Science.gov

Sample records for looming infrastructure crisis

  1. Carrying Loom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaron, Edna

    1976-01-01

    Whenever a young student wanted to weave, his loom was at school or at home. He solved the problem by designing a portable loom which he is able to carry with his school books and can even use on the school bus. (Author/RK)

  2. America's looming creativity crisis.

    PubMed

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  3. The Carry Loom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Presents instructions for building a simple, inexpensive, one-piece loom that is easy for students and teachers to work with, transport, and store. A short list of books for weaving instruction is appended. (Author/SJL)

  4. An Insurance Crisis Looms--Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Cliff

    1993-01-01

    The insurance industry has experienced a round of claims costs as a result of recent natural disasters. These costs are passed on to customers. To avoid higher premiums, student-transportation systems can take the following money-saving steps: raise the deductible; beef up driver training; focus on driver retention; and get the fleet's loss…

  5. CRISIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Richard M.; Kyte, Nancy S.

    1977-01-01

    Examines some different ways that a client's crisis affects the social worker who is attempting to help him resolve his crisis, the agency or facility within which the worker operates, and the community in which all three function. (Author/RK)

  6. The Loom Knowledge Representation Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    fied) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Mac Gregor, Robert; Bates, Raymond- -3a TYPE OF REPORT l1b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yea, Month, Day) .PAGE COUNT...level knowledge. We in- ficient, but not necessary to recognize an instance of a elude discussions on some of the types of inference which concept. For...example, we can say that "all featherless can be performed by the Loom system. We begin by bipeds are human", i.e., defining the four broad types of

  7. Influence of anxiety, depression and looming cognitive style on auditory looming perception.

    PubMed

    Riskind, John H; Kleiman, Evan M; Seifritz, Erich; Neuhoff, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that individuals with an anticipatory auditory looming bias over-estimate the closeness of a sound source that approaches them. Our present study bridges cognitive clinical and perception research, and provides evidence that anxiety symptoms and a particular putative cognitive style that creates vulnerability for anxiety (looming cognitive style, or LCS) are related to how people perceive this ecologically fundamental auditory warning signal. The effects of anxiety symptoms on the anticipatory auditory looming effect synergistically depend on the dimension of perceived personal danger assessed by the LCS (physical or social threat). Depression symptoms, in contrast to anxiety symptoms, predict a diminution of the auditory looming bias. Findings broaden our understanding of the links between cognitive-affective states and auditory perception processes and lend further support to past studies providing evidence that the looming cognitive style is related to bias in threat processing.

  8. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  9. A Dickensian origin for Sherrington's enchanted loom?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J; Bracewell, R M

    2015-01-01

    Sherrington's image of the mind-brain as an 'enchanted loom' has intrigued scientists for decades. Its origin, however, has been unclear. Here, we make a new suggestion as to where it may have come from. The article sheds light on the connections between literary and scientific similes and metaphors.

  10. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  11. A Need for Change: The Looming Energy Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-08

    Invariably, sitting presidents propose energy policies that are limited in breadth, focusing on perceived near or long-term issues designed to affect either...Cycle Initiative: The Future Path for Advanced Spent Fuel Treatment and Transmutation Research,” available from http://www.ne.doe.gov/reports

  12. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  13. Dynamical encoding of looming, receding, and focussing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longtin, Andre; Clarke, Stephen Elisha; Maler, Leonard; CenterNeural Dynamics Collaboration

    This talk will discuss a non-conventional neural coding task that may apply more broadly to many senses in higher vertebrates. We ask whether and how a non-visual sensory system can focus on an object. We present recent experimental and modeling work that shows how the early sensory circuitry of electric sense can perform such neuronal focusing that is manifested behaviorally. This sense is the main one used by weakly electric fish to navigate, locate prey and communicate in the murky waters of their natural habitat. We show that there is a distance at which the Fisher information of a neuron's response to a looming and receding object is maximized, and that this distance corresponds to a behaviorally relevant one chosen by these animals. Strikingly, this maximum occurs at a bifurcation between tonic firing and bursting. We further discuss how the invariance of this distance to signal attributes can arise, a process that first involves power-law spike frequency adaptation. The talk will also highlight the importance of expanding the classic dual neural encoding of contrast using ON and OFF cells in the context of looming and receding stimuli. The authors acknowledge support from CIHR and NSERC.

  14. Goal-directed action is automatically biased towards looming motion

    PubMed Central

    Moher, Jeff; Sit, Jonathan; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    It is known that looming motion can capture attention regardless of an observer’s intentions. Real-world behavior, however, frequently involves not just attentional selection, but selection for action. Thus, it is important to understand the impact of looming motion on goal-directed action to gain a broader perspective on how stimulus properties bias human behavior. We presented participants with a visually-guided reaching task in which they pointed to a target letter presented among non-target distractors. On some trials, one of the pre-masks at the location of the upcoming search objects grew rapidly in size, creating the appearance of a “looming” target or distractor. Even though looming motion did not predict the target location, the time required to reach to the target was shorter when the target loomed compared to when a distractor loomed. Furthermore, reach movement trajectories were pulled towards the location of a looming distractor when one was present, a pull that was greater still when the looming motion was on a collision path with the participant. We also contrast reaching data with data from a similarly designed visual search task requiring keypress responses. This comparison underscores the sensitivity of visually-guided reaching data, as some experimental manipulations, such as looming motion path, affected reach trajectories but not keypress measures. Together, the results demonstrate that looming motion biases visually-guided action regardless of an observer’s current behavioral goals, affecting not only the time required to reach to targets but also the path of the observer’s hand movement itself. PMID:25159287

  15. 47. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. STAFFORD LOOM, WITH R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. STAFFORD LOOM, WITH R. W. ANDREWS PATENT PATTERN DEVICE, C. 1870, VIEW LOOKING FROM THE FRONT, SECOND FLOOR SOUTH. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  16. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants’ looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.

  17. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  18. Impact prediction by looming visual stimuli enhances tactile detection.

    PubMed

    Cléry, Justine; Guipponi, Olivier; Odouard, Soline; Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2015-03-11

    From an ecological point of view, approaching objects are potentially more harmful than receding objects. A predator, a dominant conspecific, or a mere branch coming up at high speed can all be dangerous if one does not detect them and produce the appropriate escape behavior fast enough. And indeed, looming stimuli trigger stereotyped defensive responses in both monkeys and human infants. However, while the heteromodal somatosensory consequences of visual looming stimuli can be fully predicted by their spatiotemporal dynamics, few studies if any have explored whether visual stimuli looming toward the face predictively enhance heteromodal tactile sensitivity around the expected time of impact and at its expected location on the body. In the present study, we report that, in addition to triggering a defensive motor repertoire, looming stimuli toward the face provide the nervous system with predictive cues that enhance tactile sensitivity on the face. Specifically, we describe an enhancement of tactile processes at the expected time and location of impact of the stimulus on the face. We additionally show that a looming stimulus that brushes past the face also enhances tactile sensitivity on the nearby cheek, suggesting that the space close to the face is incorporated into the subjects' body schema. We propose that this cross-modal predictive facilitation involves multisensory convergence areas subserving the representation of a peripersonal space and a safety boundary of self.

  19. Looming signals reveal synergistic principles of multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Cappe, Céline; Thelen, Antonia; Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Murray, Micah M

    2012-01-25

    Multisensory interactions are a fundamental feature of brain organization. Principles governing multisensory processing have been established by varying stimulus location, timing and efficacy independently. Determining whether and how such principles operate when stimuli vary dynamically in their perceived distance (as when looming/receding) provides an assay for synergy among the above principles and also means for linking multisensory interactions between rudimentary stimuli with higher-order signals used for communication and motor planning. Human participants indicated movement of looming or receding versus static stimuli that were visual, auditory, or multisensory combinations while 160-channel EEG was recorded. Multivariate EEG analyses and distributed source estimations were performed. Nonlinear interactions between looming signals were observed at early poststimulus latencies (∼75 ms) in analyses of voltage waveforms, global field power, and source estimations. These looming-specific interactions positively correlated with reaction time facilitation, providing direct links between neural and performance metrics of multisensory integration. Statistical analyses of source estimations identified looming-specific interactions within the right claustrum/insula extending inferiorly into the amygdala and also within the bilateral cuneus extending into the inferior and lateral occipital cortices. Multisensory effects common to all conditions, regardless of perceived distance and congruity, followed (∼115 ms) and manifested as faster transition between temporally stable brain networks (vs summed responses to unisensory conditions). We demonstrate the early-latency, synergistic interplay between existing principles of multisensory interactions. Such findings change the manner in which to model multisensory interactions at neural and behavioral/perceptual levels. We also provide neurophysiologic backing for the notion that looming signals receive preferential

  20. Science should warn people of looming disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of special knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, it appears that a few seismic hazard assessment programs and/or methodologies were tested appropriately against real observations before being endorsed for estimation of earthquake related risks. The fatal evidence and aftermath of the past decades prove that many of the existing internationally accepted methodologies are grossly misleading and are evidently unacceptable for any kind of responsible risk evaluation and knowledgeable disaster prevention. In contrast, the confirmed reliability of pattern recognition aimed at earthquake prone areas and times of increased probability, along with realistic earthquake scaling and scenario modeling, allow us to conclude that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering this state-of-the-art knowledge of looming disaster in advance catastrophic events. In a lieu of seismic observations long enough for a reliable probabilistic assessment or a comprehensive physical theory of earthquake recurrence, pattern recognition applied to available geophysical and/or geological data sets remains a broad avenue to follow in seismic hazard forecast/prediction. Moreover, better understanding seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, progress to new approaches in assessing time-dependent seismic hazard based on multiscale analysis of seismic activity and reproducible intermediate-term earthquake prediction technique. The algorithms, which make use of multidisciplinary data available and account for fractal nature of earthquake distributions in space and time, have confirmed their

  1. Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

  2. 10. View of Draper darby chain loom from warp beam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Draper darby chain loom from warp beam end, patent date 1913, made by Drpaer Corporation, Hopedale, Massachusetts. Acquired ca. 1941. Note Draper-Northrop name on automatic spindle changer. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  3. Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

  4. 10. Photocopy of Photograph, c. 1980. VIEW LOOMING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of Photograph, c. 1980. VIEW LOOMING EAST ALONG THE WATER-FILLED SAN FRANCISCO CANAL. Photographer: Mark Durben, July 1986 Source: Salt River Project Archives - San Francisco Canal, Between Fortieth & Weir & Thirty-sixth Street & Roeser Road, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Gender-Equity Advocates Face Looming Challenges in Women's Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Gender-equity advocates gathered at a conference in Cleveland last month to discuss looming challenges in women's sports. Next month the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is scheduled to hold a hearing on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The meeting will focus on the most controversial means of compliance with the law. Institutions can…

  6. Infrastructure in the 21st Century Economy: A Review of the Issues and Outline of a Study of the Impacts of Federal Infrastructure Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    the InfrastructureCrisis"’, Discussion Paper Series #394. New York: Columbia University. May 1988 Holtz-Eakin, Douglas 1988 "Private Output... Paper Series #394, New York: Columbia University, May 1988 Holtz-Eakin, Douglas "Private Output, Government Capital, and the Infrastructure Crisis...Infrastructure, (Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, 1985) Holtz-Eakin, Douglas "Private Output, Government Capital, and the InfrastructureCrisis’", Discussion

  7. Threat modulates neural responses to looming visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F; Longo, Matthew R

    2015-09-01

    Objects on a collision course with an observer produce a specific pattern of optical expansion on the retina known as looming, which in theory exactly specifies the time-to-collision (TTC) of approaching objects. It was recently demonstrated that the affective content of looming stimuli influences perceived TTC, with threatening objects judged as approaching sooner than non-threatening objects. Here, the neural mechanisms by which perceived threat modulates spatiotemporal perception were investigated. Participants judged the TTC of threatening (snakes, spiders) or non-threatening (butterflies, rabbits) stimuli, which expanded in size at a rate indicating one of five TTCs. Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) and oscillatory neural responses measured with electroencephalography were analysed. The arrival time of threatening stimuli was underestimated compared with non-threatening stimuli, though an interaction suggested that this underestimation was not constant across TTCs. Further, both speed of approach and threat modulated both VEPs and oscillatory responses. Speed of approach modulated the N1 parietal and oscillations in the beta band. Threat modulated several VEP components (P1, N1 frontal, N1 occipital, early posterior negativity and late positive potential) and oscillations in the alpha and high gamma band. The results for the high gamma band suggest an interaction between these two factors. Previous evidence suggests that looming stimuli activate sensorimotor areas, even in the absence of an intended action. The current results show that threat disrupts the synchronization over the sensorimotor areas that are likely activated by the presentation of a looming stimulus. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Two identified looming detectors in the locust: ubiquitous lateral connections among their inputs contribute to selective responses to looming objects

    PubMed Central

    Rind, F. Claire; Wernitznig, Stefan; Pölt, Peter; Zankel, Armin; Gütl, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input. Reconstructions reveal that many trans-medullary-afferents (TmAs) connect the eye with each LGMD, one TmA per facet per LGMD. But when a TmA synapses with an LGMD it also connects laterally with another TmA. These inter-TmA synapses are always reciprocal. Total excitatory input to the LGMD 1 and 2 comes from 131,000 and 186,000 synapses reaching densities of 3.1 and 2.6 synapses per μm2 respectively. We explored the computational consequences of reciprocal synapses between each TmA and 6 others from neighbouring columns. Since any lateral interactions between LGMD inputs have always been inhibitory we may assume these reciprocal lateral connections are most likely inhibitory. Such reciprocal inhibitory synapses increased the LGMD’s selectivity for looming over passing objects, particularly at the beginning of object approach. PMID:27774991

  9. Two identified looming detectors in the locust: ubiquitous lateral connections among their inputs contribute to selective responses to looming objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, F. Claire; Wernitznig, Stefan; Pölt, Peter; Zankel, Armin; Gütl, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input. Reconstructions reveal that many trans-medullary-afferents (TmAs) connect the eye with each LGMD, one TmA per facet per LGMD. But when a TmA synapses with an LGMD it also connects laterally with another TmA. These inter-TmA synapses are always reciprocal. Total excitatory input to the LGMD 1 and 2 comes from 131,000 and 186,000 synapses reaching densities of 3.1 and 2.6 synapses per μm2 respectively. We explored the computational consequences of reciprocal synapses between each TmA and 6 others from neighbouring columns. Since any lateral interactions between LGMD inputs have always been inhibitory we may assume these reciprocal lateral connections are most likely inhibitory. Such reciprocal inhibitory synapses increased the LGMD’s selectivity for looming over passing objects, particularly at the beginning of object approach.

  10. Infrastructure sensing

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  11. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-06

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  12. Reduced Looming Sensitivity in Primary School Children with Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Almost all locomotor animals are sensitive to optical expansion (visual looming) and for most animals this sensitivity is evident very early in their development. In humans there is evidence that responses to looming stimuli begin in the first 6 weeks of life, but here we demonstrate that as children become independent their perceptual acuity…

  13. Reduced Looming Sensitivity in Primary School Children with Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Almost all locomotor animals are sensitive to optical expansion (visual looming) and for most animals this sensitivity is evident very early in their development. In humans there is evidence that responses to looming stimuli begin in the first 6 weeks of life, but here we demonstrate that as children become independent their perceptual acuity…

  14. Hypertensive Crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... 18,2017 Know the two types of HBP crisis to watch for A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) ...

  15. Fierce debate looms over funding of superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-02-01

    The coming session of Congress looks like a crucial one in the present era of Big Science. Legislators will have to decide on whether to go ahead and approve construction funding for the biggest atom smasher of all time, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The Administration will be asking for about $230 million (out of a scheduled $350 million) to begin work. But uncertainties loom, and the debate ahead looks bloody. The SSC is a project the Department of Energy says will cost $4.4 billion in fiscal 1988 dollars, rated according to a targeted completion date in 1996. The General Accounting Office pegs the cost at $4.9 billion in 1985 dollars. In inflationary and project stretchout dollars, the figure could easily double. But money for science is again tight in the government, and battles that lie ahead involve the competition between science and social programs, and, indeed, between the sciences themselves. This article discusses these battles.

  16. Myasthenic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, Linda C.; Levine, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenic crisis is a complication of myasthenia gravis characterized by worsening of muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. Advances in critical care have improved the mortality rate associated with myasthenic crisis. This article reviews the epidemiology of myasthenic crisis and discusses patient evaluation. Therapeutic options including mechanical ventilation and pharmacological and surgical treatments are also discussed. PMID:23983833

  17. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  18. Development of retrofitting modifications of textile loom picking and lay mechanisms for reduction of energy consumption. Final report (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Air jet looms are more energy efficient than conventional shuttle looms and can be run at higher speeds. But before any loom can be installed in a particular building, it is important to know the level of the dynamic loads which will be transmitted to the foundation. A reliable technique for measuring the dynamic loads is described, and the loads of an air jet loom are compared with the loads of a conventional shuttle loom. Test results show that the peak dynamic loads of the air jet loom are closely comparable to the loads of the shuttle loom. The test techniques attempt to measure the maximum dynamic load that the loom is capable of developing. Test experience shows that the actual loom loads depend to a minor degree on the state of the loom itself, and to a significant degree on the boundary (mounting) conditions. In particular, slippage at the loom mounting interface limits the dynamic load to the friction force. Since slippage was absent in the vertical direction, the actual vertical loads are nearly maximum. However, slippage was present in the horizontal direction, and the actual horizontal loads are less than the maximum possible loads.

  19. Game Plan: Colleges Share a Page from Their Playbooks That Addresses the Looming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The graying of community college leadership is an issue across the country. More than half of all community college presidents expect to retire in five years, according to data from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Succession planning is yet another opportunity for colleges already navigating a variety of reforms to innovate.…

  20. Game Plan: Colleges Share a Page from Their Playbooks That Addresses the Looming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The graying of community college leadership is an issue across the country. More than half of all community college presidents expect to retire in five years, according to data from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Succession planning is yet another opportunity for colleges already navigating a variety of reforms to innovate.…

  1. Mitigating the looming vaccine crisis: production and delivery of plasmid-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ongkudon, Clarence M; Ho, Jenny; Danquah, Michael K

    2011-03-01

    The exponentially growing human population and the emergence of new diseases are clear indications that the world can no longer depend solely on conventional vaccine technologies and production schemes. The race to find a new vaccine technology is crucial to help speed up and complement the World Health Organization (WHO) disease elimination program. The ultimate goal is to uncover fast and efficient production schemes in the event of a pandemic, and also to effectively fight deadly diseases such as malaria, bird flu, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Plasmid DNA vaccines, if properly formulated, offer specific priming of the immune system and similar or even better prophylactic effects than conventional vaccines. This article discusses many of the critical issues that need to be considered when developing fast, effective, and reliable plasmid DNA vaccine manufacturing processes. Different modes of plasmid production via bacterial fermentation are compared. Plasmid purification by chromatography is specifically discussed as it is the most commercially viable bioprocess engineering technique for continuous purification of supercoiled plasmid DNA. Current techniques and progress covering the area of plasmid DNA vaccine design, formulation, and delivery are also put forward.

  2. Why Students Need to Be Informed about Our Looming Fiscal Crisis: The America's Future Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Andrew L.; Orphan, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite nearly universal concern about America's rapidly rising national debt, the United States government was $12.5 trillion in debt by the spring of 2010. Yet, few people--including college and university students--understand why we are in debt, what the many effects and dangers could be, the difficult steps necessary to reduce our deficits and…

  3. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  4. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  5. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  6. Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

  7. Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M; Jakob, Elizabeth M

    2012-12-23

    Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider.

  8. Hearing brighter: changing in-depth visual perception through looming sounds.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Thut, Gregor; Romei, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    Rapidly approaching (looming) sounds are ecologically salient stimuli that are perceived as nearer than they are due to overestimation of their loudness change and underestimation of their distance (Neuhoff, 1998; Seifritz et al., 2002). Despite evidence for crossmodal influence by looming sounds onto visual areas (Romei, Murray, Cappe, & Thut, 2009, 2013; Tyll et al., 2013), it is unknown whether such sounds bias visual percepts in similar ways. Nearer objects appear to be larger and brighter than distant objects. If looming sounds impact visual processing, then visual stimuli paired with looming sounds should be perceived as brighter and larger, even when the visual stimuli do not provide motion cues, i.e. are static. In Experiment 1 we found that static visual objects paired with looming tones (but not static or receding tones) were perceived as larger and brighter than their actual physical properties, as if they appear closer to the observer. In a second experiment, we replicate and extend the findings of Experiment 1. Crucially, we did not find evidence of such bias by looming sounds when visual processing was disrupted via masking or when catch trials were presented, ruling out simple response bias. Finally, in a third experiment we found that looming tones do not bias visual stimulus characteristics that do not carry visual depth information such as shape, providing further evidence that they specifically impact in-depth visual processing. We conclude that looming sounds impact visual perception through a mechanism transferring in-depth sound motion information onto the relevant in-depth visual dimensions (such as size and luminance but not shape) in a crossmodal remapping of information for a genuine, evolutionary advantage in stimulus detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Sonneck, G

    1986-10-31

    The main aspects of crisis intervention are an immediate onset without time-consuming referrals, activities of the helper always keeping in mind the biopycho-social context, and assistance for selfhelp. Helping people in crises minds to find out and develop the possibilities of the afflicted person aiming that he can overcome his crisis by himself, gaining maturity and reaching a less crisis-prone life style.

  10. Development of retrofitting modifications of textile-loom picking and lay mechanisms for reduction of energy consumption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    A retrofitting shuttle loom picking mechanism was designed, fabricated, installed and operated at a speed of 200 picks per minute. A detailed account of design criteria and research measurements is given. A reliable techniques for measuring the dynamic loads is described and the load of an air jet loom is compared with the loads of conventional shuttle loom. The reduction of energy consumption in a typical four bar linkage system was studied. (MHR)

  11. Escape behavior and neuronal responses to looming stimuli in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda: Grapsidae).

    PubMed

    Oliva, Damián; Medan, Violeta; Tomsic, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Behavioral responses to looming stimuli have been studied in many vertebrate and invertebrate species, but neurons sensitive to looming have been investigated in very few animals. In this paper we introduce a new experimental model using the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, which allows investigation of the processes of looming detection and escape decision at both the behavioral and neuronal levels. By analyzing the escape response of the crab in a walking simulator device we show that: (i) a robust and reliable escape response can be elicited by computer-generated looming stimuli in all tested animals; (ii) parameters such as distance, speed, timing and directionality of the escape run, are easy to record and quantify precisely in the walking device; (iii) although the magnitude of escape varies between animals and stimulus presentations, the timing of the response is remarkably consistent and does not habituate at 3 min stimulus intervals. We then study the response of neurons from the brain of the crab by means of intracellular recordings in the intact animal and show that: (iv) two subclasses of previously identified movement detector neurons from the lobula (third optic neuropil) exhibit robust and reliable responses to the same looming stimuli that trigger the behavioral response; (v) the neurons respond to the object approach by increasing their rate of firing in a way that closely matches the dynamics of the image expansion. Finally, we compare the neuronal with the behavioral response showing that: (vi) differences in the neuronal responses to looming, receding or laterally moving stimuli closely reflect the behavioral differences to such stimuli; (vii) during looming, the crab starts to run soon after the looming-sensitive neurons begin to increase their firing rate. The increase in the running speed during stimulus approach faithfully follows the increment in the firing rate, until the moment of maximum stimulus expansion. Thereafter, the neurons abruptly

  12. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, S. M.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Kelly, T. K.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    The notion that our nation's critical infrastructures are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies (so-called 'cyberbased systems'), is more than an abstract, theoretical concept. As shown by the 1998 failure of the Galaxy 4 telecommunications satellite, the prolonged power crisis in California, and many other recent infrastructure disruptions, what happens to one infrastructure can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions and send ripples throughout the national a global economy. This article presents a conceptual framework for addressing infrastructure interdependencies that could serve as the basis for further understanding and scholarship in this important area. We use this framework to explore the challenges and complexities of interdependency. We set the stage for this discussion by explicitly defining the terms infrastructure, infrastructure dependencies, and infrastructure interdependencies and introducing the fundamental concept of infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. We then focus on the interrelated factors and system conditions that collectively define the six dimensions. Finally, we discuss some of the research challenges involved in developing, applying, and validating modeling and simulation methodologies and tools for infrastructure interdependency analysis.

  13. Looming sensitive cortical regions without V1 input: evidence from a patient with bilateral cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Legrand, Lore B; Zhan, Minye; Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Fast and automatic behavioral responses are required to avoid collision with an approaching stimulus. Accordingly, looming stimuli have been found to be highly salient and efficient attractors of attention due to the implication of potential collision and potential threat. Here, we address the question of whether looming motion is processed in the absence of any functional primary visual cortex and consequently without awareness. For this, we investigated a patient (TN) suffering from complete, bilateral damage to his primary visual cortex. Using an fMRI paradigm, we measured TN's brain activation during the presentation of looming, receding, rotating, and static point lights, of which he was unaware. When contrasted with other conditions, looming was found to produce bilateral activation of the middle temporal areas, as well as the superior temporal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe (IPL). The latter are generally thought to be involved in multisensory processing of motion in extrapersonal space, as well as attentional capture and saliency. No activity was found close to the lesioned V1 area. This demonstrates that looming motion is processed in the absence of awareness through direct subcortical projections to areas involved in multisensory processing of motion and saliency that bypass V1.

  14. Looming sensitive cortical regions without V1 input: evidence from a patient with bilateral cortical blindness

    PubMed Central

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Legrand, Lore B.; Zhan, Minye; Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Fast and automatic behavioral responses are required to avoid collision with an approaching stimulus. Accordingly, looming stimuli have been found to be highly salient and efficient attractors of attention due to the implication of potential collision and potential threat. Here, we address the question of whether looming motion is processed in the absence of any functional primary visual cortex and consequently without awareness. For this, we investigated a patient (TN) suffering from complete, bilateral damage to his primary visual cortex. Using an fMRI paradigm, we measured TN's brain activation during the presentation of looming, receding, rotating, and static point lights, of which he was unaware. When contrasted with other conditions, looming was found to produce bilateral activation of the middle temporal areas, as well as the superior temporal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe (IPL). The latter are generally thought to be involved in multisensory processing of motion in extrapersonal space, as well as attentional capture and saliency. No activity was found close to the lesioned V1 area. This demonstrates that looming motion is processed in the absence of awareness through direct subcortical projections to areas involved in multisensory processing of motion and saliency that bypass V1. PMID:26557059

  15. Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Mary Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that women experiencing a midlife crisis pass through five recognizable stages: (1) feeling trapped, (2) the first change, (3) multiple changes, (4) rational planning, and (5) implementing the plan. (NKA)

  16. On-loom, real-time, noncontact detection of fabric defects by ultrasonic imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H. T.

    1998-09-08

    A noncontact, on-loom ultrasonic inspection technique was developed for real-time 100% defect inspection of fabrics. A prototype was built and tested successfully on loom. The system is compact, rugged, low cost, requires minimal maintenance, is not sensitive to fabric color and vibration, and can easily be adapted to current loom configurations. Moreover, it can detect defects in both the pick and warp directions. The system is capable of determining the size, location, and orientation of each defect. To further improve the system, air-coupled transducers with higher efficiency and sensitivity need to be developed. Advanced detection algorithms also need to be developed for better classification and categorization of defects in real-time.

  17. The effects of social evaluation and looming threat on self-attentional biases and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Haikal, Muhammad; Hong, Ryan Y

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines how two proposed cognitive vulnerabilities of social anxiety, the fear of negative evaluation, and looming cognitive style may combine with socially demanding situations in predicting social anxiety symptoms and performance deficits. Fifty-two individuals previously identified as possessing these two cognitive vulnerabilities were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (high versus low social evaluation)x2 (high versus low temporal looming) experimental design. Significant interaction effects were found for: (a) residual change in anxiety symptoms from baseline level, and (b) performance on a speech task. Specifically, cognitively at-risk individuals exhibited the most increase in anxiety and the most performance deficits in the condition where social evaluation and temporal looming were high. In addition, a mediational effect of illusion of transparency (a form of self-attentional bias) between situational demands and residual change in anxiety was found. Implications arising from these results are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced looming sensitivity in primary school children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2012-05-01

    Almost all locomotor animals are sensitive to optical expansion (visual looming) and for most animals this sensitivity is evident very early in their development. In humans there is evidence that responses to looming stimuli begin in the first 6 weeks of life, but here we demonstrate that as children become independent their perceptual acuity needs to be 50 to 100 times better than has been demonstrated in infants in order to be skilful at collision avoidance at a roadside. We have recently established that sensitivity to the detection of visual looming in 6- to 11-year-old children is significantly below that of adults (Wann, Poulter & Purcell, 2011). Here, using comparable methods, we explore looming detection sensitivity in children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), who show broad patterns of impairment in visuo-motor control. We presented visual simulations of approaching vehicles, scaled to represent different approach rates, to children with DCD aged between 6 and 11 years (n = 11) and typically developing age and gender matched controls (n = 11). Looming detection thresholds were measured under foveal and perifoveal viewing conditions, for isotropic expansion and isotropic expansion with simulated viewpoint motion. Our results show that there are situations in which children with DCD may fail to detect vehicles approaching at speeds in excess of 22 km/h, suggesting a developmental immaturity in looming sensitivity. This provides one of the first clear demonstrations of low-level motion processing deficits in children with DCD. The decrement observed may give rise to potential errors in the road crossing behaviour of these children, whereby approaching vehicles could be perceived as stationary. These findings further contribute towards understanding the adverse statistic that children under 9 years of age are four times more likely than adults to be involved in a road accident as a pedestrian.

  19. Hyperglycemic crisis.

    PubMed

    Van Ness-Otunnu, Ronald; Hack, Jason B

    2013-11-01

    Hyperglycemic crisis is a metabolic emergency associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus that may result in significant morbidity or death. Acute interventions are required to manage hypovolemia, acidemia, hyperglycemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and precipitating causes. Despite advances in the prevention and management of diabetes, its prevalence and associated health care costs continue to increase worldwide. Hyperglycemic crisis typically requires critical care management and hospitalization and contributes to global health expenditures. Diagnostic and resolution criteria and management strategies for diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic crisis are provided. A discussion of prevalence, mortality, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management considerations for hyperglycemic crisis are included. Emergency physicians confront the most severe sequelae of uncontrolled diabetes and provide crucial, life-saving management. With ongoing efforts from diabetes societies to incorporate the latest clinical research to refine treatment guidelines, management and outcomes of hyperglycemic crisis in the emergency department continue to improve. We provide an overview of the evaluation and treatment of hyperglycemic crisis and offer a concise, targeted management algorithm to aid the practicing emergency physician. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparing for a crisis: crisis team development.

    PubMed

    Calarco, C

    1999-02-01

    Emergency preparedness in the school setting necessitates the formation and development of a Crisis Team that will be prepared to assume critical roles in the event of a crisis. This paper discusses the school Crisis Team, including member identification and responsibilities, and the relationship of the Crisis Team to the school crisis plan and policies.

  1. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  2. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  3. The Online Learning Imperative: A Solution to Three Looming Crises in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Currently, K-12 education in the United States is dealing with three major challenges: (1) global skill demands versus educational attainment; (2) the funding cliff; and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a more…

  4. Adaptive Sex Differences in Auditory Motion Perception: Looming Sounds Are Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhoff, John G.; Planisek, Rianna; Seifritz, Erich

    2009-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined sex differences in audiospatial perception of sounds that moved toward and away from the listener. Experiment 1 showed that both men and women underestimated the time-to-arrival of full-cue looming sounds. However, this perceptual bias was significantly stronger among women than among men. In Experiment 2,…

  5. Adaptive Sex Differences in Auditory Motion Perception: Looming Sounds Are Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhoff, John G.; Planisek, Rianna; Seifritz, Erich

    2009-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined sex differences in audiospatial perception of sounds that moved toward and away from the listener. Experiment 1 showed that both men and women underestimated the time-to-arrival of full-cue looming sounds. However, this perceptual bias was significantly stronger among women than among men. In Experiment 2,…

  6. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.

  7. Time-dependent activation of feed-forward inhibition in a looming-sensitive neuron.

    PubMed

    Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Cohen, Ivan; Laurent, Gilles

    2005-09-01

    The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) is an identified neuron in the locust visual system that responds preferentially to objects approaching on a collision course with the animal. For such looming stimuli, the LGMD firing rate gradually increases, peaks, and decays toward the end of approach. The LGMD receives both excitatory and feed-forward inhibitory inputs on distinct branches of its dendritic tree, but little is known about the contribution of feed-forward inhibition to its response properties. We used picrotoxin, a chloride channel blocker, to selectively block feed-forward inhibition to the LGMD. We then computed differences in firing rate and membrane potential between control and picrotoxin conditions to study the activation of feed-forward inhibition. For looming stimuli, a significant activation of inhibition was observed early, as objects exceeded on average approximately 23 degrees in angular extent at the retina. Inhibition then increased in parallel with excitation over the remainder of approach trials. Experiments in which the final angular size of the approaching objects was systematically varied revealed that the relative activation of excitation and inhibition remains well balanced over most of the course of looming trials. Feed-forward inhibition actively contributed to the termination of the response to approaching objects and was particularly effective for large or slowly moving objects. Suddenly appearing and receding objects activated excitation and feed-forward inhibition nearly simultaneously, in contrast to looming stimuli. Under these conditions, the activation of excitation and feed-forward inhibition was weaker than for approaching objects, suggesting that both are preferentially tuned to approaching objects. These results support a phenomenological model of multiplication within the LGMD and provide new constraints for biophysical models of its responses to looming and receding stimuli.

  8. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  9. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  10. Development of retrofitting modifications of textile-loom picking-and-lay mechanisms for reduction of energy consumption. Final report (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Air jet looms are more energy efficient than conventional shuttle looms and can be run at higher speeds. But before any loom can be installed in a particular building, it is important to know the level of the dynamic loads which will be transmitted to the foundation. Described is a reliable technique for measuring the dynamic loads, and compares the loads of an air jet loom with the loads of a conventional shuttle loom. Test results show that the peak dynamic loads of the air jet loom are closely comparable to the loads of the shuttle loom. The test techniques attempt to measure the maximum dynamic load that the loom is capable of developing. Test experience shows that the actual loom loads depend to a minor degree on the state of the loom itself, and to a significant degree on the boundary (mounting) conditions. In particular, slippage at the loom mounting interface limits the dynamic load to the friction force. Since slippage was absent in the vertical direction, the actual vertical loads are nearly maximum. However, slippage was present in the horizontal direction, and the actual horizontal loads are less than the maximum possible loads.

  11. Crisis Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    involved Egypt and Israel on opposing sides, as well as other opposing pairs such as Syria and Israel . The advantage of organ- izing the cases in...West municipalities. An agreement to end the blockade was reached in May 1949. Crisis: Costa Rica- Nicaragua Dates: 12/3/48-1/30/49 Country Pair...Costa Rica- Nicaragua In the midst of domestic political turmoil in Costa Rica, Rafael Calderon - previously a Presidential candidate in Costa Rica

  12. Crisis behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  13. Reduced sensitivity to visual looming inflates the risk posed by speeding vehicles when children try to cross the road.

    PubMed

    Wann, John P; Poulter, Damian R; Purcell, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Almost all locomotor animals respond to visual looming or to discrete changes in optical size. The need to detect and process looming remains critically important for humans in everyday life. Road traffic statistics confirm that children up to 15 years old are overrepresented in pedestrian casualties. We demonstrate that, for a given pedestrian crossing time, vehicles traveling faster loom less than slower vehicles, which creates a dangerous illusion in which faster vehicles may be perceived as not approaching. Our results from perceptual tests of looming thresholds show strong developmental trends in sensitivity, such that children may not be able to detect vehicles approaching at speeds in excess of 20 mph. This creates a risk of injudicious road crossing in urban settings when traffic speeds are higher than 20 mph. The risk is exacerbated because vehicles moving faster than this speed are more likely to result in pedestrian fatalities.

  14. Predator versus Prey: Locust Looming-Detector Neuron and Behavioural Responses to Stimuli Representing Attacking Bird Predators

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Roger D.; Rind, F. Claire; Simmons, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Many arthropods possess escape-triggering neural mechanisms that help them evade predators. These mechanisms are important neuroethological models, but they are rarely investigated using predator-like stimuli because there is often insufficient information on real predator attacks. Locusts possess uniquely identifiable visual neurons (the descending contralateral movement detectors, DCMDs) that are well-studied looming motion detectors. The DCMDs trigger ‘glides’ in flying locusts, which are hypothesised to be appropriate last-ditch responses to the looms of avian predators. To date it has not been possible to study glides in response to stimuli simulating bird attacks because such attacks have not been characterised. We analyse video of wild black kites attacking flying locusts, and estimate kite attack speeds of 10.8±1.4 m/s. We estimate that the loom of a kite’s thorax towards a locust at these speeds should be characterised by a relatively low ratio of half size to speed (l/|v|) in the range 4–17 ms. Peak DCMD spike rate and gliding response occurrence are known to increase as l/|v| decreases for simple looming shapes. Using simulated looming discs, we investigate these trends and show that both DCMD and behavioural responses are strong to stimuli with kite-like l/|v| ratios. Adding wings to looming discs to produce a more realistic stimulus shape did not disrupt the overall relationships of DCMD and gliding occurrence to stimulus l/|v|. However, adding wings to looming discs did slightly reduce high frequency DCMD spike rates in the final stages of object approach, and slightly delay glide initiation. Looming discs with or without wings triggered glides closer to the time of collision as l/|v| declined, and relatively infrequently before collision at very low l/|v|. However, the performance of this system is in line with expectations for a last-ditch escape response. PMID:23209660

  15. Speed-invariant encoding of looming object distance requires power law spike rate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen E; Naud, Richard; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2013-08-13

    Neural representations of a moving object's distance and approach speed are essential for determining appropriate orienting responses, such as those observed in the localization behaviors of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We demonstrate that a power law form of spike rate adaptation transforms an electroreceptor afferent's response to "looming" object motion, effectively parsing information about distance and approach speed into distinct measures of the firing rate. Neurons with dynamics characterized by fixed time scales are shown to confound estimates of object distance and speed. Conversely, power law adaptation modifies an electroreceptor afferent's response according to the time scales present in the stimulus, generating a rate code for looming object distance that is invariant to speed and acceleration. Consequently, estimates of both object distance and approach speed can be uniquely determined from an electroreceptor afferent's firing rate, a multiplexed neural code operating over the extended time scales associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli.

  16. Dispositional and comparative optimism interact to predict avoidance of a looming health threat.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie L; Geers, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that when confronted with a health threat, individuals high in both dispositional and comparative optimism employ a more avoidant style of coping than individuals high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. We examined the hypothesis that threat distance moderates this interactive optimism association. In two studies, participants were randomly assigned to a looming or distant threat condition. Study 1 revealed that in the looming threat condition, participants high in both forms of optimism were more likely to minimise the threat and less inclined to seek additional health information relative to participants high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. In Study 2, the same interaction pattern emerged on a measure of psychological abstraction suggesting these variables combine to alter broad information processing strategies. Implications for considering multiple forms of optimism when delivering health status information are discussed.

  17. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression of a locust looming-detector neuron: investigations using a robot locust.

    PubMed

    Santer, R D; Stafford, R; Rind, F C

    2004-11-22

    A fundamental task performed by many visual systems is to distinguish apparent motion caused by eye movements from real motion occurring within the environment. During saccadic eye movements, this task is achieved by inhibitory signals of central and retinal origin that suppress the output of motion-detecting neurons. To investigate the retinally-generated component of this suppression, we used a computational model of a locust looming-detecting pathway that experiences saccadic suppression. This model received input from the camera of a mobile robot that performed simple saccade-like movements, allowing the model's response to simplified real stimuli to be tested. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression resulted from two inhibitory mechanisms within the looming-detector's input architecture. One mechanism fed inhibition forward through the network, inhibiting the looming-detector's initial response to movement. The second spread inhibition laterally within the network, suppressing the looming-detector's maintained response to movement. These mechanisms prevent a looming-detector model response to whole-field visual stimuli. In the locust, this mechanism of saccadic suppression may operate in addition to centrally-generated suppression. Because lateral inhibition is a common feature of early visual processing in many organisms, we discuss whether the mechanism of retinally-generated saccadic suppression found in the locust looming-detector model may also operate in these species.

  18. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression of a locust looming-detector neuron: investigations using a robot locust.

    PubMed Central

    Santer, R. D.; Stafford, R.; Rind, F. C.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental task performed by many visual systems is to distinguish apparent motion caused by eye movements from real motion occurring within the environment. During saccadic eye movements, this task is achieved by inhibitory signals of central and retinal origin that suppress the output of motion-detecting neurons. To investigate the retinally-generated component of this suppression, we used a computational model of a locust looming-detecting pathway that experiences saccadic suppression. This model received input from the camera of a mobile robot that performed simple saccade-like movements, allowing the model's response to simplified real stimuli to be tested. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression resulted from two inhibitory mechanisms within the looming-detector's input architecture. One mechanism fed inhibition forward through the network, inhibiting the looming-detector's initial response to movement. The second spread inhibition laterally within the network, suppressing the looming-detector's maintained response to movement. These mechanisms prevent a looming-detector model response to whole-field visual stimuli. In the locust, this mechanism of saccadic suppression may operate in addition to centrally-generated suppression. Because lateral inhibition is a common feature of early visual processing in many organisms, we discuss whether the mechanism of retinally-generated saccadic suppression found in the locust looming-detector model may also operate in these species. PMID:16849153

  19. Persistent fear responses in rhesus monkeys to the optical stimulus of "looming".

    PubMed

    SCHIFF, W; CAVINESS, J A; GIBSON, J J

    1962-06-15

    The approach of an object corresponds with a spatiotemporal optical stimulus consisting of a symmetrical expansion of a closed contour in the field of view. The visual equivalent of impending collision was isolated and compared with its sequential inversion. Infant and adult rhesus monkeys manifested persistent avoidance responses to "looming" but not to the inverse. This visual stimulus alone is a strong exciter of avoidance, and the response appears early in life.

  20. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    PubMed

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  1. The role of looming and attention capture in drivers' braking responses.

    PubMed

    Terry, Hugh R; Charlton, Samuel G; Perrone, John A

    2008-07-01

    This study assessed the ability of drivers to detect the deceleration of a preceding vehicle in a simulated vehicle-following task. The size of the preceding vehicles (car, van, or truck) and following speeds (50, 70, or 100 km/h) were systematically varied. Participants selected a preferred following distance by engaging their vehicle's cruise control and when the preceding vehicle began decelerating (no brake lights were illuminated), the participant's braking latency and distances to the lead vehicle were recorded. The experiment also employed a secondary task condition to examine how the attention-capturing properties of a looming vehicle were affected by driver distraction. The results indicated that a looming stimulus is capable of redirecting a driver's attention in a vehicle following task and, as with detection of brake lights, a driver's detection of a looming vehicle is compromised in the presence of a distracting task. Interestingly, increases in vehicle size had the effect of decreasing drivers' braking latencies and drivers engaged in the secondary task were significantly closer to the lead vehicle when they began braking, regardless of the size of the leading vehicle. Performance decrements resulting from the secondary task were reflected in a time-to-collision measure but not in optic expansion rate, lending support to earlier arguments that time-to-collision estimates require explicit cognitive judgements while perception of optic expansion may function in a more automatic fashion to redirect a driver's attention when cognitive resources are low or collision is imminent.

  2. Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnership Approach to Large-Scale Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale crisis such as natural disasters and acts of terrorism can have a paralyzing effect on the campus community and business continuity. Campus officials in these situations face significant challenges that go beyond the immediate response including re-building the physical plant, restoring campus infrastructure, retaining displaced…

  3. Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnership Approach to Large-Scale Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale crisis such as natural disasters and acts of terrorism can have a paralyzing effect on the campus community and business continuity. Campus officials in these situations face significant challenges that go beyond the immediate response including re-building the physical plant, restoring campus infrastructure, retaining displaced…

  4. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  5. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  6. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  7. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  8. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  9. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  10. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  11. Climate Action Benefits: Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between infrastructure and climate change and describes what the CIRA Infrastructure analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Bridges, Roads, Urban Drainage, and Coastal Property.

  12. The role of emotional maltreatment and looming cognitive style in the development of social anxiety symptoms in late adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, Zahira; Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Social looming constitutes a specific cognitive vulnerability that acts as a danger schema and biases the processing of threat-related information associated with the development of social anxiety disorder. This model characterizes early negative experiences as critical to the formation of looming cognitive style. Furthermore, research has found links between parental emotional abuse and peer victimization and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used to analyze the role of parents' emotional abuse and peer victimization in the onset of social anxiety symptoms through the development of this cognitive style. The final sample was made up of 307 females and 243 males (Mage = 16.97, SDage = .81). Perceived parents' emotional abuse and peer victimization by participants were measured at Time 1, social looming was measured at Time 1 and 2, and social anxiety symptoms were measured at Times 1, 2, and 3. Parents' emotional abuse and peer victimization were related to social anxiety cross-sectionally. Longitudinally, social looming acted as a mediator in the relationship between parents' emotional abuse and social anxiety. These findings highlight the need to better understand the mechanisms through which emotional abuse and peer victimization impact social looming and contribute to social anxiety.

  13. Role of a looming-sensitive neuron in triggering the defense behavior of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiichiro; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2014-08-01

    In responses to looming objects, the praying mantis shows a defense behavior, which consists of retracting forelegs under the prothorax. The role of a looming-sensitive neuron in triggering this behavior was investigated by simultaneously recording the activity and behavioral responses of the neuron. The mantis initiated the defense behavior earlier in response to larger and slower looming stimuli. The time remaining to collision at defense initiation was linearly correlated with the ratio of the half-size of an approaching object to its speed (l/|v|), suggesting that the defense behavior occurred a fixed delay after the stimuli had reached a fixed angular threshold. Furthermore, the results suggested that high-frequency spikes of the looming-sensitive neuron were involved in triggering the defense behavior: the distribution of maximum firing rate for trials with defense was shifted to larger rates compared with trials without defense; the firing rate of the neuron exceeded 150 Hz ∼100 ms before the defense initiation regardless of stimulus parameters; when a looming stimulus ceased approach prematurely, high-frequency spikes were removed, and the occurrence of defense was reduced. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. [Crisis and crisis therapy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Culberg, J

    1978-02-01

    A psychic crisis is defined as a reaction to external events where the individual is unable to cope with these events by means of his usual adaptive mechanisms and earlier experiences. Examples of a traumatic crisis is the death of a near relative, the sudden onset of a severe illness, a sudden infidelity in marriage etc. So called transitional life situations may also elicit crisis reaction, i.e. the birth of a first child, retirement from work etc. A psychic crisis is often overdetermined from experiences in early childhood. The more "pure" crisis reactions are often seen in medical or surgical clinics while the psychiatrists usually meet the overdetermined crisis reaction. Four different phases of the crisis reaction are described. The goal of crisis therapy is to support the individual's and his surroundings own resources. It is not to replace the loss or to help the individual deny the emotional impact of what has happened. The function of the therapist can often be described in terms of "containing function" and "vicarious hope". Listening to a client in acute crisis often evokes feelings of anxiety and helplessness in the therapist. He often feels seduced to behave omnipotently, helping the patient to suppress the feelings of sorrow and anger. He may also be overprotective or may avoid discussing the pertinent feelings. The antitherapeutic risks of crisis psychotherapy are discussed and also illustrated with examples from the author's research on reactions of mothers to the birth of stillborn children.

  15. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  16. eLoom and Flatland: specification, simulation and visualization engines for the study of arbitrary hierarchical neural architectures.

    PubMed

    Caudell, Thomas P; Xiao, Yunhai; Healy, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    eLoom is an open source graph simulation software tool, developed at the University of New Mexico (UNM), that enables users to specify and simulate neural network models. Its specification language and libraries enables users to construct and simulate arbitrary, potentially hierarchical network structures on serial and parallel processing systems. In addition, eLoom is integrated with UNM's Flatland, an open source virtual environments development tool to provide real-time visualizations of the network structure and activity. Visualization is a useful method for understanding both learning and computation in artificial neural networks. Through 3D animated pictorially representations of the state and flow of information in the network, a better understanding of network functionality is achieved. ART-1, LAPART-II, MLP, and SOM neural networks are presented to illustrate eLoom and Flatland's capabilities.

  17. Exploring Crisis Management in U.S. Small Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jon

    As a critical infrastructure, the US electricity grid supplies electricity to 340 million people within eight separate regions. The power infrastructure is vulnerable to many types of disasters capable of severing supplies of electricity. The impact on the employees and communities when small- and medium-size enterprises are shut down due to disasters can be severe. The purpose of the quantitative comparative study was to explore small- and medium-size enterprises crisis management strategies in the case of power infrastructure vulnerabilities. Perceptions of small business leaders were probed about crisis management planning relevant to three secondary factors: prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy. Participants completed an adapted questionnaire instrument based on a five-point Likert scale for six sub-factors including resilience through planning, financial impact, operational crisis management, the perfect storm, the aftermath of survival, and atrophy. The instrument also measured three additional factors to include, prior experience of crises, threat perceptions, and planning self-efficacy, across seven types of crises. The results of this study indicated that of the 276 respondents, 104 had no crisis plans, but 172 did have crisis plans. Of those who had implemented crisis plans, 19% had specific provisions to address power outages or attacks on the electrical grid. Of the respondents who had not planned for power outages nor experienced significant losses of power, a statistically significant number acknowledged an external threat to their business. The majority of respondents indicated that long-term planning was related to resilience; however, the migration of crisis understanding into the planning process or implementation was not implemented. This heightened awareness of potential crises without the corresponding development and implementation of mitigation crisis plans requires additional research to understand

  18. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  19. Emergence of Selectivity to Looming Stimuli in a Spiking Network Model of the Optic Tectum

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eric V.; Ramirez-Vizcarrondo, Carolina; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Khakhalin, Arseny S.

    2016-01-01

    The neural circuits in the optic tectum of Xenopus tadpoles are selectively responsive to looming visual stimuli that resemble objects approaching the animal at a collision trajectory. This selectivity is required for adaptive collision avoidance behavior in this species, but its underlying mechanisms are not known. In particular, it is still unclear how the balance between the recurrent spontaneous network activity and the newly arriving sensory flow is set in this structure, and to what degree this balance is important for collision detection. Also, despite the clear indication for the presence of strong recurrent excitation and spontaneous activity, the exact topology of recurrent feedback circuits in the tectum remains elusive. In this study we take advantage of recently published detailed cell-level data from tadpole tectum to build an informed computational model of it, and investigate whether dynamic activation in excitatory recurrent retinotopic networks may on its own underlie collision detection. We consider several possible recurrent connectivity configurations and compare their performance for collision detection under different levels of spontaneous neural activity. We show that even in the absence of inhibition, a retinotopic network of quickly inactivating spiking neurons is naturally selective for looming stimuli, but this selectivity is not robust to neuronal noise, and is sensitive to the balance between direct and recurrent inputs. We also describe how homeostatic modulation of intrinsic properties of individual tectal cells can change selectivity thresholds in this network, and qualitatively verify our predictions in a behavioral experiment in freely swimming tadpoles. PMID:27932957

  20. Different motion cues are used to estimate time-to-arrival for frontoparallel and looming trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Finnegan J.; Beardsley, Scott A.; Vaina, Lucia M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of time-to-arrival for moving objects is critical to obstacle interception and avoidance, as well as to timing actions such as reaching and grasping moving objects. The source of motion information that conveys arrival time varies with the trajectory of the object raising the question of whether multiple context-dependent mechanisms are involved in this computation. To address this question we conducted a series of psychophysical studies to measure observers’ performance on time-to-arrival estimation when object trajectory was specified by angular motion (“gap closure” trajectories in the frontoparallel plane), looming (colliding trajectories, TTC) or both (passage courses, TTP). We measured performance of time-to-arrival judgments in the presence of irrelevant motion, in which a perpendicular motion vector was added to the object trajectory. Data were compared to models of expected performance based on the use of different components of optical information. Our results demonstrate that for gap closure, performance depended only on the angular motion, whereas for TTC and TTP, both angular and looming motion affected performance. This dissociation of inputs suggests that gap closures are mediated by a separate mechanism than that used for the detection of time-to-collision and time-to-passage. We show that existing models of TTC and TTP estimation make systematic errors in predicting subject performance, and suggest that a model which weights motion cues by their relative time-to-arrival provides a better account of performance. PMID:22056519

  1. A cortical network underpinning the perceptual priority for rising intensity and auditory ``looming.''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhoff, John G.; Bilecen, Deniz; Mustovic, Henrietta; Schachinger, Hartmut; Seifritz, Erich; Scheffler, Klaus; di Salle, Francesco

    2002-05-01

    Relative motion between a sound source and a listener creates a change in acoustic intensity that can be used to anticipate the source's approach. Humans have been shown to overestimate the intensity change of rising compared to falling intensity sounds and underestimate the time-to-contact of approaching sound sources. From an evolutionary perspective, this perceptual priority for looming sounds may represent an adaptive advantage that provides an increased margin of safety for responding to approaching auditory objects. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the prioritization of rising contrasted with falling intensity sine-tones is grounded in a specific neural network. This network is predominantly composed of the superior temporal sulci, the middle temporal gyri, the right temporo-parietal junction, the motor and premotor cortices mainly on the right hemisphere, the left frontal operculum, and the left superior posterior cerebellar cortex. These regions are critical for the allocation of attention, the analysis of space, object recognition, and neurobehavioral preparation for action. Our results identify a widespread neural network underpinning the perceptual priority for looming sounds that can be used in translating sensory information into preparedness for adverse events and appropriate action. [Work supported by the Swiss and the American NSFs.

  2. Spike-Frequency Adaptation and Intrinsic Properties of an Identified, Looming-Sensitive Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Krapp, Holger G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated in vivo the characteristics of spike-frequency adaptation and the intrinsic membrane properties of an identified, looming-sensitive interneuron of the locust optic lobe, the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD). The LGMD had an input resistance of 4–5 MΩ, a membrane time constant of about 8 ms, and exhibited inward rectification and rebound spiking after hyperpolarizing current pulses. Responses to depolarizing current pulses revealed the neuron’s intrinsic bursting properties and pronounced spike-frequency adaptation. The characteristics of adaptation, including its time course, the attenuation of the firing rate, the mutual dependency of these two variables, and their dependency on injected current, closely followed the predictions of a model first proposed to describe the adaptation of cat visual cortex pyramidal neurons in vivo. Our results thus validate the model in an entirely different context and suggest that it might be applicable to a wide variety of neurons across species. Spike-frequency adaptation is likely to play an important role in tuning the LGMD and in shaping the variability of its responses to visual looming stimuli. PMID:16571737

  3. Sickle Cell Crisis (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  4. The Effect of Looming and Receding Sounds on the Perceived In-Depth Orientation of Depth-Ambiguous Biological Motion Figures

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Ben; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Vroomen, Jean; Verfaillie, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus in the research on biological motion perception traditionally has been restricted to the visual modality. Recent neurophysiological and behavioural evidence, however, supports the idea that actions are not represented merely visually but rather audiovisually. The goal of the present study was to test whether the perceived in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers (plws) is affected by the presentation of looming or receding sounds synchronized with the footsteps. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1 orthographic frontal/back projections of plws were presented either without sound or with sounds of which the intensity level was rising (looming), falling (receding) or stationary. Despite instructions to ignore the sounds and to only report the visually perceived in-depth orientation, plws accompanied with looming sounds were more often judged to be facing the viewer whereas plws paired with receding sounds were more often judged to be facing away from the viewer. To test whether the effects observed in Experiment 1 act at a perceptual level rather than at the decisional level, in Experiment 2 observers perceptually compared orthographic plws without sound or paired with either looming or receding sounds to plws without sound but with perspective cues making them objectively either facing towards or facing away from the viewer. Judging whether either an orthographic plw or a plw with looming (receding) perspective cues is visually most looming becomes harder (easier) when the orthographic plw is paired with looming sounds. Conclusions/Significance The present results suggest that looming and receding sounds alter the judgements of the in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers. While looming sounds are demonstrated to act at a perceptual level and make plws look more looming, it remains a challenge for future research to clarify at what level in the processing hierarchy receding sounds affect how

  5. Hydrogen Distribution Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintz, Marianne; Molburg, John; Folga, Stephen; Gillette, Jerry

    2003-07-01

    Whether produced from fossil or non-fossil sources, the widespread use of hydrogen will require a new and extensive infrastructure to produce, distribute, store and dispense it as a vehicular fuel or for electric generation. Depending on the source from which hydrogen is produced and the form in which it is delivered, many alternative infrastructures can be envisioned. Tradeoffs in scale economies between process and distribution technologies, and such issues as operating cost, safety, materials, etc. can also favor alternative forms of infrastructure. This paper discusses several infrastructure alternatives and the associated "well-to-pump" or "fuel cycle" cost of delivered hydrogen.

  6. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  7. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  8. Images for Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    1984-01-01

    Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)

  9. Teaching Crisis Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, JoAnne Howland

    1982-01-01

    Describes a creative approach to teaching the application of crisis theory to nursing students. Students experience crisis themselves, evaluate their own and others' coping mechanisms, and learn to recognize the various physical and psychological symptoms of people in crisis. (Author/CT)

  10. Widespread sensitivity to looming stimuli and small moving objects in the central complex of an insect brain.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Ronny; Homberg, Uwe

    2013-05-08

    In many situations animals are confronted with approaching objects. Depending on whether the approach represents a potential threat or is intended during a goal-oriented approach, the adequate behavioral strategies differ. In all of these cases the visual system experiences an expanding or looming shape. The neuronal machinery mediating looming elicited behavioral responses has been studied most comprehensively in insects but is still far from being fully understood. It is particularly unknown how insects adjust their behavior to objects approaching from different directions. A brain structure that is thought to play an important role in spatial orientation in insects is the central complex (CC). We investigated whether CC neurons process information about approaching objects on a collision course. We recorded intracellularly from CC neurons in the locust Schistocerca gregaria during visual stimulation via lateral LCD screens. Many neurons in the locust CC, including columnar and tangential neurons, were sensitive to looming stimuli. Some of the neurons also responded to small moving targets. Several cell types showed binocular responses to looming objects, and some neurons were excited or inhibited depending on which eye was stimulated. These neurons may, therefore, detect the gross azimuthal direction of approaching objects and may mediate directional components of escape or steering movements.

  11. 75 FR 39046 - Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the... Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 10, 2009, applicable to workers of Russell... workers of Russell Brands, LLC, Fabric Division, a subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, including...

  12. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  13. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  14. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  15. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  16. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  17. Crossmodal enhancement of visual orientation discrimination by looming sounds requires functional activation of primary visual areas: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Romei, Vincenzo; Bertini, Caterina; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    Approaching or looming sounds are salient, potentially threatening stimuli with particular impact on visual processing. The early crossmodal effects by looming sounds (Romei, Murray, Cappe, & Thut, 2009) and their selective impact on visual orientation discrimination (Leo, Romei, Freeman, Ladavas, & Driver, 2011) suggest that these multisensory interactions may take place already within low-level visual cortices. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested a patient (SDV) with bilateral occipital lesion and spared residual portions of V1/V2. Accordingly, SDV׳s visual perimetry revealed blindness of the central visual field with some residual peripheral vision. In two experiments we tested for the influence of looming vs. receding and stationary sounds on SDV׳s line orientation discrimination (orientation discrimination experiment) and visual detection abilities (detection experiment) in the preserved or blind portions of the visual field, corresponding to spared and lesioned areas of V1, respectively. In the visual orientation discrimination experiment we found that SDV visual orientation sensitivity significantly improved for visual targets paired with looming sounds but only for lines presented in the partially preserved visual field. In the visual detection experiment, where SDV was required to simply detect the same stimuli presented in the orientation discrimination experiment, a generalised sound-induced visual improvement both in the intact and in blind portion of the visual field was observed. These results provide direct evidence that early visual areas are critically involved in crossmodal modulation of visual orientation sensitivity by looming sounds. Thus, a lesion in V1 prevents the enhancement of visual orientation sensitivity. In contrast, the same lesion does not prevent the visual detection enhancement by a sound, probably due to alternative visual pathways (e.g. retino-colliculo-extrastriate) which are usually spared in these patients and able to

  18. A "looming bias" in spatial hearing? Effects of acoustic intensity and spectrum on categorical sound source localization.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Lisa; Olsen, Kirk N

    2017-01-01

    Continuous increases of acoustic intensity (up-ramps) can indicate a looming (approaching) sound source in the environment, whereas continuous decreases of intensity (down-ramps) can indicate a receding sound source. From psychoacoustic experiments, an "adaptive perceptual bias" for up-ramp looming tonal stimuli has been proposed (Neuhoff, 1998). This theory postulates that (1) up-ramps are perceptually salient because of their association with looming and potentially threatening stimuli in the environment; (2) tonal stimuli are perceptually salient because of an association with single and potentially threatening biological sound sources in the environment, relative to white noise, which is more likely to arise from dispersed signals and nonthreatening/nonbiological sources (wind/ocean). In the present study, we extrapolated the "adaptive perceptual bias" theory and investigated its assumptions by measuring sound source localization in response to acoustic stimuli presented in azimuth to imply looming, stationary, and receding motion in depth. Participants (N = 26) heard three directions of intensity change (up-ramps, down-ramps, and steady state, associated with looming, receding, and stationary motion, respectively) and three levels of acoustic spectrum (a 1-kHz pure tone, the tonal vowel /ә/, and white noise) in a within-subjects design. We first hypothesized that if up-ramps are "perceptually salient" and capable of eliciting adaptive responses, then they would be localized faster and more accurately than down-ramps. This hypothesis was supported. However, the results did not support the second hypothesis. Rather, the white-noise and vowel conditions were localized faster and more accurately than the pure-tone conditions. These results are discussed in the context of auditory and visual theories of motion perception, auditory attentional capture, and the spectral causes of spatial ambiguity.

  19. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  20. Looming Threats and Animacy: Reduced Responsiveness in Youth with Disrupted Behavior Disorders.

    PubMed

    White, Stuart F; Thornton, Laura C; Leshin, Joseph; Clanton, Roberta; Sinclair, Stephen; Coker-Appiah, Dionne; Meffert, Harma; Hwang, Soonjo; Blair, James R

    2017-08-03

    Theoretical models have implicated amygdala dysfunction in the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder). Amygdala dysfunction impacts valence evaluation/response selection and emotion attention in youth with DBDs, particularly in those with elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, amygdala responsiveness during social cognition and the responsiveness of the acute threat circuitry (amygdala/periaqueductal gray) in youth with DBDs have been less well-examined, particularly with reference to CU traits. 31 youth with DBDs and 27 typically developing youth (IQ, age and gender-matched) completed a threat paradigm during fMRI where animate and inanimate, threatening and neutral stimuli appeared to loom towards or recede from participants. Reduced responsiveness to threat variables, including visual threats and encroaching stimuli, was observed within acute threat circuitry and temporal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices in youth with DBDs. This reduced responsiveness, at least with respect to the looming variable, was modulated by CU traits. Reduced responsiveness to animacy information was also observed within temporal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices, but not within amygdala. Reduced responsiveness to animacy information as a function of CU traits was observed in PCC, though not within the amygdala. Reduced threat responsiveness may contribute to risk taking and impulsivity in youth with DBDs, particularly those with high levels of CU traits. Future work will need to examine the degree to which this reduced response to animacy is independent of amygdala dysfunction in youth with DBDs and what role PCC might play in the dysfunctional social cognition observed in youth with high levels of CU traits.

  1. Understanding animal fears: a comparison of the cognitive vulnerability and harm-looming models

    PubMed Central

    Armfield, Jason M

    2007-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model holds that both clinical and sub-clinical manifestations of animal fears are a result of how an animal is perceived, and can be used to explain both individual differences in fear acquisition and the uneven distribution of fears in the population. This study looked at the association between fear of a number of animals and perceptions of the animals as uncontrollable, unpredictable, dangerous and disgusting. Also assessed were the perceived loomingness, prior familiarity, and negative evaluation of the animals as well as possible conditioning experiences. Methods 162 first-year University students rated their fear and perceptions of four high-fear and four low-fear animals. Results Perceptions of the animals as dangerous, disgusting and uncontrollable were significantly associated with fear of both high- and low-fear animals while perceptions of unpredictability were significantly associated with fear of high-fear animals. Conditioning experiences were unrelated to fear of any animals. In multiple regression analyses, loomingness did not account for a significant amount of the variance in fear beyond that accounted for by the cognitive vulnerability variables. However, the vulnerability variables accounted for between 20% and 51% of the variance in all animals fears beyond that accounted for by perceptions of the animals as looming. Perceptions of dangerousness, uncontrollability and unpredictability were highly predictive of the uneven distribution of animal fears. Conclusion This study provides support for the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of specific fears and phobias and brings into question the utility of the harm-looming model in explaining animal fear. PMID:18053147

  2. [Attributes of forest infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

    2007-06-01

    This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management.

  3. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  4. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  5. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  6. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  7. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  8. Pennsylvania Reaches Infrastructure Milestone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With a series of “aye” votes, the Pennsylvania agency that turns EPA funding and state financing into water infrastructure projects crossed a key threshold recently – $8 billion in investment over nearly three decades

  9. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  10. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  11. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  12. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  13. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  14. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  15. Machine-Washable Textile Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Effective Human Respiratory Monitoring through Loom Weaving of Metallic Yarns.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Yan, Casey; Liu, Zhaoxian; Fu, Xiuli; Peng, Lian-Mao; Hu, Youfan; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-12-01

    Textile triboelectric nanogenerators for human respiratory monitoring with machine washability are developed through loom weaving of Cu-PET and PI-Cu-PET yarns. Triboelectric charges are generated at the yarn crisscross intersections to achieve a maximum short circuit current density of 15.50 mA m(-2) . By integrating into a chest strap, human respiratory rate and depth can be monitored.

  16. Design and optimization of a novel bio-loom to weave melt-spun absorbable polymers for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Jordon; Burg, Timothy; Groff, Richard E; Burg, Karen J L

    2016-05-05

    Bone graft procedures are currently among the most common surgical procedures performed worldwide, but due to high risk of complication and lack of viable donor tissue, there exists a need to develop alternatives for bone defect healing. Tissue engineering, for example, combining biocompatible scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells to achieve new bone growth, is a possible solution. Recent work has highlighted the potential for woven polymer meshes to serve as bone tissue engineering scaffolds; since, scaffolds can be iteratively designed by adjusting weave settings, material types, and mesh parameters. However, there are a number of material and system challenges preventing the implementation of such a tissue engineering strategy. Fiber compliance, tensile strength, brittleness, cross-sectional geometry, and size present specific challenges for using traditional textile weaving methods. In the current work, two potential scaffold materials, melt-spun poly-l-lactide, and poly-l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone, were investigated. An automated bio-loom was engineered and built to weave these materials. The bio-loom was used to successfully demonstrate the weaving of these difficult-to-handle fiber types into various mesh configurations and material combinations. The dobby-loom design, adapted with an air jet weft placement system, warp tension control system, and automated collection spool, provides minimal damage to the polymer fibers while overcoming the physical constraints presented by the inherent material structure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  17. Sex, acceleration, brain imaging, and rhesus monkeys: Converging evidence for an evolutionary bias for looming auditory motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhoff, John G.

    2003-04-01

    Increasing acoustic intensity is a primary cue to looming auditory motion. Perceptual overestimation of increasing intensity could provide an evolutionary selective advantage by specifying that an approaching sound source is closer than actual, thus affording advanced warning and more time than expected to prepare for the arrival of the source. Here, multiple lines of converging evidence for this evolutionary hypothesis are presented. First, it is shown that intensity change specifying accelerating source approach changes in loudness more than equivalent intensity change specifying decelerating source approach. Second, consistent with evolutionary hunter-gatherer theories of sex-specific spatial abilities, it is shown that females have a significantly larger bias for rising intensity than males. Third, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with approaching and receding auditory motion, it is shown that approaching sources preferentially activate a specific neural network responsible for attention allocation, motor planning, and translating perception into action. Finally, it is shown that rhesus monkeys also exhibit a rising intensity bias by orienting longer to looming tones than to receding tones. Together these results illustrate an adaptive perceptual bias that has evolved because it provides a selective advantage in processing looming acoustic sources. [Work supported by NSF and CDC.

  18. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  19. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  20. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  1. When a Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keebler, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…

  2. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  3. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  4. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  5. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  6. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  7. Crisis, grief and loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, J V

    1993-09-01

    At one time or another, many of us experience a life-threatening crisis that proves to be a turning point in our lives. I had such a crisis while working as a medic on the oil-rig Vinland, offshore of Nova Scotia, in 1984.

  8. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  9. ITER Cryoplant Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauve, E.; Monneret, E.; Voigt, T.; Vincent, G.; Forgeas, A.; Simon, M.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER Tokamak requires an average 75 kW of refrigeration power at 4.5 K and 600 kW of refrigeration Power at 80 K to maintain the nominal operation condition of the ITER thermal shields, superconducting magnets and cryopumps. This is produced by the ITER Cryoplant, a complex cluster of refrigeration systems including in particular three identical Liquid Helium Plants and two identical Liquid Nitrogen Plants. Beyond the equipment directly part of the Cryoplant, colossal infrastructures are required. These infrastructures account for a large part of the Cryoplants lay-out, budget and engineering efforts. It is ITER Organization responsibility to ensure that all infrastructures are adequately sized and designed to interface with the Cryoplant. This proceeding presents the overall architecture of the cryoplant. It provides order of magnitude related to the cryoplant building and utilities: electricity, cooling water, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

  10. Long live the King! Beginnings loom larger than endings of past and recurrent events.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Karl Halvor; Böhm, Gisela; Bruckmüller, Susanne; Hegarty, Peter; Luminet, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Events are temporal "figures", which can be defined as identifiable segments in time, bounded by beginnings and endings. But the functions and importance of these two boundaries differ. We argue that beginnings loom larger than endings by attracting more attention, being judged as more important and interesting, warranting more explanation, and having more causal power. This difference follows from a lay notion that additions (the introduction of something new) imply more change and demand more effort than do subtractions (returning to a previous state of affairs). This "beginning advantage" is demonstrated in eight studies of people's representations of epochs and events on a historical timeline as well as in cyclical change in the annual seasons. People think it is more important to know when wars and reigns started than when they ended, and are more interested in reading about beginnings than endings of historical movements. Transitional events (such as elections and passages from one season to the next) claim more interest and grow in importance when framed as beginnings of what follows than as conclusions of what came before. As beginnings are often identified in retrospect, the beginning advantage may distort and exaggerate their actual historical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Escape response of the crab Neohelice to computer generated looming and translational visual danger stimuli.

    PubMed

    Scarano, Florencia; Tomsic, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Historically, arthropod behavior has been considered to be a collection of simple, automaton-like routines commanded by domain-specific brain modules working independently. Nowadays, it is evident that the extensive behavioral repertoire of these animals and its flexibility necessarily imply far more complex abilities than originally assumed. For example, even what was thought to be a straightforward behavior of crabs, the escape response to visual danger stimuli, proved to involve a number of sequential stages, each of which implying decisions made on the bases of stimulus and contextual information. Inspired in previous observations on how the stimulus trajectory can affect the escape response of crabs in the field, we investigated the escape response to images of objects approaching directly toward the crab (looming stimuli: LS) or moving parallel to it (translational stimuli: TS) in the laboratory. Computer simulations of moving objects were effective to elicit escapes. LS evoked escapes with higher probability and intensity (speed and distance of escape) than TS, but responses started later. In addition to the escape run, TS also evoked a defensive response of the animal with its claws. Repeated presentations of TS or LS were both capable of inducing habituation. Results are discussed in connection with the possibilities offered by crabs to investigate the neural bases of behaviors occurring in the natural environment.

  12. Collision-avoidance behaviors of minimally restrained flying locusts to looming stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R. WM.; Gabbiani, F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Visually guided collision avoidance is of paramount importance in flight, for instance to allow escape from potential predators. Yet, little is known about the types of collision-avoidance behaviors that may be generated by flying animals in response to an impending visual threat. We studied the behavior of minimally restrained locusts flying in a wind tunnel as they were subjected to looming stimuli presented to the side of the animal, simulating the approach of an object on a collision course. Using high-speed movie recordings, we observed a wide variety of collision-avoidance behaviors including climbs and dives away from – but also towards – the stimulus. In a more restrained setting, we were able to relate kinematic parameters of the flapping wings with yaw changes in the trajectory of the animal. Asymmetric wing flapping was most strongly correlated with changes in yaw, but we also observed a substantial effect of wing deformations. Additionally, the effect of wing deformations on yaw was relatively independent of that of wing asymmetries. Thus, flying locusts exhibit a rich range of collision-avoidance behaviors that depend on several distinct aerodynamic characteristics of wing flapping flight. PMID:23364572

  13. Antennal pointing at a looming object in the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    Antennal pointing responses to approaching objects were observed in the house cricket Acheta domesticus. In response to a ball approaching from the lateral side, crickets oriented the antenna ipsilateral to the ball towards it. In response to a ball approaching from the front, crickets oriented both antennae forward. Response rates of antennal pointing were higher when the ball was approaching from the front than from behind. The antennal angle ipsilateral to the approaching ball was positively correlated with approaching angle of the ball. Obstructing the cricket's sight decreased the response rate of antennal pointing, suggesting that this response was elicited mainly by visual stimuli. Although the response rates of antennal pointing decreased when the object ceased its approach at a great distance from the cricket, antennal pointing appeared to be resistant to habituation and was not substantially affected by the velocity, size and trajectory of an approaching ball. When presented with computer-generated visual stimuli, crickets frequently showed the antennal pointing response to a darkening stimulus as well as looming and linearly-expanding stimuli. Drifting gratings rarely elicited the antennal pointing. These results suggest that luminance change is sufficient to elicit antennal pointing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Speed-invariant encoding of looming object distance requires power law spike rate adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Stephen E.; Naud, Richard; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Neural representations of a moving object’s distance and approach speed are essential for determining appropriate orienting responses, such as those observed in the localization behaviors of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We demonstrate that a power law form of spike rate adaptation transforms an electroreceptor afferent’s response to “looming” object motion, effectively parsing information about distance and approach speed into distinct measures of the firing rate. Neurons with dynamics characterized by fixed time scales are shown to confound estimates of object distance and speed. Conversely, power law adaptation modifies an electroreceptor afferent’s response according to the time scales present in the stimulus, generating a rate code for looming object distance that is invariant to speed and acceleration. Consequently, estimates of both object distance and approach speed can be uniquely determined from an electroreceptor afferent’s firing rate, a multiplexed neural code operating over the extended time scales associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli. PMID:23898185

  15. An Ontology-Based Approach to Blind Spot Revelation in Critical Infrastructure Protection Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Joshua; Tolone, William J.; Lee, Seok-Won; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Marsh, Lydia

    One widely perceived yet poorly understood phenomenon in the practice of critical infrastructure protection is that of blind spots. These are certain aspects of the interrelationships among different critical infrastructure systems (CI systems) that could trigger catastrophe across CI systems but are concealed from planners, and discovered only in the aftermath of a crisis. In this paper, we discuss the sources of blind spots, and explore the feasibility of various techniques to help reveal blind spots.

  16. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  17. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  18. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  19. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  20. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  1. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  2. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  3. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    PubMed

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  4. Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

  5. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  6. The looming epidemic of diabetes-associated tuberculosis: learning lessons from HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Lin, Y; Satyanarayana, S; Lönnroth, K; Li, L; Wilson, N; Chauhan, L S; Zachariah, R; Baker, M A; Jeon, C Y; Murray, M B; Maher, D; Bygbjerg, I C; Enarson, D A; Billo, N E; Kapur, A

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing at a dramatic rate, and countries in Asia, particularly India and China, will bear the brunt of this epidemic. Persons with diabetes have a significantly increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB), which is two to three times higher than in persons without diabetes. In this article, we argue that the epidemiological interactions and the effects on clinical presentation and treatment resulting from the interaction between diabetes and TB are similar to those observed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and TB. The lessons learned from approaches to reduce the dual burden of HIV and TB, and especially the modes of screening for the two diseases, can be adapted and applied to the screening, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diabetes and TB. The new World Health Organization (WHO) and The Union Collaborative Framework for care and control of TB and diabetes has many similarities to the WHO Policy on Collaborative Activities to reduce the dual burden of TB and HIV, and aims to guide policy makers and implementers on how to move forward and combat this looming dual epidemic. The response to the growing HIV-associated TB epidemic in the 1980s and 1990s was slow and uncoordinated, despite clearly articulated warnings about the scale of the forthcoming problem. We must not make the same mistake with diabetes and TB. The Framework provides a template for action, and it is now up to donors, policy makers and implementers to apply the recommendations in the field and to 'learn by doing'.

  7. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  8. Green Infrastructure Checklists and Renderings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Materials and checklists for Denver, CO to review development project plans for green infrastructure components, best practices for inspecting and maintaining installed green infrastructure. Also includes renderings of streetscape projects.

  9. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  10. Midlife crisis: a debate.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Ritter, Johannes O

    2009-01-01

    Without doubt, the midlife crisis is the most popular concept describing middle adulthood. Facing the limitation of the time until death, men in particular are believed to pause from actively pursuing their goals and review their achievements, take stock of what they have and have not yet accomplished, at times taking drastic measures to fulfill their dreams. This paper critically discusses the concept of a midlife crisis and the relevant empirical evidence, presenting arguments for and against a strict, a moderate, and a lenient conceptualization of the midlife crisis. Although a strict and even moderate definition of the midlife crisis does not seem tenable on empirical and theoretical grounds, a lenient conceptualization has the potential to stimulate new research directions exemplifying processes of the interaction of social expectations on the one hand and personal goals on the other, and their importance for developmental regulation.

  11. Phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, B C; Prague, J K; Mustafa, O G; Schulte, K-M; Hopkins, P A; Gilbert, J A; McGregor, A M; Aylwin, S J B

    2014-01-01

    Phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis is an endocrine emergency associated with significant mortality. There is little published guidance on the management of phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis. This clinical practice update summarizes the relevant published literature, including a detailed review of cases published in the past 5 years, and a proposed classification system. We review the recommended management of phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis including the use of alpha-blockade, which is strongly associated with survival of a crisis. Mechanical circulatory supportive therapy (including intra-aortic balloon pump or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation) is strongly recommended for patients with sustained hypotension. Surgical intervention should be deferred until medical stabilization is achieved. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Literature of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark S.

    1971-01-01

    Examines current books and articles on educational problems, which the author refers to as literature of crisis," and concludes that these works should be read along with other genres of literature which examine human problems of communication and commitment. (VJ)

  13. Crisis -- A Leadership Opportunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    true. Crisis develops as an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, or behavior becomes incongruent with its operating environment. A leader, who is...an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, and behaviors ; while the other reflects its changing environment. In the beginning, as the plates...a random, cataclysmic event that can strike without warning. However, crisis occurs when an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, or behaviors

  14. Cognitive vulnerabilities in parents as a potential risk factor for anxiety symptoms in young adult offspring: An exploration of looming cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Riskind, John H; Sica, Claudio; Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Kashdan, Todd B

    2017-03-01

    Given that anxiety runs in families, it is critical to understand the cognitive factors that may be responsible for this intergenerational transmission. The present study offers a first step by exploring the link between mother and father tendencies to view potentially threatening situations as rapidly escalating toward dreaded outcomes (i.e., looming cognitive style) and the emotional disturbances and looming cognitive styles of their adult offspring. We assessed cognitive vulnerabilities, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical sample (N = 382) of Italian college students and their parents. The looming cognitive style of fathers, but not mothers, was significantly related to greater anxiety in adult offspring. This finding was obtained for both sons and daughters, and remained even after statistically controlling for the anxiety, worry, depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity (AS) of parents). Notably, the association between fathers' looming cognitive style and offspring symptoms was not related to their child's depressive symptoms, and similar to prior work, served as a cognitive marker specific to anxiety. The present study relied on a cross-sectional design and did not use clients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. The findings suggest that it may prove fruitful to consider parental vulnerabilities such as looming cognitive styles in comprehensive cognitive and interpersonal models of anxiety. The intergenerational transmission of emotional difficulties seems to extend beyond anxiety to beliefs about the escalation of threat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crisis management strategies.

    PubMed

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  16. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  17. Burst Firing in a Motion-Sensitive Neural Pathway Correlates with Expansion Properties of Looming Objects that Evoke Avoidance Behaviors.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Gray, John R

    2015-01-01

    The locust visual system contains a well-defined motion-sensitive pathway that transfers visual input to motor centers involved in predator evasion and collision avoidance. One interneuron in this pathway, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), is typically described as using rate coding; edge expansion of approaching objects causes an increased rate of neuronal firing that peaks after a certain retinal threshold angle is exceeded. However, evidence of intrinsic DCMD bursting properties combined with observable oscillations in mean firing rates and tight clustering of spikes in raw traces, suggest that bursting may be important for motion detection. Sensory neuron bursting provides important timing information about dynamic stimuli in many model systems, yet no studies have rigorously investigated if bursting occurs in the locust DCMD during object approach. We presented repetitions of 30 looming stimuli known to generate behavioral responses to each of 20 locusts in order to identify and quantify putative bursting activity in the DCMD. Overall, we found a bimodal distribution of inter-spike intervals (ISI) with peaks of more frequent and shorter ISIs occurring from 1-8 ms and longer less frequent ISIs occurring from 40-50 ms. Subsequent analysis identified bursts and isolated single spikes from the responses. Bursting frequency increased in the latter phase of an approach and peaked at the time of collision, while isolated spiking was predominant during the beginning of stimulus approach. We also found that the majority of inter-burst intervals (IBIs) occurred at 40-50 ms (or 20-25 bursts/s). Bursting also occurred across varied stimulus parameters and suggests that burst timing may be a key component of looming detection. Our findings suggest that the DCMD uses two modes of coding to transmit information about looming stimuli and that these modes change dynamically with a changing stimulus at a behaviorally-relevant time.

  18. Burst Firing in a Motion-Sensitive Neural Pathway Correlates with Expansion Properties of Looming Objects that Evoke Avoidance Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Glyn A.; Gray, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The locust visual system contains a well-defined motion-sensitive pathway that transfers visual input to motor centers involved in predator evasion and collision avoidance. One interneuron in this pathway, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), is typically described as using rate coding; edge expansion of approaching objects causes an increased rate of neuronal firing that peaks after a certain retinal threshold angle is exceeded. However, evidence of intrinsic DCMD bursting properties combined with observable oscillations in mean firing rates and tight clustering of spikes in raw traces, suggest that bursting may be important for motion detection. Sensory neuron bursting provides important timing information about dynamic stimuli in many model systems, yet no studies have rigorously investigated if bursting occurs in the locust DCMD during object approach. We presented repetitions of 30 looming stimuli known to generate behavioral responses to each of 20 locusts in order to identify and quantify putative bursting activity in the DCMD. Overall, we found a bimodal distribution of inter-spike intervals (ISI) with peaks of more frequent and shorter ISIs occurring from 1–8 ms and longer less frequent ISIs occurring from 40–50 ms. Subsequent analysis identified bursts and isolated single spikes from the responses. Bursting frequency increased in the latter phase of an approach and peaked at the time of collision, while isolated spiking was predominant during the beginning of stimulus approach. We also found that the majority of inter-burst intervals (IBIs) occurred at 40–50 ms (or 20–25 bursts/s). Bursting also occurred across varied stimulus parameters and suggests that burst timing may be a key component of looming detection. Our findings suggest that the DCMD uses two modes of coding to transmit information about looming stimuli and that these modes change dynamically with a changing stimulus at a behaviorally-relevant time. PMID:26696845

  19. Toward Information Infrastructure Studies: Ways of Knowing in a Networked Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Baker, Karen; Millerand, Florence; Ribes, David

    This article presents Information Infrastructure Studies, a research area that takes up some core issues in digital information and organization research. Infrastructure Studies simultaneously addresses the technical, social, and organizational aspects of the development, usage, and maintenance of infrastructures in local communities as well as global arenas. While infrastructure is understood as a broad category referring to a variety of pervasive, enabling network resources such as railroad lines, plumbing and pipes, electrical power plants and wires, this article focuses on information infrastructure, such as computational services and help desks, or federating activities such as scientific data repositories and archives spanning the multiple disciplines needed to address such issues as climate warming and the biodiversity crisis. These are elements associated with the internet and, frequently today, associated with cyberinfrastructure or e-science endeavors. We argue that a theoretical understanding of infrastructure provides the context for needed dialogue between design, use, and sustainability of internet-based infrastructure services. This article outlines a research area and outlines overarching themes of Infrastructure Studies. Part one of the paper presents definitions for infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure, reviewing salient previous work. Part two portrays key ideas from infrastructure studies (knowledge work, social and political values, new forms of sociality, etc.). In closing, the character of the field today is considered.

  20. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  1. "Productivity on the cheap"? The "more looms" experiment and the Lancashire weaving industry during the inter-war years.

    PubMed

    Bowden, S; Higgins, D M

    1999-01-01

    Two major debates in the literature, productivity performance and the decline of the cotton industry, are joined in the analysis presented in this article on the attempts to raise productivity through the introduction of the more looms per weaver system in cotton weaving in the inter-war years. We find that the limited resultant changes were the outcome of understandable predisposition to maintain co-operative behaviour which meant that productivity enhancing schemes with long term potential were sacrificed for more modest schemes which preserved consensus in the short term.

  2. Invisible transportation infrastructure technology to mitigate energy and environment.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Faruque

    2017-01-01

    Traditional transportation infrastructure built by heat trapping products and the transportation vehiles run by fossil fuel, both causing deadly climate change. Thus, a new technology of invisible Flying Transportation system has been proposed to mitigate energy and environmental crisis caused by traditional infrastructure system. Underground Maglev system has been modeled to be constructed for all transportation systems to run the vehicle smoothly just over two feet over the earth surface by propulsive and impulsive force at flying stage. A wind energy modeling has also been added to meet the vehicle's energy demand when it runs on a non-maglev area. Naturally, all maglev infrastructures network to be covered by evergreen herb except pedestrian walkways to absorb CO2, ambient heat, and moisture (vapor) from the surrounding environment to make it cool. The research revealed that the vehicle will not require any energy since it will run by superconducting electromagnetic force while it runs on a maglev infrastructure area and directed by wind energy while it runs on non-maglev area. The proposed maglev transportation infrastructure technology will indeed be an innovative discovery in modern engineering science which will reduce fossil fuel energy consumption and climate change dramatically.

  3. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Infrastructure for microsystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

    1999-03-01

    Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

  5. Dysfunctional Freezing Responses to Approaching Stimuli in Persons with a Looming Cognitive Style for Physical Threats

    PubMed Central

    Riskind, John H.; Sagliano, Laura; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000), which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats) in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants' Reaction Times (RTs) when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral) and motion direction (approach or recede). As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs) and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment) was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS

  6. Public health surveillance and meaningful use regulations: a crisis of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Lenert, Leslie; Sundwall, David N

    2012-03-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act is intended to enhance reimbursement of health care providers for meaningful use of electronic health records systems. This presents both opportunities and challenges for public health departments. To earn incentive payments, clinical providers must exchange specified types of data with the public health system, such as immunization and syndromic surveillance data and notifiable disease reporting. However, a crisis looms because public health's information technology systems largely lack the capabilities to accept the types of data proposed for exchange. Cloud computing may be a solution for public health information systems. Through shared computing resources, public health departments could reap the benefits of electronic reporting within federal funding constraints.

  7. Public Health Surveillance and Meaningful Use Regulations: A Crisis of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Sundwall, David N.

    2012-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act is intended to enhance reimbursement of health care providers for meaningful use of electronic health records systems. This presents both opportunities and challenges for public health departments. To earn incentive payments, clinical providers must exchange specified types of data with the public health system, such as immunization and syndromic surveillance data and notifiable disease reporting. However, a crisis looms because public health’s information technology systems largely lack the capabilities to accept the types of data proposed for exchange. Cloud computing may be a solution for public health information systems. Through shared computing resources, public health departments could reap the benefits of electronic reporting within federal funding constraints. PMID:22390523

  8. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  9. The INSC Security Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Le but était de démontrer une infrastructure de réseau qui soutient la sécurité, l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a...l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a été fournie à la couche réseau en utilisant le protocole d’IPsec. Aucune sécurité

  10. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    Tacitus. Hoboken: John Wiley And Sons, 2012. Putra , Fadillah. "Crisis Management In Public Administration." Planning Forum. 12, (2009, January 01...Fadillah Putra , "Crisis Management In Public Administration," Planning Forum 12, (2009, January 01). 12. "Crisis Of The Third Century: Ad 200-285

  11. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  12. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  13. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  14. Crisis Management in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    The way in which a school community deals with a crisis situation is a test of its sense of community. This guidebook, intended for Catholic-school principals, presents a detailed plan to help schools establish crisis-management teams and offers directions for their operation. Chapter 1 presents an overview of crisis management and focuses on how…

  15. Keeping Cool in a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

  16. The future of infrastructure security :

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  17. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  18. Cyber Infrastructure: The Forgotten Vulnerability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    presidential-policy-directive-critical-infrastructure-security-and- resil (accessed January 18, 2014). 114Department of Homeland Security, “NIPP 2013...Partnering Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilence ”, 2103, http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/NIPP%202013_Partnering%20 for...Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilence ”, 2103, http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/NIPP%202013_Partnering%20 for%20Critical

  19. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  20. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Utilities building NGV infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Gas utilities across the US are aggressively pursuing the natural gas vehicle market by putting in place the infrastructure needed to ensure the growth of the important market. The first annual P and GJ NGV Marketing Survey has revealed many utilities plant to build and continue building NGV fueling facilities. The NGV industry in the US is confronting a classic chicken-or-egg quandary. Fleet operators and individual drivers are naturally unwilling to commit to a natural gas vehicle fuel until sufficient fueling facilities are in place, yet service station operators are reluctant to add NGV refueling capacity until enough CNG vehicles are on the road to create demand. The future of the NGV market is bright, but continued research and product improvements by suppliers as well as LDCs is needed if the potential is to be fulfilled. Advances in refueling facilities must continue if the market is to develop.

  2. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Several approaches to initiating the provision of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) commercial infrastructure are discussed, including proposals from the private sector, the commercial development of infrastructure, and the commercial operation of infrastructure. Specific options for SSF commercial infrastructure which are currently being studied by NASA are described. One candidate for commercial service is the supplemental power for SSF beyond the Assembly Complete phase. The methods which a company could use in providing supplemental power are discussed, with special attention given to the use of solar dynamic power elements attached ot the SSF evolution structure. Another option under evaluation is commercial provision of SSF logistics services using ELVs.

  3. Improving Antarctic infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Noting that U.S. activities in Antarctica “are very well managed but suffer from an aging infrastructure, lack of a capital budget, and the effects of operating in an extremely unforgiving environment,” a 23 July report from the U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel recommends a number of measures to improve the infrastructure, logistics, and other concerns. The panel's recommendations include continued use of the McMurdo, South Pole, and Palmer stations as the primary U.S. science and logistics hubs in Antarctica—because there are no reasonable alternatives, according to the panel—while upgrading or replacing some facilities, restoring the U.S. polar ocean feet, implementing state of-the-art logistics and transportation support, and establishing a long-term facilities capital plan and budget for the U.S. Antarctic Program. “The essence of our findings is that the lack of capital budgeting has placed operations at McMurdo, and to a somewhat lesser extent at Palmer Station, in unnecessary jeopardy—at least in terms of prolonged inefficiency due to deteriorating or otherwise inadequate physical assets,” the panel wrote in the cover letter accompanying the report entitled, More and Better Science in Antarctica Through Increased Logistical Effectiveness. “The Antarctica Blue Ribbon Panel encourages us to take a hard look at how we support Antarctic science and to make the structural changes, however difficult in the current fiscal environment, that will allow us to do more science in the future,” said U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Director Subra Suresh.

  4. The dependence of educational infrastructure on clinical infrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Albert Einstein College of Medicine needed to assess the growth of its infrastructure for educational computing as a first step to determining if student needs were being met. Included in computing infrastructure are space, equipment, software, and computing services. The infrastructure was assessed by reviewing purchasing and support logs for a six year period from 1992 to 1998. This included equipment, software, and e-mail accounts provided to students and to faculty for educational purposes. Student space has grown at a constant rate (averaging 14% increase each year respectively). Student equipment on campus has grown by a constant amount each year (average 8.3 computers each year). Student infrastructure off campus and educational support of faculty has not kept pace. It has either declined or remained level over the six year period. The availability of electronic mail clearly demonstrates this with accounts being used by 99% of students, 78% of Basic Science Course Leaders, 38% of Clerkship Directors, 18% of Clerkship Site Directors, and 8% of Clinical Elective Directors. The collection of the initial descriptive infrastructure data has revealed problems that may generalize to other medical schools. The discrepancy between infrastructure available to students and faculty on campus and students and faculty off campus creates a setting where students perceive a paradoxical declining support for computer use as they progress through medical school. While clinical infrastructure may be growing, it is at the expense of educational infrastructure at affiliate hospitals. PMID:9929262

  5. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  6. Crisis in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Solomon J.

    1990-01-01

    The health care crisis faced by African Americans must be addressed by the nation as a whole with the same energy that erupts when a natural disaster occurs. On an individual basis, blacks can improve their own health with attention to child nurturing and personal nutrition. (SLD)

  7. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  8. Communications and Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Robert L.

    At a time of urban crisis, it becomes essential for people to learn about the special problems and needs of other people in the same community. If not actual experience, then visual experience through television can provide a good view into the perspective of other cultures. Television has an obligation to provide education of this sort,…

  9. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  10. Nursing in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…

  11. Crisis in the Cafeteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

  12. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  13. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  14. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  15. Crisis in the Cafeteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

  16. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  17. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  18. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  19. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  20. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  1. Scleroderma Renal Crisis.

    PubMed

    Guillevin, Loïc; Mouthon, Luc

    2015-08-01

    Scleroderma renal crisis is a rare complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that remains severe. Prompt recognition and initiation of therapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor offer the best chance to achieve a good outcome. SSc prevalence is poorly known, with disparities among countries.

  2. Managing a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  3. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  4. Managing a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  5. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways to manage crises such as homicides, suicides, natural calamities, and improprieties to minimize their negative impact and enhance the school's reputation. Suggestions include developing and practicing a crisis plan, keeping people informed, remembering the victims, and dealing with the media. (JOW)

  6. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  7. Crisis, Meaning and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Bijan

    This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…

  8. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  9. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  10. As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

  11. As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

  12. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  13. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  14. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  15. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  16. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  17. The 1990 direct support infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The airport and cargo terminal were individually analyzed in depth as the principal direct infrastructure components having cross impacts with aircraft carrying cargo. Containerization was also addressed in depth as an infrastructure component since it categorically is linked with and cross impacted by the aircraft, the cargo terminal, the surface transport system, the shipper and consignee, and the actual cargo being moved.

  18. Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley-Braun, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

  19. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society.

  20. Distributed Data Integration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T; Ludaescher, B; Vouk, M; Pu, C

    2003-02-24

    The Internet is becoming the preferred method for disseminating scientific data from a variety of disciplines. This can result in information overload on the part of the scientists, who are unable to query all of the relevant sources, even if they knew where to find them, what they contained, how to interact with them, and how to interpret the results. A related issue is keeping up with current trends in information technology often taxes the end-user's expertise and time. Thus instead of benefiting from this information rich environment, scientists become experts on a small number of sources and technologies, use them almost exclusively, and develop a resistance to innovations that can enhance their productivity. Enabling information based scientific advances, in domains such as functional genomics, requires fully utilizing all available information and the latest technologies. In order to address this problem we are developing a end-user centric, domain-sensitive workflow-based infrastructure, shown in Figure 1, that will allow scientists to design complex scientific workflows that reflect the data manipulation required to perform their research without an undue burden. We are taking a three-tiered approach to designing this infrastructure utilizing (1) abstract workflow definition, construction, and automatic deployment, (2) complex agent-based workflow execution and (3) automatic wrapper generation. In order to construct a workflow, the scientist defines an abstract workflow (AWF) in terminology (semantics and context) that is familiar to him/her. This AWF includes all of the data transformations, selections, and analyses required by the scientist, but does not necessarily specify particular data sources. This abstract workflow is then compiled into an executable workflow (EWF, in our case XPDL) that is then evaluated and executed by the workflow engine. This EWF contains references to specific data source and interfaces capable of performing the desired

  1. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  2. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  3. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  4. Flexible Computational Science Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Ben; Moss, Nicholas; Charest, Marc Robert Joseph

    2016-04-06

    FleCSI is a compile-time configurable framework designed to support multi-physics application development. As such, FleCSI attempts to provide a very general set of infrastructure design patterns that can be specialized and extended to suit the needs of a broad variety of solver and data requirements. Current support includes multi-dimensional mesh topology, mesh geometry, and mesh adjacency information, n-dimensional hashed-tree data structures, graph partitioning interfaces, and dependency closures. FleCSI also introduces a functional programming model with control, execution, and data abstractions that are consistent with both MPI and state-of-the-art task-based runtimes such as Legion and Charm++. The FleCSI abstraction layer provides the developer with insulation from the underlying runtime, while allowing support for multiple runtime systems, including conventional models like asynchronous MPI. The intent is to give developers a concrete set of user-friendly programming tools that can be used now, while allowing flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations that can be applied to architectures and runtimes that arise in the future. The control and execution models in FleCSI also provide formal nomenclature for describing poorly understood concepts like kernels and tasks.

  5. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  6. Lessons Learned From the Crisis in Flint, Michigan Regarding the Effects of Contaminated Water on Maternal and Child Health.

    PubMed

    Craft-Blacksheare, Melva Gale

    The Flint, Michigan water crisis raised awareness about the dangers of lead-tainted drinking water and the role of the nurse in addressing such a crisis. Although lead exposure is dangerous for all people, research indicates that pregnant and nursing women and their infants are especially vulnerable to prenatal and postnatal lead exposure. This information is of national importance because of the aging infrastructure of American cities and the likelihood of similar problems in other locations.

  7. Poland in Crisis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    between the regime and Solidarity; simultaneously, the Church’s institutional prerogatives expanded. In the wake of Solidarity’s activism , much of the...Solidarity, meeting in its own Congress in September, to assume a more active approach to a solution of the crisis. Solidarity’s leaders also responded to...by Polish security and military forces on December 13, 1981, was largely bloodless, in part because Solidarity was not prepared for active resistance

  8. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  9. Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

    The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

  10. Solving the Antibiotic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2015-02-13

    Antibiotics are essential for both treating and preventing infectious diseases. Paradoxically, despite their importance as pillars of modern medicine, we are in danger of losing antibiotics because of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms throughout all pathogenic microbes. This fact, coupled with an inability to bring new drugs to market at a pace that matches resistance, has resulted in a crisis of global proportion. Solving this crisis requires the actions of many stakeholders, but chemists, chemical biologists, and microbiologists must drive the scientific innovation that is required to maintain our antibiotic arsenal. This innovation requires (1) a deep understanding of the evolution and reservoirs of resistance; (2) full knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance; (3) the discovery of chemical and genetic probes of antibiotic action and resistance; (4) the integration of systems biology into antibiotic discovery; and (5) the discovery of new antimicrobial chemical matter. Addressing these pressing scientific gaps will ensure that we can meet the antibiotic crisis with creativity and purpose.

  11. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed severe hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone of 237 micro Unit/mL (Normal Reference range: 0.27-4.20 micro unit/mL) and undetectable free T4. Patient was diagnosed with nivolumab induced myxedema crisis. She was treated successfully with levothyroxine with complete resolution of her symptoms. Nivolumab was safely restarted once the symptoms of myxedema resolved. Nivolumab can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies including thyroiditis, hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus. High index of suspicion and periodic measurement of thyroid function tests are recommended in patients receiving nivolumab therapy. Our case also suggests that once the myxedema crisis is treated and symptoms are resolved, nivolumab can be safely re-challenged.

  12. A Science Information Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.; Dow, K.; Murray, S.

    1994-12-01

    We have created a partnership of science museums, research institutions, teachers, and other centers of informal science education to enable access to the rich resources of remote sensing data available from NASA and other sources and to deliver this information to the general community. We are creating science resource centers in the nation's science museums and planetarium facilities, linking them together through a national Science Information Infrastructure (SII). The SII framework is being founded on Internet connections between the resource centers, which are in turn linked to research institutions. The most up-to-date and exciting science data, related information, and interpretive material will be available from the research institutions. The science museums will present this information in appropriate ways that respond to the needs and interest of the general public and K--12 communities. The science information will be available through the World Wide Web using a Mosaic interface that individuals will use to explore the on-line materials through self-guided learning modules. K--12 teachers will have access to the materials and, in a workshop forum, learn to find and use the information to create lesson plans and curricula for their classrooms. Eventually, as the connectivity of schools and libraries improves, students and teachers will have access to the resource centers from their own locations. The core partnership of the SII includes the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Exploratorium, Lawrence Hall of Science, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Science Museum of Virginia, New York Hall of Science, Adler Museum of Chicago, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Boston Museum of Science, and the Earth Observing Satellite Company (EOSAT). A demonstration of the application of resource center materials in the K--12 community is being conducted through the Science On-Line project at the Center

  13. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  14. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fact sheet provides examples of how some states describe green infrastructure and low impact development activities in their TMDL implementation sections to address stormwater-source impaired waters.

  15. Infrastructure SIP Requirements and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act requires states to submit SIPs that implement, maintain, and enforce a new or revised national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) within 3 years of EPA issuing the standard. The Infrastructure SIP is required for all states.

  16. Green Infrastructure for Arid Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    how green infrastructure practices and the many associated benefits can be effective not only in wetter climates, but also for those communities in arid and semi-arid regions around the nation that have different precipitation patterns

  17. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis.

  18. Infrastructure dynamics: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bencosme, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The term infrastructure is used to denote the set of life support and public service systems which is necessary for the development of growth of human settlements. Included are some basic references in the field of dynamic simulation, as well as a number of relevant applications in the area of infrastructure planning. The intent is to enable the student or researcher to quickly identify such applications to the extent necessary for initiating further work in the field.

  19. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) MERCURY FEDERAL SYSTEMS, INC. MARCH 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...NUMBER OC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER PI 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite...Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI) ,” AFRL-RI-RS-TR- 2009-257, Mercury Federal Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA, Nov 2009. 2. Kulp, J., “OpenCPI

  20. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  1. Strategic plan for infrastructure optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, C.D.

    1998-05-27

    This document represents Fluor Daniel Hanford`s and DynCorp`s Tri-Cities Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 1998--2002, the road map that will guide them into the next century and their sixth year of providing safe and cost effective infrastructure services and support to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hanford Site. The Plan responds directly to the issues raised in the FDH/DOE Critical Self Assessment specifically: (1) a strategy in place to give DOE the management (systems) and physical infrastructure for the future; (2) dealing with the barriers that exist to making change; and (3) a plan to right-size the infrastructure and services, and reduce the cost of providing services. The Plan incorporates initiatives from several studies conducted in Fiscal Year 1997 to include: the Systems Functional Analysis, 200 Area Water Commercial Practices Plan, $ million Originated Cost Budget Achievement Plan, the 1OO Area Vacate Plan, the Railroad Shutdown Plan, as well as recommendations from the recently completed Review of Hanford Electrical Utility. These and other initiatives identified over the next five years will result in significant improvements in efficiency, allowing a greater portion of the infrastructure budget to be applied to Site cleanup. The Plan outlines a planning and management process that defines infrastructure services and structure by linking site technical base line data and customer requirements to work scope and resources. The Plan also provides a vision of where Site infrastructure is going and specific initiatives to get there.

  2. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  3. Ecologically Enhancing Coastal Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Arthur, Mairi; Naylor, Larissa; Hansom, Jim; Burrows, Mike; Boyd, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Hard engineering structures continue to proliferate in the coastal zone globally in response to increasing pressures associated with rising sea levels, coastal flooding and erosion. These structures are typically plain-cast by design and function as poor ecological surrogates for natural rocky shores which are highly topographically complex and host a range of available microhabitats for intertidal species. Ecological enhancement mitigates some of these negative impacts by integrating components of nature into the construction and design of these structures to improve their sustainability, resilience and multifunctionality. In the largest UK ecological enhancement trial to date, 184 tiles (15x15cm) of up to nine potential designs were deployed on vertical concrete coastal infrastructure in 2016 at three sites across the UK (Saltcoats, Blackness and Isle of Wight). The surface texture and complexity of the tiles were varied to test the effect of settlement surface texture at the mm-cm scale of enhancement on the success of colonisation and biodiversity in the mid-upper intertidal zone in order to answer the following experimental hypotheses: • Tiles with mm-scale geomorphic complexity will have greater barnacle abundances • Tiles with cm-scale geomorphic complexity will have greater species richness than mm-scale tiles. A range of methods were used in creating the tile designs including terrestrial laser scanning of creviced rock surfaces to mimic natural rocky shore complexity as well as artificially generated complexity using computer software. The designs replicated the topographic features of high ecological importance found on natural rocky shores and promoted species recruitment and community composition on artificial surfaces; thus enabling us to evaluate biological responses to geomorphic complexity in a controlled field trial. At two of the sites, the roughest tile designs (cm scale) did not have the highest levels of barnacle recruits which were

  4. Use of better designed hand knotting carpet looms and workplace interventions to improve working conditions of adult carpet weavers and to reduce hazardous child labor in carpet weaving in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saeed; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2013-01-01

    Children and adults involved in carpet weaving are prone to a number of health and safety problems. This paper describes initial impact of an ergonomically designed loom and work place modifications, to encourage young and adult workers to weave carpets and reduce the hazardous child labor in carpet weaving in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. A new carpet loom with improved ergonomic and safety features suitable for adult carpet weavers was designed. Model carpet weaving worksites based on the new loom and better work environment were created in 30 villages. The impact of new loom compared with the traditional looms was assessed through structured questionnaires and health examinations after 24 months. Adolescent (15-17 years) and adult (> 17 years) participants included 75 respondents (males 10.7%, n=8; females 89.3%, n=67) operating under the new conditions and 92 respondents (males 12%, n=11; females 88%, n=81) operating under traditional conditions. Results indicated an improvement of health related complaints among those working in the new conditions, most notable were the differences in joint pain (p=0.002) and respiratory health (p=0.02). Improvement of income was also reported by workers at model workplaces. Also, no children below the age of 14 were found to be working at the new looms. The results indicate that individuals who adopted new looms and workplace interventions reported less joint pain and better respiratory health than those working with traditional looms in a traditional work environment. By reducing the risks in the workplace, this ergonomic intervention has the potential to reduce or eliminate hazardous child labor from carpet weaving.

  5. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  6. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  7. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  8. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  9. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  10. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  11. Crisis Intervention: A Model Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Clyde H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A model workshop for training campus personnel in crisis intervention skills is described. This workshop combined theoretical presentations with interventions in crises simulated by student actors and actresses. The crisis interventions were videotaped and processed. Problems and issues that arose are discussed. (Author)

  12. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  13. Thyrotoxic crisis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, R D S S; Luke, W A N V; Sebastiampillai, B S; Gunathilake, M P M L; Premaratna, R

    2016-06-23

    Thyrotoxic crisis is a medical emergency requiring early diagnosis and urgent management, which can be challenging due to its diverse clinical presentations. While common presentations include fever, sweating, palpitations, tremors and confusion, presence of jaundice is rare. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with jaundice due to cholestasis along with other features of thyrotoxic crisis due to Graves' disease. He had a good clinical recovery with resolution of cholestasis following treatment for thyrotoxic crisis. Jaundice can be a rare manifestation of thyrotoxic crisis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when other clinical features of thyrotoxic crisis are present. However secondary causes of jaundice should be looked into and excluded.

  14. The UN in crisis?

    PubMed

    Anstee, M J

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations (UN), the principal role of which is dealing with crises, has been in almost perpetual crisis since its foundation. The situation has become worse in the 1990s, a time when the need for an effective UN has been greater than ever, to cope with issues such as climate-change, pollution and the consequences of globalization. The current crisis has various aspects. Politically there have been widely publicized failures in peacekeeping, largely due to the Security Council being a body of compromise, while successes in peacekeeping have been largely ignored. In the economic and social field, influence has passed to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Development aid has plummeted, despite its key role in peace and security, and so an integrated approach to development and security is urgently needed. The UN has been constantly under-funded, with the failure of the United States (US) to pay its dues a key factor. Reform of the UN is vital, but the vested interests of member states make root-and-branch reform virtually impossible. Public pressure for reform can come from non-governmental organizations, perhaps coordinated through the Internet.

  15. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  16. The malpractice liability crisis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, R James; Smith, John J

    2004-01-01

    Most medical malpractice cases are tried under the civil tort of negligence and are often triggered by adverse outcomes. These proceedings are aimed primarily at determining whether the conduct of a health care provider was reasonable. Such legal actions have mostly been subject to state jurisdiction. Increasingly, a number of factors are converging that are threatening the continued practice of medicine in some states and hence patients' access to care. These include higher amounts of monetary damages awarded to successful plaintiffs, consequent rising malpractice premiums, and the threatened economic insolvency of medical liability insurance carriers as a result of the broader economic downturn. The result is a serious public health dilemma. The national scope of the problem has been considered a crisis, which has prompted unprecedented federal legislative proposals directed toward providing new and preemptive parameters for capitated noneconomic damages, restrictions on certain civil procedures affecting lawsuit outcomes, and methods for attorney compensation, which some states have either not previously addressed or found unconstitutional. A survey of different states' problems and common issues should assist the reader in understanding the nature of the crisis and proposed solutions.

  17. Towards an Infrastructure for MLS Distributed Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Distributed computing owes its success to the development of infrastructure, middleware, and standards (e.g., CORBA) by the computing industry. This...Government must protect national security information against unauthorized information flow. To support MLS distributed computing , a MLS infrastructure...protection of classified information and use both the emerging distributed computing and commercial security infrastructures. The resulting infrastructure

  18. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  19. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    Government Accountability Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges for Selected Agencies and Industry Sectors. Repot to the Committee on...the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between... government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical infrastructures by

  20. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  1. Infrastructure for the Geospatial Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ron; Farley, Jim

    Geospatial data and geoprocessing techniques are now directly linked to business processes in many areas. Commerce, transportation and logistics, planning, defense, emergency response, health care, asset management and many other domains leverage geospatial information and the ability to model these data to achieve increased efficiencies and to develop better, more comprehensive decisions. However, the ability to deliver geospatial data and the capacity to process geospatial information effectively in these domains are dependent on infrastructure technology that facilitates basic operations such as locating data, publishing data, keeping data current and notifying subscribers and others whose applications and decisions are dependent on this information when changes are made. This chapter introduces the notion of infrastructure technology for the Geospatial Web. Specifically, the Geography Markup Language (GML) and registry technology developed using the ebRIM specification delivered from the OASIS consortium are presented as atomic infrastructure components in a working Geospatial Web.

  2. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  3. International Needs for Infrastructure Nde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovics, John; Boller, Christian; Cawley, Peter; Spencer, Billie F.; Wang, Ming L.; Washer, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    The Aging of Infrastructure is a world wide problem of increasing importance, with the specifics varying from region to region depending on the age and nature of critical structures. It is clear that the NDE and SHM tools being developed by the QNDE community can play an important role in addressing the Aging Infrastructure problem, and the special evening session is designed to provide perspective to the developers of that technology through an overview of the international needs. A panel of speakers with experience with the unique situations in different regions of the world will first make a series of short presentations. This will be followed by a general discussion period.

  4. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  5. [Reforms and demographic crisis].

    PubMed

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    During reformation years all basic medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes in Russia. Since 1992 there has been a steady-state decrease in the population due to the fact that mortality rates are extremely greater than birth ones. In 2001, the Russian population reduced in number by nearly a million. The birth rates are twice less than that requires for a simple reproduction of generations. Extremely high death rates remain among the population, in able-bodied males. The main reasons for the demographic crisis are the negative consequences of the implemented reforms rather than the transition from traditional to the new present-day reproduction of the population. It is problematic now to correct the situation via active migration of Russian-speaking persons. This requires enormous funds to provide comers with jobs and dwelling. It is unreal to diminish annual departure of 100 thousand persons, mainly young educated professionals from the country, though it is joust not only a demographic, but a strategic problem. In 2001 there was a some rise in birth rates. But this is the most illusive way of solving the demographic crisis. Just in the USSR, the high educational level of the population, the socioeconomic emancipation of females and progress in medicine gave rise to the transition to the present-day reproduction of the population, which is characterized by low birth and death rates. So the population is unlikely to be replenished by high birth rates. The main way of overcoming the demographic crisis is to reduce mortality and not to allow young people to die prematurely. For this it is necessary to know the biological mechanisms responsible for extremely high mortality. It is most likely to be due to breakdown in the dynamic stereotype of higher nervous performance, as stated by I. P. Pavlov. Today it is insufficient to control alcoholism, traumatism, and smoking by healthy lifestyle propaganda in order to reduce death rates in Russian. All

  6. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Argyrakis, Panos; Rozenblat, Céline; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-11-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.

  7. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  8. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  9. Unrelieved pain: a crisis.

    PubMed

    Sessle, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Despite many recent advances in the past 40 years in the understanding of pain mechanisms, and in pain diagnosis and management, considerable gaps in knowledge remain, with chronic pain present in epidemic proportions in most countries. It is often unrelieved and is associated with significant socioeconomic burdens. Several opportunities and approaches to address this crisis are identified in the present article. Most crucial is the need to increase pain awareness, enhance pain education, improve access to pain care and increase pain research resources. Given the variability among countries in health care policies and programs, resources and educational programs, many of the approaches and strategies outlined will need to be tailored to each country's socioeconomic and educational situation.

  10. The Role of Social Media in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way: an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR ...The Role of Social Media in Crisis Agenda • Contributors List • Definitions • Lessons From Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way...an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR + Platform and Services • Conclusions Best Paper Award Paper

  11. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ∼ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  12. Unresolved crisis in medical education.

    PubMed

    Monif, G R; Severin, M J

    1994-01-01

    A crisis exists in medical education. Changes in methodology have diverted attention from synthesis to mass accumulation of factual data. The response to this crisis has been largely focused on a shell game involving new pathways and curriculum changes without addressing the critical issue of what constitutes education. The ultimate problem in medical education is a crisis of leadership. Until education is given a priority status and the obligations to teach on the part of medical educators and to learn on the part of students are translated into a creative policy by those who can lead, the wheels of learning will continue to spin without significant progress.

  13. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  14. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  15. Internet 2 Distributed Storage Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Distributed Storage Infrastructure (DSI) project, a cooperative effort of the University of Tennessee and University of North Carolina, is an example of the Internet 2 (I2) efforts to enable remote collaboration among the research and educational communities. It extends the domain of a distributed high-speed computing environment to enable…

  16. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  17. Impact of Declining Rural Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Fiona Haslem

    A study investigated the impact of declining rural community infrastructure on social, environmental, and economic well-being in Western Australia's central wheatbelt. Questionnaires were completed by 398 residents of the central wheatbelt, on-farm interviews were conducted with 68 respondents, and 4 focus groups were held in area towns.…

  18. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  19. Infrastructure for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, Howard A.; Lillie, Charles F.

    2016-10-01

    It is generally recognized (e.g., in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration response to recent congressional appropriations) that future space observatories must be serviceable, even if they are orbiting in deep space (e.g., around the Sun-Earth libration point, SEL2). On the basis of this legislation, we believe that budgetary considerations throughout the foreseeable future will require that large, long-lived astrophysics missions must be designed as evolvable semipermanent observatories that will be serviced using an operational, in-space infrastructure. We believe that the development of this infrastructure will include the design and development of a small to mid-sized servicing vehicle (MiniServ) as a key element of an affordable infrastructure for in-space assembly and servicing of future space vehicles. This can be accomplished by the adaptation of technology developed over the past half-century into a vehicle approximately the size of the ascent stage of the Apollo Lunar Module to provide some of the servicing capabilities that will be needed by very large telescopes located in deep space in the near future (2020s and 2030s). We specifically address the need for a detailed study of these servicing requirements and the current proposals for using presently available technologies to provide the appropriate infrastructure.

  20. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  1. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  2. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  3. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  4. A new framework for assessing hospital crisis management based on resilience engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Shirali, Gh A; Azadian, Sh; Saki, A

    2016-06-14

    In recent years, an increasing number of natural and man-made disasters have exposed many people and properties to various disasters. This has resulted in approximately 75,000 deaths worldwide every year due to disasters. Crisis management is becoming increasingly important to cope effectively with the magnitude and potential damage resulting from disasters. Hospitals, as the final point in the rescue chain, have a key role in the crisis management and need to be resilient against disasters. The purpose of this paper is to present a new framework for assessing the crisis management based on resilience principles in hospital infrastructure of a developing country. A questionnaire was developed and completed by 310 staff (nurses and managers) of eight hospitals in Iran. The findings indicate that the eight hospitals included in the study have moderate conditions in general, while hospitals X3, X4, and X7 have poor conditions in the crisis management. Consequently, it seems that the crisis management system was not resilient in all these hospitals in general. Using resilience engineering in assessing crisis management can improve and develop the ability of the hospitals' management to cope with any type of disaster.

  5. Crisis Intervention in an Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaufarb, Herbert; Levine, Jules

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the crisis intervention techniques used by the San Fernanco Valley Child Guidance Clinic to help families deal with the traumatic events experienced in the 1971 earthquake in California. (Author)

  6. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  7. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  8. On the crisis of conscience.

    PubMed

    Lachter, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the crisis of conscience as portrayed in the biblical story of Abraham and Isaac. The perspective of allegory allows intense emotion to be contained, and placed in a socio-cultural context, which may work against bloodshed.

  9. Does a quarterlife crisis exist?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Nicole E; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined quarterlife crisis, defined in the popular press as an identity crisis that leaves recent college graduates depressed, anxious, and full of doubt. To determine if a unique crisis exists, 4 groups of young adults (recent high school [n = 23] and college [n = 117] graduates in the workforce, present undergraduate [n = 75], and graduate [n = 57] students) completed self-report measures assessing identity development, future time perspective, social support, coping, depression, anxiety, and job and life satisfaction. No support was found for a quarterlife crisis among these 4 groups. Working high school graduates displayed the highest anxiety, followed by present undergraduates. Depression was predicted by family support and identity commitment. Job satisfaction was associated with income and support from friends. Life satisfaction was associated with income, social support from friends and family, and identity commitment.

  10. Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

  11. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  12. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.

  13. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal...

  14. The impact of New York City's 1975 fiscal crisis on the tuberculosis, HIV, and homicide syndemic.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Fahs, Marianne; Galea, Sandro; Greenberg, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    In 1975, New York City experienced a fiscal crisis rooted in long-term political and economic changes in the city. Budget and policy decisions designed to alleviate this fiscal crisis contributed to the subsequent epidemics of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and homicide in New York City. Because these conditions share underlying social determinants, we consider them a syndemic, i.e., all 3 combined to create an excess disease burden on the population. Cuts in services; the dismantling of health, public safety, and social service infrastructures; and the deterioration of living conditions for vulnerable populations contributed to the amplification of these health conditions over 2 decades. We estimate that the costs incurred in controlling these epidemics exceeded 50 billion US dollars (in 2004 dollars); in contrast, the overall budgetary saving during the fiscal crisis was 10 billion US dollars. This history has implications for public health professionals who must respond to current perceptions of local fiscal crises.

  15. A scalable tools communication infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, D.; Bosilca, G.; Graham, R. L.; Vallee, G.; Watson, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Tennessee; ORNL; IBM

    2008-07-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  16. Overview of NASA communications infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.; Fuechsel, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The infrastructure of NASA communications systems for effecting coordination across NASA offices and with the national and international research and technological communities is discussed. The offices and networks of the communication system include the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), which manages all NASA missions, and the Office of Space Operations, which furnishes communication support through the NASCOM, the mission critical communications support network, and the Program Support Communications network. The NASA Science Internet was established by OSSA to centrally manage, develop, and operate an integrated computer network service dedicated to NASA's space science and application research. Planned for the future is the National Research and Education Network, which will provide communications infrastructure to enhance science resources at a national level.

  17. A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, Darius; Bosilca, George; Graham, Richard L; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Watson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  18. Coral reefs in crisis.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  19. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  20. The freshwater biodiversity crisis.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, A

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns the threat on freshwater ecosystems, which harbor a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity. In many parts of the world, freshwater ecosystems are already degraded from a range of human activities, including water extraction, pollution and physical alteration. The data that showed a biodiversity crisis in ecosystems included species loss and breakdown of the ecological processes and resources. Furthermore, several case studies were cited to illustrate the status of freshwater diversity. Numerous reasons for freshwater biodiversity loss were mentioned, which included pollution from pesticides and agricultural and mine run-off, and physical alteration through channelization and impoundments that affected the hydrology and benthic habitat. Despite the successful establishment of institutions to conserve water birds and wetland habitats, there was a lower priority for conservation of freshwater biodiversity in terms of species and habitats. This bias has had important and serious implications for allocation of resources to increase the knowledge and understanding of freshwater ecosystems, as well as for the adequacy of impact assessments for development projects affecting them.

  1. How Critical Is Critical Infrastructure?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    be misdirected even though it is the cornerstone mission of the department to prevent terrorism and enhance security. It is likely that the...facilities DHS works to protect from terrorism are not the most likely targets for attacks. The manner in which facilities are designated as critical...security, critical infrastructure, world trade center, military theory, terrorism 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 155 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  2. Decontamination of Subway Infrastructure Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report provides the results of an assessment to determine the decontamination efficacy of methyl bromide (MB) fumigant in inactivating Bacillus anthracis (B.a.; causative agent for anthrax) spores on materials typically found in subway system infrastructure. To facilitate future decontaminations employing MB in a subway environment, this investigation focused on finding efficacious conditions when using MB at temperatures that may be encountered in an underground subway system (i.e., temperatures lower than used in previous studies).

  3. Infrastructure of Electronic Information Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    security that prevents malicious programs such as viruses from running, while maintaining privacy about their files and any information about them. In...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014056 TITLE: Infrastructure of Electronic Information Management...Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete compilation report, use

  4. Hurricane Katrina: Communications & Infrastructure Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina: Communications & Infrastructure Impacts Dr. Robert Miller Senior Research Professor, National Defense University In some respects...Hurricane Katrina was the equivalent of a weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attack on the Gulf Coast. The hurricane caused catastrophic damage ...winds greater than 55 MPH. Much of the extensive damage caused by Katrina was due to storm surge, especially along the Gulf Coast, and by levee

  5. Infrastructure Systems and the Cost Ownership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    this vital infrastructure related area, nor do any higher educational systems offer related classroom opportunities in life - cycle costing. This study...be incurred over the service life of a particular infrastructure system. This study first introduces infrastructure economics and the various...categories of ownership costs in order to lay a foundation for the application of life ,’cycle costing in infrastructure management. Investigation and

  6. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berscheid, Alan P.

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  7. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  8. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  9. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  10. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  11. Crisis at the summit.

    PubMed

    Parsons, George D; Pascale, Richard T

    2007-03-01

    An unrecognized affliction is striking certain gifted performers at the top of their game. Its cause, paradoxically, is success itself. These stars, who thrive on conquering new challenges, can lose their bearings and question their purpose once a job has been mastered. A vague dissatisfaction gives way to confusion and then to inner turmoil. Left unattended, this summit syndrome can derail promising careers. The syndrome has three phases. In the approach phase, when most of the challenges of a current job have been met, sufferers tend to push harder in a vain attempt to recapture the adrenaline rush of the climb. Then, in the plateauing phase, when virtually all the challenges have been conquered, these individuals, who are incapable of coasting, bear down to try to produce ever more stellar results, but to less effect and greater dissatisfaction. This leads to the terminal descending phase, when performance slips noticeably. As their superstar status fades, they jump ship, accept demotions, or take lateral transfers. It's a terrible waste, for if the syndrome is recognized, steps can be taken before performance slips to dispel the confusion and set the stage for productive growth to the next assignment. There are four parts to this process: First, understand your "winning formula"--the characteristic way you approach a situation--and the vital part it plays in feeling stale or losing your edge. Second, reconnect with your core purpose in life. Third, recast your current, or future, job to better align your inner aspirations with the external requirements of your work. And fourth, create a developmental path by honing a handful of core leadership competencies. None of this is easy, but for talented individuals--and the organizations that rely on them--the vaccine of preventive awareness is far better than gambling on an after-the-fact cure once the crisis is full-blown.

  12. Hypercalcemic crisis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shazia; Kuraganti, Gayatri; Steenkamp, Devin

    2015-03-01

    Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic perturbation. However, hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency, with little clinical scientific data to support therapeutic strategy. We review the relevant scientific English literature on the topic and review current management strategies after conducting a PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search for articles published between 1930 and June 2014 using specific keywords: "hypercalcemic crisis," "hyperparathyroid crisis," "parathyroid storm," "severe primary hyperparathyroidism," "acute hyperparathyroidism," and "severe hypercalcemia" for articles pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies. Despite extensive clinical experience, large and well-designed clinical studies to direct appropriate clinical care are lacking. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality rates have substantially decreased since early series reported almost universal fatality. Improved outcomes can be attributed to modern diagnostic capabilities, leading to earlier diagnosis, along with the recognition that primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common etiology for hypercalcemic crisis. Hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency that portends excellent outcomes if rapid diagnosis, medical treatment, and definitive surgical treatment are expedited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.

  14. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  15. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  16. K-12 School Leaders and School Crisis: An Exploration of Principals' School Crisis Competencies and Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    On any given day, principals could find themselves faced with a situation that could define their roles as crisis leaders. This dissertation research offers an exploratory study in the field of crisis response and educational leadership. From experts in the field of crisis response, the author compiled a list of crisis management competencies…

  17. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  18. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  19. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  20. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  1. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  2. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2009-257 Final Technical Report November 2009 OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) Mercury ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite 402 Arlington, VA 22202-4511 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...APPLICATIONS  30  6.0  REFERENCES  31  7.0  LIST OF ABBRVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS  32  APPENDIX A: ADDITIONAL REFERENCES  34  APPENDIX B:  MERCURY  CPI ITAR

  3. EFAB Report: Green Infrastructure Operations and Maintenance Finance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this report, EFAB defines green infrastructure, outlines the benefits of green infrastructure, introduces green infrastructure operations and maintenance costs, and identifies and evaluates diverse ways to fund/finance green infrastructure O&M costs.

  4. New approaches to crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Motto, J A

    1979-01-01

    Constant efforts to improve crisis services have led to many innovative programs. Some have proven their feasibility and become established procedures. Others are now in a developing stage and still others represent new approaches. A survey of 50 suicide prevention and crisis services around the world provides evidence of a trend toward a broadening range of services, a more active case-finding approach, greater visibility, increased integration into the community care system, and creative leadership by newer and smaller centers as well as the well-established ones. This is being accomplished without relinquishing the traditional respect for anonymity, ever-present availability, and a nonjudgmental regard for each person's need.

  5. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  6. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  7. The Course and Duration of Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Psychological tests were administered to a crisis group undergoing surgery for cancer and to a comparison group on the night before surgery and thereafter at three-week intervals. Results indicated significant psychological changes only in the crisis group. Duration of crisis was greater than six weeks but less than seven months. (Author)

  8. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  9. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  10. "Regional Crisis": A Simplified Teaching Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, B. David

    A simulation designed for an introductory college-level international politics and comparative foreign policy course is described. Regional Crisis requires student decision-maker diplomats, grouped in teams, to respond to a Middle Eastern crisis that has substantial potential for escalation. In response to an initial crisis scenario, student teams…

  11. Problems loom ahead.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, K

    1992-08-01

    The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) was founded in 1957 when the Indonesian government policy was strongly pronatalist. It organized an IPPF regional conference in 1969 in Bandung, championed family planning, and also trained Indonesian doctors in contraceptive services. The government adopted family planning as a policy in 1969, and took over most IPPA clinics. IPPA was also introducing community-based family planning programs in rural Java. There are several government agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are implementing various family planning programs. The Indonesian Family Planning Program has been successful, but if faces the high proportion of people in reproductive age (20-29 years) who may have more than 2 children. NGOs could develop special projects addressed to the young generation in urban areas. There is also a high dropout rate among family planning acceptors and a growing need for abortion services. Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies are increasing in urban areas because of premarital sex or contraceptive failure. The number of contraceptive users is estimated to be 18 million. Abortion is prohibited in Indonesia, but induced abortion is allowed for medical indications. The Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project successfully implemented by IPPA in several locations could produce an immediate health impact at a relatively low cost. Family planning is not fully accepted in some regions in Indonesia because of religious or cultural reasons. NGOs, such as IPPA, are capable of developing special family planning programs in such places. IPPA has had success in developing such programs throughout the country where about 300 different ethnic groups live.

  12. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  13. Crisis, leadership, consensus: the past and future federal role in health.

    PubMed

    Boufford, J I

    1999-06-01

    This paper touches on patterns of federal government involvement in the health sector since the late 18th century to the present and speculates on its role in the early decades of the 21st century. Throughout the history of the US, government involvement in the health sector came only in the face of crisis, only when there was widespread consensus, and only through sustained leadership. One of the first health-related acts of Congress came about as a matter of interstate commerce regarding the dilemma as to what to do about treating merchant seamen who had no affiliation with any state. Further federal actions were implemented to address epidemics, such as from yellow fever, that traveled from state to state through commercial ships. Each federal action was met with concern and resistance from states' rights advocates, who asserted that the health of the public was best left to the states and localities. It was not until the early part of the 20th century that a concern for social well-being, not merely commerce, drove the agenda for public health action. Two separate campaigns for national health insurance, as well as a rapid expansion of programs to serve the specific health needs of specific populations, led finally to the introduction of Medicaid and Medicare in the 1960s, the most dramatic example of government intervention in shaping the personal health care delivery system in the latter half of the 20th century. As health costs continued to rise and more and more Americans lacked adequate health insurance, a perceived crisis led President Clinton to launch his 1993 campaign to insure every American--the third attempt in this century to provide universal coverage. While the crisis was perceived by many, there was no consensus on action, and leadership outside government was missing. Today, the health care crisis still looms. Despite an economic boom, 1 million Americans lose their health insurance each year, with 41 million Americans, or 15% of the population

  14. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  15. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  16. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  17. Crisis Debriefing Teams' Manager's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Everett E.

    This guide for crisis debriefing teams (CDTs) in the Aurora public schools (APS) in Colorado is intended to provide immediate guidelines for schools to access trained support to deal with crises (such as serious injury or death) that can affect school communities. It is intended for use by counselors, psychologists, nurses, social workers, and…

  18. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  19. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  20. Technology Use in Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

  1. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  2. The Crisis of the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the academic profession is discussed: its ambivalent situation of having benefitted from postwar expansion of higher education, but of having been content to maintain the status quo. The worldwide nature of the crisis is noted. Available from AAPSS, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. (MSE)

  3. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed…

  4. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  5. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  7. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A Crisis in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  9. Addressing the world water crisis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  10. California Faces a Curriculum Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    School administrators in California are getting greater flexibility in how they spend more than $300 million intended for instructional materials, along with encouragement to use some free digital textbooks for high school courses, as a result of cost-cutting measures brought on by the state's budget crisis. Extensive changes to the state's…

  11. Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bloxham, J.; Hager, B. H.; Spiegelman, M.; Willett, S.; Wysession, M. E.; Aivazis, M.

    2004-12-01

    Solid earth geophysicists have a long tradition of writing scientific software to address a wide range of problems. In particular, computer simulations came into wide use in geophysics during the decade after the plate tectonic revolution. Solution schemes and numerical algorithms that developed in other areas of science, most notably engineering, fluid mechanics, and physics, were adapted with considerable success to geophysics. This software has largely been the product of individual efforts and although this approach has proven successful, its strength for solving problems of interest is now starting to show its limitations as we try to share codes and algorithms or when we want to recombine codes in novel ways to produce new science. With funding from the NSF, the US community has embarked on a Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) that will develop, support, and disseminate community-accessible software for the greater geodynamics community from model developers to end-users. The software is being developed for problems involving mantle and core dynamics, crustal and earthquake dynamics, magma migration, seismology, and other related topics. With a high level of community participation, CIG is leveraging state-of-the-art scientific computing into a suite of open-source tools and codes. The infrastructure that we are now starting to develop will consist of: (a) a coordinated effort to develop reusable, well-documented and open-source geodynamics software; (b) the basic building blocks - an infrastructure layer - of software by which state-of-the-art modeling codes can be quickly assembled; (c) extension of existing software frameworks to interlink multiple codes and data through a superstructure layer; (d) strategic partnerships with the larger world of computational science and geoinformatics; and (e) specialized training and workshops for both the geodynamics and broader Earth science communities. The CIG initiative has already started to

  12. Effects of Infrastructure on Ebola Viral Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Subtitle Effects of Infrastructure on Ebola Virus Disease 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...effects of infrastructure on combating Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Liberia and Sierra Leone since the EVD outbreaks of 2013 to 2015. The study is a...APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: MAJ John Gartside, DO Thesis Title: Effects of Infrastructure on Ebola Virus Disease Approved by

  13. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  14. Do infrastructures impact on alcohol policy making?

    PubMed

    König, Claudia; Segura, Lidia

    2011-03-01

    The importance of building and strengthening effective infrastructures within the field of public health has increasingly been recognized. A wide variety of actors and structures can be identified for alcohol policy, including systems for policy development, monitoring, research and work-force development, but too little is known about the complex systems of infrastructure available across European countries and their impact on alcohol policy. This study is part of the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) project, and aims to map existing infrastructures, but also to examine the relationship between infrastructures and alcohol policy change. A survey of alcohol policy infrastructure and infrastructure needs at the national level will be conducted using an updated and adapted questionnaire based on the Health Promotion (HP) Source Project tool. Case studies involving in-depth interviews will be conducted for a selection of countries. Data will be analysed descriptively, mapping alcohol policy infrastructure and identifying needs to reveal any relationship between infrastructure and alcohol policy. This study can contribute to building the scientific knowledge base on this topic as well to policy development. First, the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance will produce an extended map of alcohol policy infrastructures in a wide range of European countries. Secondly, the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance will foster a better understanding and expand the knowledge base on the role and influence of infrastructure on alcohol policy and practice. Recommendations deriving from this study will identify the need for better utilization of existing infrastructures and for the development of new infrastructures, necessary to develop and implement effective alcohol policy from a public health perspective. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    Government Accountability Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges for Selected Agencies and Industry Sectors. Repot to the Committee on...set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical

  16. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  17. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  18. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  19. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  20. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, Misha

    2013-04-01

    The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems. Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides data management support for the SPRUCE experiment including data infrastructure design, development, long-term storage and dissemination. This presentation is going to show how the whole data infrastructure was designed, discuss major problems that are common for remote observational systems and unique for this particular implementation. It will demonstrate the dataflow starting from the sensors and ending at the archiving/distribution points, discuss types of hardware and software used, and examine considerations that were used to choose them.

  1. Climate Science's Globally Distributed Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is primarily funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science (the Office of Biological and Environmental Research [BER] Climate Data Informatics Program and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research Next Generation Network for Science Program), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the European Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System Modeling (IS-ENES), and the Australian National University (ANU). Support also comes from other U.S. federal and international agencies. The federation works across multiple worldwide data centers and spans seven international network organizations to provide users with the ability to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers, and software. Its architecture employs a series of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered and united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The full ESGF infrastructure has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP; output used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), multiple model intercomparison projects (MIPs; endorsed by the World Climate Research Programme [WCRP]), and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME; ESGF is included in the overarching ACME workflow process to store model output). ESGF is a successful example of integration of disparate open-source technologies into a cohesive functional system that serves the needs the global climate science community. Data served by ESGF includes not only model output but also observational data from satellites and instruments, reanalysis, and generated images.

  2. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    PubMed

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  3. Achievable steps toward building a National Health Information infrastructure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stead, William W; Kelly, Brian J; Kolodner, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative.

  4. Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

  5. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  6. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  7. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  8. [The crisis of medicine or the antimedicine crisis].

    PubMed

    Foucault, M

    1976-01-01

    In this lecture, Professor Michel Foucault makes an in-depth study of the problems currently afflicting medical institutions and the medical practice. He deals with the thesis set forth by Ivan Illich in his book Medical Nemesis--The expropriation of Health, as well as the 1942 Beveridge Plan, but goes even further back in history to discover the origin of the medical crisis common throughout the world--back to the XVIII century roots of the social practice of medicine. He also describes the phases through which medical activity has passed from then until now and deals with what he calls the political economy of medicine. Finally, he reaches the conclusion that what matters is not so much the present crisis of medicine, which he considers to be a false concept, but the discipline's historical model dating from the XVIII century and serving to determine to what extent it can be modified.

  9. Dynamic Collaboration Infrastructure for Hydrologic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Castillo, C.; Yi, H.; Jiang, F.; Jones, N.; Goodall, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Data and modeling infrastructure is becoming increasingly accessible to water scientists. HydroShare is a collaborative environment that currently offers water scientists the ability to access modeling and data infrastructure in support of data intensive modeling and analysis. It supports the sharing of and collaboration around "resources" which are social objects defined to include both data and models in a structured standardized format. Users collaborate around these objects via comments, ratings, and groups. HydroShare also supports web services and cloud based computation for the execution of hydrologic models and analysis and visualization of hydrologic data. However, the quantity and variety of data and modeling infrastructure available that can be accessed from environments like HydroShare is increasing. Storage infrastructure can range from one's local PC to campus or organizational storage to storage in the cloud. Modeling or computing infrastructure can range from one's desktop to departmental clusters to national HPC resources to grid and cloud computing resources. How does one orchestrate this vast number of data and computing infrastructure without needing to correspondingly learn each new system? A common limitation across these systems is the lack of efficient integration between data transport mechanisms and the corresponding high-level services to support large distributed data and compute operations. A scientist running a hydrology model from their desktop may require processing a large collection of files across the aforementioned storage and compute resources and various national databases. To address these community challenges a proof-of-concept prototype was created integrating HydroShare with RADII (Resource Aware Data-centric collaboration Infrastructure) to provide software infrastructure to enable the comprehensive and rapid dynamic deployment of what we refer to as "collaborative infrastructure." In this presentation we discuss the

  10. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  11. A Constructive Approach to Infrastructure: Infrastructure "Breakdowns" and the Cultivation of Rhetorical Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Jennifer; Loveridge, Jordan; Long, Elenore

    2016-01-01

    It is not typically the bent of infrastructure to be continually responsive in a way that is expansive and inclusive; instead, for newcomers or those with alternative histories, aims, vision, values, and perspectives, the inertia of infrastructure is more likely to be experienced as infrastructural breakdowns. We ask: "What might wisdom look…

  12. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Background Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. Methods We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. Results In studying the case of Lebanon we used input–process–output–outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Conclusion Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved. PMID:28154758

  13. Health and rescue services management system during a crisis event

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaidou, Iolie; Hadjichristofi, George; Kyprianou, Stelios; Christou, Synesios; Constantinou, Riana

    2016-01-01

    Τhe performance of rescuers and personnel handling major emergencies or crisis events can be significantly improved through continuous training and through technology support. The work done in order to create a system has been discussed which can support both resources and victims during a crisis or major emergency event. More specifically, the system supports real-time management of firefighter teams, rescue teams, health services, and victims during a major disaster. It can be deployed in an ad hoc manner in the disaster area, as a stand-alone infrastructure (using its own telecommunications and power). It mainly consists of a control station, which is installed in the area command centre, the firefighters units, the rescuers units, the ambulance vehicles units, and the telemedicine units that can be used in order to support victim handling at the casualties clearing station. The system has been tested and improved through continuous communication with experts and through professional exercises; the results and conclusions are presented. PMID:27733928

  14. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  15. Development of a Water Infrastructure Knowledge Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a methodology for developing a national database, as applied to water infrastructure systems, which includes both drinking water and wastewater. The database is branded as "WATERiD" and can be accessed at www.waterid.org. Water infrastructure in the U.S. is ag...

  16. 77 FR 19300 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, April 17, 2012, 1310 N. Courthouse Road, Suite 300, Virginia Room, Arlington, VA 22201. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The NIAC will meet...

  17. 76 FR 81956 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, at the National Press Club, Ballroom, 529 14th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20045. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The...

  18. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Information Infrastructure Task Force.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is planned as a web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at the users' fingertips. Private sector firms are beginning to develop this infrastructure, but essential roles remain for the Federal Government. The National…

  19. Critical Infrastructure Rebuild Prioritization using Simulation Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    the water and allowing the water to flow to the turbine. ( SEDA Renewable Energy Web site) 24 2.4.3 Oil infrastructure In the Wikipedia...Critical Infrastructure Protection Workshop, Frankfurt Germany, September 2003 SEDA Renewable Energy & Cogeneration, “Hydro Power,” September 2006

  20. Institutional Support Infrastructure for Online Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Asserting that providing infrastructure to support online classes is analogous to building a new physical campus adjacent to the pre-existing one, describes the support requirements of online faculty, information technology networks, students, and administrators. Says that if these infrastructure considerations are not addressed near the beginning…

  1. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  2. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  3. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. The Other Infrastructure: Distance Education's Digital Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Suggests a new infrastructure--the digital plant--for supporting flexible Web campus environments. Describes four categories which make up the infrastructure: personal communication tools and applications; network of networks for the Web campus; dedicated servers and software applications; software applications and services from external…

  5. Upgrading Technology Infrastructure in California's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Niu; Murphy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As California schools move into online testing and online learning, an adequate technology infrastructure is no longer an option, but a necessity. To fully benefit from digital learning, schools will require a comprehensive technology infrastructure that can support a range of administrative and instructional tools. An earlier PPIC report found…

  6. Development of a Water Infrastructure Knowledge Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a methodology for developing a national database, as applied to water infrastructure systems, which includes both drinking water and wastewater. The database is branded as "WATERiD" and can be accessed at www.waterid.org. Water infrastructure in the U.S. is ag...

  7. 77 FR 18767 - Boating Infrastructure Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Infrastructure Grant Program (BIG). We are updating the regulations to reflect changes in policy and practice... environment and enjoyment by the public. The purpose of the Boating Infrastructure Grant Program (BIG) is to... positive impact of the BIG Program in 2009 to be $34.28 million. This impact reflects the availability of...

  8. Understanding the variables in planning infrastructure projects.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael

    2011-11-01

    When planning for an infrastructure renovation or expansion, hospital executives should ask five questions to guide the decision-making process: What is the best way to plan for infrastructure improvements? What funding options exist? What is the best way to manage risk? What outcomes should I expect from my investment? When complete, will my project support the intended use?

  9. The Other Infrastructure: Distance Education's Digital Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Suggests a new infrastructure--the digital plant--for supporting flexible Web campus environments. Describes four categories which make up the infrastructure: personal communication tools and applications; network of networks for the Web campus; dedicated servers and software applications; software applications and services from external…

  10. The Infrastructure of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S.; Wang, Phoenix M.

    2007-01-01

    The success of OER is likely to depend on a flexible, extendable infrastructure that will meet the challenges of an evolving World Wide Web. In this article, the authors examine three key dimensions of this infrastructure--technical, legal/cultural/social/political, and research--and discuss possible directions for development. (Contains 1 table…

  11. Future Naval Use of COTS Networking Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    continuous process improvement in support of NGEN and CANES under the Information Technology Infrastructure Library ( ITIL ) model. In addition, the Navy...Shipboard Network System IT Information Technology IT-21 Information Technology for the 21st Century ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure

  12. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  13. The Information Infrastructure and Technology Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This statement by Senator Albert Gore, Jr., on introduction of the Information Infrastructure and Technology Act of 1992 highlights examples of applications of high-performance computing, the components of the Information Infrastructure Development Program (i.e., education, libraries, manufacturing, and health care), and participating agencies. A…

  14. Theoretical Justification for IT Infrastructure Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayworth, Timothy R.; Chatterjee, Debabroto; Sambamurthy, V.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework to justify the value-creating potential of information technology (IT) infrastructure investments. Discusses the role of IT infrastructure as a competitive weapon and identifies three areas where it may create strategic value: responsiveness, innovativeness, and economies of scope. (Contains 65 references.)…

  15. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208... OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term...

  16. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208... OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term...

  17. Theoretical Justification for IT Infrastructure Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayworth, Timothy R.; Chatterjee, Debabroto; Sambamurthy, V.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework to justify the value-creating potential of information technology (IT) infrastructure investments. Discusses the role of IT infrastructure as a competitive weapon and identifies three areas where it may create strategic value: responsiveness, innovativeness, and economies of scope. (Contains 65 references.)…

  18. Upgrading Technology Infrastructure in California's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Niu; Murphy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As California schools move into online testing and online learning, an adequate technology infrastructure is no longer an option, but a necessity. To fully benefit from digital learning, schools will require a comprehensive technology infrastructure that can support a range of administrative and instructional tools. An earlier PPIC report found…

  19. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical...16 Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Government — Sector Coordination

  20. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    Directive set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s...16 Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Government — Sector

  1. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-02

    set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a...dialogue between government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical...Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Government — Sector Coordination

  2. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  3. THREE DAY CRISIS RESOLUTION UNIT

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Stephen E.; Ananth, Jambur; Bajwa-Goldsmith, Balbir; Stuller, Sue; Lewis, Cathy; Miller, Milton; Hoel, Noreen; Fernandez, Louise

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a three day crisis resolution unit within the confines of the psychiatric emergency service of a general hospital. It utilizes a crisis model of acute intervention, time limited psychotherapeutic approach combined with family therapy, and psychotropic medications when indicated. 136 consecutive admissions were reviewed, 49% were discharged within 72 hours, and 51 % required further hospitalization. 77% of the patient's discharged had involved families (significant others) in the treatment process,-in comparison with only 28 % family involvement with those patients who needed further hospitalization. This may be even more significant for psychotic patients who were discharged (14/18 family involvement) versus those who needed long hospitalization (13/50 Family involvement). PMID:21927122

  4. Meeting Hanford's Infrastructure Requirements - 12505

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Hanford, by all accounts, is an enormous and complex project, with thousands of disparate, but co-mingled activities in motion on any given day. The primary target of the mission at Hanford is cleanup of the 586 square-mile site, but there is the equally vital mission of site services and infrastructure. Without functions like the well-maintained site roads, electricity, water, and emergency management services, not a single cleanup project could be undertaken. As the cleanup projects evolve - with new work-scope emerging, while existing projects are completed - there becomes a very real need to keep projects integrated and working to the same 'blueprint'. And the Hanford blueprint extends for years and includes myriad variables that come with meeting the challenges and complexities associated with Hanford cleanup. Because of an innovative and unique contracting strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) found a way to keep the cleanup projects un-encumbered from the side task of having to self-provide their individual essential site services, thus allowing the cleanup contractors to concentrate their efforts on their primary mission of cleaning up the site. These infrastructure and support services also need to be provided efficiently and cost effectively - done primarily through 'right-sizing' efforts. The real innovation came when DOE had the foresight to include a second provision in this contract which specifically asked for a specialized role of site integrator and innovator, with a special emphasis placed on providing substantial cost savings for the government. The need for a true site integrator function was necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of projects at Hanford and the progression of cleanup at others. At present, there are two main DOE offices overseeing the cleanup work and six primary contractors performing that work. Each of these contractors works to separate schedules and cleanup milestones, and the nature of the cleanup differs, but

  5. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  6. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  7. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  8. Migration, crisis and theoretical conflict.

    PubMed

    Bach, R L; Schraml, L A

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the distinction between the equilibrium and historical-structuralist positions on migration is examined. Theoretical and political differences in the two positions are considered both historically and in the context of the current global economic crisis. The proposal of Wood to focus on households as a strategy for integrating the two perspectives and for achieving a better understanding of migration and social change is discussed.

  9. Trauma surgery: discipline in crisis.

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M

    2009-02-01

    Throughout the past quarter century, there have been slow but dramatic changes in the nature and practice of trauma surgery, and this field increasingly faces potent economic, logistic, political, and workforce challenges. Patients and emergency physicians have much to lose by this budding crisis in our partner discipline. This article reviews the specific issues confronting trauma surgery, their historical context, and the potential directions available to this discipline. Implications of these issues for emergency physicians and for trauma care overall are discussed.

  10. Analytic optimizations in crisis stability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Second strikes are dominated by submarine launched missiles in the absence of defenses, but shift to aircraft at modest levels of defense. Defenses protect some retaliatory missiles, but not enough to retaliate strongly. With defenses, missiles should be vestigial and could be eliminated without penalty. Then aircraft could also be significantly reduced without impacting stability. The combination of parameters that maximizes cost effectiveness also maximizes midcourse effectiveness and crisis stability. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  11. School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judie

    This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team…

  12. Hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Yanhong; Zhao, Liling; Mo, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hyperthyroidism is one of the major clinical causes of hypercalcaemia, however, hyperthyroidism-related hypercalcemic crisis is rare, only 1 case have been reported. The potential mechanisms are still not too clear. It may be related that thyroid hormone stimulate bone turnover, elevate serum calcium, increase urinary and fecal calcium excretion. Patient concerns: A 58-year-old female patient was found to have Graves’ disease, a marked elevated serum calcium level (adjusted serum calcium: 3.74 mmol/L), and reduced parathyroid hormone level. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis. Interventions: Treatment with methimazole to correct the hyperthyroidism and treatment of the patient's hypercalcaemia was achieved by physiological saline, salmon calcitonin and furosemide. Outcomes: After treatment for hypercalcaemia and hyperthyroidism, her symptoms and serum calcium levels quickly returned to normal. Lessons: hyperthyroid-associated hypercalcaemia crisis is rare, however, the diagnosis should pay attention to screening for other diseases caused by hypercalcemia. Timely treatment of hypercalcaemia is a critical step for rapidly control of symptoms, and treatment of hyperthyroidism is beneficial to relief the symptoms and maintain the blood calcium level. PMID:28121960

  13. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-08

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin.

  14. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Nganda, Benjamin M; Mwikisa, Chris N; Cardoso, Bernardino

    2011-04-13

    effects of the global financial crisis on a few variables, is important to alert the Ministry of Health on the looming danger of cuts in health funding from domestic and external sources. However, it is even more important for national governments to monitor the effects of the economic crisis and the policy responses on the social determinants of health, health inputs, health system outputs and health system outcomes, e.g. health.

  15. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    reported in this article, of the effects of the global financial crisis on a few variables, is important to alert the Ministry of Health on the looming danger of cuts in health funding from domestic and external sources. However, it is even more important for national governments to monitor the effects of the economic crisis and the policy responses on the social determinants of health, health inputs, health system outputs and health system outcomes, e.g. health. PMID:21489284

  16. Extreme Light Infrastructure: nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Habs, D.; Negoita, F.; Ursescu, D.

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular progress of electron and heavy-ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high-power laser has opened the way for new methods of investigations in nuclear physics and related fields. On the other hand, upshifting the photon energies of a high repetition TW-class laser through inverse Compton scattering on electron bunches classically accelerated, a high-flux narrow bandwidth gamma beam can be produced. With such a gamma beam in the 1-20 MeV energy range and a two-arms 10-PW class laser system, the pillar of "Extreme Light Infrastructure" to be built in Bucharest will focus on nuclear phenomena and their practical applications. Nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental QED aspects as well as applications in material and life sciences, radioactive waste management and homeland security will be studied using the high-power laser, the gamma beam or combining the two. The article includes a general description of ELI-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, an overview of the Physics Case and some details on the few, most representative proposed experiments.

  17. Scaling Agile Infrastructure to People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; McCance, G.; Traylen, S.; Barrientos Arias, N.

    2015-12-01

    When CERN migrated its infrastructure away from homegrown fabric management tools to emerging industry-standard open-source solutions, the immediate technical challenges and motivation were clear. The move to a multi-site Cloud Computing model meant that the tool chains that were growing around this ecosystem would be a good choice, the challenge was to leverage them. The use of open-source tools brings challenges other than merely how to deploy them. Homegrown software, for all the deficiencies identified at the outset of the project, has the benefit of growing with the organization. This paper will examine what challenges there were in adapting open-source tools to the needs of the organization, particularly in the areas of multi-group development and security. Additionally, the increase in scale of the plant required changes to how Change Management was organized and managed. Continuous Integration techniques are used in order to manage the rate of change across multiple groups, and the tools and workflow for this will be examined.

  18. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Fluxnet Synthesis Dataset Collaboration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Humphrey, Marty; van Ingen, Catharine; Beekwilder, Norm; Goode, Monte; Jackson, Keith; Rodriguez, Matt; Weber, Robin

    2008-02-06

    The Fluxnet synthesis dataset originally compiled for the La Thuile workshop contained approximately 600 site years. Since the workshop, several additional site years have been added and the dataset now contains over 920 site years from over 240 sites. A data refresh update is expected to increase those numbers in the next few months. The ancillary data describing the sites continues to evolve as well. There are on the order of 120 site contacts and 60proposals have been approved to use thedata. These proposals involve around 120 researchers. The size and complexity of the dataset and collaboration has led to a new approach to providing access to the data and collaboration support and the support team attended the workshop and worked closely with the attendees and the Fluxnet project office to define the requirements for the support infrastructure. As a result of this effort, a new website (http://www.fluxdata.org) has been created to provide access to the Fluxnet synthesis dataset. This new web site is based on a scientific data server which enables browsing of the data on-line, data download, and version tracking. We leverage database and data analysis tools such as OLAP data cubes and web reports to enable browser and Excel pivot table access to the data.

  20. IT Infrastructure Components for Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Prokosch, H.U.; Beck, A.; Ganslandt, T.; Hummel, M.; Kiehntopf, M.; Sax, U.; Ückert, F.; Semler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Within translational research projects in the recent years large biobanks have been established, mostly supported by homegrown, proprietary software solutions. No general requirements for biobanking IT infrastructures have been published yet. This paper presents an exemplary biobanking IT architecture, a requirements specification for a biorepository management tool and exemplary illustrations of three major types of requirements. Methods We have pursued a comprehensive literature review for biobanking IT solutions and established an interdisciplinary expert panel for creating the requirements specification. The exemplary illustrations were derived from a requirements analysis within two university hospitals. Results The requirements specification comprises a catalog with more than 130 detailed requirements grouped into 3 major categories and 20 subcategories. Special attention is given to multitenancy capabilities in order to support the project-specific definition of varying research and bio-banking contexts, the definition of workflows to track sample processing, sample transportation and sample storage and the automated integration of preanalytic handling and storage robots. Conclusion IT support for biobanking projects can be based on a federated architectural framework comprising primary data sources for clinical annotations, a pseudonymization service, a clinical data warehouse with a flexible and user-friendly query interface and a biorepository management system. Flexibility and scalability of all such components are vital since large medical facilities such as university hospitals will have to support biobanking for varying monocentric and multicentric research scenarios and multiple medical clients. PMID:23616851

  1. The Impact of New York City’s 1975 Fiscal Crisis on the Tuberculosis, HIV, and Homicide Syndemic

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Fahs, Marianne; Galea, Sandro; Greenberg, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In 1975, New York City experienced a fiscal crisis rooted in long-term political and economic changes in the city. Budget and policy decisions designed to alleviate this fiscal crisis contributed to the subsequent epidemics of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and homicide in New York City. Because these conditions share underlying social determinants, we consider them a syndemic, i.e., all 3 combined to create an excess disease burden on the population. Cuts in services; the dismantling of health, public safety, and social service infrastructures; and the deterioration of living conditions for vulnerable populations contributed to the amplification of these health conditions over 2 decades. We estimate that the costs incurred in controlling these epidemics exceeded $50 billion (in 2004 dollars); in contrast, the overall budgetary saving during the fiscal crisis was $10 billion. This history has implications for public health professionals who must respond to current perceptions of local fiscal crises. PMID:16449588

  2. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  3. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  4. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  5. An Evaluation of Crisis Hotline Outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal Crisis Callers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed…

  6. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  7. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  8. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. [Midlife crisis: crisis in the middle of life].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, K

    1991-12-17

    Since ancient times man tried to understand the roots of his obviously often irrational behaviour. According to the prevailing "Zeitgeist", hypotheses for it ranged from demonical possession, psychological schools of thought to the role of transmitter substances at the synaptic level. For ages it has been observed and described, that men goes in his development through typical and predictable phases with their typical crises. Poets knew and wrote about it since the dawn of culture but science got interested in it only in this century. Elliot coined the term "midlife crisis" in 1965, turning attention to an age-group which was before practically ignored by psychology. He pointed out that due to a collision between developmental factors and a static identity a crisis occurred in human beings, characterized by a feeling of despair, goallessness, fatigue and consciousness of significant basic anxiety. In response to such pressures a change of comportment takes place which puzzles the people closest to the stricken. Established patterns of behaviour seem to dissipate in favour of unusual, unexpected, adolescent or even crazy actions. Many examples from history, ranging from Dante to Gauguin seem to prove the point. Realizing the presence of the crisis and its origin and interpreting it as a call for change, reorientation and new definition of priorities present a great chance to adjust one's life at this important turn. It is of great importance to recognize, that changes must take place in one's inner values and that trying to escape into frenzied activities leads nowhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. S.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Scott, J. P.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Hix, W. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K.; Guidry, M. W.; Hard, C. C.; Sharp, J. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Meyer, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics is a platform-independent, online suite of computer codes developed by the ORNL Nuclear Data Project that makes a rapid connection between laboratory nuclear physics results and astrophysical models. It enables users to evaluate cross sections, process them into thermonuclear reaction rates, and parameterize (with a few percent accuracy) these rates that vary by up to 30 orders of magnitude over the temperatures of interest. Users can then properly format these rates for input into astrophysical computer simulations, create and manipulate libraries of rates, as well as run and visualize sample post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. For example, we have developed animated nuclide charts that show how predicted abundances (represented by a user-defined color scale) change in time. With this unique suite, users can within a very short time quantify the astrophysical impact of a newly measured or calculated cross section, or a newly created customized reaction rate library, and then document and share their results with the scientific community. The suite has a straightforward interface with a "Windows Wizard" motif whereby users progress through complicated calculations in a step-by-step fashion. Users can upload their own files for processing and save their work on our server, as well as work with files that other users wish to share. These tools are currently being used to investigate novae and X-ray bursts. The suite is available through nucastrodata.org, a website that also hyperlinks available nuclear data sets relevant for nuclear astrophysics research. New features are continually being added to this software, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Low Energy Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Data Programs. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  11. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-08-18

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.

  12. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  13. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  14. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  15. Liberian surgical and anesthesia infrastructure: a survey of county hospitals.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Lisa Marie; Chackungal, Smita; Dahn, Bernice; LeBrun, Drake; Nickerson, Jason; McQueen, Kelly

    2013-04-01

    There is a significant burden of disease in low-income countries that can benefit from surgical intervention. The goal of this survey was to evaluate the current ability of the Liberian health care system to provide safe surgical care and to identify unmet needs in regard to trained personnel, equipment, infrastructure, and outcomes measurement. A comprehensive survey tool was developed to assess physical infrastructure of operative facilities, education and training for surgical and anesthesia providers, equipment and medications, and the capacity of the surgical system to collect and evaluate surgical outcomes at district-level hospitals in Africa. This tool was implemented in a sampling of 11 county hospitals in Liberia (January 2011). Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health and by direct government-affiliated hospital site visits. The total catchment area of the 11 hospitals surveyed was 2,313,429--equivalent to roughly 67 % of the population of Liberia (3,476,608). There were 13 major operating rooms and 34 (1.5 per 100,000 population) physicians delivering surgical, obstetric, or anesthesia care including 2 (0.1 per 100,000 population) who had completed formal postgraduate training programs in these specialty areas. The total number of surgical cases for 2010 was 7,654, with approximately 43 % of them being elective procedures. Among the facilities that tracked outcomes in 2010, a total of 11 intraoperative deaths (145 per 100,000 operative cases) were recorded for 2009. The 30-day postoperative mortality at hospitals providing data was 44 (1,359 per 100,000 operative cases). Metrics were also used to evaluate surgical output, safety of anesthesia, and the burden of obstetric disease. A significant volume of surgical care is being delivered at county hospitals throughout Liberia. The density and quality of appropriately trained personnel and infrastructure remain critically low. There is strong evidence for continued development of emergency and

  16. Climate Indicators for Energy and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two of the key categories of climate indicators are energy and infrastructure. For energy supply and use, many indicators are available for energy supply and consumption; and some indicators are available to assess implications of climate change, such as changes over time in heating and cooling days. Indicators of adaptation and adaptive capacity are more elusive. For infrastructure, which includes more than a dozen different sectors, general indicators are not available, beyond counts of major disasters and such valuable contributions as the ASCE "report cards." In this case, research is needed, for example to develop credible metrics for assessing the resilience of built infrastructures to climate change and other stresses.

  17. Scientific computing infrastructure and services in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatencov, P. P.; Secrieru, G. V.; Degteariov, N. V.; Iliuha, N. P.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years distributed information processing and high-performance computing technologies (HPC, distributed Cloud and Grid computing infrastructures) for solving complex tasks with high demands of computing resources are actively developing. In Moldova the works on creation of high-performance and distributed computing infrastructures were started relatively recently due to participation in implementation of a number of international projects. Research teams from Moldova participated in a series of regional and pan-European projects that allowed them to begin forming the national heterogeneous computing infrastructure, get access to regional and European computing resources, and expand the range and areas of solving tasks.

  18. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  19. Policy model for space economy infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Nally, James; Zilin Tang, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    Extraterrestrial infrastructure is key to the development of a space economy. Means for accelerating transition from today's isolated projects to a broad-based economy are considered. A large system integration approach is proposed. The beginnings of an economic simulation model are presented, along with examples of how interactions and coordination bring down costs. A global organization focused on space infrastructure and economic expansion is proposed to plan, coordinate, fund and implement infrastructure construction. This entity also opens a way to raise low-cost capital and solve the legal and public policy issues of access to extraterrestrial resources.

  20. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  1. Why You Should Consider Green Stormwater Infrastructure for Your Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of the nation's infrastructure needs and cost and the benefits of integrating green infrastructure into projects that typically use grey infrastructure, such as roadways, sidewalks and parking lots.

  2. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information...

  3. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Quarterly Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council membership update... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March...

  4. 76 FR 70730 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and... Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council... the critical infrastructure sectors defined by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 (HSPD-7)...

  5. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  6. 75 FR 60771 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection and..., Partnership and Outreach Division, Office of Infrastructure Protection, National Protection and Programs... Infrastructure Protection, National Protection and Programs Directorate, United States Department of Homeland...

  7. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program...

  8. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, (Sections 211-215, Title II, Subtitle B of the...

  9. [Crisis management in clinical nursing practice: a case analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Hua; Yen, Miaofen

    2006-02-01

    The clinical medical environment is highly changeable. Hospital administrators must face and resolve various kinds of crisis. Effective crisis management can preempt or reduce negative impacts on an organization, as well as reduce unnecessary costs and bolster an organization's reputation. This article uses actual cases to describe crisis management with reference to four stages of crisis development and 6M models, providing instruction from experience, Educational growth, and enhanced crisis handling and crisis management skills.

  10. [Financial crisis and mental health].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2010-01-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life indicate a correlation between unemployment or other economic indexes and the general levels of death rates, depression, and suicide tendencies. The most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts, general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Under conditions of economic crisis, the poor represent a high risk group since they are the first ones to be put at risk. At the same time, due to their pre-existing functionality reduction, individuals already experiencing psychiatric diseases also represent a high risk group, thus creating a vice circle where poverty nurtures psychiatric disorders and vice-versa. For every country in the midst of a recession, protecting high risk target groups is the first priority. In these cases, research showcases that social security networks' reinforcement represents the first strategic priority. Other factors, for instance personality features related to increased vulnerability to psychosocial threat -such as low tolerance to frustration or low self esteem- also play an important role. At the organizational level, one has to research practices and policies that employers use to respond to changing conditions. An economic recession is a chance to revamp essential services toward weaker populations that need to be protected. This translates into a buttressing of the social welfare system while promoting timely interventions. Amongst others, the registration of high risk population groups, the rehabilitation and social inclusion of unemployed individuals and individuals with psychiatric problems, the training of first responders and primary care physicians, the tracing and curing of depression and other usual disorders, as well as an improved access to the psychiatric-health provision system.

  11. Tell EPA About Your Green Infrastructure Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Aug. 13, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced a poster contest to highlight green infrastructure and low-impact development projects in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Texas. Did your business bu

  12. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  13. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  14. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindauer, Alicia

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  15. Orbital Aggregation and Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Chato, David J.; Saucillo, Rudolf J.; Blue, Douglas R.; Carey, David; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a NASA lead study performed to identify synergistic opportunities and concepts between human exploration initiatives and commercialization of space. The goal of this initiative, called Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), is to develop an in-space architecture and associated concepts that provide common infrastructure for enabling a large class of space missions. The concepts include communications, navigation and power systems, propellant modules, tank farms, habitats, and in-space transportation systems using several propulsion technologies. OASIS features in-space aggregation of systems and resources in support of mission objectives. The concepts feature a high level of reusability and are supported by inexpensive launch of propellant and logistics payloads from the Earth/moon system. Industry, NASA and other users could share infrastructure costs. The anticipated benefits of synergistic utilization of space infrastructure are reduced mission costs and increased mission flexibility for future space exploration and commercialization initiatives.

  16. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  17. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  18. Fuzzy architecture assessment for critical infrastructure resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, George

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for the selection of alternative architectures in a connected infrastructure system to increase resilience of the overall infrastructure system. The paper begins with a description of resilience and critical infrastructure, then summarizes existing approaches to resilience, and presents a fuzzy-rule based method of selecting among alternative infrastructure architectures. This methodology includes considerations which are most important when deciding on an approach to resilience. The paper concludes with a proposed approach which builds on existing resilience architecting methods by integrating key system aspects using fuzzy memberships and fuzzy rule sets. This novel approach aids the systems architect in considering resilience for the evaluation of architectures for adoption into the final system architecture.

  19. Maritime Infrastructure Security and Counterterrorism Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cao, Anh "Joseph" [R-LA-2

    2010-07-01

    House - 07/14/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. The Europlanet Research Infrastructure and Technology Foresight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Europlanet Community

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure is a project to integrate and support planetary science activities across Europe. The project is funded under the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme. Technology Foresight is a key activity.

  1. Expecting the Unexpected: Towards Robust Credential Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Cryptographic credential infrastructures, such as Public key infrastructure (PKI), allow the building of trust relationships in electronic society and electronic commerce. At the center of credential infrastructures is the methodology of digital signatures. However, methods that assure that credentials and signed messages possess trustworthiness and longevity are not well understood, nor are they adequately addressed in both literature and practice. We believe that, as a basic engineering principle, these properties have to be built into the credential infrastructure rather than be treated as an after-thought since they are crucial to the long term success of this notion. In this paper we present a step in the direction of dealing with these issues. Specifically, we present the basic engineering reasoning as well as a model that helps understand (somewhat formally) the trustworthiness and longevity of digital signatures, and then we give basic mechanisms that help improve these notions.

  2. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  3. Maritime Infrastructure Security and Counterterrorism Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cao, Anh "Joseph" [R-LA-2

    2010-07-01

    07/14/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 76 FR 36137 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, July 12, 2011, at the Washington Marriott at Metro... NIAC@dhs.gov . ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Washington Marriott at Metro Center, Salon A...

  5. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  6. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  7. An authentication infrastructure for today and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Engert, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The Open Software Foundation`s Distributed Computing Environment (OSF/DCE) was originally designed to provide a secure environment for distributed applications. By combining it with Kerberos Version 5 from MIT, it can be extended to provide network security as well. This combination can be used to build both an inter and intra organizational infrastructure while providing single sign-on for the user with overall improved security. The ESnet community of the Department of Energy is building just such an infrastructure. ESnet has modified these systems to improve their interoperability, while encouraging the developers to incorporate these changes and work more closely together to continue to improve the interoperability. The success of this infrastructure depends on its flexibility to meet the needs of many applications and network security requirements. The open nature of Kerberos, combined with the vendor support of OSF/DCE, provides the infrastructure for today and tomorrow.

  8. Maritime Infrastructure Security and Counterterrorism Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cao, Anh "Joseph" [R-LA-2

    2010-07-01

    07/14/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  10. Neighborhood Sociodemographics and Change in Built Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; Green, Geoffrey F; Peterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-01-01

    While increasing evidence suggests an association between physical infrastructure in neighbourhoods and health outcomes, relatively little research examines how neighbourhoods change physically over time and how these physical improvements are spatially distributed across populations. This paper describes the change over 25 years (1985-2010) in bicycle lanes, off-road trails, bus transit service, and parks, and spatial clusters of changes in these domains relative to neighbourhood sociodemographics in four U.S. cities that are diverse in terms of geography, size and population. Across all four cities, we identified increases in bicycle lanes, off-road trails, and bus transit service, with spatial clustering in these changes that related to neighbourhood sociodemographics. Overall, we found evidence of positive changes in physical infrastructure commonly identified as supportive of physical activity. However, the patterning of infrastructure change by sociodemographic change encourages attention to the equity in infrastructure improvements across neighbourhoods.

  11. Out of the healthcare crisis.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-01-01

    W Edwards Deming's Out of the Crisis, was first published almost three decades ago.(1) It was a bestseller and remains a classic text written by one of the foremost quality improvement experts of the 20th century. It is a book which certainly warrants re-examination in light of today's challenges for health care. This discussion paper reviews what Deming can teach us about causes of failure in management, including health care, what can be done to remedy them and how to avert problems in future.

  12. Improving decision making in crisis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy; Freedman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis.

  13. Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Lancaster PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines technical assistance for demonstrating how accounting for the multiple benefits of green infrastructure can provide a more complete assessment of infrastructure and community investments.

  14. 78 FR 66038 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC); Correction.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... support and coordinate critical infrastructure security and resilience. The November 5, 2013, meeting will... resilience. Topics, such as Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience and Cybersecurity, will...

  15. 76 FR 20995 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... sharing threat, vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are organized into eighteen (18) critical infrastructure sectors. Within all of the...

  16. 76 FR 29775 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... resilience, reconstituting critical infrastructure assets and systems for both man-made as well as naturally... information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are organized into eighteen (18) critical infrastructure...

  17. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  18. Sustainable Infrastructure in the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    Sustainable Infrastructure in the Department of Defense Col Bart Barnhart ODUSD(I&E)/EM June 16, 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 16 JUN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00...00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sustainable Infrastructure in the Department of Defense 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  19. HYDROGEN DELIVERY: INFRASTRUCTURE, CHALLENGES, AND MATERIALS NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Gardiner, Monterey

    2009-01-01

    Current domestic energy policy is aimed at encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as hydrogen for use as a renewable and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based fuels for transportation and stationary power. The purpose of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is to provide insight and input on hydrogen delivery infrastructure research. Ongoing research has identified materials R&D challenges required to support this infrastructure. A few of these challenges are summarized with emphasis placed on materials.

  20. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-12

    order to identify priorities for protective and support measures; ! to develop a comprehensive national plan for securing key resources and critical... plan ,37 a priority asset is one that could be “catastrophically exploited.” It is not clear from the testimony how the list of critical assets was...private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical infrastructures by the year 2003