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Sample records for looming infrastructure crisis

  1. Government must act now to prevent looming winter crisis.

    PubMed

    2016-08-24

    It may seem odd to be talking about winter pressures now, but there are signs that the next 6-8 months are going to be challenging in the extreme. A report from the RCN and the Royal College of Emergency Medicine suggests that emergency department staff are locked in a cycle of permanent crisis. Add a spell of icy weather into the mix and the NHS could collapse under the strain. PMID:27641549

  2. America's looming creativity crisis.

    PubMed

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  3. America's looming creativity crisis.

    PubMed

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow. PMID:15559581

  4. An Insurance Crisis Looms--Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Cliff

    1993-01-01

    The insurance industry has experienced a round of claims costs as a result of recent natural disasters. These costs are passed on to customers. To avoid higher premiums, student-transportation systems can take the following money-saving steps: raise the deductible; beef up driver training; focus on driver retention; and get the fleet's loss…

  5. Beyond abortion: the looming battle over death in the 'culture wars'.

    PubMed

    Evans, James

    2008-08-01

    By concentrating on abortion, the culture wars have avoided facing a crisis about the end of life. This paper explores four themes: (1) the technological transformation of birth and death into matters of decision, not matters of fact; (2) abortion as the nexus of Eros (sex) with Thanatos (death); (3) the real crisis, conveniently masked by our obsession with sex, looming at the end of life, not at its beginning; (4) the surplus-repression that protects us from assuming responsibility for choosing between life and death. PMID:18410462

  6. Beyond abortion: the looming battle over death in the 'culture wars'.

    PubMed

    Evans, James

    2008-08-01

    By concentrating on abortion, the culture wars have avoided facing a crisis about the end of life. This paper explores four themes: (1) the technological transformation of birth and death into matters of decision, not matters of fact; (2) abortion as the nexus of Eros (sex) with Thanatos (death); (3) the real crisis, conveniently masked by our obsession with sex, looming at the end of life, not at its beginning; (4) the surplus-repression that protects us from assuming responsibility for choosing between life and death.

  7. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  8. Dynamical encoding of looming, receding, and focussing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longtin, Andre; Clarke, Stephen Elisha; Maler, Leonard; CenterNeural Dynamics Collaboration

    This talk will discuss a non-conventional neural coding task that may apply more broadly to many senses in higher vertebrates. We ask whether and how a non-visual sensory system can focus on an object. We present recent experimental and modeling work that shows how the early sensory circuitry of electric sense can perform such neuronal focusing that is manifested behaviorally. This sense is the main one used by weakly electric fish to navigate, locate prey and communicate in the murky waters of their natural habitat. We show that there is a distance at which the Fisher information of a neuron's response to a looming and receding object is maximized, and that this distance corresponds to a behaviorally relevant one chosen by these animals. Strikingly, this maximum occurs at a bifurcation between tonic firing and bursting. We further discuss how the invariance of this distance to signal attributes can arise, a process that first involves power-law spike frequency adaptation. The talk will also highlight the importance of expanding the classic dual neural encoding of contrast using ON and OFF cells in the context of looming and receding stimuli. The authors acknowledge support from CIHR and NSERC.

  9. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  10. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants’ looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.

  11. 47. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. STAFFORD LOOM, WITH R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. STAFFORD LOOM, WITH R. W. ANDREWS PATENT PATTERN DEVICE, C. 1870, VIEW LOOKING FROM THE FRONT, SECOND FLOOR SOUTH. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  12. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Riskind, J H

    1997-08-01

    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  13. Autonomous obstacle avoidance using visual fixation and looming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joarder, Kunal; Raviv, Daniel

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes a vision-based method for avoiding obstacles using the concepts of visual looming and fixating motion. Visual looming refers to the expansion of images of objects in the retina. Usually, this is due to the decreasing distance between the observer and the object. An increasing looming value signifies an increasing threat of collision with the object. The visual task of avoiding collision can be further simplified by purposive control of visual fixation at the objects in front of the moving camera. Using these two basic concepts real time obstacle avoidance in a tight perception-action loop is implemented. Three-dimensional space in front of the camera is divided into zones with various degrees of looming-based threat of collision. For each obstacle seen by a fixating camera, looming and its time derivative are calculated directly from the 2-D image. Depending on the threat posed by an obstacle, a course change is dictated. This looming based approach is simple, independent of the size of the 3-D object and its range and involves simple quantitative measurements. Results pertinent to a camera on a robot arm navigating between obstacles are presented.

  14. Impact prediction by looming visual stimuli enhances tactile detection.

    PubMed

    Cléry, Justine; Guipponi, Olivier; Odouard, Soline; Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2015-03-11

    From an ecological point of view, approaching objects are potentially more harmful than receding objects. A predator, a dominant conspecific, or a mere branch coming up at high speed can all be dangerous if one does not detect them and produce the appropriate escape behavior fast enough. And indeed, looming stimuli trigger stereotyped defensive responses in both monkeys and human infants. However, while the heteromodal somatosensory consequences of visual looming stimuli can be fully predicted by their spatiotemporal dynamics, few studies if any have explored whether visual stimuli looming toward the face predictively enhance heteromodal tactile sensitivity around the expected time of impact and at its expected location on the body. In the present study, we report that, in addition to triggering a defensive motor repertoire, looming stimuli toward the face provide the nervous system with predictive cues that enhance tactile sensitivity on the face. Specifically, we describe an enhancement of tactile processes at the expected time and location of impact of the stimulus on the face. We additionally show that a looming stimulus that brushes past the face also enhances tactile sensitivity on the nearby cheek, suggesting that the space close to the face is incorporated into the subjects' body schema. We propose that this cross-modal predictive facilitation involves multisensory convergence areas subserving the representation of a peripersonal space and a safety boundary of self.

  15. Science should warn people of looming disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of special knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, it appears that a few seismic hazard assessment programs and/or methodologies were tested appropriately against real observations before being endorsed for estimation of earthquake related risks. The fatal evidence and aftermath of the past decades prove that many of the existing internationally accepted methodologies are grossly misleading and are evidently unacceptable for any kind of responsible risk evaluation and knowledgeable disaster prevention. In contrast, the confirmed reliability of pattern recognition aimed at earthquake prone areas and times of increased probability, along with realistic earthquake scaling and scenario modeling, allow us to conclude that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering this state-of-the-art knowledge of looming disaster in advance catastrophic events. In a lieu of seismic observations long enough for a reliable probabilistic assessment or a comprehensive physical theory of earthquake recurrence, pattern recognition applied to available geophysical and/or geological data sets remains a broad avenue to follow in seismic hazard forecast/prediction. Moreover, better understanding seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, progress to new approaches in assessing time-dependent seismic hazard based on multiscale analysis of seismic activity and reproducible intermediate-term earthquake prediction technique. The algorithms, which make use of multidisciplinary data available and account for fractal nature of earthquake distributions in space and time, have confirmed their

  16. 10. View of Draper darby chain loom from warp beam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Draper darby chain loom from warp beam end, patent date 1913, made by Drpaer Corporation, Hopedale, Massachusetts. Acquired ca. 1941. Note Draper-Northrop name on automatic spindle changer. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  17. Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

  18. 10. Photocopy of Photograph, c. 1980. VIEW LOOMING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of Photograph, c. 1980. VIEW LOOMING EAST ALONG THE WATER-FILLED SAN FRANCISCO CANAL. Photographer: Mark Durben, July 1986 Source: Salt River Project Archives - San Francisco Canal, Between Fortieth & Weir & Thirty-sixth Street & Roeser Road, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Projects reprieved - but cuts still loom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Physicists in the UK are awaiting the outcome of a review into the health of physics that was commissioned on the back of a funding crisis in one of the country's major funding research councils. The Wakeham review, which is due to publish its findings next month, was initiated in January by the UK's science minister Ian Pearson after an £80m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technologies Funding Council (STFC) led to it pulling out of the Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile and the International Linear Collider (see Physics World January p7). Led by physicist Bill Wakeham of Southampton University, the review is also looking at physics facilities in the UK and how best they should be funded.

  20. Naturalistic stimulus structure determines the integration of audiovisual looming signals in binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Verena; Kleiner, Mario; Bartels, Andreas; Hartcher O'Brien, Jessica; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Noppeney, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Rapid integration of biologically relevant information is crucial for the survival of an organism. Most prominently, humans should be biased to attend and respond to looming stimuli that signal approaching danger (e.g. predator) and hence require rapid action. This psychophysics study used binocular rivalry to investigate the perceptual advantage of looming (relative to receding) visual signals (i.e. looming bias) and how this bias can be influenced by concurrent auditory looming/receding stimuli and the statistical structure of the auditory and visual signals. Subjects were dichoptically presented with looming/receding visual stimuli that were paired with looming or receding sounds. The visual signals conformed to two different statistical structures: (1) a 'simple' random-dot kinematogram showing a starfield and (2) a "naturalistic" visual Shepard stimulus. Likewise, the looming/receding sound was (1) a simple amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) tone or (2) a complex Shepard tone. Our results show that the perceptual looming bias (i.e. the increase in dominance times for looming versus receding percepts) is amplified by looming sounds, yet reduced and even converted into a receding bias by receding sounds. Moreover, the influence of looming/receding sounds on the visual looming bias depends on the statistical structure of both the visual and auditory signals. It is enhanced when audiovisual signals are Shepard stimuli. In conclusion, visual perception prioritizes processing of biologically significant looming stimuli especially when paired with looming auditory signals. Critically, these audiovisual interactions are amplified for statistically complex signals that are more naturalistic and known to engage neural processing at multiple levels of the cortical hierarchy.

  1. Two identified looming detectors in the locust: ubiquitous lateral connections among their inputs contribute to selective responses to looming objects

    PubMed Central

    Rind, F. Claire; Wernitznig, Stefan; Pölt, Peter; Zankel, Armin; Gütl, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input. Reconstructions reveal that many trans-medullary-afferents (TmAs) connect the eye with each LGMD, one TmA per facet per LGMD. But when a TmA synapses with an LGMD it also connects laterally with another TmA. These inter-TmA synapses are always reciprocal. Total excitatory input to the LGMD 1 and 2 comes from 131,000 and 186,000 synapses reaching densities of 3.1 and 2.6 synapses per μm2 respectively. We explored the computational consequences of reciprocal synapses between each TmA and 6 others from neighbouring columns. Since any lateral interactions between LGMD inputs have always been inhibitory we may assume these reciprocal lateral connections are most likely inhibitory. Such reciprocal inhibitory synapses increased the LGMD’s selectivity for looming over passing objects, particularly at the beginning of object approach. PMID:27774991

  2. Crisis, What Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

  3. A look into the cockpit of the developing locust: looming detectors and predator avoidance.

    PubMed

    Sztarker, Julieta; Rind, F Claire

    2014-11-01

    For many animals, the visual detection of looming stimuli is crucial at any stage of their lives. For example, human babies of only 6 days old display evasive responses to looming stimuli (Bower et al. [1971]: Percept Psychophys 9: 193-196). This means the neuronal pathways involved in looming detection should mature early in life. Locusts have been used extensively to examine the neural circuits and mechanisms involved in sensing looming stimuli and triggering visually evoked evasive actions, making them ideal subjects in which to investigate the development of looming sensitivity. Two lobula giant movement detectors (LGMD) neurons have been identified in the lobula region of the locust visual system: the LGMD1 neuron responds selectively to looming stimuli and provides information that contributes to evasive responses such as jumping and emergency glides. The LGMD2 responds to looming stimuli and shares many response properties with the LGMD1. Both neurons have only been described in the adult. In this study, we describe a practical method combining classical staining techniques and 3D neuronal reconstructions that can be used, even in small insects, to reveal detailed anatomy of individual neurons. We have used it to analyze the anatomy of the fan-shaped dendritic tree of the LGMD1 and the LGMD2 neurons in all stages of the post-embryonic development of Locusta migratoria. We also analyze changes seen during the ontogeny of escape behaviors triggered by looming stimuli, specially the hiding response.

  4. Reduced Looming Sensitivity in Primary School Children with Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Almost all locomotor animals are sensitive to optical expansion (visual looming) and for most animals this sensitivity is evident very early in their development. In humans there is evidence that responses to looming stimuli begin in the first 6 weeks of life, but here we demonstrate that as children become independent their perceptual acuity…

  5. Haptic distal spatial perception mediated by strings: haptic "looming".

    PubMed

    Cabe, Patrick A

    2011-10-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached collinearity with the hooks, just as the optical angle subtended by an approaching object increases. The vertical force component at the finger is potentially informative for perception, approaching zero at finger-hook collinearity. In Experiment 1, participants judged hook height reasonably accurately. To retain force relationships but eliminate immediate skin contact, Experiment 2 employed a hand-held rod; results replicated those of Experiment 1. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 using a ring instead of a rod. In all three experiments, estimated hook height closely paralleled actual height, r > .9. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that participants could project impending finger-hook collinearity when finger contact with the string was interrupted during its traverse. Perceivers' estimate errors were nearly perfectly predicted by height-force ratio relationships (Rs > .96). Outcomes are related to optical and acoustic looming, dynamic touch, tau theory, and Gibsonian perceptual theory.

  6. Haptic distal spatial perception mediated by strings: haptic "looming".

    PubMed

    Cabe, Patrick A

    2011-10-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached collinearity with the hooks, just as the optical angle subtended by an approaching object increases. The vertical force component at the finger is potentially informative for perception, approaching zero at finger-hook collinearity. In Experiment 1, participants judged hook height reasonably accurately. To retain force relationships but eliminate immediate skin contact, Experiment 2 employed a hand-held rod; results replicated those of Experiment 1. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 using a ring instead of a rod. In all three experiments, estimated hook height closely paralleled actual height, r > .9. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that participants could project impending finger-hook collinearity when finger contact with the string was interrupted during its traverse. Perceivers' estimate errors were nearly perfectly predicted by height-force ratio relationships (Rs > .96). Outcomes are related to optical and acoustic looming, dynamic touch, tau theory, and Gibsonian perceptual theory. PMID:21688938

  7. Fierce debate looms over funding of superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-02-01

    The coming session of Congress looks like a crucial one in the present era of Big Science. Legislators will have to decide on whether to go ahead and approve construction funding for the biggest atom smasher of all time, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The Administration will be asking for about $230 million (out of a scheduled $350 million) to begin work. But uncertainties loom, and the debate ahead looks bloody. The SSC is a project the Department of Energy says will cost $4.4 billion in fiscal 1988 dollars, rated according to a targeted completion date in 1996. The General Accounting Office pegs the cost at $4.9 billion in 1985 dollars. In inflationary and project stretchout dollars, the figure could easily double. But money for science is again tight in the government, and battles that lie ahead involve the competition between science and social programs, and, indeed, between the sciences themselves. This article discusses these battles.

  8. Background complexity affects response of a looming-sensitive neuron to object motion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana C; McMillan, Glyn A; Santos, Cristina P; Gray, John R

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies show how stimulus complexity affects the responses of looming-sensitive neurons across multiple animal taxa. Locusts contain a well-described, descending motion-sensitive pathway that is preferentially looming sensitive. However, the lobula giant movement detector/descending contralateral movement detector (LGMD/DCMD) pathway responds to more than simple objects approaching at constant, predictable trajectories. In this study, we presented Locusta migratoria with a series of complex three-dimensional visual stimuli presented while simultaneously recording DCMD activity extracellularly. In addition to a frontal looming stimulus, we used a combination of compound trajectories (nonlooming transitioning to looming) presented at different velocities and onto a simple, scattered, or progressive flow field background. Regardless of stimulus background, DCMD responses to looming were characteristic and related to previously described effects of azimuthal approach angle and velocity of object expansion. However, increasing background complexity caused reduced firing rates, delayed peaks, shorter rise phases, and longer fall phases. DCMD responded to transitions to looming with a characteristic drop in a firing rate that was relatively invariant across most stimulus combinations and occurred regardless of stimulus background. Spike numbers were higher in the presence of the scattered background and reduced in the flow field background. We show that DCMD response time to a transition depends on unique expansion parameters of the moving stimulus irrespective of background complexity. Our results show how background complexity shapes DCMD responses to looming stimuli, which is explained within a behavioral context.

  9. Why Students Need to Be Informed about Our Looming Fiscal Crisis: The America's Future Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Andrew L.; Orphan, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite nearly universal concern about America's rapidly rising national debt, the United States government was $12.5 trillion in debt by the spring of 2010. Yet, few people--including college and university students--understand why we are in debt, what the many effects and dangers could be, the difficult steps necessary to reduce our deficits and…

  10. Game Plan: Colleges Share a Page from Their Playbooks That Addresses the Looming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The graying of community college leadership is an issue across the country. More than half of all community college presidents expect to retire in five years, according to data from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Succession planning is yet another opportunity for colleges already navigating a variety of reforms to innovate.…

  11. Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M; Jakob, Elizabeth M

    2012-12-23

    Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

  12. Hearing brighter: changing in-depth visual perception through looming sounds.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Thut, Gregor; Romei, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    Rapidly approaching (looming) sounds are ecologically salient stimuli that are perceived as nearer than they are due to overestimation of their loudness change and underestimation of their distance (Neuhoff, 1998; Seifritz et al., 2002). Despite evidence for crossmodal influence by looming sounds onto visual areas (Romei, Murray, Cappe, & Thut, 2009, 2013; Tyll et al., 2013), it is unknown whether such sounds bias visual percepts in similar ways. Nearer objects appear to be larger and brighter than distant objects. If looming sounds impact visual processing, then visual stimuli paired with looming sounds should be perceived as brighter and larger, even when the visual stimuli do not provide motion cues, i.e. are static. In Experiment 1 we found that static visual objects paired with looming tones (but not static or receding tones) were perceived as larger and brighter than their actual physical properties, as if they appear closer to the observer. In a second experiment, we replicate and extend the findings of Experiment 1. Crucially, we did not find evidence of such bias by looming sounds when visual processing was disrupted via masking or when catch trials were presented, ruling out simple response bias. Finally, in a third experiment we found that looming tones do not bias visual stimulus characteristics that do not carry visual depth information such as shape, providing further evidence that they specifically impact in-depth visual processing. We conclude that looming sounds impact visual perception through a mechanism transferring in-depth sound motion information onto the relevant in-depth visual dimensions (such as size and luminance but not shape) in a crossmodal remapping of information for a genuine, evolutionary advantage in stimulus detection.

  13. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  14. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  15. Hemolytic crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003270.htm Hemolytic crisis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemolytic crisis occurs when large numbers of red blood cells ...

  16. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  17. Longitudinal study of looming in infants with high-density EEG.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Audrey L H; Svantesson, Monica; van der Weel, F R Ruud

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly approaching object provides information about the object's approach and how imminent a collision is. Prospective control when responding to a looming virtual object approaching on a direct collision course was studied longitudinally in 10 infants aged 5/6 and 12/13 months. Different characteristics of the looming-related visual evoked potential (VEP) responses from infants' brain electrical recordings (EEG) were explored and compared between the infants at these different ages. The aim of this study was to find evidence for infant brain electrical responses coherent with a looming stimulus approaching the infant under three different accelerations. It was also investigated whether the use of different timing strategies to estimate the loom's time-to-collision would produce differences in the EEG recordings. The results showed that the timing and the duration of the VEP responses differed with age. At the age of 5/6 months, infants showed VEP peaks earlier in the looming sequence and VEP responses with longer duration than when they were 12/13 months old. Results from the timing-strategy analysis showed that with age, 4 infants shifted from a less efficient timing strategy involving the loom's velocity to the more efficient strategy involving the loom's time-to-collision. Further, it was found that peak VEP activation in the investigated areas propagated across the cortex, showing the highest observed activation in the occipital area at the age of 5/6 months, whereas the parietal area showed the highest activation when the infants were 12/13 months. The decrease in processing time together with a peak VEP response closer to the loom's time-to-collision indicate a developmental trend in infants' prediction of an object's time-to-collision. This developmental trend is further substantiated by the shift from a less efficient to a more efficient timing strategy and by evidence of propagated peak VEP activation towards higher information processing areas in the

  18. Escape behavior and neuronal responses to looming stimuli in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda: Grapsidae).

    PubMed

    Oliva, Damián; Medan, Violeta; Tomsic, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Behavioral responses to looming stimuli have been studied in many vertebrate and invertebrate species, but neurons sensitive to looming have been investigated in very few animals. In this paper we introduce a new experimental model using the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, which allows investigation of the processes of looming detection and escape decision at both the behavioral and neuronal levels. By analyzing the escape response of the crab in a walking simulator device we show that: (i) a robust and reliable escape response can be elicited by computer-generated looming stimuli in all tested animals; (ii) parameters such as distance, speed, timing and directionality of the escape run, are easy to record and quantify precisely in the walking device; (iii) although the magnitude of escape varies between animals and stimulus presentations, the timing of the response is remarkably consistent and does not habituate at 3 min stimulus intervals. We then study the response of neurons from the brain of the crab by means of intracellular recordings in the intact animal and show that: (iv) two subclasses of previously identified movement detector neurons from the lobula (third optic neuropil) exhibit robust and reliable responses to the same looming stimuli that trigger the behavioral response; (v) the neurons respond to the object approach by increasing their rate of firing in a way that closely matches the dynamics of the image expansion. Finally, we compare the neuronal with the behavioral response showing that: (vi) differences in the neuronal responses to looming, receding or laterally moving stimuli closely reflect the behavioral differences to such stimuli; (vii) during looming, the crab starts to run soon after the looming-sensitive neurons begin to increase their firing rate. The increase in the running speed during stimulus approach faithfully follows the increment in the firing rate, until the moment of maximum stimulus expansion. Thereafter, the neurons abruptly

  19. Looming sensitive cortical regions without V1 input: evidence from a patient with bilateral cortical blindness

    PubMed Central

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Legrand, Lore B.; Zhan, Minye; Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Fast and automatic behavioral responses are required to avoid collision with an approaching stimulus. Accordingly, looming stimuli have been found to be highly salient and efficient attractors of attention due to the implication of potential collision and potential threat. Here, we address the question of whether looming motion is processed in the absence of any functional primary visual cortex and consequently without awareness. For this, we investigated a patient (TN) suffering from complete, bilateral damage to his primary visual cortex. Using an fMRI paradigm, we measured TN's brain activation during the presentation of looming, receding, rotating, and static point lights, of which he was unaware. When contrasted with other conditions, looming was found to produce bilateral activation of the middle temporal areas, as well as the superior temporal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe (IPL). The latter are generally thought to be involved in multisensory processing of motion in extrapersonal space, as well as attentional capture and saliency. No activity was found close to the lesioned V1 area. This demonstrates that looming motion is processed in the absence of awareness through direct subcortical projections to areas involved in multisensory processing of motion and saliency that bypass V1. PMID:26557059

  20. On-loom, real-time, noncontact detection of fabric defects by ultrasonic imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H. T.

    1998-09-08

    A noncontact, on-loom ultrasonic inspection technique was developed for real-time 100% defect inspection of fabrics. A prototype was built and tested successfully on loom. The system is compact, rugged, low cost, requires minimal maintenance, is not sensitive to fabric color and vibration, and can easily be adapted to current loom configurations. Moreover, it can detect defects in both the pick and warp directions. The system is capable of determining the size, location, and orientation of each defect. To further improve the system, air-coupled transducers with higher efficiency and sensitivity need to be developed. Advanced detection algorithms also need to be developed for better classification and categorization of defects in real-time.

  1. Infrastructure Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yow, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of technological design standards for a 35-school construction/renovation effort by Guilford County Schools in North Carolina. The standards encompassed the physical infrastructure, telephone systems, and paging systems. (EV)

  2. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  3. Responses of descending neurons to looming stimuli in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Toh, Yoshihiro

    2009-03-01

    Responses to visual stimuli of some neurons that descend the nerve cord from the brain were recorded extracellularly in the mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Most of the recorded neurons showed their largest responses to looming stimuli that simulated a black circle approaching towards the mantis. The neurons showed a transient excitatory response to a gradually darkening or receding circle. The neurons showed sustained excitation to the linearly expanding stimuli, but the spike frequency decreased rapidly. The responses of the neurons were affected by both the diameter and the speed of looming stimuli. Faster or smaller looming stimuli elicited a higher peak frequency. These responses were observed in both recordings from the connective between suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglia and the connective between prothoracic and mesothoracic ganglia. There was a one-to-one correspondence of spike firing between these two recordings with a fixed delay. The neurons had the receptive field on ipsilateral side to its axon at the cervical connective. These results suggest that there is a looming-sensitive descending neuron, with an axon projecting over prothoracic ganglion, in the mantis nervous system. PMID:19093123

  4. Crisis communications.

    PubMed

    Niewenhous, Daria; Sterling, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Whether healthcare security is directly or indirectly involved in a crisis that will involve the media, it will pay to better familiarize yourself with the kind of planned responses discussed in this article to mitigate negative outcomes.

  5. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, S. M.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Kelly, T. K.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    The notion that our nation's critical infrastructures are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies (so-called 'cyberbased systems'), is more than an abstract, theoretical concept. As shown by the 1998 failure of the Galaxy 4 telecommunications satellite, the prolonged power crisis in California, and many other recent infrastructure disruptions, what happens to one infrastructure can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions and send ripples throughout the national a global economy. This article presents a conceptual framework for addressing infrastructure interdependencies that could serve as the basis for further understanding and scholarship in this important area. We use this framework to explore the challenges and complexities of interdependency. We set the stage for this discussion by explicitly defining the terms infrastructure, infrastructure dependencies, and infrastructure interdependencies and introducing the fundamental concept of infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. We then focus on the interrelated factors and system conditions that collectively define the six dimensions. Finally, we discuss some of the research challenges involved in developing, applying, and validating modeling and simulation methodologies and tools for infrastructure interdependency analysis.

  6. Predator versus Prey: Locust Looming-Detector Neuron and Behavioural Responses to Stimuli Representing Attacking Bird Predators

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Roger D.; Rind, F. Claire; Simmons, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Many arthropods possess escape-triggering neural mechanisms that help them evade predators. These mechanisms are important neuroethological models, but they are rarely investigated using predator-like stimuli because there is often insufficient information on real predator attacks. Locusts possess uniquely identifiable visual neurons (the descending contralateral movement detectors, DCMDs) that are well-studied looming motion detectors. The DCMDs trigger ‘glides’ in flying locusts, which are hypothesised to be appropriate last-ditch responses to the looms of avian predators. To date it has not been possible to study glides in response to stimuli simulating bird attacks because such attacks have not been characterised. We analyse video of wild black kites attacking flying locusts, and estimate kite attack speeds of 10.8±1.4 m/s. We estimate that the loom of a kite’s thorax towards a locust at these speeds should be characterised by a relatively low ratio of half size to speed (l/|v|) in the range 4–17 ms. Peak DCMD spike rate and gliding response occurrence are known to increase as l/|v| decreases for simple looming shapes. Using simulated looming discs, we investigate these trends and show that both DCMD and behavioural responses are strong to stimuli with kite-like l/|v| ratios. Adding wings to looming discs to produce a more realistic stimulus shape did not disrupt the overall relationships of DCMD and gliding occurrence to stimulus l/|v|. However, adding wings to looming discs did slightly reduce high frequency DCMD spike rates in the final stages of object approach, and slightly delay glide initiation. Looming discs with or without wings triggered glides closer to the time of collision as l/|v| declined, and relatively infrequently before collision at very low l/|v|. However, the performance of this system is in line with expectations for a last-ditch escape response. PMID:23209660

  7. Dispositional and comparative optimism interact to predict avoidance of a looming health threat.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie L; Geers, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that when confronted with a health threat, individuals high in both dispositional and comparative optimism employ a more avoidant style of coping than individuals high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. We examined the hypothesis that threat distance moderates this interactive optimism association. In two studies, participants were randomly assigned to a looming or distant threat condition. Study 1 revealed that in the looming threat condition, participants high in both forms of optimism were more likely to minimise the threat and less inclined to seek additional health information relative to participants high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. In Study 2, the same interaction pattern emerged on a measure of psychological abstraction suggesting these variables combine to alter broad information processing strategies. Implications for considering multiple forms of optimism when delivering health status information are discussed.

  8. Speed-invariant encoding of looming object distance requires power law spike rate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen E; Naud, Richard; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2013-08-13

    Neural representations of a moving object's distance and approach speed are essential for determining appropriate orienting responses, such as those observed in the localization behaviors of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We demonstrate that a power law form of spike rate adaptation transforms an electroreceptor afferent's response to "looming" object motion, effectively parsing information about distance and approach speed into distinct measures of the firing rate. Neurons with dynamics characterized by fixed time scales are shown to confound estimates of object distance and speed. Conversely, power law adaptation modifies an electroreceptor afferent's response according to the time scales present in the stimulus, generating a rate code for looming object distance that is invariant to speed and acceleration. Consequently, estimates of both object distance and approach speed can be uniquely determined from an electroreceptor afferent's firing rate, a multiplexed neural code operating over the extended time scales associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli.

  9. A looming-sensitive pathway responds to changes in the trajectory of object motion.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Gray, John R

    2012-08-01

    Two identified locust neurons, the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic partner, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), constitute one motion-sensitive pathway in the visual system that responds preferentially to objects that approach on a direct collision course and are implicated in collision-avoidance behavior. Previously described responses to the approach of paired objects and approaches at different time intervals (Guest BB, Gray JR. J Neurophysiol 95: 1428-1441, 2006) suggest that this pathway may also be affected by more complicated movements in the locust's visual environment. To test this possibility we presented stationary locusts with disks traveling along combinations of colliding (looming), noncolliding (translatory), and near-miss trajectories. Distinctly different responses to different trajectories and trajectory changes demonstrate that DCMD responds to complex aspects of local visual motion. DCMD peak firing rates associated with the time of collision remained relatively invariant after a trajectory change from translation to looming. Translatory motion initiated in the frontal visual field generated a larger peak firing rate relative to object motion initiated in the posterior visual field, and the peak varied with simulated distance from the eye. Transition from translation to looming produced a transient decrease in the firing rate, whereas transition away from looming produced a transient increase. The change in firing rate at the time of transition was strongly correlated with unique expansion parameters described by the instantaneous angular acceleration of the leading edge and subtense angle of the disk. However, response time remained invariant. While these results may reflect low spatial resolution of the compound eye, they also suggest that this motion-sensitive pathway may be capable of monitoring dynamic expansion properties of objects that change the trajectory of motion.

  10. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression of a locust looming-detector neuron: investigations using a robot locust.

    PubMed

    Santer, R D; Stafford, R; Rind, F C

    2004-11-22

    A fundamental task performed by many visual systems is to distinguish apparent motion caused by eye movements from real motion occurring within the environment. During saccadic eye movements, this task is achieved by inhibitory signals of central and retinal origin that suppress the output of motion-detecting neurons. To investigate the retinally-generated component of this suppression, we used a computational model of a locust looming-detecting pathway that experiences saccadic suppression. This model received input from the camera of a mobile robot that performed simple saccade-like movements, allowing the model's response to simplified real stimuli to be tested. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression resulted from two inhibitory mechanisms within the looming-detector's input architecture. One mechanism fed inhibition forward through the network, inhibiting the looming-detector's initial response to movement. The second spread inhibition laterally within the network, suppressing the looming-detector's maintained response to movement. These mechanisms prevent a looming-detector model response to whole-field visual stimuli. In the locust, this mechanism of saccadic suppression may operate in addition to centrally-generated suppression. Because lateral inhibition is a common feature of early visual processing in many organisms, we discuss whether the mechanism of retinally-generated saccadic suppression found in the locust looming-detector model may also operate in these species.

  11. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression of a locust looming-detector neuron: investigations using a robot locust.

    PubMed Central

    Santer, R. D.; Stafford, R.; Rind, F. C.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental task performed by many visual systems is to distinguish apparent motion caused by eye movements from real motion occurring within the environment. During saccadic eye movements, this task is achieved by inhibitory signals of central and retinal origin that suppress the output of motion-detecting neurons. To investigate the retinally-generated component of this suppression, we used a computational model of a locust looming-detecting pathway that experiences saccadic suppression. This model received input from the camera of a mobile robot that performed simple saccade-like movements, allowing the model's response to simplified real stimuli to be tested. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression resulted from two inhibitory mechanisms within the looming-detector's input architecture. One mechanism fed inhibition forward through the network, inhibiting the looming-detector's initial response to movement. The second spread inhibition laterally within the network, suppressing the looming-detector's maintained response to movement. These mechanisms prevent a looming-detector model response to whole-field visual stimuli. In the locust, this mechanism of saccadic suppression may operate in addition to centrally-generated suppression. Because lateral inhibition is a common feature of early visual processing in many organisms, we discuss whether the mechanism of retinally-generated saccadic suppression found in the locust looming-detector model may also operate in these species. PMID:16849153

  12. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities. PMID:27348951

  13. Quantitative tests of the Perceived Relative Argument Model: comment on Loomes (2010).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Regenwetter, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Loomes (2010, Psychological Review) proposed the Perceived Relative Argument Model (PRAM) as a novel descriptive theory for risky choice. PRAM differs from models like prospect theory in that decision makers do not compare 2 prospects by first assigning each prospect an overall utility and then choosing the prospect with the higher overall utility. Instead, the decision maker determines the relative argument for one or the other prospect separately for outcomes and probabilities, before reaching an overall pairwise preference. Loomes (2010) did not model variability in choice behavior. We consider 2 types of "stochastic specification" of PRAM. In one, a decision maker has a fixed preference, and choice variability is caused by occasional errors/trembles. In the other, the parameters of the perception functions for outcomes and for probabilities are random, with no constraints on their joint distribution. State-of-the-art frequentist and Bayesian "order-constrained" inference suggest that PRAM accounts poorly for individual subject laboratory data from 67 participants. This conclusion is robust across 7 different utility functions for money and remains largely unaltered also when considering a prior unpublished version of PRAM (Loomes, 2006) that featured an additional free parameter in the perception function for probabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347316

  14. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  15. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  16. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  17. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car accident. The…

  18. Crisis behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  19. Role of a looming-sensitive neuron in triggering the defense behavior of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiichiro; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2014-08-01

    In responses to looming objects, the praying mantis shows a defense behavior, which consists of retracting forelegs under the prothorax. The role of a looming-sensitive neuron in triggering this behavior was investigated by simultaneously recording the activity and behavioral responses of the neuron. The mantis initiated the defense behavior earlier in response to larger and slower looming stimuli. The time remaining to collision at defense initiation was linearly correlated with the ratio of the half-size of an approaching object to its speed (l/|v|), suggesting that the defense behavior occurred a fixed delay after the stimuli had reached a fixed angular threshold. Furthermore, the results suggested that high-frequency spikes of the looming-sensitive neuron were involved in triggering the defense behavior: the distribution of maximum firing rate for trials with defense was shifted to larger rates compared with trials without defense; the firing rate of the neuron exceeded 150 Hz ∼100 ms before the defense initiation regardless of stimulus parameters; when a looming stimulus ceased approach prematurely, high-frequency spikes were removed, and the occurrence of defense was reduced. PMID:24848471

  20. Collision avoidance and a looming sensitive neuron: size matters but biggest is not necessarily best.

    PubMed

    Rind, F Claire; Santer, Roger D

    2004-02-01

    Locusts possess visual neurons that can be uniquely identified in each locust and that respond selectively to looming stimuli, giving the animal a warning of impending collision. It has been suggested that one such neuron, the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD), issues this warning by generating a peak in its response that occurs ca. 25 ms after a looming object reaches a subtense of 17 degrees on the eye. This peak is proposed to be a trigger for escape behaviour. We use both modelling and electrophysiological techniques to show that this early peak in LGMD response is not the 'essential functional variable' used naturally by the locust to trigger escape, but rather results from the unnaturally large stimulus used in the previous experimental work. The natural predators of Locusta in Africa, where the locust evolved, are small birds such as the fiscal shrike Lanius collaris humeralis and the carmine bee-eater Merops nubicus, with pectoral diameters of 40-45 mm (measurements from museum specimens). Locusta in flight are less than 100 mm wing tip to wing tip. When a locust views small approaching objects, the response of the LGMD continues to increase throughout the object's approach and the locust is able to trigger escape behaviours without the LGMD response peaking prior to collision.

  1. Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnership Approach to Large-Scale Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale crisis such as natural disasters and acts of terrorism can have a paralyzing effect on the campus community and business continuity. Campus officials in these situations face significant challenges that go beyond the immediate response including re-building the physical plant, restoring campus infrastructure, retaining displaced…

  2. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  3. 75 FR 39046 - Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Loom, Including Employees Working Off-Site In New York, Alexander City, AL; Amended Certification... occurred involving employees under the control of the subject firm working off- site in New York. The... published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3930). At the request of the State agency,...

  4. Crossmodal enhancement of visual orientation discrimination by looming sounds requires functional activation of primary visual areas: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Romei, Vincenzo; Bertini, Caterina; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    Approaching or looming sounds are salient, potentially threatening stimuli with particular impact on visual processing. The early crossmodal effects by looming sounds (Romei, Murray, Cappe, & Thut, 2009) and their selective impact on visual orientation discrimination (Leo, Romei, Freeman, Ladavas, & Driver, 2011) suggest that these multisensory interactions may take place already within low-level visual cortices. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested a patient (SDV) with bilateral occipital lesion and spared residual portions of V1/V2. Accordingly, SDV׳s visual perimetry revealed blindness of the central visual field with some residual peripheral vision. In two experiments we tested for the influence of looming vs. receding and stationary sounds on SDV׳s line orientation discrimination (orientation discrimination experiment) and visual detection abilities (detection experiment) in the preserved or blind portions of the visual field, corresponding to spared and lesioned areas of V1, respectively. In the visual orientation discrimination experiment we found that SDV visual orientation sensitivity significantly improved for visual targets paired with looming sounds but only for lines presented in the partially preserved visual field. In the visual detection experiment, where SDV was required to simply detect the same stimuli presented in the orientation discrimination experiment, a generalised sound-induced visual improvement both in the intact and in blind portion of the visual field was observed. These results provide direct evidence that early visual areas are critically involved in crossmodal modulation of visual orientation sensitivity by looming sounds. Thus, a lesion in V1 prevents the enhancement of visual orientation sensitivity. In contrast, the same lesion does not prevent the visual detection enhancement by a sound, probably due to alternative visual pathways (e.g. retino-colliculo-extrastriate) which are usually spared in these patients and able to

  5. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  6. Exploring Crisis Management in U.S. Small Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jon

    As a critical infrastructure, the US electricity grid supplies electricity to 340 million people within eight separate regions. The power infrastructure is vulnerable to many types of disasters capable of severing supplies of electricity. The impact on the employees and communities when small- and medium-size enterprises are shut down due to disasters can be severe. The purpose of the quantitative comparative study was to explore small- and medium-size enterprises crisis management strategies in the case of power infrastructure vulnerabilities. Perceptions of small business leaders were probed about crisis management planning relevant to three secondary factors: prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy. Participants completed an adapted questionnaire instrument based on a five-point Likert scale for six sub-factors including resilience through planning, financial impact, operational crisis management, the perfect storm, the aftermath of survival, and atrophy. The instrument also measured three additional factors to include, prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy, across seven types of crises. The results of this study indicated that of the 276 respondents, 104 had no crisis plans, but 172 did have crisis plans. Of those who had implemented crisis plans, 19% had specific provisions to address power outages or attacks on the electrical grid. Of the respondents who had not planned for power outages nor experienced significant losses of power, a statistically significant number acknowledged an external threat to their business. The majority of respondents indicated that long-term planning was related to resilience; however, the migration of crisis understanding into the planning process or implementation was not implemented. This heightened awareness of potential crises without the corresponding development and implementation of mitigation crisis plans requires additional research to understand

  7. Guidelines for Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Lloyd

    1985-01-01

    The article offers guidelines for crisis prediction, preplanning, support team development, and post-crisis management that can handle aggressive behavior and convey to the child the existence of a legitimate system for enhancing positive self control. (CL)

  8. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  9. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  10. Images for Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    1984-01-01

    Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)

  11. Sex, acceleration, brain imaging, and rhesus monkeys: Converging evidence for an evolutionary bias for looming auditory motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhoff, John G.

    2003-04-01

    Increasing acoustic intensity is a primary cue to looming auditory motion. Perceptual overestimation of increasing intensity could provide an evolutionary selective advantage by specifying that an approaching sound source is closer than actual, thus affording advanced warning and more time than expected to prepare for the arrival of the source. Here, multiple lines of converging evidence for this evolutionary hypothesis are presented. First, it is shown that intensity change specifying accelerating source approach changes in loudness more than equivalent intensity change specifying decelerating source approach. Second, consistent with evolutionary hunter-gatherer theories of sex-specific spatial abilities, it is shown that females have a significantly larger bias for rising intensity than males. Third, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with approaching and receding auditory motion, it is shown that approaching sources preferentially activate a specific neural network responsible for attention allocation, motor planning, and translating perception into action. Finally, it is shown that rhesus monkeys also exhibit a rising intensity bias by orienting longer to looming tones than to receding tones. Together these results illustrate an adaptive perceptual bias that has evolved because it provides a selective advantage in processing looming acoustic sources. [Work supported by NSF and CDC.

  12. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  13. Spatiotemporal stimulus properties modulate responses to trajectory changes in a locust looming-sensitive pathway.

    PubMed

    Dick, Paul C; Gray, John R

    2014-05-01

    The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD) constitute one motion-sensitive pathway in the locust visual system that is implicated in collision-avoidance behaviors. While this pathway is thought to respond preferentially to objects approaching on a direct collision course, emerging studies suggest the firing rate is able to monitor more complicated movements that would occur under natural conditions. While previous studies have compared the response of the DCMD to objects on collision courses that travel at different speeds, velocity has not been manipulated for other simple or compound trajectories. Here we test the possibility that the LGMD/DCMD pathway is capable of responding uniquely to complex aspects of object motion, including translation and trajectory changes at different velocities. We found that the response of the DCMD to translational motion initiated in the caudal visual field was a low-amplitude peak in firing rate that occurred before the object crossed 90° azimuth that was invariant to different object velocities. Direct looms at different velocities resulted in peak firing rates that occurred later in time and with greater amplitude for higher velocities. In response to transitions from translational motion to a collision course, the firing rate change depended on both the location within the visual field and the velocity. These results suggest that this pathway is capable of conveying information about multiple properties of a moving object's trajectory.

  14. Collision-avoidance behaviors of minimally restrained flying locusts to looming stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R. WM.; Gabbiani, F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Visually guided collision avoidance is of paramount importance in flight, for instance to allow escape from potential predators. Yet, little is known about the types of collision-avoidance behaviors that may be generated by flying animals in response to an impending visual threat. We studied the behavior of minimally restrained locusts flying in a wind tunnel as they were subjected to looming stimuli presented to the side of the animal, simulating the approach of an object on a collision course. Using high-speed movie recordings, we observed a wide variety of collision-avoidance behaviors including climbs and dives away from – but also towards – the stimulus. In a more restrained setting, we were able to relate kinematic parameters of the flapping wings with yaw changes in the trajectory of the animal. Asymmetric wing flapping was most strongly correlated with changes in yaw, but we also observed a substantial effect of wing deformations. Additionally, the effect of wing deformations on yaw was relatively independent of that of wing asymmetries. Thus, flying locusts exhibit a rich range of collision-avoidance behaviors that depend on several distinct aerodynamic characteristics of wing flapping flight. PMID:23364572

  15. Defence behaviours of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia in response to looming objects.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2011-11-01

    Defence responses to approaching objects were observed in the mantis Tenodera aridifolia. The mantis showed three kinds of behaviour, fixation, evasion and cryptic reaction. The cryptic reaction consisted of rapid retraction of the forelegs under the prothorax or rapid extending of the forelegs in the forward direction. Obstructing the mantis' sight decreased its response rates, suggesting that the visual stimuli generated by an approaching object elicited the cryptic reaction. The response rate of the cryptic reactions was highest for objects that approached on a direct collision course. Deviation in a horizontal direction from the direct collision course resulted in a reduced response. The response rate of the cryptic reaction increased as the approaching velocity of the object increased, and the rate decreased as the object ceased its approach at a greater distance from the mantis. These results suggest that the function of the observed cryptic reactions is defence against impending collisions. The possible role of the looming-sensitive neuron in the cryptic reaction is also discussed. PMID:21851823

  16. Spatiotemporal stimulus properties modulate responses to trajectory changes in a locust looming-sensitive pathway.

    PubMed

    Dick, Paul C; Gray, John R

    2014-05-01

    The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD) constitute one motion-sensitive pathway in the locust visual system that is implicated in collision-avoidance behaviors. While this pathway is thought to respond preferentially to objects approaching on a direct collision course, emerging studies suggest the firing rate is able to monitor more complicated movements that would occur under natural conditions. While previous studies have compared the response of the DCMD to objects on collision courses that travel at different speeds, velocity has not been manipulated for other simple or compound trajectories. Here we test the possibility that the LGMD/DCMD pathway is capable of responding uniquely to complex aspects of object motion, including translation and trajectory changes at different velocities. We found that the response of the DCMD to translational motion initiated in the caudal visual field was a low-amplitude peak in firing rate that occurred before the object crossed 90° azimuth that was invariant to different object velocities. Direct looms at different velocities resulted in peak firing rates that occurred later in time and with greater amplitude for higher velocities. In response to transitions from translational motion to a collision course, the firing rate change depended on both the location within the visual field and the velocity. These results suggest that this pathway is capable of conveying information about multiple properties of a moving object's trajectory. PMID:24478154

  17. Escape response of the crab Neohelice to computer generated looming and translational visual danger stimuli.

    PubMed

    Scarano, Florencia; Tomsic, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Historically, arthropod behavior has been considered to be a collection of simple, automaton-like routines commanded by domain-specific brain modules working independently. Nowadays, it is evident that the extensive behavioral repertoire of these animals and its flexibility necessarily imply far more complex abilities than originally assumed. For example, even what was thought to be a straightforward behavior of crabs, the escape response to visual danger stimuli, proved to involve a number of sequential stages, each of which implying decisions made on the bases of stimulus and contextual information. Inspired in previous observations on how the stimulus trajectory can affect the escape response of crabs in the field, we investigated the escape response to images of objects approaching directly toward the crab (looming stimuli: LS) or moving parallel to it (translational stimuli: TS) in the laboratory. Computer simulations of moving objects were effective to elicit escapes. LS evoked escapes with higher probability and intensity (speed and distance of escape) than TS, but responses started later. In addition to the escape run, TS also evoked a defensive response of the animal with its claws. Repeated presentations of TS or LS were both capable of inducing habituation. Results are discussed in connection with the possibilities offered by crabs to investigate the neural bases of behaviors occurring in the natural environment.

  18. [Crisis and nurses].

    PubMed

    Martínez Riera, José Ramón

    2012-02-01

    Nobody can escape that we are in crisis. Already are responsible every day media, risk agencies and abstract but crucial markets reminded us. In this crisis, deep, prolonged and distressing health systems have been in the spotlight of national Governments and corporations, as key elements of building and resolution of the crisis. Generation because it interprets its inefficiency is responsible for much of the crisis. Resolution because it is understood that actions that envelope the same are carried out they shall foster the output. So then we have two key elements: crisis and health systems, which combine very differently but which inevitably and unfortunately have been associated on a permanent basis. To understand this symbiosis and try to analyze it I operate the simple formula of semantically understanding what is crisis and what health crisis.

  19. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  20. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  1. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  2. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  3. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  4. Burst Firing in a Motion-Sensitive Neural Pathway Correlates with Expansion Properties of Looming Objects that Evoke Avoidance Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Glyn A.; Gray, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The locust visual system contains a well-defined motion-sensitive pathway that transfers visual input to motor centers involved in predator evasion and collision avoidance. One interneuron in this pathway, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), is typically described as using rate coding; edge expansion of approaching objects causes an increased rate of neuronal firing that peaks after a certain retinal threshold angle is exceeded. However, evidence of intrinsic DCMD bursting properties combined with observable oscillations in mean firing rates and tight clustering of spikes in raw traces, suggest that bursting may be important for motion detection. Sensory neuron bursting provides important timing information about dynamic stimuli in many model systems, yet no studies have rigorously investigated if bursting occurs in the locust DCMD during object approach. We presented repetitions of 30 looming stimuli known to generate behavioral responses to each of 20 locusts in order to identify and quantify putative bursting activity in the DCMD. Overall, we found a bimodal distribution of inter-spike intervals (ISI) with peaks of more frequent and shorter ISIs occurring from 1–8 ms and longer less frequent ISIs occurring from 40–50 ms. Subsequent analysis identified bursts and isolated single spikes from the responses. Bursting frequency increased in the latter phase of an approach and peaked at the time of collision, while isolated spiking was predominant during the beginning of stimulus approach. We also found that the majority of inter-burst intervals (IBIs) occurred at 40–50 ms (or 20–25 bursts/s). Bursting also occurred across varied stimulus parameters and suggests that burst timing may be a key component of looming detection. Our findings suggest that the DCMD uses two modes of coding to transmit information about looming stimuli and that these modes change dynamically with a changing stimulus at a behaviorally-relevant time. PMID:26696845

  5. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  6. Crisis management for coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, S.

    1987-12-01

    The author says coal mining requires the precise execution of tasks to minimize risks. Acknowledging risks and attempting to influence their impact is the basis of crisis management. Crisis management skills include recognizing, measuring, handling, and resolving any of the crisis situations an organization faces during the course of business. The author outlines four phases of a typical crisis and tells how to deal with each. He then discusses crisis forecasting and how to calculate the Crisis Impact Value.

  7. The Online Learning Imperative: A Solution to Three Looming Crises in Education. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The current process and infrastructure for educating students in this country cannot sustain itself any longer. In just about every other facet of society, at work and at home, technology has transformed the way Americans go about their lives. Yet schools have been slow to embrace the transformative power of technology. Although computers are…

  8. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  9. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method ofmore » Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.« less

  10. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  11. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  12. When a Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keebler, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…

  13. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  14. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  15. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  16. Dysfunctional Freezing Responses to Approaching Stimuli in Persons with a Looming Cognitive Style for Physical Threats

    PubMed Central

    Riskind, John H.; Sagliano, Laura; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000), which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats) in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants' Reaction Times (RTs) when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral) and motion direction (approach or recede). As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs) and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment) was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS

  17. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  18. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  19. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  20. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  1. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    PubMed

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  2. LNG infrastructure and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Forgash, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

  3. Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

  4. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  5. Veterans Crisis Line

    MedlinePlus

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  6. Crisis management strategies.

    PubMed

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  7. Crisis and connection.

    PubMed

    Mead, Shery; Hilton, David

    2003-01-01

    Psychiatric interventions for crisis care lie at the center of the conflict between involuntary commitment and recovery/wellness systems in mental health services. Though crisis can mean completely different things to people who have the experience, the general public has been convinced by the media that people with psychiatric disabilities are to be feared. More and more this has led to social control but is erroneously still called treatment. This does nothing to help the person and in fact further confuses people already trying to make meaning of their experience. This paper offers a fundamental change in understanding and working with people in psychiatric crises. Rather than objectifying and naming the crisis experience in relation to illness, people can begin to explore the subjective experience of the person in crisis while offering their own subjective reality to the relationship. Out of this shared dynamic in which a greater sense of trust is built, the crisis can be an opportunity to create new meaning, and offer people mutually respectful relationships in which extreme emotional distress no longer has to be pathologized. The authors, who have had personal experience with psychiatric crises, have provided this kind of successful crisis counseling and planning and have designed and implemented peer support alternatives to psychiatric hospitalizations that support this model. PMID:12967238

  8. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  9. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  10. Public health surveillance and meaningful use regulations: a crisis of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Lenert, Leslie; Sundwall, David N

    2012-03-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act is intended to enhance reimbursement of health care providers for meaningful use of electronic health records systems. This presents both opportunities and challenges for public health departments. To earn incentive payments, clinical providers must exchange specified types of data with the public health system, such as immunization and syndromic surveillance data and notifiable disease reporting. However, a crisis looms because public health's information technology systems largely lack the capabilities to accept the types of data proposed for exchange. Cloud computing may be a solution for public health information systems. Through shared computing resources, public health departments could reap the benefits of electronic reporting within federal funding constraints. PMID:22390523

  11. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  12. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours. PMID:23737560

  13. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society.

  14. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society. PMID:24690957

  15. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  16. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  17. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  18. The superpowers in crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Krickus, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses how the domestic political, economic, and socio-cultural problems afflicting the US and the USSR may threaten the security of each country and jeopardize world peace. Contents (partial): The Soviet Union in Crisis: An economy in crisis; A minority in their ''own country;'' Eastern Europe: An asset or liability; What is to be done.; The American Predicament: American liberalism; Ronald Reagan and the conservative counter-reformation; Taking stock; International Implications; Domestic strife; implications for the superpower rivalry; Global economic disorder and the American predicament; Conclusions.

  19. Toward Information Infrastructure Studies: Ways of Knowing in a Networked Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Baker, Karen; Millerand, Florence; Ribes, David

    This article presents Information Infrastructure Studies, a research area that takes up some core issues in digital information and organization research. Infrastructure Studies simultaneously addresses the technical, social, and organizational aspects of the development, usage, and maintenance of infrastructures in local communities as well as global arenas. While infrastructure is understood as a broad category referring to a variety of pervasive, enabling network resources such as railroad lines, plumbing and pipes, electrical power plants and wires, this article focuses on information infrastructure, such as computational services and help desks, or federating activities such as scientific data repositories and archives spanning the multiple disciplines needed to address such issues as climate warming and the biodiversity crisis. These are elements associated with the internet and, frequently today, associated with cyberinfrastructure or e-science endeavors. We argue that a theoretical understanding of infrastructure provides the context for needed dialogue between design, use, and sustainability of internet-based infrastructure services. This article outlines a research area and outlines overarching themes of Infrastructure Studies. Part one of the paper presents definitions for infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure, reviewing salient previous work. Part two portrays key ideas from infrastructure studies (knowledge work, social and political values, new forms of sociality, etc.). In closing, the character of the field today is considered.

  20. Crisis Management in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    The way in which a school community deals with a crisis situation is a test of its sense of community. This guidebook, intended for Catholic-school principals, presents a detailed plan to help schools establish crisis-management teams and offers directions for their operation. Chapter 1 presents an overview of crisis management and focuses on how…

  1. School Crisis Preparedness and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, David J.; Newgass, Scott

    Dealing with the impact of crisis on school children and staff is not the primary mission of schools. Therefore, many schools remain unprepared to respond to a crisis affecting students and staff. Too often they respond to each successive crisis in a reflexive manner with little preplanned coordination or structure. This workshop provides an…

  2. Keeping Cool in a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

  3. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  4. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience.

  5. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience. PMID:25808298

  6. Infrastructure for microsystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

    1999-03-01

    Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

  7. LHCb Silicon Tracker infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermoline, Yuri

    2004-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a vital part of the experiment. It consists of four planar stations: one trigger and three inner tracking stations. The operation of the Silicon Tracker detectors and electronics is provided by its infrastructure: cooling system, high- and low-voltage power supply systems, temperature and radiation monitoring systems. Several components of these systems are located in the experimental hall and subjected to radiation. This paper mainly concentrates on the recent development: requirements definition, evaluation of possible implementation scenarios, component choice and component radiation tests.

  8. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  9. Learning Sustainability from Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Isagani

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the Asian economic crisis and media messages about it. Promotes education for sustainability, which has broader goals of social transformation. Describes new forms of social learning that are necessary to resolve the global crises of the environment and development. (SK)

  10. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  11. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  12. Managing a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  13. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  14. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  15. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  16. Crisis, Meaning and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Bijan

    This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…

  17. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  18. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  19. Preparing for a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Rosalie D.; Morrison, Shirley

    1997-01-01

    To handle unforeseen crises, Albuquerque Public Schools established a critical-incident response team with a simple, understandable chain of command. The group aims to ensure maximum safety and people' well-being, develop a districtwide crisis-response-management plan, coordinate necessary training, and collaborate with community agencies…

  20. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  1. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  2. Home is not where the heart is: looming problems of the home care industry.

    PubMed

    Ford, D E

    1994-01-01

    This analysis shows a definite trend of fiscal and social retrenchment policy by the government concerning in-home care service delivery (Tables 1 and 2). Ruggie (1990:164) notes that such shifts and changes in Medicare reimbursement patterns may be efforts of the government to realign itself to become the pivotal force in the provision or delivery of in-home care. Cost-containment pressures, although most needed in the health care industry, are the primary driving force behind retrenchment and the subsequent realignment of government. Such forces tend to impede the development of a comprehensive system for the provision of long-term care services. As noted, the movements and shifts in reimbursement patterns documented by this analysis can lead one to conclude that the same old features will continue to prevail instead of new and innovative delivery structures or public-private partnerships. In other words, the in-home care industry will become more like the nursing home industry--highly regulated and perpetually plagued by questions concerning quality of care. Although government is attempting to diminish its task as the prime provider of health services (i.e., through fiscal retrenchment) and the public's role as the dominant delivery system (i.e., social retrenchment), nevertheless the government has been unable to retrench politically in spite of its present direction of cost containment and fiscal restraint. Consequently, Ruggie (1990:147) notes that "the social welfare functions may continue to be performed" in spite of cost restraint policies. As a result, another "no care zone" is created and policy-makers will continue to develop "crisis policy" such as intense demands to hold unit costs low. The home care system has expanded many of the long-term care options and has emerged as a salient segment of our health and social service system (Applebaum and Phillips, 1990). Yet, policy-makers have not developed a comprehensive long-term care system, particularly

  3. Visual Cortex Modulates the Magnitude but Not the Selectivity of Looming-Evoked Responses in the Superior Colliculus of Awake Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Liu, Mingna; Cang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neural circuits in the brain often receive inputs from multiple sources, such as the bottom-up input from early processing stages and the top-down input from higher-order areas. Here, we study the function of top-down input in the mouse Superior Colliculus (SC), which receives convergent inputs from the retina and visual cortex. Neurons in the superficial SC display robust responses and speed tuning to looming stimuli that mimic approaching objects. The looming-evoked responses are reduced by almost half when the visual cortex is optogenetically silenced in awake, but not in anesthetized mice. Silencing the cortex does not change the looming speed tuning of SC neurons, or the response time course except at the lowest tested speed. Furthermore, the regulation of SC responses by the corticotectal input is organized retinotopically. This effect we revealed may thus provide a potential substrate for the cortex, an evolutionarily new structure, to modulate SC-mediated visual behaviors. PMID:25220812

  4. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  5. The future of infrastructure security :

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  6. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease. PMID:26551268

  7. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  8. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  9. As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

  10. Improving Antarctic infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Noting that U.S. activities in Antarctica “are very well managed but suffer from an aging infrastructure, lack of a capital budget, and the effects of operating in an extremely unforgiving environment,” a 23 July report from the U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel recommends a number of measures to improve the infrastructure, logistics, and other concerns. The panel's recommendations include continued use of the McMurdo, South Pole, and Palmer stations as the primary U.S. science and logistics hubs in Antarctica—because there are no reasonable alternatives, according to the panel—while upgrading or replacing some facilities, restoring the U.S. polar ocean feet, implementing state of-the-art logistics and transportation support, and establishing a long-term facilities capital plan and budget for the U.S. Antarctic Program. “The essence of our findings is that the lack of capital budgeting has placed operations at McMurdo, and to a somewhat lesser extent at Palmer Station, in unnecessary jeopardy—at least in terms of prolonged inefficiency due to deteriorating or otherwise inadequate physical assets,” the panel wrote in the cover letter accompanying the report entitled, More and Better Science in Antarctica Through Increased Logistical Effectiveness. “The Antarctica Blue Ribbon Panel encourages us to take a hard look at how we support Antarctic science and to make the structural changes, however difficult in the current fiscal environment, that will allow us to do more science in the future,” said U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Director Subra Suresh.

  11. Solving the Antibiotic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2015-02-13

    Antibiotics are essential for both treating and preventing infectious diseases. Paradoxically, despite their importance as pillars of modern medicine, we are in danger of losing antibiotics because of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms throughout all pathogenic microbes. This fact, coupled with an inability to bring new drugs to market at a pace that matches resistance, has resulted in a crisis of global proportion. Solving this crisis requires the actions of many stakeholders, but chemists, chemical biologists, and microbiologists must drive the scientific innovation that is required to maintain our antibiotic arsenal. This innovation requires (1) a deep understanding of the evolution and reservoirs of resistance; (2) full knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance; (3) the discovery of chemical and genetic probes of antibiotic action and resistance; (4) the integration of systems biology into antibiotic discovery; and (5) the discovery of new antimicrobial chemical matter. Addressing these pressing scientific gaps will ensure that we can meet the antibiotic crisis with creativity and purpose. PMID:27622298

  12. Infrastructure web: distributed monitoring and managing critical infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guofei; Cybenko, George; McGrath, Dennis

    2001-02-01

    National-scale critical infrastructure protection depends on many processes: intelligence gathering, analysis, interdiction, detection, response and recovery, to name a few. These processes are typically carried out by different individuals, agencies and industry sectors. Many new threats to national infrastructure are arising from the complex couplings that exist between advanced information technologies (telecommunications and internet), physical components (utilities), human services (health, law enforcement, emergency management) and commerce (financial services, logistics). Those threats arise and evolve at a rate governed by human intelligence and innovation, on `internet time' so to speak. The processes for infrastructure protection must operate on the same time scale to be effective. To achieve this, a new approach to integrating, coordinating and managing infrastructure protection must be deployed. To this end, we have designed an underlying web-like architecture that will serve as a platform for the decentralized monitoring and management of national critical infrastructures.

  13. Distributed Data Integration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T; Ludaescher, B; Vouk, M; Pu, C

    2003-02-24

    The Internet is becoming the preferred method for disseminating scientific data from a variety of disciplines. This can result in information overload on the part of the scientists, who are unable to query all of the relevant sources, even if they knew where to find them, what they contained, how to interact with them, and how to interpret the results. A related issue is keeping up with current trends in information technology often taxes the end-user's expertise and time. Thus instead of benefiting from this information rich environment, scientists become experts on a small number of sources and technologies, use them almost exclusively, and develop a resistance to innovations that can enhance their productivity. Enabling information based scientific advances, in domains such as functional genomics, requires fully utilizing all available information and the latest technologies. In order to address this problem we are developing a end-user centric, domain-sensitive workflow-based infrastructure, shown in Figure 1, that will allow scientists to design complex scientific workflows that reflect the data manipulation required to perform their research without an undue burden. We are taking a three-tiered approach to designing this infrastructure utilizing (1) abstract workflow definition, construction, and automatic deployment, (2) complex agent-based workflow execution and (3) automatic wrapper generation. In order to construct a workflow, the scientist defines an abstract workflow (AWF) in terminology (semantics and context) that is familiar to him/her. This AWF includes all of the data transformations, selections, and analyses required by the scientist, but does not necessarily specify particular data sources. This abstract workflow is then compiled into an executable workflow (EWF, in our case XPDL) that is then evaluated and executed by the workflow engine. This EWF contains references to specific data source and interfaces capable of performing the desired

  14. Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley-Braun, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

  15. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  16. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  17. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael S.; Hix, W. Raphael; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeffery C.; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Scott, Jason P.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Chae, Kyungyuk; Guidry, Michael W.; Koura, Hiroyuki; Meyer, Richard A.

    2006-07-12

    A Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics has been developed to streamline the inclusion of the latest nuclear physics data in astrophysics simulations. The infrastructure consists of a platform-independent suite of computer codes that is freely available online at nucastrodata.org. Features of, and future plans for, this software suite are given.

  18. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  19. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  20. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  1. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  2. [An analysis of psychosocial care for adolescents in crisis based on their therapeutic itineraries].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Melissa de Oliveira; Sá, Marilene de Castilho; Miranda, Lilian

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzes the care provided to adolescents in crisis in a municipality in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article reports on a qualitative health study that used Therapeutic Itinerary and Life Narratives as the methodological resources. The principal theoretical reference was psychoanalyst René Kaës. Based on the adolescents' own verbal accounts, the study aimed to grasp the collective realities that could potentially shed light on the different types of logic and professional practices applied to care for adolescents in psychosocial crisis situations. The underlying assumption was that an approach to the dialectical nature of the crisis required maintaining a framework that would allow establishing a space for transition within which to develop the necessary conditions for disruptive and paradoxical elements to be elaborated. However, crisis care in the context studied here proved to be hampered by infrastructure issues, institutional rigidity, and fragmentation of activities, with little orientation towards inter-sector work.

  3. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  4. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. PMID:22551787

  5. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis.

  6. The hepatitis C crisis.

    PubMed

    St John, Tina M; Sandt, Lorren

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 170 million persons (3% of the world's population) are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. Of those infected, 70%-85% develop chronic viremia with the potential for devastating long-term sequelae, including chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The passivity in the public health sector and in the medical community at large with respect to hepatitis C portends a myriad of societal, fiscal, and personal costs for the United States within the next two decades unless immediate actions are taken to intervene in the natural history of this emerging public health crisis. PMID:15822840

  7. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism). PMID:9036685

  8. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  9. A Science Information Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.; Dow, K.; Murray, S.

    1994-12-01

    We have created a partnership of science museums, research institutions, teachers, and other centers of informal science education to enable access to the rich resources of remote sensing data available from NASA and other sources and to deliver this information to the general community. We are creating science resource centers in the nation's science museums and planetarium facilities, linking them together through a national Science Information Infrastructure (SII). The SII framework is being founded on Internet connections between the resource centers, which are in turn linked to research institutions. The most up-to-date and exciting science data, related information, and interpretive material will be available from the research institutions. The science museums will present this information in appropriate ways that respond to the needs and interest of the general public and K--12 communities. The science information will be available through the World Wide Web using a Mosaic interface that individuals will use to explore the on-line materials through self-guided learning modules. K--12 teachers will have access to the materials and, in a workshop forum, learn to find and use the information to create lesson plans and curricula for their classrooms. Eventually, as the connectivity of schools and libraries improves, students and teachers will have access to the resource centers from their own locations. The core partnership of the SII includes the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Exploratorium, Lawrence Hall of Science, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Science Museum of Virginia, New York Hall of Science, Adler Museum of Chicago, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Boston Museum of Science, and the Earth Observing Satellite Company (EOSAT). A demonstration of the application of resource center materials in the K--12 community is being conducted through the Science On-Line project at the Center

  10. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  11. The Little-Known Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    1975-01-01

    For one-third of the world's people, the energy crisis means the daily scramble to find the wood they need to cook. The accelerating destruction of forests throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America and the utilization of manure as a firewood substitute may produce the most profound ecological crisis of this century. (BT)

  12. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  13. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  14. Education and Our Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimas, John

    1970-01-01

    Discusses causes of our ecological crisis and suggests that in order to overcome the crisis we have to sprinkle our teaching with a sense of wonder, impress upon the youth that there is nothing difficult or mysterious about the ecological viewpoint, give youth an awareness of the diversity of things in our environment, stress interrelationships…

  15. [Akinetic crisis in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Bächli, E; Albani, C

    1994-06-11

    The akinetic crisis is an "off" state that lasts more than 48 hours with akinesia, rigidity and bradykinesia, occurring with signs of CNS dysregulation in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. 7 akinetic crises lasting 4 to 14 days (average 9.3) were observed in 744 hospitalizations over a period of 7 years. The age of the patients with akinetic crisis and the mean duration and the severity of the disease were significantly higher than in the other patients. While bradykinesia and rigor are the most relevant clinical signs in some 40% of parkinsonian patients, 6 of our 7 patients (86%) had an akinetic-rigid form of the disease. Levodopa withdrawal preceded the akinetic crisis in 4 patients: in 3 patients the akinetic crisis occurred despite adequate dopaminergic therapy, in one patient after benzodiazepine withdrawal, in another case after gastrointestinal bleeding, and in one case without known cause. Hyperthermia, tachycardia and sweating were the most common collateral manifestations. Apomorphine given subcutaneously was effective in four cases, apomorphine and amantidine were effective in one case, and one patient died during an akinetic crisis. The akinetic crisis is a distinct form of motor fluctuation in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease, with clinical signs resembling malignant neuroleptic syndrome (NMS). While NMS is related to dopaminergic receptor blockade or dopaminergic depletion, akinetic crisis can occur despite adequate dopaminergic therapy as a symptom of severe basal ganglia dysfunction related to the advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. Outcome and therapy of akinetic crisis depend on the underlying causes. PMID:8023100

  16. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  17. Crisis management: some opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kupperman, R H; Wilcox, R H; Smith, H A

    1975-02-01

    Modern crises present decision makers with many agonizing management choices. Very often a crisis manager is confronted with a plethora of conflicting information and given very little time to choose an appropriate course of action. Although contemporary methods of systems analysis have been used in attempts to organize data and clarify options, they have generally been of little use in presenting an accurate picture of an opponent's values and perceptions. Thus it is clear that we must now make use of the improved communications and technological devices at our disposal if crises are to be avoided or resolved with minimum damage. Our proposal to establish international model-oriented computer-assisted conferences is designed to promote greater cooperation and understanding among scientists and crisis managers of differing nations by enabling them to share images of themselves and one another. With better information and more rational options available, the chances of catastrophic misunderstanding or miscalculation can be meaningfully reduced. We have proposed a possible scenario for the initial implementation of such a system to combat famine, and hope that the same approach might be used in other areas over time. The ultimate goal is a system by which specialists of all persuasions cooperate so that international crises will be resolved on the bases of mutual benefits without resort to armed conflict.

  18. Resurgent malaria at the millennium: control strategies in crisis.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    2000-04-01

    Completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 marked the beginning of an era of vector control that achieved conspicuous success against malaria. In 1955 the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the controversial Global Eradication Campaign emphasising DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) spraying in homes. The incidence of malaria fell sharply where the programme was implemented, but the strategy was not applied in holoendemic Africa. This, along with the failure to achieve eradication in larger tropical regions, contributed to disillusionment with the policy. The World Health Assembly abandoned the eradication strategy in 1969. A resurgence of malaria began at about that time and today reaches into areas where eradication or control had been achieved. A global malaria crisis looms. In 1993 the WHO adopted a Global Malaria Control Strategy that placed priority in control of disease rather than infection. This formalises a policy that emphasises diagnosis and treatment in a primary healthcare setting, while de-emphasising spraying of residual insecticides. The new policy explicitly stresses malaria in Africa, but expresses the intent to bring control programmes around the world into line with the strategy. This review raises the argument that a global control strategy conceived to address the extraordinary malaria situation in Africa may not be suitable elsewhere. The basis of argument lies in the accomplishments of the Global Eradication Campaign viewed in an historical and geographical context. Resurgent malaria accompanying declining vector control activities in Asia and the Americas suggests that the abandonment of residual spraying may be premature given the tools now at hand. The inadequacy of vector control as the primary instrument of malaria control in holoendemic Africa does not preclude its utility in Asia and the Americas. PMID:10804031

  19. 76 FR 20995 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... infrastructure protection security measures, incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience... sharing threat, vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information....

  20. Front Range Infrastructure Resources project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Project goal: To provide the public and decision makers with objective information about the location and characteristics of land, natural aggregate, water, and energy resources that are vital to sustaining an area and its infrastructure.

  1. Infrastructure dynamics: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bencosme, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The term infrastructure is used to denote the set of life support and public service systems which is necessary for the development of growth of human settlements. Included are some basic references in the field of dynamic simulation, as well as a number of relevant applications in the area of infrastructure planning. The intent is to enable the student or researcher to quickly identify such applications to the extent necessary for initiating further work in the field.

  2. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  3. Crisis at Christmas 1986.

    PubMed

    Weller, B G; Weller, M P; Coker, E; Mahomed, S

    1987-03-01

    Of 100 men and women interviewed at Crisis at Christmas, 34 were actively psychotic, and 12 of these had had no contact with psychiatric services. Of those also answering as to whether or not they had been in prison, 25 (81%) replied in the affirmative, including 1 who had been in Broadmoor for attempted murder. In the combined group of 46 who either had had previous psychiatric admissions or were actively psychotic, 32 (78%) admitted to having been to prison (2 declined to answer), which was significantly in excess of the figure (42%) for those with no serious psychopathology and no previous psychiatric history. About a third of those interviewed were not receiving their benefit entitlement, the proportions being similar for those with and without a history of psychiatric illness. These results show a deterioration since last year's survey.

  4. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ∼ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  5. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  6. Cefixime-induced oculogyric crisis.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Erhan; Bayram, Meral Torun; Hiz, Semra; Turkmen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Oculogyric crisis is a neurologic adverse event characterized by bilateral dystonic, usually upward, conjugate eye deviations. Cefixime is a third-generation cephalosporin and is widely used in clinical practice in childhood. Confusion, encephalopathy, coma, myoclonus, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and seizures have been described with the use of cephalosporins. We presented a cefixime-induced oculogyric crisis in a 7-year-old boy during the treatment of urinary tract infection, and this is the first case of cefixime-induced oculogyric crisis whose ocular symptoms gradually disappeared within 48 hours after the drug was discontinued.

  7. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  8. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  9. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  10. Vulnerability and Mitigation Studies for Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Morris, J

    2007-08-02

    The summary of this presentation is that: (1) We do end-to-end systems analysis for infrastructure protection; (2) LLNL brings interdisciplinary subject matter expertise to infrastructure and explosive analysis; (3) LLNL brings high-fidelity modeling capabilities to infrastructure analysis for use on high performance platforms; and (4) LLNL analysis of infrastructure provides information that customers and stakeholders act on.

  11. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  12. Interviewing College Students in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Jeffrey B.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a five-step model of a crisis interview and the special considerations in working with the suicidal and assaultive student for use by college counseling professionals. Discusses the special cases of suicidal and homocidal/assaultive potential. (LLL)

  13. [Crisis management in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2016-02-01

    There is no "complete safety" in the medical treatment. Unavoidable events or human errors may frighten the patients' safety. Because of its characteristics, emergency medicine is one of the medical fields where treating the patients under the vast safety is difficult. It is inevitable to understand the background of human errors in the emergency medicine under the "SHEL" model. The implementation of the safety measures, such as minimum encounter, minimum probability, multiple detections, and minimum damage is helpful to prevent unfortunate outcomes. Since the emergency medicine treats the severely injured or critical ill patients, its daily works are the picture of the crisis management, and the most suitable environment to train the crisis management competence. The person in charge of crisis management of the institution should put the emergency department to practical use of medical staffs' crisis management training. PMID:26915239

  14. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  15. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  16. Cyberspace Policy For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, Dorsey; Raines, Richard; Williams, Paul; Hopkinson, Kenneth

    The first step in preparing any battlespace is to define the domain for attack and maneuver. The various military service components have directed authority to focus their efforts in specific domains of operations (e.g., naval operations are mainly in the maritime domain). However, cyberspace operations pose challenges because they span multiple operational domains. This paper focuses on U.S. cyberspace policy related to defending and exploiting critical infrastructure assets. Also, it examines the issues involved in delineating responsibility for U.S. defensive and offensive operations related to critical infrastructures.

  17. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  18. Coral reefs in crisis.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  19. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  20. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.

  1. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  2. Toward a National Learning Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents guidelines for a National Learning Infrastructure Initiative based on higher education's experience in national networking and telecommunications, including a systemic approach to instructional technology; precompetitive, object-oriented technologies and standards; prototypes that exhibit educational advantages; and leadership for change.…

  3. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  4. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  5. Impact of Declining Rural Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Fiona Haslem

    A study investigated the impact of declining rural community infrastructure on social, environmental, and economic well-being in Western Australia's central wheatbelt. Questionnaires were completed by 398 residents of the central wheatbelt, on-farm interviews were conducted with 68 respondents, and 4 focus groups were held in area towns.…

  6. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  7. Science of Extreme Light Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Toshiki; Barish, Barry C.; Barty, C. P.; Bulanov, Sergei; Chen, Pisin; Feldhaus, Josef; Hajdu, Janos; Keitel, Christoph H.; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Leemans, Wim; Normand, Didier; Palumbo, Luigi; Rzazewski, Kazimierz; Sergeev, Alexander; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Teshima, Masahiro

    2010-04-01

    The infrastructure of Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) provides an unprecedented opportunity for a broad range of frontier science. Its highest ever intensity of lasers, as well as high fluence, high power, and/or ultrafast optical characteristics carve out new territories of discovery, ranging from attosecond science to photonuclear science, laser acceleration and associated beams, and high field science (Four Pillars of ELI). Its applications span from medicine, biology, engineering, energy, chemistry, physics, and fundamental understanding of the Universe. The relativistic optics that intense lasers have begun exploring may be extended into a new regime of ultra-relativistic regime, where even protons fly relativistically in the optical fields. ELI provides the highest intensity to date such that photon fields begin to feel even the texture of vacuum. This is a singular appeal of ELI with its relatively modest infrastructure (compared to the contemporary largest scientific infrastructures), yet provides an exceptional avenue along which the 21st Century science and society need to answer the toughest questions. The intensity frontier simultaneously brings in the energy horizon (TeV and PeV) as well as temporal frontier (attoseconds and zeptoseconds). It also turns over optics of atoms and molecules into that of nuclei with the ability to produce monoenergetic collimated γ-ray photons. As such, the ELI concept acutely demands an effort to encompass and integrate its Four Pillars.

  8. The impact of New York City's 1975 fiscal crisis on the tuberculosis, HIV, and homicide syndemic.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Fahs, Marianne; Galea, Sandro; Greenberg, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    In 1975, New York City experienced a fiscal crisis rooted in long-term political and economic changes in the city. Budget and policy decisions designed to alleviate this fiscal crisis contributed to the subsequent epidemics of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and homicide in New York City. Because these conditions share underlying social determinants, we consider them a syndemic, i.e., all 3 combined to create an excess disease burden on the population. Cuts in services; the dismantling of health, public safety, and social service infrastructures; and the deterioration of living conditions for vulnerable populations contributed to the amplification of these health conditions over 2 decades. We estimate that the costs incurred in controlling these epidemics exceeded 50 billion US dollars (in 2004 dollars); in contrast, the overall budgetary saving during the fiscal crisis was 10 billion US dollars. This history has implications for public health professionals who must respond to current perceptions of local fiscal crises. PMID:16449588

  9. Crisis at the summit.

    PubMed

    Parsons, George D; Pascale, Richard T

    2007-03-01

    An unrecognized affliction is striking certain gifted performers at the top of their game. Its cause, paradoxically, is success itself. These stars, who thrive on conquering new challenges, can lose their bearings and question their purpose once a job has been mastered. A vague dissatisfaction gives way to confusion and then to inner turmoil. Left unattended, this summit syndrome can derail promising careers. The syndrome has three phases. In the approach phase, when most of the challenges of a current job have been met, sufferers tend to push harder in a vain attempt to recapture the adrenaline rush of the climb. Then, in the plateauing phase, when virtually all the challenges have been conquered, these individuals, who are incapable of coasting, bear down to try to produce ever more stellar results, but to less effect and greater dissatisfaction. This leads to the terminal descending phase, when performance slips noticeably. As their superstar status fades, they jump ship, accept demotions, or take lateral transfers. It's a terrible waste, for if the syndrome is recognized, steps can be taken before performance slips to dispel the confusion and set the stage for productive growth to the next assignment. There are four parts to this process: First, understand your "winning formula"--the characteristic way you approach a situation--and the vital part it plays in feeling stale or losing your edge. Second, reconnect with your core purpose in life. Third, recast your current, or future, job to better align your inner aspirations with the external requirements of your work. And fourth, create a developmental path by honing a handful of core leadership competencies. None of this is easy, but for talented individuals--and the organizations that rely on them--the vaccine of preventive awareness is far better than gambling on an after-the-fact cure once the crisis is full-blown. PMID:17348172

  10. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities. PMID:23066563

  11. Analysis of crisis intervention processes.

    PubMed

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nina

    2002-01-01

    The remediation processes in psychosocial crisis intervention were modeled focusing on cognitive orientation. Frequent observations and subsequent process modeling constitute a novel approach to process research and reveal process-outcome associations. A sample of 40 inpatients who were assigned to treatment in a crisis intervention unit was monitored in order to study the process of crisis intervention. The process data consisted of patients' self-ratings of the variables mood, tension, and cognitive orientation, which were assessed three times a day throughout hospitalization (M = 22.6 days). Linear time series models (vector autoregression) of the process data were computed to describe the prototypical dynamic patterns of the sample. Additionally, the outcome of crisis intervention was evaluated by pre-post questionnaires. Linear trends were found pointing to an improvement of mood, a reduction of tension, and an increase of outward cognitive orientation. Time series modeling showed that, on average, outward cognitive orientation preceded improved mood. The time series models partially predicted the treatment effect, notably the outcome domain "reduction of social anxiety," yet did not predict the domain of symptom reduction. In conclusion, crisis intervention should focus on having patients increasingly engage in outward cognitive orientation in order to stabilize mood, reduce anxiety, and activate their resources.

  12. Hypercalcemic crisis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shazia; Kuraganti, Gayatri; Steenkamp, Devin

    2015-03-01

    Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic perturbation. However, hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency, with little clinical scientific data to support therapeutic strategy. We review the relevant scientific English literature on the topic and review current management strategies after conducting a PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search for articles published between 1930 and June 2014 using specific keywords: "hypercalcemic crisis," "hyperparathyroid crisis," "parathyroid storm," "severe primary hyperparathyroidism," "acute hyperparathyroidism," and "severe hypercalcemia" for articles pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies. Despite extensive clinical experience, large and well-designed clinical studies to direct appropriate clinical care are lacking. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality rates have substantially decreased since early series reported almost universal fatality. Improved outcomes can be attributed to modern diagnostic capabilities, leading to earlier diagnosis, along with the recognition that primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common etiology for hypercalcemic crisis. Hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency that portends excellent outcomes if rapid diagnosis, medical treatment, and definitive surgical treatment are expedited.

  13. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  14. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  15. Health monitoring of civil infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Ken P.; Carino, Nicholas J.; Washer, Glenn A.

    2001-08-01

    Reliable health monitoring, including nondestructive evaluation, is an essential part of the feedback and monitoring system for infrastructures. The goal of this paper is to provide a summary of recent research activities that will act as a catalyst to expand interest in the development of new health monitoring technologies. The paper describes the motivation for developing innovative tools for monitoring the health of the nation's infrastructure. An overview of initiatives sponsored by the National Science Foundation to develop new technologies is presented. The paper includes a review of state-of-the-art stress-wave methods for the evaluation of structural materials and pavements at National Institute of Standards and Technology. Finally, efforts at the Federal Highway Administration to develop new technologies for the assessment of the nearly 500,000 bridges along the nation's roads and highways are described.

  16. Health monitoring of civil infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Ken P.; Carino, Nicholas J.; Washer, Glenn

    2003-06-01

    Reliable health monitoring, including nondestructive evaluation, is an essential part of the feedback and monitoring system for infrastructures. The goal of this paper is to provide a summary of recent research activities that will act as a catalyst to expand interest in the development of new health monitoring technologies. The paper describes the motivation for developing innovative tools for monitoring the health of the USA's infrastructure. An overview of initiatives sponsored by the National Science Foundation to develop new technologies is presented. The paper includes a review of the state-of-the-art stress-wave methods for the evaluation of structural materials and pavements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Finally, efforts at the Federal Highway Administration to develop new technologies for the assessment of the nearly 500 000 bridges along the USA's roads and highways are described.

  17. Overview of NASA communications infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.; Fuechsel, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The infrastructure of NASA communications systems for effecting coordination across NASA offices and with the national and international research and technological communities is discussed. The offices and networks of the communication system include the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), which manages all NASA missions, and the Office of Space Operations, which furnishes communication support through the NASCOM, the mission critical communications support network, and the Program Support Communications network. The NASA Science Internet was established by OSSA to centrally manage, develop, and operate an integrated computer network service dedicated to NASA's space science and application research. Planned for the future is the National Research and Education Network, which will provide communications infrastructure to enhance science resources at a national level.

  18. A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, Darius; Bosilca, George; Graham, Richard L; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Watson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  19. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand & Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.

    2006-05-18

    Presentation given at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006, discusses potential future hydrogen demand and the infrastructure needed to support hydrogen vehicles.

  20. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  1. Enhancing the crisis management briefing.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel W; Volkmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Crisis Management Briefing (CMB) is a powerful and versatile crisis intervention tool, effective within a wide variety of populations, settings, and critical incidents. Initially proposed by Everly (2000), the CMB uniquely fills the factual information void following a critical incident. Additionally, a CMB provides essential information on effective coping strategies and available helping resources, tailored to the specific incident(s). The authors expand on the original CMB construct using their combined field experience, offering recommendations on team composition, strategic planning factors, using CISDs vs. CMBs, and specific enhancements for the four phases. They conclude with examples of specific interventions across a variety of events to illustrate their recommendations.

  2. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  3. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  4. Crisis, leadership, consensus: the past and future federal role in health.

    PubMed

    Boufford, J I

    1999-06-01

    This paper touches on patterns of federal government involvement in the health sector since the late 18th century to the present and speculates on its role in the early decades of the 21st century. Throughout the history of the US, government involvement in the health sector came only in the face of crisis, only when there was widespread consensus, and only through sustained leadership. One of the first health-related acts of Congress came about as a matter of interstate commerce regarding the dilemma as to what to do about treating merchant seamen who had no affiliation with any state. Further federal actions were implemented to address epidemics, such as from yellow fever, that traveled from state to state through commercial ships. Each federal action was met with concern and resistance from states' rights advocates, who asserted that the health of the public was best left to the states and localities. It was not until the early part of the 20th century that a concern for social well-being, not merely commerce, drove the agenda for public health action. Two separate campaigns for national health insurance, as well as a rapid expansion of programs to serve the specific health needs of specific populations, led finally to the introduction of Medicaid and Medicare in the 1960s, the most dramatic example of government intervention in shaping the personal health care delivery system in the latter half of the 20th century. As health costs continued to rise and more and more Americans lacked adequate health insurance, a perceived crisis led President Clinton to launch his 1993 campaign to insure every American--the third attempt in this century to provide universal coverage. While the crisis was perceived by many, there was no consensus on action, and leadership outside government was missing. Today, the health care crisis still looms. Despite an economic boom, 1 million Americans lose their health insurance each year, with 41 million Americans, or 15% of the population

  5. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berscheid, Alan P.

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  6. Crisis Intervention and Crisis Team Models in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Karen S.; Roberts, Albert R.

    2005-01-01

    The need for crisis intervention plans and programs in schools has become more evident during the past decade with the increased incidence of school violence and other traumatic situations experienced by students, educators, school personnel, parents, and relatives of those involved. This need has resulted in an increase of professional…

  7. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  8. Crisis in Context Theory: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Rick A.; Moore, Holly B.

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines a theory for understanding the impact of a crisis on individuals and organizations. Crisis in context theory (CCT) is grounded in an ecological model and based on literature in the field of crisis intervention and on personal experiences of the authors. A graphic representation denotes key components and premises of CCT,…

  9. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  10. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  11. 77 FR 19300 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... with advice on the security of the critical infrastructure sectors and their information systems. The NIAC will meet to address issues relevant to the protection of critical infrastructure as directed by... regarding the scope of the next phase of the Working Group's critical infrastructure resilience study,...

  12. 77 FR 62521 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... of the critical infrastructure sectors and their information systems. The NIAC will meet to discuss issues relevant to the protection of critical infrastructure as directed by the President. At this... impact of critical infrastructure on regional resiliency, best regional practices and models, and...

  13. 76 FR 36137 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Homeland Security with advice on the security of the critical infrastructure sectors and their information systems. The NIAC will meet to address issues relevant to the protection of critical infrastructure as... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate,...

  14. 76 FR 81956 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... protection of critical infrastructure as directed by the President. At this meeting, the committee will... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, at the National Press...

  15. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  16. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  17. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  18. Technology Use in Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

  19. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  20. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  1. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed discussion…

  2. Crisis Management and Media Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James V., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests guidelines for college administrators who deal with the media. Discusses social responsibility theory and presents suggestions for student affairs personnel in planning for crisis communication. Stresses the need for accurate, honest information which doesn't compromise the institution legally. (JAC)

  3. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  4. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  5. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  6. Key to the Environmental Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Understanding the present ecological crisis by understanding its conceptual background is discussed. Assessed are early Indian, colonial, puritan, and eighteenth and nineteenth century American concepts and beliefs of man's relationship to his environment. Principles and beliefs necessary to restore and maintain the environment are developed. (BL)

  7. The New York School Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larner, Jeremy

    This analysis of the educational crisis in New York City schools discusses some characteristics of de facto segregation in ghetto schools, the social background of Negro slum children, and the failure of teachers and curriculum to educate these students. A large portion of the article traces the various Board of Education attempts to integrate the…

  8. The Crisis of the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the academic profession is discussed: its ambivalent situation of having benefitted from postwar expansion of higher education, but of having been content to maintain the status quo. The worldwide nature of the crisis is noted. Available from AAPSS, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. (MSE)

  9. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. PMID:22520196

  10. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis.

  11. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  12. A Crisis in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  13. California Faces a Curriculum Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    School administrators in California are getting greater flexibility in how they spend more than $300 million intended for instructional materials, along with encouragement to use some free digital textbooks for high school courses, as a result of cost-cutting measures brought on by the state's budget crisis. Extensive changes to the state's…

  14. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Addressing the world water crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  16. TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Necmioglu, O.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.; Comoglu, M.; Ozel, N. M.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) responsibilities for the NEAM region. Based on this profound experience, KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios. However, KOERI's most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools

  17. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  18. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  19. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  20. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-12-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  1. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  2. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March..., incident response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical infrastructure assets..., risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members...

  3. 78 FR 16861 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March... response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical infrastructure assets and... mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are...

  4. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  5. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  6. 77 FR 32655 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... protection security measures, incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical..., vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure:...

  7. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Tempelaar, Reike; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M

    2002-01-01

    Based on the premises of crisis theory, we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources and strategies of patients in-crisis to be equally effective and those of patients post-crisis to be more effective as compared to those of healthy individuals. The sample consisted of: (a) 217 consecutive cancer patients in the acute phases of their illness (patients in-crisis); (b) 192 disease-free cancer patients (patients post-crisis); and (c) 201 randomly selected healthy individuals. Established measures of QL, self-esteem and neuroticism (coping resources) and coping behavior (coping strategies) were mailed. As expected, patients in-crisis reported a poorer QL (p < 0.001) and patients post-crisis a similar overall QL as compared to healthy individuals. There were no significant or systematic differences between the mean levels of coping resources and strategies between the respective groups. Two-way analysis of variance indicated a group X coping resource interaction effect on overall QL for self-esteem (p < 0.01). As expected, the amount of variance of overall QL explained by self-esteem was largest for patients post-crisis (27%) and comparable for patients in-crisis and healthy individuals (10 and 11%). Patients in-crisis were not able to make their coping resources and strategies more effective, whereas patients post-crisis seemed to have enhanced the effectiveness of self-esteem in restoring their QL as compared to healthy persons.

  8. Three day crisis resolution unit.

    PubMed

    Dubin, S E; Ananth, J; Bajwa-Goldsmith, B; Stuller, S; Lewis, C; Miller, M; Noel, N; Fernandez, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a three day crisis resolution unit within the confines of the psychiatric emergency service of a general hospital. It utilizes a crisis model of acute intervention, time limited psychotherapeutic approach combined with family therapy, and psychotropic meditation when indicated. One hundred thirty six consecutive admissions were rev ie.wed. 19% were discharged within 72 hours, and 51% required further hospitalization. Seventy seven percent of the patients discharged had involved families (significant others) in the treatment process, in comparison with only 28% family involvement with those patients who needed further hospitalization. This may be even more significant for psychotic patients who were discharged (14/18 family involvement) versus those who needed long hospitalization (13/50 family involvement).

  9. Consulting to children in crisis.

    PubMed

    Looney, J; Rahe, R; Harding, R; Ward, H; Liu, W

    1979-01-01

    Although community consultation is common for psychiatrists, such activity is usually carried out on an elective rather than emergency basis. In a world troubled by community disaster situations--children are often at risk. Psychiatrists, through the use of skillful crisis consultation, can be of great help to these young people. This report describes the effort of a mental health consultation team to meet the needs of a large population of children under acute stress. PMID:467132

  10. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  11. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  12. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  13. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  14. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  15. School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judie

    This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team…

  16. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power.

  17. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. PMID:21399415

  18. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  19. Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

  20. An Evaluation of Crisis Hotline Outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal Crisis Callers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed…

  1. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  2. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  3. The Impact of New York City’s 1975 Fiscal Crisis on the Tuberculosis, HIV, and Homicide Syndemic

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Fahs, Marianne; Galea, Sandro; Greenberg, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In 1975, New York City experienced a fiscal crisis rooted in long-term political and economic changes in the city. Budget and policy decisions designed to alleviate this fiscal crisis contributed to the subsequent epidemics of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and homicide in New York City. Because these conditions share underlying social determinants, we consider them a syndemic, i.e., all 3 combined to create an excess disease burden on the population. Cuts in services; the dismantling of health, public safety, and social service infrastructures; and the deterioration of living conditions for vulnerable populations contributed to the amplification of these health conditions over 2 decades. We estimate that the costs incurred in controlling these epidemics exceeded $50 billion (in 2004 dollars); in contrast, the overall budgetary saving during the fiscal crisis was $10 billion. This history has implications for public health professionals who must respond to current perceptions of local fiscal crises. PMID:16449588

  4. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  5. Meeting Hanford's Infrastructure Requirements - 12505

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Hanford, by all accounts, is an enormous and complex project, with thousands of disparate, but co-mingled activities in motion on any given day. The primary target of the mission at Hanford is cleanup of the 586 square-mile site, but there is the equally vital mission of site services and infrastructure. Without functions like the well-maintained site roads, electricity, water, and emergency management services, not a single cleanup project could be undertaken. As the cleanup projects evolve - with new work-scope emerging, while existing projects are completed - there becomes a very real need to keep projects integrated and working to the same 'blueprint'. And the Hanford blueprint extends for years and includes myriad variables that come with meeting the challenges and complexities associated with Hanford cleanup. Because of an innovative and unique contracting strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) found a way to keep the cleanup projects un-encumbered from the side task of having to self-provide their individual essential site services, thus allowing the cleanup contractors to concentrate their efforts on their primary mission of cleaning up the site. These infrastructure and support services also need to be provided efficiently and cost effectively - done primarily through 'right-sizing' efforts. The real innovation came when DOE had the foresight to include a second provision in this contract which specifically asked for a specialized role of site integrator and innovator, with a special emphasis placed on providing substantial cost savings for the government. The need for a true site integrator function was necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of projects at Hanford and the progression of cleanup at others. At present, there are two main DOE offices overseeing the cleanup work and six primary contractors performing that work. Each of these contractors works to separate schedules and cleanup milestones, and the nature of the cleanup differs, but

  6. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  7. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  8. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  9. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... infrastructure. (a) Accounts. NHTSA maintains “accounts” for each credit holder. The account consists of...

  10. The Infrastructure of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S.; Wang, Phoenix M.

    2007-01-01

    The success of OER is likely to depend on a flexible, extendable infrastructure that will meet the challenges of an evolving World Wide Web. In this article, the authors examine three key dimensions of this infrastructure--technical, legal/cultural/social/political, and research--and discuss possible directions for development. (Contains 1 table…

  11. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... infrastructure. (a) Accounts. NHTSA maintains “accounts” for each credit holder. The account consists of...

  12. Development of a Water Infrastructure Knowledge Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a methodology for developing a national database, as applied to water infrastructure systems, which includes both drinking water and wastewater. The database is branded as "WATERiD" and can be accessed at www.waterid.org. Water infrastructure in the U.S. is ag...

  13. The Missing Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.; Clifford, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Noting that current programs for young children outside the home lack a comprehensive infrastructure or support system to stand behind the delivery of services to the child and family, this paper proposes the development of a support infrastructure designed to provide continuing and effective assistance to those who work with young children. A…

  14. 78 FR 65675 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... comments after the presentation of the report from the Regional Resilience Working Group, and after the... security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure sectors. The NIAC will meet to discuss issues relevant to the critical infrastructure security and resilience as directed by the President....

  15. The Other Infrastructure: Distance Education's Digital Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Suggests a new infrastructure--the digital plant--for supporting flexible Web campus environments. Describes four categories which make up the infrastructure: personal communication tools and applications; network of networks for the Web campus; dedicated servers and software applications; software applications and services from external…

  16. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  17. [Financial crisis and mental health].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2010-01-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life indicate a correlation between unemployment or other economic indexes and the general levels of death rates, depression, and suicide tendencies. The most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts, general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Under conditions of economic crisis, the poor represent a high risk group since they are the first ones to be put at risk. At the same time, due to their pre-existing functionality reduction, individuals already experiencing psychiatric diseases also represent a high risk group, thus creating a vice circle where poverty nurtures psychiatric disorders and vice-versa. For every country in the midst of a recession, protecting high risk target groups is the first priority. In these cases, research showcases that social security networks' reinforcement represents the first strategic priority. Other factors, for instance personality features related to increased vulnerability to psychosocial threat -such as low tolerance to frustration or low self esteem- also play an important role. At the organizational level, one has to research practices and policies that employers use to respond to changing conditions. An economic recession is a chance to revamp essential services toward weaker populations that need to be protected. This translates into a buttressing of the social welfare system while promoting timely interventions. Amongst others, the registration of high risk population groups, the rehabilitation and social inclusion of unemployed individuals and individuals with psychiatric problems, the training of first responders and primary care physicians, the tracing and curing of depression and other usual disorders, as well as an improved access to the psychiatric-health provision system.

  18. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  19. Welcome to the energy crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author provides an overview of several articles on the impact of the energy crisis which examine key ideas, emerging theories, findings, and methodologies that are guiding current social research. The articles deal with energy policy and how energy conservation fits into national policy, the social psychological context for energy conservation research on behavior and attitudes, and how to facilitate the adoption of conservation measures that increase the efficiency of energy use. The papers review psychological theory on the adoption of innovations, and offer modifications and extensions that tailor it to fit the adoption of energy-conserving innovations. 7 references.

  20. Medical liability reform crisis 2008.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called "Doctors for Medical Liability Reform" to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  1. Medical Liability Reform Crisis 2008

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called “Doctors for Medical Liability Reform” to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  2. [Hypertensive crisis: pathogenesis, clinic, treatment].

    PubMed

    Vertkin, A L; Topolianskiĭ, A V; Abdullaeva, A U; Alekseev, M A; Shakhmanaev, Kh A

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary data on mechanisms of development, types, and clinical picture of hypertensive crisis (HC) are presented. Algorithms of rational therapy of uncomplicated and complicated HC are considered. Appropriateness of the use in HC of antihypertensive drugs with multifactorial action is stressed. These drugs include urapidil - an antihypertensive agent with complex mechanism of action. Blocking mainly the postsynaptic 1-adrenoreceptors urapidil attenuates vasoconstrictor effect of catecholamines and decreases total peripheral resistance. Stimulation of 5HT1-receptors of medullary vasculomotor center promotes lowering of elevated vascular tone and prevents development of reflex tachycardia.

  3. Improving decision making in crisis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy; Freedman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis.

  4. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  5. IT Infrastructure Components for Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Prokosch, H.U.; Beck, A.; Ganslandt, T.; Hummel, M.; Kiehntopf, M.; Sax, U.; Ückert, F.; Semler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Within translational research projects in the recent years large biobanks have been established, mostly supported by homegrown, proprietary software solutions. No general requirements for biobanking IT infrastructures have been published yet. This paper presents an exemplary biobanking IT architecture, a requirements specification for a biorepository management tool and exemplary illustrations of three major types of requirements. Methods We have pursued a comprehensive literature review for biobanking IT solutions and established an interdisciplinary expert panel for creating the requirements specification. The exemplary illustrations were derived from a requirements analysis within two university hospitals. Results The requirements specification comprises a catalog with more than 130 detailed requirements grouped into 3 major categories and 20 subcategories. Special attention is given to multitenancy capabilities in order to support the project-specific definition of varying research and bio-banking contexts, the definition of workflows to track sample processing, sample transportation and sample storage and the automated integration of preanalytic handling and storage robots. Conclusion IT support for biobanking projects can be based on a federated architectural framework comprising primary data sources for clinical annotations, a pseudonymization service, a clinical data warehouse with a flexible and user-friendly query interface and a biorepository management system. Flexibility and scalability of all such components are vital since large medical facilities such as university hospitals will have to support biobanking for varying monocentric and multicentric research scenarios and multiple medical clients. PMID:23616851

  6. Scaling Agile Infrastructure to People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; McCance, G.; Traylen, S.; Barrientos Arias, N.

    2015-12-01

    When CERN migrated its infrastructure away from homegrown fabric management tools to emerging industry-standard open-source solutions, the immediate technical challenges and motivation were clear. The move to a multi-site Cloud Computing model meant that the tool chains that were growing around this ecosystem would be a good choice, the challenge was to leverage them. The use of open-source tools brings challenges other than merely how to deploy them. Homegrown software, for all the deficiencies identified at the outset of the project, has the benefit of growing with the organization. This paper will examine what challenges there were in adapting open-source tools to the needs of the organization, particularly in the areas of multi-group development and security. Additionally, the increase in scale of the plant required changes to how Change Management was organized and managed. Continuous Integration techniques are used in order to manage the rate of change across multiple groups, and the tools and workflow for this will be examined.

  7. Polymer Nanocomposites for Infrastructure Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, M. R.; Goertzen, W. K.

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are becoming increasingly important in the structural repair and rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure - from pipelines to buildings to bridges. For example, composite overwraps are used to repair corroded steel pipelines because the repair can be completed in a relatively short amount of time and the fluid transmission in the piping system can remain undisrupted while the repair is being made. Often in these applications, a primer and filler adhesive is used to fill defects in the substrate so that load can be adequately transferred to the continuous fiber composite. In this work we discuss various nano-scale reinforcements such as fumed silica, alumina, nanoclay, and carbon nanotubes as additives to this filler adhesive in order to improve mechanical properties and to tailor the thermal expansion of the composite to match the underlying substrate being repaired. The thermal expansion mismatch is especially important in applications where temperature fluctuations are present. We highlight our results from rheology, thermal expansion, and dynamic mechanical analysis testing of nanosilica/cyanate ester composites and show that the incorporation of the nano-scale fillers can result in improvement of the thermo-mechanical behavior of the composites.

  8. Resource Guide for Crisis Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Richard T.; And Others

    A crisis can occur at any time, whether or not a school's staff plans for it. This resource guide is a compilation of user-friendly examples of policies, procedures, guidelines, checklists, and forms to help Virginia schools develop and implement a systematic crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the essential…

  9. Crisis Response Support Procedures for Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgendorf, Erik

    Developed at Missouri's Crowder College, the guidelines in this manual are designed to help educational institutions respond to and resolve crisis situations. Following an introduction describing the importance of having proactive commitments, resources, and routines in place to respond to crises, the first section provides general crisis support…

  10. School Crisis Response: Expecting the Unexpected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The typical administrator certification program does not devote specific attention to shootings, suicide, terminal illness, and natural disasters. A crisis of major proportion calls for enlightened leadership: a take-charge manner, combined with effective teamwork and delegation of vital operations. Crisis teams should exist at regional, district,…

  11. School Crisis Aftermath: Care for the Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    "Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…

  12. Creating Your School's Crisis Management Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Bruce T.

    2001-01-01

    Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are…

  13. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

  14. Crisis Management's New Role in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…

  15. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  16. Do You Have a Crisis Management Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleviak, Walter; Milkevitch, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking. (MLH)

  17. Content Knowledge--The Real Reading Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Manning, Maryann

    2007-01-01

    The perceived crisis in reading achievement may be misplaced--the real crisis may be what is ignored in the curriculum. People are alarmed at the lack of emphasis being placed on teaching content knowledge in many of today's classrooms. They laugh when Jay Leno takes to the street, interviewing teenagers and young adults who do not have the…

  18. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  19. The Leading Edge: Enduring a Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeser, James

    2003-01-01

    On June 2003, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) faced a frightening crisis when an employee was diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In this article, the author looks back and identifies four factors that enabled the university to navigate this crisis. These factors were: (1) leadership at every level; (2)…

  20. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  1. Miscarriage: A Special Type of Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Randal D.; Hooks, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed 102 women about their experience with miscarriage. Found that family resource variables were a much stronger predictor of level of crisis and recovery than were personal or community resource variables. Adaptation and cohesion were significant predictors of speed or recovery and level of crisis, respectively. (Author/NB)

  2. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  3. Organisational socialisation in a crisis context.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management.

  4. Crisis communications between superpowers. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Thacher, S.L.

    1990-02-12

    Ever since the United States and the Soviet Union first possessed the ability to destroy each other with nuclear weapons, they have been looking at means to defuse crisis situations and avoid inadvertent nuclear warfare. One of the means that evolved was the Washington-Moscow Hotline, put into operation on August 31, 1963. This was the first crisis communications system, ever, between superpowers and the first bilateral arms control agreement. Over the past twenty-seven years, this and other crisis communications systems have evolved and others have been recommended. Information was gathered using a review of the literature and through analysis of the views of key military and civilian leaders. Although opponents have many reasons for opposing crisis communications systems, the evidence supports the position that these systems have been a deterrent to war and that further improved crisis communications systems between the superpowers would be advantageous as we move into the 1990's.

  5. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-08-18

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.

  6. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  7. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  8. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience.

  9. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  10. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  11. Climate Indicators for Energy and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two of the key categories of climate indicators are energy and infrastructure. For energy supply and use, many indicators are available for energy supply and consumption; and some indicators are available to assess implications of climate change, such as changes over time in heating and cooling days. Indicators of adaptation and adaptive capacity are more elusive. For infrastructure, which includes more than a dozen different sectors, general indicators are not available, beyond counts of major disasters and such valuable contributions as the ASCE "report cards." In this case, research is needed, for example to develop credible metrics for assessing the resilience of built infrastructures to climate change and other stresses.

  12. Scientific computing infrastructure and services in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatencov, P. P.; Secrieru, G. V.; Degteariov, N. V.; Iliuha, N. P.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years distributed information processing and high-performance computing technologies (HPC, distributed Cloud and Grid computing infrastructures) for solving complex tasks with high demands of computing resources are actively developing. In Moldova the works on creation of high-performance and distributed computing infrastructures were started relatively recently due to participation in implementation of a number of international projects. Research teams from Moldova participated in a series of regional and pan-European projects that allowed them to begin forming the national heterogeneous computing infrastructure, get access to regional and European computing resources, and expand the range and areas of solving tasks.

  13. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  14. Visiting Nurse Association of New York and Crisis Management after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    September 11, 2001 was a devastating event that changed all of our lives and organizations. This article examines the impact of September 11, 2001 on the Visiting Nurse Association of New York and how it decided to respond in the future. Crisis Management, which has become more prevalent for many organizations, is an important strategic initiative for the VNA helping them provide the infrastructure to respond effectively to emergencies and unpredictable events. It is important in today's volatile business climate, that hospital and nursing organizations develop a strategic system to handle "worst case scenarios".

  15. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  16. 75 FR 60771 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Government and critical infrastructure owners and operators and provides a forum in which they can engage in a broad spectrum of activities to support and coordinate critical infrastructure protection....

  17. 76 FR 50487 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National... soliciting comments concerning New Information Collection Request, Protected Critical Infrastructure... created by Congress under the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002 (CII Act), Sections...

  18. 78 FR 57644 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) Plenary Meeting will be... substantive commentary that must pertain only to matters involving critical infrastructure security...

  19. 78 FR 38723 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...: The National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet July 17, August 14, and September 17... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory Council Designated...

  20. 77 FR 32656 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... (CIPAC) by notice published in the Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March 24, 2006. That..., incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience, reconstituting critical infrastructure assets and... mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are...

  1. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamare, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies) is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  2. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  3. Expecting the Unexpected: Towards Robust Credential Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Cryptographic credential infrastructures, such as Public key infrastructure (PKI), allow the building of trust relationships in electronic society and electronic commerce. At the center of credential infrastructures is the methodology of digital signatures. However, methods that assure that credentials and signed messages possess trustworthiness and longevity are not well understood, nor are they adequately addressed in both literature and practice. We believe that, as a basic engineering principle, these properties have to be built into the credential infrastructure rather than be treated as an after-thought since they are crucial to the long term success of this notion. In this paper we present a step in the direction of dealing with these issues. Specifically, we present the basic engineering reasoning as well as a model that helps understand (somewhat formally) the trustworthiness and longevity of digital signatures, and then we give basic mechanisms that help improve these notions.

  4. Service Modeling Language Applied to Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Fovino, Igor Nai

    The modeling of dependencies in complex infrastructure systems is still a very difficult task. Many methodologies have been proposed, but a number of challenges still remain, including the definition of the right level of abstraction, the presence of different views on the same critical infrastructure and how to adequately represent the temporal evolution of systems. We propose a modeling methodology where dependencies are described in terms of the service offered by the critical infrastructure and its components. The model provides a clear separation between services and the underlying organizational and technical elements, which may change in time. The model uses the Service Modeling Language proposed by the W3 consortium for describing critical infrastructure in terms of interdependent services nodes including constraints, behavior, information flows, relations, rules and other features. Each service node is characterized by its technological, organizational and process components. The model is then applied to a real case of an ICT system for users authentication.

  5. Fuzzy architecture assessment for critical infrastructure resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, George

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for the selection of alternative architectures in a connected infrastructure system to increase resilience of the overall infrastructure system. The paper begins with a description of resilience and critical infrastructure, then summarizes existing approaches to resilience, and presents a fuzzy-rule based method of selecting among alternative infrastructure architectures. This methodology includes considerations which are most important when deciding on an approach to resilience. The paper concludes with a proposed approach which builds on existing resilience architecting methods by integrating key system aspects using fuzzy memberships and fuzzy rule sets. This novel approach aids the systems architect in considering resilience for the evaluation of architectures for adoption into the final system architecture.

  6. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  7. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  8. The Europlanet Research Infrastructure and Technology Foresight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Europlanet Community

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure is a project to integrate and support planetary science activities across Europe. The project is funded under the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme. Technology Foresight is a key activity.

  9. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  10. An authentication infrastructure for today and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Engert, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The Open Software Foundation`s Distributed Computing Environment (OSF/DCE) was originally designed to provide a secure environment for distributed applications. By combining it with Kerberos Version 5 from MIT, it can be extended to provide network security as well. This combination can be used to build both an inter and intra organizational infrastructure while providing single sign-on for the user with overall improved security. The ESnet community of the Department of Energy is building just such an infrastructure. ESnet has modified these systems to improve their interoperability, while encouraging the developers to incorporate these changes and work more closely together to continue to improve the interoperability. The success of this infrastructure depends on its flexibility to meet the needs of many applications and network security requirements. The open nature of Kerberos, combined with the vendor support of OSF/DCE, provides the infrastructure for today and tomorrow.

  11. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  12. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  13. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindauer, Alicia

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  14. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  15. Strategic defenses and crisis stability. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, D.; Watman, K.; Kennedy, M.; Darilek, R.

    1989-04-01

    The effect that defenses have on crisis stability is one of the central issues in the current debate over the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Crisis stability would be threatened in a situation in which either the United States or the Soviet Union feels pressure to strike first in the hope of producing a more favorable outcome to what appears to be inevitable nuclear war. This note examines various issues surrounding the question of crisis stability. In particular, it considers options for ameliorating any potential instabilities that might arise during a transition to higher levels of strategic defenses. The authors suggest that a crisis-stable transition is possible, that the mutual survivability of strategic offensive forces is crucial to maintaining crisis stability, that space-based defenses of strategic offensive forces (SOF) are potentially crisis-destabilizing unless they are backed up by terminal defenses of SOF, and that the mutual survivability of strategic defenses and defense suppression forces is also critical to crisis stability.

  16. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  17. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  18. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  19. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-07-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  20. HYDROGEN DELIVERY: INFRASTRUCTURE, CHALLENGES, AND MATERIALS NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Gardiner, Monterey

    2009-01-01

    Current domestic energy policy is aimed at encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as hydrogen for use as a renewable and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based fuels for transportation and stationary power. The purpose of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is to provide insight and input on hydrogen delivery infrastructure research. Ongoing research has identified materials R&D challenges required to support this infrastructure. A few of these challenges are summarized with emphasis placed on materials.

  1. 75 FR 21011 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... protection security measures, incident response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting CIKR..., risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members...

  2. How To Prepare for and Respond to a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert; And Others

    This booklet presents information on school-crisis management, based on the work of a New Haven, Connecticut, regional crisis team that was initially created to address the mental-health needs of school children during the Persian Gulf War. The goals of the regional crisis committee were to develop a school-crisis intervention model, train…

  3. Popular Culture Studies and the Politics of Educational "Crisis."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    The conservative position on the crisis in the humanities is fundamentally antidemocratic and poses a danger to popular culture studies. This can be demonstrated by taking issue with conservatives' usage of the terms "crisis" and "politics." A crisis is an urgent problem, but by labeling something a crisis which is not, attention is distracted…

  4. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  5. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  6. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  7. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  8. Communicating through Crisis: A Strategy for Organizational Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that crisis communication should be a part of the larger issues of communication policy and strategy. Builds a case for the need to consider crisis communication in a larger context. Proposes a model of crisis communication content that may serve as a framework for research into the efficacy of communication during crisis episodes. (RS)

  9. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  10. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…

  11. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  12. Partnerships for effective campus crisis responses.

    PubMed

    Ingemann, Mira; Jackson, LaTrelle; Pittman, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Violence on college campuses has spurred administrators and campus safety officials to devise effective crisis management and threat assessment strategies. The college community lends itself to a systematic multi-component model of crisis intervention primarily due to its self-contained and widespread interconnected social networks. The CISM model for a crisis response is an empirically supported program that would inform practice prior to, during, and following university-based crises. Ultimately, best practices in the world of academia should rest on a foundation of detailed preparation, interdepartmental collaboration and coordination, extensive specialized training, and periodic review of campus protocols to assess for systemic changes. PMID:19927497

  13. Electronic gaming and the obesity crisis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L; Staiano, Amanda E; Bond, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes.

  14. Technological disasters, crisis management and leadership stress.

    PubMed

    Weisaeth, Lars; Knudsen, Øistein; Tønnessen, Arnfinn

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses how psychological stress disturbs decision making during technological crisis and disaster, and how to prevent this from happening. This is exemplified by scientific studies of a Norwegian large scale accident involving hazardous material, and of handling the far-off effects of the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The former constitutes an operative level of crisis management, whereas the latter involves crisis management at the strategic and political level. We conclude that stress had a negative effect on decision making in both cases.

  15. Electronic gaming and the obesity crisis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L; Staiano, Amanda E; Bond, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  16. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  17. Violence, Kids, Crisis. What You Can Do. Being Prepared. Developing a School Violence Prevention and Crisis Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes the importance of developing a school violence prevention and crisis response plan, explaining what an effective plan should include; how to establish a school-based team; essential components of a crisis response plan; how to ensure safety via contingency provisions to the crisis response plan; and how to handle the crisis aftermath. A…

  18. K-12 School Leaders and School Crisis: An Exploration of Principals' School Crisis Competencies and Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    On any given day, principals could find themselves faced with a situation that could define their roles as crisis leaders. This dissertation research offers an exploratory study in the field of crisis response and educational leadership. From experts in the field of crisis response, the author compiled a list of crisis management competencies…

  19. Energy crisis: Unresolved issues and enduring legacies

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The energy crisis of 1973--1974 was a pivotal event in twentieth-century American history. In the wake of the Vietnam War, it exposed the nation`s economic vulnerability to foreign powers and precipitated an awareness of limits to the exploitation of natural resources. Further, it forced Americans and the American government in particular to think about the future of energy production and consumption in novel ways and made such thinking more imperative than ever. Twenty years later, questions about the energy crisis persist. What were the underlying causes of the crisis. What has been learned from it. How has it affected current energy policies. Will another energy crisis occur in the future. In the book, David Lewis Feldman brings together a wide range of energy policy experts to address these questions and explore the appropriate role of governments and markets in ensuring a stable, economical, and sustainable energy supply.

  20. Class Handles "Crisis" in PR Simulation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivins, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a two-week corporate public relations simulation that allowed students, acting as media representatives, to experience the frustrations of dealing with a typical company during a crisis. (HOD)

  1. The Energy Crisis: A Continuing Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, David

    1976-01-01

    To school business managers, the energy crisis is a continuing economic disaster as energy costs continue to climb and schools are without money to make necessary renovations to reduce energy consumption. (Author/IRT)

  2. The Nurse Leader Role in Crisis Management.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times. PMID:27556647

  3. Energy Crisis Spurs Congress Into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)

  4. The training of telephone crisis intervention volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, M C; Burns, J

    1975-06-01

    Telephone crisis intervention services are growing at a very rapid rate. A review of the literature reveals that there are very few references to this new phenomenon and even fewer that deal with evaluating the effectiveness of telephone crisis training. Herein 7 articles are reviewed which deal with volunteer selection and training. These articles demonstrate that no consistent rationale for volunteer selection or training exists. Selection of volunteers typically consists of a gross screening to eliminate any obviously unsuitable persons, with training serving as a further sorting procedure where volunteers who are uncomfortable with the role of a crisis interventionist can be encouraged to drop out. The authors suggest that a training model be built around crisis intervention theory using principles of social learning as the methodology for training.

  5. The Nurse Leader Role in Crisis Management.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times.

  6. Are You Prepared for the Next Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Offers steps to making school security equipment and emergency plans more effective through proper planning and staff training. Key components of effective communication for controlling and responding to crisis are highlighted. (GR)

  7. The Energy Crisis: What Physicists Can Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tay Yong

    1976-01-01

    Divides the components of the energy crisis into those which demand immediate, moderate term, and long term research efforts. Delineates specific topics in each category and solicits physicists' efforts in these areas. (CP)

  8. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  9. What kind of crisis for capitalism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    This week's meeting of the International Monetary Fund at Toronto will avoid an immediate crisis. But more international credit will not allow rich and poor to behave as if they live on different planets.

  10. Crisis management during anaesthesia: recovering from a crisis.

    PubMed

    Bacon, A K; Morris, R W; Runciman, W B; Currie, M

    2005-06-01

    Preventing harm to the patient is the priority during a crisis. After a major incident, and especially when a patient has been harmed, there are a number of matters to be addressed: the ongoing care of the patient; documentation of the incident; investigation of the root causes; completion of reports; interviews with the patient and/or the next of kin, together with apologies and expression of regret; updates and ongoing support for friends and relatives; a word of thanks to the staff involved for their assistance; formal debriefing of staff for quality assurance and possibly ongoing support and a separate debriefing for psychological purposes; ensuring that the recommendations of the root cause analysis are carried out; or, failing that, that the issues are logged on a risk register. The extent and depth of the follow up protocol depends on what, if any, harm may have been done. This may constitute completion of an incident report; notification of an equipment failure to a federal regulatory authority; arranging consultations with a mental health professional to manage psychological sequelae (especially following an awareness episode); follow up during weeks of intensive care treatment; or, when a death has occurred, a full medico-legal and/or coronial set of procedures. A precis is appended in an action card format.

  11. Crisis management during anaesthesia: recovering from a crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, A; Morris, R; Runciman, W; Currie, M

    2005-01-01

    Preventing harm to the patient is the priority during a crisis. After a major incident, and especially when a patient has been harmed, there are a number of matters to be addressed: the ongoing care of the patient; documentation of the incident; investigation of the root causes; completion of reports; interviews with the patient and/or the next of kin, together with apologies and expression of regret; updates and ongoing support for friends and relatives; a word of thanks to the staff involved for their assistance; formal debriefing of staff for quality assurance and possibly ongoing support and a separate debriefing for psychological purposes; ensuring that the recommendations of the root cause analysis are carried out; or, failing that, that the issues are logged on a risk register. The extent and depth of the follow up protocol depends on what, if any, harm may have been done. This may constitute completion of an incident report; notification of an equipment failure to a federal regulatory authority; arranging consultations with a mental health professional to manage psychological sequelae (especially following an awareness episode); follow up during weeks of intensive care treatment; or, when a death has occurred, a full medico-legal and/or coronial set of procedures. A précis is appended in an action card format. PMID:15933299

  12. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  13. The cultural basis for our environmental crisis.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, L W

    1970-10-30

    The forces of democracy, technology, urbanization, increasing individual wealth, and an aggressive attitude toward nature seem to be directly related to the environmental crisis now being confronted in the Western world. The Judeo-Christian tradition has probably influenced the character of each of these forces. However, to isolate religious tradition as a cultural component and to contend that it is the "historical root of our ecological crisis" is a bold affirmation for which there is little historical or scientific support. PMID:4918765

  14. Analyzing Crisis in Global Financial Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita

    We apply the Random Matrix Theory and complex network techniques to 20 global financial indices and study the correlation and network properties before and during the financial crisis of 2008 respectively. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviate significantly from the upper bound which shows a strong correlation between financial indices. By using a sliding window of 25 days we find that largest eigenvalue represent the collective information about the correlation between global financial indices and its trend indicate the market conditions. It is confirmed that eigenvectors corresponding to second largest eigenvalue gives useful information about the sector formation in the global financial indices. We find that these clusters are formed on the basis of the geographical location. The correlation network is constructed using threshold method for different values of threshold θ in the range 0 to 0.9, at θ=0.2 the network is fully connected. At θ=0.6, the Americas, Europe and Asia/Pacific form different clusters before the crisis but during the crisis Americas and Europe are strongly linked. If we further increase the threshold to 0.9 we find that European countries France, Germany and UK consistently constitute the most tightly linked markets before and during the crisis. We find that the structure of Minimum Spanning Tree before the crisis is more star like whereas during the crisis it changes to be more chain like. Using the multifractal analysis, we find that Hurst exponents of financial indices increases during the period of crisis as compared to the period before the crisis. The empirical results verify the validity of measures, and this has led to a better understanding of complex financial markets.

  15. Setting up a crisis recovery plan.

    PubMed

    Phelps, N L

    1986-01-01

    When companies, institutions, or for that matter even nations suddenly find themselves face to face with a disaster, more often than not the necessary forces can be quickly marshaled to deal with the matter at hand. However, when the dust begins to settle, the after shocks are often more devastating and costly to the organization over the long term than the original crisis. That is why crisis recovery planning should be a part of any strategic planning process.

  16. Extensive expertise in endocrinology. Adrenal crisis.

    PubMed

    Allolio, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening emergency contributing to the excess mortality of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Studies in patients on chronic replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency have revealed an incidence of 5-10 adrenal crises/100 patient years and suggested a mortality rate from adrenal crisis of 0.5/100 patient years. Patients with adrenal crisis typically present with profoundly impaired well-being, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and fever responding well to parenteral hydrocortisone administration. Infections are the major precipitating causes of adrenal crisis. Lack of increased cortisol concentrations during infection enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine release and sensitivity to the toxic effects of these cytokines (e.g. tumour necrosis factor alpha). Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines may impair glucocorticoid receptor function aggravating glucocorticoid deficiency. Treatment of adrenal crisis is simple and highly effective consisting of i.v. hydrocortisone (initial bolus of 100  mg followed by 200  mg over 24  h as continuous infusion) and 0.9% saline (1000  ml within the first hour). Prevention of adrenal crisis requires appropriate hydrocortisone dose adjustments to stressful medical procedures (e.g. major surgery) and other stressful events (e.g. infection). Patient education is a key for such dose adjustments but current education concepts are not sufficiently effective. Thus, improved education strategies are needed. Every patient should carry an emergency card and should be provided with an emergency kit for parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration. A hydrocortisone pen would hold a great potential to lower the current barriers to hydrocortisone self-injection. Improved patient education and measures to facilitate parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration in impending crisis are expected to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from adrenal crisis.

  17. Timing crisis information release via television.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. PMID:20572851

  18. Final Report on National NGV Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    GM Sverdrup; JG DeSteese; ND Malcosky

    1999-01-07

    This report summarizes work fimded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to (1) identi& barriers to establishing sustainable natural gas vehicle (NGV) infrastructure and (2) develop planning information that can help to promote a NGV infrastructure with self-sustaining critical maw. The need for this work is driven by the realization that demand for NGVS has not yet developed to a level that provides sufficient incentives for investment by the commercial sector in all necessary elements of a supportive infrastructure. The two major objectives of this project were: (1) to identifi and prioritize the technical barriers that may be impeding growth of a national NGV infrastructure and (2) to develop input that can assist industry in overcoming these barriers. The approach used in this project incorporated and built upon the accumulated insights of the NGV industry. The project was conducted in three basic phases: (1) review of the current situation, (2) prioritization of technical infrastructure btiiers, and (3) development of plans to overcome key barriers. An extensive and diverse list of barriers was obtained from direct meetings and telephone conferences with sixteen industry NGV leaders and seven Clean Cities/Clean Corridors coordinators. This information is filly documented in the appendix. A distillation of insights gained in the interview process suggests that persistent barriers to developing an NGV market and supporting infrastructure can be grouped into four major categories: 1. Fuel station economics 2. Value of NGVs from the owner/operator perspective 3. Cooperation necessary for critical mass 4. Commitment by investors. A principal conclusion is that an efficient and effective approach for overcoming technical barriers to developing an NGV infrastructure can be provided by building upon and consolidating the relevant efforts of the NGV industry and government. The major recommendation of this project is the

  19. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Brownjohn, J M W

    2007-02-15

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a term increasingly used in the last decade to describe a range of systems implemented on full-scale civil infrastructures and whose purposes are to assist and inform operators about continued 'fitness for purpose' of structures under gradual or sudden changes to their state, to learn about either or both of the load and response mechanisms. Arguably, various forms of SHM have been employed in civil infrastructure for at least half a century, but it is only in the last decade or two that computer-based systems are being designed for the purpose of assisting owners/operators of ageing infrastructure with timely information for their continued safe and economic operation. This paper describes the motivations for and recent history of SHM applications to various forms of civil infrastructure and provides case studies on specific types of structure. It ends with a discussion of the present state-of-the-art and future developments in terms of instrumentation, data acquisition, communication systems and data mining and presentation procedures for diagnosis of infrastructural 'health'.

  20. The butterfly and the loom.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Rodney J; Martin, Kevan A C

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between structure and function in the brain has an interesting counterpart in the scientific relationship of Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Charles Sherrington. In their search for the principles of organization of the nervous system, both men met at the synapse. For Sherrington, who coined the word 'synapse', the neuron was the functional unit that integrated excitatory and inhibitory input. For Cajal, the synapse was the explanation for how neurons could be individual elements, yet connected to form circuits. Both men were primarily concerned with local circuits in spinal cord and brain, but imaginatively extrapolated their discoveries on simple circuits to higher cognitive functions. Both men wrote poetically about their discoveries and so provided neuroscience with a rich vocabulary, vivid and memorable images, and concepts that remain part of the currency of 21st century neuroscience.

  1. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  2. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  3. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... infrastructure investment. 35.35 Section 35.35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure... preferential. (d) Incentive-based rate treatments for transmission infrastructure investment. The...

  4. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... infrastructure investment. 35.35 Section 35.35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure... preferential. (d) Incentive-based rate treatments for transmission infrastructure investment. The...

  5. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... infrastructure investment. 35.35 Section 35.35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure... preferential. (d) Incentive-based rate treatments for transmission infrastructure investment. The...

  6. Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

  7. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Richard, Tom L

    2010-08-13

    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale. PMID:20705852

  8. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Richard, Tom L

    2010-08-13

    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale.

  9. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  10. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  11. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  12. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  13. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  14. Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Castenfors, K; Svedin, L

    2001-12-14

    The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular. The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site contamination and transports of hazardous materials on old worn-out physical infrastructure, work together to produce high-risk factors and increase urban vulnerability in large parts of the world today. Crisis communication takes a particularly pronounced role in the article as challenges in communication and confidence maintenance under conditions of information uncertainty and limited information control are explored. The LPG near miss case illustrates a Swedish case of urban risk and the tight coupling to hazardous material transports. The case also serves as a current example of Swedish resilience and lack of preparedness in urban crises, with particular observations and lessons learned in regards to crisis communication.

  15. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  16. Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Matthew W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…

  17. Helping Crisis Managers Protect Reputational Assets: Initial Tests of the Situational Crisis Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…

  18. Plans that Work: (Excerpt from "Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    2005-01-01

    There are close to 1,200 community colleges in the United States, and their level of crisis preparation ranges from very thorough to not prepared at all. A survey of American Association of Community Colleges membership found a number of community colleges that not only had good crisis plans but were proud of the work that had gone into them and…

  19. Expanding the Crisis Planning Function: Introducing Elements of Risk Communication to Crisis Communication Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.; Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests use of elements of risk communication by crisis communication practitioners facing increasing industrial reliance on new technologies which might be associated with potential health/environment harm. Studies a small company crisis which reveals that elements of anticipation, public involvement/trust, technological comparison, and media…

  20. Crisis in the Curriculum? New Counselors' Crisis Preparation, Experiences, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Minton, Casey A. Barrio

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors are responsible for providing crisis assessment, referral, and intervention (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2009); however, little is known about their preparation and experiences in these areas. This study examined new professional counselors' (N= 193) crisis intervention…

  1. NASA World Wind: Infrastructure for Spatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The world has great need for analysis of Earth observation data, be it climate change, carbon monitoring, disaster response, national defense or simply local resource management. To best provide for spatial and time-dependent information analysis, the world benefits from an open standards and open source infrastructure for spatial data. In the spirit of NASA's motto "for the benefit of all" NASA invites the world community to collaboratively advance this core technology. The World Wind infrastructure for spatial data both unites and challenges the world for innovative solutions analyzing spatial data while also allowing absolute command and control over any respective information exchange medium.

  2. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  3. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  4. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America?

  5. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America? PMID:27417861

  6. The development of a cislunar space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, C. A.; Johnson, A. S.; Mcglinchey, J. M.; Ryan, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this Advanced Mission Design Program is to define the general characteristics and phased evolution of a near-Earth space infrastructure. The envisioned foundation includes a permanently manned, self-sustaining base on the lunar surface, a space station at the Libration Point between earth and the moon (L1), and a transportation system that anchors these elements to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) station. The implementation of this conceptual design was carried out with the idea that the infrastructure is an important step in a larger plan to expand man's capabilities in space science and technology. Such expansion depends on low cost, reliable, and frequent access to space for those who wish to use the multiple benefits of this environment. The presence of a cislunar space infrastructure would greatly facilitate the staging of future planetary missions, as well as the full exploration of the lunar potential for science and industry. The rationale for, and a proposed detailed scenario in support of, the cislunar space infrastructure are discussed.

  7. The ICT Infrastructure: A Driver of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure changes on higher education. Addresses issues such as ICT hardware, networks, and leadership and skills; budgets; policy (including access to information, information privacy, information security, and ownership of faculty course materials); changes in…

  8. Modernising the Schools Infrastructure in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeton, Ken

    This keynote speech addresses how to modernize school infrastructure for the delivery of 21st century education in England, including the background of the English education system and the current state of the English school estate and maintenance backlog. It discusses the government's role for improving the education system and raising standards,…

  9. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  10. Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 16th annual report highlights up-to-date information on the programs supported through the Chancellor's Office Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP). To summarize 2012-13, one would describe it as a year of planning and preparation. The system-wide budget cuts of the past few years, reports of impacted classes, staff…

  11. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208 Section 800.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS,...

  12. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  13. ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M; Egan, D

    2004-12-01

    We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

  14. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees...

  15. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: Rain Gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) rain garden evaluation is part of a larger collection of long-term research that evaluates a variety of stormwater management practices. The U.S. EPA recognizes the potential of rain gardens as a green infrastructure manag...

  16. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  17. Infrastructure and Administrative Support for Online Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John D.; Barefield, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability and effectiveness of administrative support elements for online teaching faculty, and introduce a faculty validated Matrix for use as a guide in development of administrative support for online programs. When administrators make decisions about the infrastructure support needs of a current…

  18. 78 FR 11737 - Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... face of such threats. It is the policy of the United States to enhance the security and resilience of... technical innovation and account for organizational differences, the Cybersecurity Framework will provide... Presidential Policy Directive-21 of February 12, 2013 (Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience), or...

  19. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  20. Privacy and the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Explains the work of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility regarding privacy issues in the use of electronic networks; recommends principles that should be adopted for a National Information Infrastructure privacy code; discusses the need for public education; and suggests pertinent legislative proposals. (LRW)

  1. The Challenge of Space Infrastructure Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the range of technologies that will contribute to the construction of space infrastructure that will both enable and, in some cases, provide the motivation for space exploration. Five parts are addressed: Managing complexity, robotics based construction, materials acquisition, manufacturing, and self-sustaining systems.

  2. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  3. The internal social sustainability of sanitation infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A; Javernick-Will, Amy N

    2014-09-01

    While the construction of sanitation infrastructure is one of humankind's greatest public health and environmental engineering achievements, its benefits are not yet enjoyed by all. In addition to the billions of people not yet reached by sanitation infrastructure, at least half of systems constructed in developing contexts are abandoned in the years following initial construction. In this research, we target the problem of postconstruction onsite sanitation infrastructure abandonment in rural Guatemala using legitimacy and status theory. Legitimacy and status are established theoretical concepts from organizational theory that reflect cultural alignment and normative support. Crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA), which uses Boolean algebra to discover combinations of theoretical conditions that produce an outcome of interest, allowed us to describe the various pathways that have caused socially sustainable uptake. We find that three combinations of legitimacy and status theory explain 85% of household cases at a consistency of 0.97. The most practically useful pathway covers 50% of household cases and shows that the combination of consequential legitimacy (a moral understanding of outcomes) and comprehensibility legitimacy (a cognitive model connecting outcomes to processes) is a powerful way to achieve socially sustainable sanitation infrastructure.

  4. Is the Infrastructure of EHDI Programs Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the EHDI program infrastructure area, 47 coordinators responded with a total of 292 items, and themes were identified in each…

  5. Plan to mitigate infrastructure development released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell released a new strategy on 10 April 2014 to advance landscape-scale, science-based management of America's public lands and wildlife. The strategy will implement mitigation policies and practices at the Department of the Interior that can encourage infrastructure development while protecting natural and cultural resources.

  6. Can Economics Provide Insights into Trust Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishik, Claire

    Many security technologies require infrastructure for authentication, verification, and other processes. In many cases, viable and innovative security technologies are never adopted on a large scale because the necessary infrastructure is slow to emerge. Analyses of such technologies typically focus on their technical flaws, and research emphasizes innovative approaches to stronger implementation of the core features. However, an observation can be made that in many cases the success of adoption pattern depends on non-technical issues rather than technology-lack of economic incentives, difficulties in finding initial investment, inadequate government support. While a growing body of research is dedicated to economics of security and privacy in general, few theoretical studies in this area have been completed, and even fewer that look at the economics of “trust infrastructure” beyond simple “cost of ownership” models. This exploratory paper takes a look at some approaches in theoretical economics to determine if they can provide useful insights into security infrastructure technologies and architectures that have the best chance to be adopted. We attempt to discover if models used in theoretical economics can help inform technology developers of the optimal business models that offer a better chance for quick infrastructure deployment.

  7. Spending on School Infrastructure: Does Money Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further develop an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical framework of investment in human, social, and physical capital. Design/methodology/approach: To answer the research question, what is the impact of investment in human,…

  8. 78 FR 40487 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Resilience Working Group. We request that comments be limited to the issues listed in the meeting agenda and... on the security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure sectors and their information... resilience as directed by the President. At this meeting, the committee will receive and discuss...

  9. Utilizing Instructional Media for Teaching Infrastructure Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajriah, Ulfah Nur; Churiyah, Madziatul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to produce instructional media Corel VideoStudio Pro X7-based on teaching infrastructure administration at class XI of APK in SMKN 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D) through 10 steps, namely: (1) the potential and problems, (2) data collection, (3) the design of the…

  10. Wireless intelligent network: infrastructure before services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Narisa N.

    1996-01-01

    The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriers' deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. This paper points out WIN characteristics in architecture, flexibility, deployment, and value to customers. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN will contain elements that are foreign to the wireline network. The deployment process is expected to seed with the revenue generated services. Standardization will be achieved by simplifying and incorporating the IS-41C, AIN, and Intelligent Network CS-1 recommendations. Integration of the existing and future systems impose the biggest challenge of all. Service creation has to be complemented with service deployment process which heavily impact the carriers' infrastructure. WIN deployment will likely start from an Intelligent Peripheral, a Service Control Point and migrate to a Service Node when sufficient triggers are implemented in the mobile switch for distributed call control. The struggle to move forward will not be based on technology, but rather on the impact to existing infrastructure.

  11. The Global Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Amplifies five principles set forth at the 1994 World Telecommunication Development Conference held in Buenos Aires (Argentina) to identify the U.S. government role in developing a global information infrastructure. Highlights include private sector investment, competition, open access, flexible regulatory environment, universal service, and a…

  12. A Technology Infrastructure for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James M.; Musser, Dale; Wedman, John

    This paper describes an innovative technology infrastructure for teacher preparation in a land grant university that is committed to a vision of technology-using educators--the new Undergraduate Teacher Development Center (UTDC) at the University of Missouri College of Education, designed through a collaborative process with school districts and…

  13. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis.

  14. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. PMID:23541059

  15. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  16. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  17. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences.

  18. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  19. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Many shear flows follow a route to turbulence that has striking similarities to bifurcation scenarios in low-dimensional dynamical systems. Among the bifurcations that appear, crisis bifurcations are important because they cause global transitions between open and closed attractors, or indicate drastic increases in the range of the state space that is covered by the dynamics. We here study exterior and interior crisis bifurcations in direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace. We trace the state space dynamics from the appearance of the first three-dimensional exact coherent structures to the transition from an attractor to a chaotic saddle in an exterior crisis. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. The bifurcations contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space.

  20. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too. PMID:26152994

  1. The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of psychometric theory on clinical assessment, and lack of consideration of multiple therapeutic ingredients and of the role of psychological well-being are identified as major sources of an intellectual crisis in psychiatric research. The conceptual crisis of psychiatry is shared by other areas of clinical medicine and stems from a narrow concept of science that neglects clinical observation, the basic method of medicine. A unified concept of health and disease may yield new clinical insights in psychiatric disorders, and may result in therapeutic efforts of more enduring quality than current strategies.

  2. On the Epistemological Crisis in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-01-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood. PMID:19440447

  3. Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160307.html Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity Michigan ... 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The water crisis in Flint, Mich., has cost $395 million ...

  4. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  5. The Importance of Having an Effective School Crisis Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Details the components of a public school safety plan and how to develop a crisis response plan with emergency responders. The importance of crisis response team members knowing their roles and being held accountable are stressed. (GR)

  6. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  7. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine. PMID:23461000

  8. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Yuki; Monden, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Minoru; Domeki, Nozomi; Matsumura, Mihoko; Banba, Nobuyuki; Nakamoto, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis. PMID:23198181

  9. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy.

  10. When a Crisis Hits, Will Your School Be Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert H.

    This guidebook describes the components involved in proactively developing a comprehensive crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 explains the philosophical underpinnings of a crisis-management plan and discusses the importance of vision and staff development. Chapter 2 answers the questions: Why do we need a crisis-management plan? Who needs to be…

  11. An Analysis of Secondary Schools' Crisis Management Preparedness: National Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cheantel M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze crisis management plans of schools that have experienced crisis situations in the past. The plans used by these schools to manage these crisis situations will be evaluated for their effectiveness or ineffectiveness in re-establishing stability to their organization. With such information, other schools may…

  12. Crisis Assessment: A Three-Dimensional Model for Triage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Rick A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents triage assessment model for crisis intervention that enables mental health counselors to initiate appropriate crisis interventions in variety of situations. Model guides assessment of clients in crisis on three domains: affective, cognitive, and behavioral. Describes assessment and rating of severity of impairment for each of the three…

  13. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  14. Managing Organizational Legitimacy: Communication Strategies for Organizations in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Joseph Eric

    2001-01-01

    Considers how crisis situations can cause internal and external stakeholders to question the legitimacy of organizations. Notes that when faced with a crisis, organizations are compelled to communicate strategically with stakeholders to manage legitimacy. Synthesizes literature on organizational legitimacy, crisis management, and niche-width…

  15. Facing the Crisis: Third World Agriculture in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajit; Tabatabai, Hamid

    1990-01-01

    Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)

  16. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  17. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  18. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  19. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  20. School-Based Crisis Intervention. A Center Quick Training Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…

  1. Strengthening Schools: Involving Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, M.; Ashbaker, B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Two important questions arise when creating a school crisis plan: (a) Who should be trained as part of the crisis team? and (b) What type of training will be the most effective and practical? The authors suggest that paraprofessionals are a valuable resource to consider for assisting with crisis prevention and intervention. Practical suggestions…

  2. Best Practices in School Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Lazarus, Philip J., Jr., Ed.; Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.

    This publication on best practices in crisis prevention and intervention is divided among the concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The introductory chapter examines crisis theory and establishes a foundation for the comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention team. It also attempts to bridge the gap between theory and…

  3. Proactive Communication in a Crisis-Driven World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinz, Karen H.

    1999-01-01

    Administrators can prepare for crisis situations by conducting safety assessments at all schools and district facilities, involving community resources, updating district and school discipline and crisis-communication plans, establishing a crisis-intervention team, providing staff training, establishing "suspicious behavior" reporting procedures,…

  4. Write the Plan before You Have the Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the development process and essential elements of a crisis communication strategy. Key steps include: (1) selecting a spokesperson; (2) publicizing the spokesperson's identity; (3) preparing a crisis notebook; (4) providing cell phones; (5) choosing a news conference location; (6) rehearsing crisis scenarios; and (7) obtaining interview…

  5. Being PREPaREd for Crisis in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kathy; Malvey, Michelle; Rastatter, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Thompson School District recognized after the Columbine incident in the spring of 1999 that it was lacking an adequate plan for crisis response. Colorado legislation led to a mandate for having a crisis response plan so the district purchased a "canned" crisis response plan that served the needs of response in a very immediate but impersonal…

  6. Responding to the Unthinkable: School Crisis Response and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mental health implications of crisis exposure have emerged as a critical and challenging facet of school safety and crisis response, expanding our focus to encompass both psychological and physical safety, as well as prevention and recovery. Best practice reflects this evolution in our understanding and encompasses the continuum of crisis and…

  7. 40 CFR 166.49 - Public notice of crisis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice of crisis exemptions... PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.49 Public notice of crisis exemptions. (a) Periodic notices. At least quarterly,...

  8. Governing during an Institutional Crisis: 10 Fundamental Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In today's world, managing a campus crisis poses special challenges for an institution's governing board, which may operate some distance removed from the immediate events giving rise to the crisis. In its most challenging form, a campus crisis--a shooting, a natural disaster, a fraternity hazing death, the arrest of a prominent campus…

  9. Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. )

    1992-02-01

    There are 122 commercial nuclear facilities from which spent nuclear fuel will be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). Since some facilities share common sites and some facilities are on adjacent sites, 76 sites were identified for the Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) project. The objective of the NSTI project was to identify the options available for transportation of spent-fuel casks from each of these commercial nuclear facility sites to the main transportation routes -- interstate highways, commercial rail lines and navigable waterways available for commercial use. The near-site transportation infrastructure from each site was assessed, based on observation of technical features identified during a survey of the routes and facilities plus data collected from referenced information sources. The potential for refurbishment of transportation facilities which are not currently operational was also assessed, as was the potential for establishing new transportation facilities.

  10. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  11. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  12. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII. PMID:9509399

  13. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Space... proposals to continue the development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system...

  14. 75 FR 48983 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... (CIPAC) by notice published in the Federal Register (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March 24, 2006. That notice... protection security measures, incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience, reconstituting CIKR..., vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure:...

  15. Consideration of an Applied Model of Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lavinghouze, Rene; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program’s context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability. PMID:23411417

  16. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission infrastructure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Root, R.W.

    1998-01-08

    This system plan presents the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Infrastructure Program. This Infrastructure Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project`s Retrieval and Disposal Mission.

  17. New Assistance for Low-Income Areas and Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in federal policy affecting rural development in economically distressed areas in 2001 include new markets initiatives, establishment of the (Mississippi River) Delta Regional Authority, and increased infrastructure funding. Infrastructure priorities include highway construction, airport improvements, public works grants, rural…

  18. Lick Run: Green Infrastructure in Cincinnati and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    By capturing and redistributing rain water or runoff in plant-soil systems such as green roofs, rain gardens or swales, green infrastructure restores natural hydrologic cycles and reduces runoff from overburdened gray infrastructure. Targeted ecosystem restoration, contaminant fi...

  19. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of non-availability of Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants in FY 2013. SUMMARY: The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) will...

  20. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.