourable prognosis.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  16. A longitudinal study of WIC participation on household food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Gorman, Kathleen S; Wilde, Parke; Kallio, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit was associated with measures of WIC duration (number of trimesters on WIC for pregnant women, and number of WIC visits for children). Among women with prenatal household food insecurity with hunger, odds of any post-partum household food insecurity was reduced with first (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94) or second trimester of entry (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90) versus third. Among children with initial household food insecurity without hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.98) at the last visit. Among those with initial household food insecurity with hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83-0.94) at the last visit. Earlier and longer WIC participation may improve household food security status, particularly of vulnerable groups.

  17. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M O O; Carestiato, F N; Perdigão, P H; Xavier, M P P T; Silva, Kc; Botelho, M O; Oliveira, L H S; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA) and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788), ranging from 25% (NORMAL) to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  18. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Ankush; Wadde, Kavita; Dewalwar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% The cyst in mixed dentition stage cause expansion of buccal cortex, displacement of teeth and may present as case of infection. The cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molar are of frequent occurrence. The differential diagnosis of this lesion is radicular cysts of deciduous molar: developmental or infammatory dentigerous cyst of corresponding unerupted premolar. After going through the available literature of radicular cyst of deciduous molars and dentigerous cysts of developing premolars in mixed dentition we studied the five cases of cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molars in mixed dentition retrospectively for the diagnostic dilemma of radicular cyst verses dentigerous cyst. In conclusion, we can set some criteria for the diagnosis which is particularly important for treatment and for conservation of developing premolar. How to cite this article: Manekar VS, Chavan A, Wadde K, Dewalwar V. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):229-235. PMID:25709310

  19. The menstrual cycle regularization following D-chiro-inositol treatment in PCOS women: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Cianci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular cycles, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary at ultrasound and insulin resistance. The effectiveness of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) treatment in improving insulin resistance in PCOS patients has been confirmed in several reports. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the effect of DCI on menstrual cycle regularity in PCOS women. This was a retrospective study of patients with irregular cycles who were treated with DCI. Of all PCOS women admitted to our centre, 47 were treated with DCI and had complete medical charts. The percentage of women reporting regular menstrual cycles significantly increased with increasing duration of DCI treatment (24% and 51.6% at a mean of 6 and 15 months of treatment, respectively). Serum AMH levels and indexes of insulin resistance significantly decreased during the treatment. Low AMH levels, high HOMA index, and the presence of oligomenorrhea at the first visit were the independent predictors of obtaining regular menstrual cycle with DCI. In conclusion, the use of DCI is associated to clinical benefits for many women affected by PCOS including the improvement in insulin resistance and menstrual cycle regularity. Responders to the treatment may be identified on the basis of menstrual irregularity and hormonal or metabolic markers.

  20. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  2. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  3. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  4. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  5. Prevalence of vestibular symptoms in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder — A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Jamuar, Pratyasha

    2017-01-01

    Summary The objective of the study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of vestibular symptoms in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). It was also attempted to determine the prevalence of vestibular symptoms and factors (gender and age of reported hearing loss) that could affect the prevalence in individuals with ANSD. The vestibular symptoms reported in the case history were analyzed in individuals diagnosed with ANSD. The symptoms reported by a total of 316 individuals (185 females and 131 males) with ANSD were analyzed. The result of the study showed that one in five individuals with ANSD reported at least one of the vestibular symptom. The vestibular symptoms were in more females and in individuals with earlier onset of hearing loss. The result of the study supports that there is a vestibular damage in individuals with ANSD. However, it is essential to carry out prospective studies validating these vestibular symptoms with objective vestibular tests before generalizing the results. PMID:28357181

  6. PDT-induced apoptosis in brain tissue in vivo: a retrospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar D.; Portnoy, Michelle; Wilson, Brian C.

    1999-07-01

    The apoptotic response of normal brain and intracranial VX2 tumor following photodynamic therapy mediated by five different photodynamic drugs, Photofrin, ALA, AlClPc, SnET2 and mTHPC, was evaluated in a preliminary retrospective analysis. Rabbit brain, with or without tumor, was treated by PDT with interstitial light delivery. Histological sections at 24 h post PDT were assessed by the TUNEL assay. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the total apoptotic cell count and the spatial distribution of apoptotic bodies within the tissue. The data were confirmed qualitatively by light microscopy on adjacent H&E-stained sections. Light-only and drug-only controls produced background levels. The highest apoptotic count was seen with Photofrin. The counts in AlClPc-treated animals were not above the background level, while the other 3 photosensitizers gave intermediate levels. With some, but not all, drugs the spatial distribution of apoptotic bodies correlated well with the light fluence distribution. Apoptosis was seen outside the zone of frank coagulative necrosis. There was not apparent drug-dose dependency at the relatively high doses used here. The retrospective nature of this study did not allow optimization of the treatment parameters. Nevertheless, the findings have potentially significant implications, both for understanding the mechanisms of apoptosis in brain tissue and for improving the clinical use of PDT for treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors.

  7. Clinical and Breed Characteristics of Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in 291 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Linda G.; Berezowski, John; Rishniw, Mark; Nibblett, Belle M.; Kelly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To establish signalment and phenomenology of canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (IHTS), an episodic head movement disorder of undetermined pathogenesis. Design. Retrospective case series. Animals. 291 dogs with IHTS diagnosed between 1999 and 2013. Procedures. Clinical information was obtained from an online community of veterinary information aggregation and exchange (Veterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Boulevard, Davis, CA 95616) and conducted with their approval. Information on breed, sex, age of onset, tremor description, mentation during the event, effect of distractions and drugs, diagnostics, presence of other problems, and outcome was analyzed. Results. IHTS was found in 24 pure breeds. Bulldogs, Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and Doberman Pinschers comprised 69%; mixed breeds comprised 17%. Average onset age was 29 months (range: 3 months to 12 years). First episode occurred before 48 months of age in 88%. Vertical (35%), horizontal (50%), and rotational (15%) movements were documented. Possible trigger events were found in 21%. Mentation was normal in 93%. Distractions abated the tremor in 87%. Most dogs did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance. This retrospective study documents IHTS in many breeds including Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and mixed breeds. PMID:26064776

  8. Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: A retrospective study of 184 cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Jun; Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index.Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases.

  9. French retrospective multicentric study of neonatal hemochromatosis: importance of autopsy and autoimmune maternal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Heissat, Sophie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Fabre, Monique; Baruteau, Julien; Broue, Pierre; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Dominique; Debiec, Hanna; Ronco, Pierre; Guigonis, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare disease that causes fetal loss and neonatal death in the 1st weeks of life and is one of the most common causes of liver failure in the neonate. The diagnosis is mostly made retrospectively, based on histopathologic features of severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic and extrahepatic siderosis. Several etiologies may underlie this phenotype, including a recently hypothesized gestational alloimmune disease. Fifty-one cases of liver failure with intrahepatic siderosis in fetuses and neonates were analyzed retrospectively. Maternal and infant data were collected from hospitalization and autopsy reports. All available slides were reviewed independently by 3 pathologists. Immunologic studies were performed on maternal sera collected immediately after delivery. The diagnosis of neonatal haemochromatosis was retained in 33 cases, including 1 case with Down syndrome and 1 case with myofibromas. Liver siderosis was inversely proportional to fibrosis progression. In fetuses, iron storage was more frequent in the thyroid than in the pancreas. Perls staining in labial salivary glands was positive in 1 of 5 cases. Abnormal low signal intensity by magnetic resonance imaging was detected in the pancreas in 2 of 7 cases. Renal tubular dysgenesis was observed in 7 of 23 autopsy cases. Chronic villitis was seen in 7 of 15 placentas. Half of the mothers presented with an autoimmune background and/or autoantibodies in their sera. Our work highlights the importance of autopsy in cases of neonatal hemochromatosis and marshals additional data in support of the hypothesis that neonatal hemochromatosis could reflect maternal immune system dysregulation.

  10. Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Ontario and Quebec: A retrospective study of 332 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffie, P.; Feld, R.; Minkin, S.; Cormier, Y.; Boutan-Laroze, A.; Ginsberg, R.; Ayoub, J.; Shepherd, F.A.; Evans, W.K.; Figueredo, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Three-hundred thirty-two cases of pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) seen at large centers in Ontario and Quebec from 1965 to 1984 were reviewed retrospectively. Previous asbestos exposure was found in 44% of patients. Diagnosis was most often made by exploratory thoracotomy; pleural biopsy or cytology were rarely contributory. The delay in diagnosis was often long (median time, 3.5 months) and thrombocytosis (platelets greater than or equal to 400,000/microL) was common (41% of cases). The median survival (MS) was only 9 months. Eleven clinical variables were analyzed for prognostic significance. The three most important prognostic factors using a univariate analysis were stage, weight loss, and histologic type. For 118 patients with complete data, multivariate analysis showed that the stage of disease, high platelet count, and asbestos exposure were the most important prognostic factors. There was no cure of DMM, and we did not find any drastic differences in survival among groups of patients subjected to the different therapeutic measures. Radical surgery and radiotherapy were ineffective and we confirmed the low response rate to chemotherapeutic agents. This large retrospective trial can serve as a baseline for future studies in this field. In particular, it provides the basis for appropriate stratification variables to be used in future therapeutic trials.

  11. Early nasogastric feeding versus parenteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yulong; Tang, Chengwu; Feng, Wenming; Bao, Ying; Yu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: From July 2008 to July 2014,185 patients with SAP admitted to our centre were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were divided into EN group (n=89) and TPN group (n=96) based on the nutrition support modes. Patients in EN group received nasogastric EN support, while patients in TPN group received TPN support within 72 hours of disease onset. The medical records were reviewed and clinical factors were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between two groups. EN group had significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infections (P=0.0333) and extrapancreatic infections (P=0.0431). Significantly shorter hospital stay (P=0.0355) and intensive-care stay (P=0.0313) were found in EN group. TPN group was found to have significantly greater incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (P=0.0338) and mortality (P=0.0382). Moreover, the incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN group (P=0.0454). Conclusions: Early nasogastric EN was feasible and significantly decreased the incidence of infectious complications as well as the frequency of MODS and mortality caused by SAP. PMID:28083056

  12. Testosterone and growth hormone normalization: a retrospective study of health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Enrique; Lin, Alvin; Sigler, Michael; Olsen, Denise; Klimas, Nancy; Mintz, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background Age-related declines in testosterone and growth hormone (GH) are associated with increased adiposity and decreases in lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD). A long-term retrospective study examined the effects of testosterone and/or GH supplementation on body composition and quality of life (QoL). Methods A database survey assessed the records of 91 men and 97 women (ages 25–82) in treatment groups based on their hormonal status: dehydroepiandrosterone but no hormonal supplementation (control); testosterone only (Tes); GH only (GH); and testosterone plus GH (Tes+GH). Pre-and post-treatment assessments recorded changes in fat and lean mass, BMD, and QoL. Results After an average of 3 years of treatment, weight decreased in women in the control and Tes+GH groups but remained stable in men in all groups. Tes and Tes+GH produced statistically significant increases in lean mass, reductions in fat mass, and improvements in BMD in both sexes; GH produced similar changes in women. QoL and mood improved in all groups. Treatments were generally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions In this retrospective survey, treatment with testosterone and/or GH was associated with favorable effects in men and women across a wide age range. PMID:21197337

  13. A retrospective study of the value of indirect CT venography: a British perspective

    PubMed Central

    Slater, S; Oswal, D; Bhartia, B

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the value of indirect CT venography (CTV) in clinical practice within the UK. Methods 804 combined CT pulmonary angiogram and CTV studies were retrospectively reviewed. CTV was performed 180 s after the injection of contrast using an incremental technique with a 5-mm collimation and a 5-cm interspace between images extending from the iliac crests to the tibial plateaus. Results 12.9% of studies had isolated pulmonary emboli (PE), 3.0% had both a PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 1.1% had an isolated DVT. The proportion of positive cases diagnosed by CTV alone was 6.6%. Conclusion In a UK-based practice, the incidence and the proportion of isolated DVT diagnosed by CTV are lower than expected from published data. An analysis of possible causes for this is made within the paper. PMID:21896661

  14. The retrospective study of the carcinogenic hydrocarbon benz[a]pyrene in the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Vinogradov, V N; Riabchun, V K; Mischenko, V S; Gvildis, V Y; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1979-11-01

    The major aim of this study was to determine taking, as an example, the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benz[a]pyrene (BaP), the present biologically active compounds in the early historical and geological epochs with the following assessment of the degree of danger of such compounds in the modern times. In the first section of work, study results of soil samples in the areas of eternal frost confirmed the presence of BaP in the frozen layers of soil aged 10 years, 100 years, 3000--4000 and 10,000 years of age. In the second part of the work, results are furnished on the BaP content in the ice of modern glaciers and their moraines, located in Kamchatka. BaP was found in 11 samples in the concentration of 0.001--0.003 microgram/l. These data represent the first results in the retrospective study of carcinogenic substances in the biosphere.

  15. Obstetric outcome of ethnic Turkish women in London: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, M; Bognanno, A; Subramanian, V; Macneilly, L; Miguel, L; Dong, S; Taiwo, E; Nauta, M; Yoong, W

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that the maternal mortality in ethnic minority women is significantly greater than that of Caucasian British women. The objective of this study was to compare the demographic and obstetric outcomes between these two groups. Data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period from 148 index and 148 control cases. The study group had statistically similar maternal age, labour duration, blood loss and mode of delivery compared with Caucasian British women (p > 0.05). A total of 68% of Turkish women spoke little or no English; were more likely to be non-smokers and also more likely to be married to unemployed spouses (p = 0.0001). This is the first study comparing obstetric outcomes of immigrant Turkish women with their Caucasian British counterparts. There was no significant difference in maternal or fetal outcomes, which could be attributed to the 'healthy migrant' theory, coupled with increased vigilance in ethnic minority pregnancies.

  16. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, M; Bianchi, L; Lucano, M; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders.

  17. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, M; Bianchi, L; Lucano, M; Bertù, L; Vender, Simone

    2016-05-13

    The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders.

  18. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, Marta; Bianchi, Lucia; Lucano, Melissa; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Summary The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. PMID:27358221

  19. Two-wave longitudinal findings from the Berlin aging study: introduction to a collection of articles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqui; Maas, Ineke; Mayer, Karl Ulrich; Helmchen, Hanfried; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Baltes, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    We provide background information for a collection of articles that describe two-wave longitudinal findings derived from the first intensive follow-up of participants of the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Multidisciplinary data were collected during 1995-1996 from 206 survivors approximately 4 years after baseline assessment (1990-1993). The strengths of the initial BASE design, in terms of a focus on very old age, multidisciplinary intensive assessment, and an examination of selectivity issues, were maintained in this longitudinal extension of the study.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Early English Immersion and Literacy in Xi'an, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Ellen Shipley

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of early English immersion in the Shi Da Fu Elementary School in Xi'an, China. Three hundred and fifty one students were tested in Grades 1-6. There were two main purposes that motivated this longitudinal and cross-sectional study. The first goal was to compare the L1 and L2 language and literacy…

  1. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  3. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  4. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  5. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  6. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  7. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  8. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  9. Continuity and Change in Work Values among Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Paul; Knox, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous findings, from a more limited sample, of the stability of work values, their effects on occupational selection, and the socializing effects of occupations are all reconfirmed in a study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. (Author/IS)

  10. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  11. Powerful and Cost-Efficient Designs for Longitudinal Intervention Studies with Two Treatment Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…

  12. Tracking Changes in Pre-Service EFL Teacher Beliefs in Greece: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study that aims to investigate pre-service EFL teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in Greece. The study attempts to track possible changes in those beliefs during a 3-year teacher education program and explores the impact of teaching practice, in particular, on student teachers' beliefs. The results…

  13. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  14. Gifted Girls and Nonmathematical Aspirations: A Longitudinal Case Study of Two Gifted Korean Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…

  15. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  16. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  17. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  18. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  19. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  1. Students' Perceptions of Campus Services. Maryland Longitudinal Study Research Highlights. Research Report 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.

    As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in 1980, the use and ratings of UMCP campus services by students in the third year of the study were analyzed. Findings included the following: (1) Representative Group (containing members of all ethnic groups) and Black Group…

  2. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  4. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  5. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  6. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  7. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  8. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  9. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  10. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  11. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  12. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  13. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  14. Training, Careers and Lives: A Longitudinal Study of a Teaching Dynasty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the pedagogical history of the Anglo-Welsh Adams family that spans the 1840s to the 1930s in England and Wales. Comprises summarized biographical details of relevant family members and offers generalizations drawn from this longitudinal case study. Argues that this study highlights neglected aspects within educational history. (DSK)

  15. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  16. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  17. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  18. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  19. Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Effects: Design, Instruments, and Specifications for a Field Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.; And Others

    Patterns of cognitive, affective, and social growth of elementary school children are described and the school and home variables which influence such growth are identified in this longitudinal study. This final report presents the final instruments and the interpretive data associated with them. The study permits the tracing of developmental…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  1. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  2. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  3. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  4. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  5. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  6. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  7. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  8. Personal Context and Continuity of Human Thought: Recurrent Themes in a Longitudinal Study of Students' Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellden, Gustav F.

    The present study of personal context and continuity in twenty-three students' thinking builds upon data from a longitudinal study of the students' conceptualizations of ecological processes. Each student was interviewed eleven times from age 9-15 about the conditions for life, decomposition, and the role of the flower in plant reproduction. At…

  9. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  10. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  12. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  13. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  14. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  15. Understanding Differences in State Support for Higher Education across States, Sectors, and Institutions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…

  16. Profile of deliberate self-harm patients presenting to Emergency Department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Jegaraj, Moses Kirubairaj Amos; Mitra, Shubhanker; Kumar, Sathish; Selva, Bagyalakshmi; Pushparaj, Manimaran; Yadav, Bijesh; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Reginald, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major under-recognized epidemic in the low- and middle-income countries. This is a large retrospective study form the Emergency Department (ED) of Tertiary Care Center of South India to describe the clinicodemographic features of DSH cases. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at ED of Christian Medical College, Vellore, India from January 01, 2011 to December 31, 2013. All cases of DSH were included in the study. The demographic details, mode of DSH and clinical outcome were extracted from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics are presented. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. For all tests, a two-sided P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total of 1228 patients were admitted to ED for DSH during the study period. Male and female occurred in equal ratio. More than half of the cases occurred among age group below 30 years. Consumption of pesticides (agricultural chemicals) was the single most common mode of DSH (46%), especially among men, followed by medication overdose (29.8%). Consumption of plant poison and tablet overdose was higher among women. Overall mortality due to DSH was low (1.5%) in our study. Conclusion: DSH is under-recognized major public health problem in low-middle income countries like India. Most cases occur among young and productive age group and in equal frequencies among men and women. Timely and the appropriate institution of treatment can decrease the morbidity and mortality due to DSH remarkably. PMID:27453847

  17. Class, type and position of 9148 surgically removed third molars in 3206 patients: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Navarro, Miriam L.; Acosta-Veloz, Anselmo L.; Juárez-Hernández, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the class, type, position, diagnosis and most common procedures used in the surgical removal of third molars, and evaluate the sex and age distribution in a representative sample of Mexican patients. Study Design: A retrospective descriptive study was made covering the period 1993-2008 in relation to 9148 extracted third molars in 3206 patients treated in the Dental School of Salle Bajío University, A.C. (Mexico). Patients of either sex and aged 11-59 years, with at least one third molar programmed for surgical removal, were included in the study. A descriptive statistical study was made. Results: The mean patient age was 27.6 ± 10.6 years. There were 2093 females (65.3%) and 1111 males (34.6%). In relation to the 4025 upper molars, extraction was decided for prophylactic reasons in 3827 cases (95.08%). Type A presentations were recorded in 1929 cases (47.9%), with a vertical position in 1931 teeth (48%). In relation to the 5123 lower third molars, extraction was likewise most often indicated for prophylactic reasons (4424 cases, 86.36%). A total of 2353 teeth corresponded to type A (45.9%), 2545 were class I cases (49.7%), and a mesioangular position was observed in 1850 cases (36.1%). Conclusions: The present study shows that in Mexican patients, upper third molars most often correspond to type A and class I, with a vertical position, while lower third molars predominantly correspond to type A and class I, with a mesioangular position. This information can help dental surgeons take better decisions before and after surgery, to the benefit of their patients. Key words:Third molars, retrospective review, surgical removal. PMID:22143723

  18. Is the human left middle longitudinal fascicle essential for language? A brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Gatignol, Peggy; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Human brain pathways required for language processing are poorly known. A new white matter tract in humans, the middle longitudinal fascicle, has recently been anatomically determined by diffusion tensor imaging and suggested to be essential for language. Our aim is to determine the importance of the middle longitudinal fascicle for language processing. This study is based on 8 patients with glioma resection at least involving the superior temporal gyrus of the left dominant hemisphere. Language is systematically examined pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Intraoperative electrostimulation is used to map cortical and subcortical structures as functional boundaries of the glioma resection, including those essential for language processing. The resections are extensive (on average 62 ml, ranging from 21 to 111 ml) and include a large part of the middle longitudinal fascicle in all patients. Intraoperatively, no interference with picture naming is observed by electrostimulation of the middle longitudinal fascicle, while in all patients the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle is identified by eliciting semantic paraphasia as functional boundary. Postoperatively, no new permanent language deficits are detected by systematic language examination. Therefore, we suggest that the middle longitudinal fascicle may participate but is not essential for language processing.

  19. [Complications in bland struma surgery. A retrospective study based on 2,035 personal cases].

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, R; Tovar, J L; Rosell, J; Guerero, J A; Ruiz, M; Salvi, M; Morales, O I; Vara-Thorbeck, C

    1989-01-01

    In the present retrospective study we examine the complications arising from simple goiter operations based on the analysis of 2,035 cases. The mortality rate is extremely low (0.3%). The most typical intraoperative complications - such as unilateral vocal cord paralysis (1.6%) and permanent parathyroprival hypocalcemia (0.4%) were observed to occur much more frequently in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy than in those of partial resection. - As a result of the introduction of synthetic reabsorbent sewing materials, healing problems have been drastically reduced (0.4%). Hypothyreosis and goiter recurrence can be avoided in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy by life-long and individually adjusted administration of thyroid hormones (rate of incidence in our study 3.1%). - In our view a subtotal thyroidectomy is indicate in cases where malignity is suspected (one or more cold nodules).

  20. Rotavirus-associated immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ai, Qi; Yin, Jing; Chen, Sen; Qiao, Lijin; Luo, Na

    2016-10-01

    Certain studies have previously indicated that an association may exist between rotavirus infection and primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The present retrospective study aimed to investigate whether rotavirus may cause ITP in children. Firstly, the incidence of ITP in children with or without rotavirus diarrhea was compared. A 14.58% incident rate was observed in children with rotavirus diarrhea compared with a 7.22% incident rate in children without rotavirus diarrhea. Subsequently, the clinical features of ITP children with or without rotavirus infection were compared. The results indicated that ITP children with rotavirus infection were significantly younger, showed significantly decreased mean platelet volume (MPV) levels and presented a significantly higher frequency of bleeding score of 3 against ITP children without rotavirus infection. In conclusion, these findings suggest that rotavirus serves a causative role in ITP.

  1. Prevalence and phenomenology of neonaticide in Switzerland 1980-2010: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Paula

    2015-01-01

    For a child, the likelihood of being murdered is highest during the first year of life, and many such cases are neonaticides. Although several recent studies have examined neonaticide in different countries and cultures, there has been no in-depth analysis of Swiss cases, even though this country has special neonaticide legislation and four "baby hatches" have been opened to prevent such killings. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the prevalence and phenomenon of neonaticide in Switzerland. Using data from judicial files, 11 cases were identified in 15 German-speaking cantons between 1980 and 2010. The sample included two uncommon cases of nonmaternal neonaticide. The discussion addresses possible prevention strategies.

  2. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population.

  3. Retrospective study of factors affecting employability of individuals with cerebral palsy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobimatsu, Y; Nakamura, R

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of individuals with cerebral palsy that affected their ability to find a job in Japan. A retrospective nonrandomized descriptive study was performed. Subjects were 99 individuals with cerebral palsy who were eligible to have a vocational training at the National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled after graduation from high school. All of them were able to perform ADL unassistedly. The mean age of the subjects was 19.9 years (range, 18 to 33) and the mean intelligence quotient measured by WAIS-R was 78.5 (range, 46 to 110). Walking ability, being female and experience of learning in a regular middle high school were significant explanatory variables in the multiple regression equation. The ability of individuals with cerebral palsy to get a job in Japan in the 1990's was largely determined by being able to walk and having an education in a regular school.

  4. [Retrospective study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the district hospital of Am Timan, Chad].

    PubMed

    Demba Kodindo, I; Baïndaou, G; Tchonfinet, M; Ngamada, F; Ndjékoundadé, A; Moussa Djibrine, M; Mahmout Nahor, N; Kérah Hinzoumbé, C; Saada, D; Seydou, D

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is not included in the statistical yearbook of Health of the Ministry of Public Health. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis attended at the District Hospital of Am Timan in order to assess the importance and the prevalence of this neglected disease. This is a retrospective study of cases reported in the records of the Laboratory of the Hospital District of Am Timan between January 2008 and December 2012. It allowed the identification of 680 clinical cases. Direct microscopic diagnosis was positive in 580 cases (85%). The number of cases has been increasing from 2008 to 2010 (2008 = 80 cases, 123 cases in 2009; 2010 = 198 cases) before decreasing during the following year (2011 = 137 cases and in 2012 = 42 cases). The months of strong incidence of the cases were June, July, August and September. The M/F sex-ratio was 1.7.

  5. The value of occlusive balloons in the management of abnormal placentation: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Omar, H R; Sprenker, C; Alvey, E; Hoffman, M; Karlnoski, R; Ching, Y-H; Cain, M; Mangar, D; Camporesi, E M

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal placentation is a potential cause of maternal morbidity and mortality from massive postpartum bleeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of occlusive balloons when used as an adjunct to surgery in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements. A retrospective study of 42 patients was performed involving consecutive cases of abnormal placentation who delivered with either conventional surgery with preoperatively placed occlusive balloons or conventional surgery alone. No differences were noted between the control group and the group of patients who had occlusive balloons with regard to estimated blood loss (P = 0.767), packed red blood cells transfused (P = 0.799), amount of crystalloids infused (P = 0.435), total procedure duration (P = 0.076), and length of ICU stay (P = 0.315) or total hospital stay (P = 0.254). Prophylactic intravascular balloon catheters did not benefit women with abnormal placentation when compared with conventional surgery alone.

  6. Gastrointestinal lymphoma in Western Algeria: pattern of distribution and histological subtypes (retrospective study)

    PubMed Central

    Harir, Noria; Tou, Abdenacer; Medjamia, Miloud; Guenaoui, Khaira

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas (GIL) are uncommon diseases that can involve the whole GI tract. Considerable variation exists in the literature with respect to incidence of the various histological subtypes and sites of involvement. This study was undertaken to establish the anatomic distribution, histological subtypes and sites of GI lymphomas of patients from Western Algeria. Methods The case records of 58 consecutive patients with GIL diagnosed at the Pathologies Departments of Algerian west region (the Military Hospital of Oran city and the Central University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes city) from January 2006 to December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated for epidemiology and histopathology report. All lymphomas were reclassified according to the WHO 2008 classification. Results A total of 58 patients (39 male, 19 female) with mean age of 61 years and a range of 20–89 years were included in this study. Stomach was the most common site involved (70.7%). The commonest histological subtype was mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B cell lymphoma (46.6%), followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) (43.1%).The frequency of Helicobacter pylori (HP) positivity differ between gastric and intestinal location P=0.003 and correlates with the histological type P=0.01. Conclusions This retrospective study of patients with GI lymphoma from Western Algeria illustrates the pattern of distribution of various common and rare histological subtypes. More studies are necessary to find a potential cause, risk factor or genetic mutation that can explain these specific characteristics of GIL. PMID:28078126

  7. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  8. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-21

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  9. State-of-the-art in longitudinal studies on aging: an overview of the supplement.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    The articles in this supplement are based on a conference held in January 2008 sponsored by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The purpose of the conference was to summarize major findings and methodological issues in previous and ongoing longitudinal studies on aging and to identify potentially fruitful areas for future research. This article is a review and synthesis of the articles in this supplement. Each of the articles makes important contributions to summarizing existing research, identifying challenging methodological issues, or proposing areas that should be explored in future research. Three themes were identified: general improvement in the health status of the population aged 65 and older in the United States, a shift in longitudinal research on aging from a focus on the endpoints of disease to a focus on the preclinical stage and underlying mechanisms of these diseases, and contemporary developments in longitudinal research methodology. A number of practical suggestions were also drawn from the articles reviewed.

  10. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  11. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien; Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert; Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  12. Unintentional Injuries and Violence among Adults in Northern Jordan: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Alzghoul, Manal M; Shakhatreh, Mohammed K; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya

    2017-03-24

    Injuries (unintentional and intentional) are the main cause of death and disability worldwide, including Jordan. The main purpose of this hospital-based retrospective study was to identify characteristics, causes, and risk factors of unintentional injuries and violence among all adult patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency department because of injury in Northern Jordan. Data were collected retrospectively from four major hospitals from January 2008 to January 2013. A total of 2425 Jordanian individuals who accessed and were treated by the four hospitals were included in this study. The findings show that the majority of patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency departments in the four hospitals were males (n = 2044, 87.16%) versus females (n = 301, 12.8%). Violence was the most common reason of injury (70.66%), followed by road traffic crashes (23.21%). The most common anatomical locations of reported injuries were the head (38.74%), followed by abdomen/pelvis and lower back, among males and females (9.93%). Violence had a high significant effect on the site of injuries. Patients who had been injured to the head because of a stab wound or fighting were substantially over-involved in head injuries, with injury rates 3.88 and 7.51 times higher than those who had been injured to the head due to gunshot, respectively. Even patients who had been injured to the head because of assault show much higher involvement in injury risk than non-assault patients (Odds Ratio = 8.46). These findings highlight the need for a large national study to confirm the findings. It also draws attention to the importance of public awareness and to special injury prevention programs that not only focus on saving lives and lessening the number of injuries, illnesses, and fatalities, but also to limit the social and economic burden of injury among adults in Northern Jordan.

  13. Reporting adverse transfusion reactions: A retrospective study from tertiary care hospital from New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Pahuja, Sangeeta; Puri, Vandana; Mahajan, Gunjan; Gupta, Prajwala; Jain, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Blood transfusion services have achieved newer heights in the last decade, with developments in cellular techniques, component separation, and integration of molecular methods. However, the system of recording and reporting of the adverse events related to blood transfusion is developing countries like India is grossly inadequate and voluntary in nature. AIMS: This study was undertaken to analyze the retrospective data on adverse events related to blood transfusions in our hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was done to examine all the transfusion related adverse events reported in a Regional Blood Bank Transfusion Centre of North India over a period of 9 years. Adverse transfusion events related to whole blood, red cell concentrates (RCCs), and all other components were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Average rate of transfusion reactions with the components was also assessed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was taken to indicate a significant difference. RESULTS: During this period, a total of 1,60,973 blood/blood component units were issued by our blood bank to various departments of the hospital and 314 immediate transfusion events were reported. The rate of immediate transfusion reactions during the study was 0.19%. Average transfusion reaction rate with RCC was 0.25% with febrile nonhemolytic reactions being the most common type of adverse event (37.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness should be increased among clinicians to correctly prevent, identify, and report transfusion-related adverse events. These measures should be implemented to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:28316433

  14. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A Retrospective Study in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, FO

    2014-01-01

    Background: A retrospective study of lumbosacral angle (LSA) in normal lateral supine lumbosacral radiographs of 274 Nigerians (aged 15-74 years) of Southeast region. A supine lateral lumbar spine radiograph is a very accurate means of measuring lordotic angles. The LSA is one of such angles, and can be used in the investigation, treatment and follow-up of low back disorders. Little is known about what the normal value for our population is and therefore, what constitutes hypo-/hyper-lordosis; most of the data in use in medical practice are based on studies on other races. Aim: To quantify the normal LSA in our population. Materials and Methods: LSA was measured by the Ferguson's technique and the data analyzed with SPSS Statistics version 17.0 (Chicago IL, USA). Results: LSA varied between 18° and 71°. With a 95.0 confidence interval of 43.3-45.6°, the mean (standard deviation) was 44.5 (9.9)° and showed no significant variation with sex and between various age groups; it compared favorably (though with small difference) with some of the literature values currently in use. Conclusion: This study had established the normal lordosis and the possible values at which to consider hypo-lordosis (below 15°), and hyper-lordosis (above 75°) in our population. Also established is that the development of lumbar lordosis ceases at spinal maturity, and that in normal lumbar lordosis measurement, the retrospective approach is a credible alternative to the prospective method. PMID:25328789

  15. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  16. Association between ischaemic bowel syndromes and androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, I-Ni; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chung, Chi-Jung; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the risk of ischaemic bowel syndrome (IBS) in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) users to explore the long-term outcomes of patients with prostate cancer (PC) receiving ADT treatment. Methods We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study. All the clinical information of the study participants were acquired from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for Catastrophic Illness Patients in Taiwan. We extracted data for all the patients newly diagnosed with prostate malignancy (ICD-9-CM 185 or C61 in ICD-10-CM) from 2000 to 2008. The patients were then divided into two groups: 7160 male ADT cohort receiving ADT and 7160 male non-ADT comparison group frequency matched by age and index year of ADT treatment of the ADT group. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the adjusted HR and 95% CIs of the IBS risk. Results No significant difference was noted in the overall incidence rate for IBS between the ADT and non-ADT cohorts (0.86 and 0.89 per 1000 person–year, respectively, p=0.89). Even after adjusting for potential risk factors, a 1.06-fold risk of IBS (95% CI 0.62 to 1.82, p=0.82) was observed in the ADT cohort relative to the non-ADT cohorts. Moreover, we stratified the ADT cohort by time point of ADT treatment after PC diagnosis. Different IBS incidence rates were observed among the early ADT, late-ADT and non-ADT users at 0.77, 1.23 and 0.89 per 1000 person-years, respectively; nonetheless, the difference was not statistically significant. Moreover, no difference was found between the ADT treatment types and IBS risk, including sole orchiectomy, sole luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone and both. Conclusions Results showed that ADT treatment in patients with PC is not an independent factor for IBS incidence. Large sample sizes for patients with IBS with patients with PC who had received ADT treatment are needed for further study. PMID:28246133

  17. Patients seeking treatment for craniofacial pain: a retrospective study of 300 patients.

    PubMed

    Shankland, Wesley E

    2008-10-01

    Those engaged in any type of pain practice will encounter patients who have seen many practitioners. This is especially true for clinicians who treat craniofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. In this retrospective study of 300 patients seeking treatment for various types of craniofacial pain, the average age was 43.05 years. A mean average of 3.92 clinicians was consulted with the range of practitioners being one to 26. The average time of pain was 4.15 years. Most of the subjects (210) were in the age groups 21 years to 60 years old. Females comprised 85.30% of the subjects with a mean average age of 43.43 years; 14.70% were male with a mean average age of 41.02 years.

  18. Use of combined oral contraceptives: retrospective study in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Savabi-Esfahany, M; Fadaei, S; Yousefy, A

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study on 500 women in Isfahan who started taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) during the period 21 March 1995-20 March 1997. The cumulative continuation rate fell from 77% to 12% over 60 months. The most common reason for discontinuation was side-effects. There was a significant correlation between side-effects and cumulative COC continuation rate (P < 0.05). The lowest rate was seen in women reporting nausea or vomiting. Women who are interested in COCs should receive extensive counselling about the possible side-effects and should be helped to find a method of birth control suited to their temperament and physiology.

  19. A retrospective study on the use of acepromazine maleate in dogs with seizures.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Karen M; Marioni-Henry, Katia; Wagner, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Use of acepromazine (i.e., acetylpromazine) maleate in dogs with a history of seizures is reportedly contraindicated because of the risk of decreasing the seizure threshold in these animals. In this retrospective study, acepromazine was administered for tranquilization to 36 dogs with a prior history of seizures and to decrease seizure activity in 11 dogs. No seizures were seen within 16 hours of acepromazine administration in the 36 dogs that received the drug for tranquilization during hospitalization. After acepromazine administration, seizures abated for 1.5 to 8 hours (n=6) or did not recur (n=2) in eight of 10 dogs that were actively seizing. Excitement-induced seizure frequency was reduced for 2 months in one dog.

  20. Extranodal oral non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A retrospective study of 40 cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Keszler, Alicia; Piloni, María J; Paparella, María L; Soler, Marcela de Dios; Ron, Patricia Cabrera; Narbaitz, Marina

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of extranodal oral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas diagnosed at the Surgical Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry at Buenos Aires University, Argentina, between 1985 and 2004. The 40 cases found represent 0.2% of the oral biopsies diagnosed during that time and 4.6% of malignant neoplasias. Overall mean age of patients was 49.4 years, and frequency was greater in males. 80% affected soft tissues. Prevalent location was gingival, followed by palate. Intraosseous cases were more frequent in mandible (75%) than in upper maxilla. 100% of the cases were phenotype B, with a higher frequency of high-grade aggressiveness. The most common histological type was Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma. 60% of the Plasmablastic Lymphomas in the series came from HIV+ patients. Evolution time prior to consultation was 1 to 3 months in 57.7% of the cases.