Science.gov

Sample records for lophopyrum elongatum salt

  1. Investigating the role of respiration in plant salinity tolerance by analyzing mitochondrial proteomes from wheat and a salinity-tolerant Amphiploid (wheat × Lophopyrum elongatum).

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Richard P; Millar, A Harvey; Taylor, Nicolas L

    2013-11-01

    The effect of salinity on mitochondrial properties was investigated by comparing the reference wheat variety Chinese Spring (CS) to a salt-tolerant amphiploid (AMP). The octoploid AMP genotype was previously generated by combining hexaploid bread wheat (CS) with the diploid wild wheatgrass adapted to salt marshes, Lophopyrum elongatum. Here we used a combination of physiological, biochemical, and proteomic analyses to explore the mitochondrial and respiratory response to salinity in these two genotypes. The AMP showed greater growth tolerance to salinity treatments and altered respiration rate in both roots and shoots. A proteomic workflow of 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was used to compare the protein composition of isolated mitochondrial samples from roots and shoots of both genotypes, following control or salt treatment. A large set of mitochondrial proteins were identified as responsive to salinity in both genotypes, notably enzymes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Genotypic differences in mitochondrial composition were also identified, with AMP exhibiting a higher abundance of manganese superoxide dismutase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, aconitase, malate dehydrogenase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase compared to CS. We present peptide fragmentation spectra derived from some of these AMP-specific protein spots, which could serve as biomarkers to track superior protein variants.

  2. Potential New Genes for Resistance to Mycosphaerella Graminicola Identified in Triticum Aestivum x Lophopyrum Elongatum Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lophopyrum species carry many desirable agronomic traits, including disease resistance, which can be transferred to wheat by interspecific hybridizations. To identify potentially new genes for disease and insect resistance carried by individual Lophopyrum chromosomes, 19 of 21 possible wheat cultiv...

  3. Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. bessarabicum, Lophopyrum elongatum, Aegilops markgrafii, and their addition lines in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GSs) play an important role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality in cultivated wheat, and they are also excellent protein markers for genotype identification. The HMW-GSs in wheat species (Triticum ssp.) and Aegilops tauschii...

  4. Chemical constituents of the leaves of Campylospermum elongatum.

    PubMed

    Elo-Manga, Savio S; Tih, Anastasie E; Ghogomu, Raphael T; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The leaves of Campylospermum elongatum have furnished the cyano-glycoside (lithospermoside), nine isomeric biflavonoid derivatives among which five are I3-II6 linked (robustaflavone; 4'-O-methyl robustaflavone; 4',4″'-di-O-methyl robustaflavone; 7,4',4″-tri-O-methyl robustaflavone; 4',7″-di-O-methyl robustaflavone) and four I3-II8 linked (amentoflavone; 7-O-methyl amentoflavone; 7,7″-di-O-methyl amentoflavone; 7, 4',7″-tri-O-methyl amentoflavone) and a flavone glycoside, 4″-O-methyl-7-O-β-d-galactosylapigenin. All structures were established from a complete spectroscopic analysis (MS, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR, including HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) as well as by comparing the obtained spectroscopic data with literature. This is the first report on the characterization of 4'-O-methyl-7-O-β-d-galactosylapigenin from the genus campylospermum and thus has important chemotaxonomic implications.

  5. Effect of biological pretreatment of Agropyron elongatum 'BAMAR' on biogas production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lalak, Justyna; Kasprzycka, Agnieszka; Martyniak, Danuta; Tys, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of three different moisture contents (MC), at 45% MC, 65% MC, 75% MC, on the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during fungi treatment by Flammulina velutipes of Agropyron elongatum 'BAMAR' and on biogas production. The analysis of chemical composition shown that F. velutipes had greater selectivity for lignin biodegradation with the highest hemicellulose and lignin removal at 29.1% and 35.4%, respectively, and lowest cellulose removal (20.48%) at 65% MC. F. velutipes cultivated at 65% MC increased biogas production of 398.07Ndm(3)kg(-1)VS(-1), which was 120% higher than the untreated sample. These treatment conditions resulted in 134% more methane yield compared with untreated sample. The results of this study suggested that A. elongatum is a potential biomass for biogas production in agriculture biogas plant and white-rot fungus F. velutipes provides an effective methods for improve biodegradation of A. elongatum.

  6. Parasitisation by Bathycreadium elongatum (Digenea, Opecoelidae) in pyloric caeca of Trachyrincus scabrus (Teleostei, Macrouridae).

    PubMed

    Constenla, M; Carrassón, M; Moyà, C M; Fernàndez-Chacón, A; Padrós, F; Repullés-Albelda, A; Montero, F E

    2011-10-06

    A novel process of transmural passive displacement of a digenean parasite was studied in the digestive tract of the roughsnout grenadier Trachyrincus scabrus, which is found in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This mechanism seems to facilitate the elimination of a significant portion of intestinal parasites. The digenean parasite Bathycreadium elongatum was found in the intestine, mainly within pyloric caeca, in 74.4% of T. scabrus, with a mean abundance of 44 individuals per fish. Nodule-like lesions were also found in the mesentery of pyloric caeca of infected T. scabrus. Histological sections of the nodules revealed granulomatous inflammatory responses surrounding degraded digeneans. Partial nucleotide sequences of the 28S rRNA gene obtained from intracaecal B. elongatum and from the core of the nodules of the mesentery of pyloric caeca showed 100% mutual identity with an overlap of 971 bp. The greatest abundance of both intracaecal B. elongatum and nodules occurred in spring. During summer, and especially autumn, the abundance of intracaecal B. elongatum decreased. Prevalence and abundance of nodules increased in autumn. In winter intracaecal parasite abundance and prevalence began to increase, but decreased again in nodules. During spring and summer, parasites pass into the visceral cavity, hypothetically owing to the fragility of the wall of pyloric caeca in their apical zone, and become degraded through a granulomatous inflammatory response. This process seems to have a detrimental effect on the B. elongatum cycle since some of parasites are trapped and degrade in the connective tissue in which they are unable to complete their life cycle.

  7. Searching in sequences of Leymus BAC clones for genes controlling salt tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of Thinopyrum and Leymus are known to be highly salt tolerant. Salinity tolerance in diploid Thinopyrum elongatum, thus all polyploid Thinopyrum species too, is controlled by genes on different chromosomes. Some candidate genes, including genes for peroxidase precursor, for salinity t...

  8. The morphology of the preimaginal stages of Squamapion elongatum (Germar, 1817) (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea, Apionidae) and notes on its biology

    PubMed Central

    Łętowski, Jacek; Pawlęga, Krzysztof; Ścibior, Radosław; Rojek, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data on the morphology of the egg, mature larva (L3) and pupa of Squamapion elongatum (Germar, 1817) are presented. The development cycle of this species lasts 51–54 days: a 12-day egg period, a 30-day larval period, and a 12-day pupal period, on average. The larvae are attacked by parasitic hymenopterans of the superfamily Chalcidoidea. PMID:26448708

  9. A genetic map of Lophopyrum ponticum chromosome 7E, harboring resistance genes to Fusarium head blight and leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Shen, Xiaorong; Hao, Yuanfeng; Cai, Jinjin; Ohm, Herbert W; Kong, Lingrang

    2011-02-01

    The leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 and Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) derived from the wild wheatgrass Lophopyrum ponticum have been located on chromosome 7E. The main objectives of the present study were to develop a genetic map of chromosome 7E and map the two resistance loci using a population of 237 F(7:8) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Thatcher-L. ponticum substitution lines, K11463 (7el(1)(7D)) and K2620 (7el(2)(7D)). 532 G-SSR, E-SSR and STS markers from wheat chromosome group 7 were screened in the parent lines. Of these, 118 markers were polymorphic, with a polymorphism frequency of 22.2%. A genetic map of L. ponticum chromosome 7E was constructed with 64 markers, covering 95.76 cM, with an average genetic distance of 1.47 cM between markers. The major FHB resistance locus, temporarily assigned as FhbLoP, was mapped to the very distal region of the long arm of chromosome 7E within a 3.71 cM interval flanked by Xcfa2240 and Xswes19, which accounts for 30.46% of the phenotypic variance. Lr19 was bracketed by Xwmc273 and XBE404744, with a map distance of 1.54 and 1.43 cM from either side, respectively. The closely linked markers identified in this study will be helpful for marker-assisted introgression of the L. ponticum-derived FhbLoP and Lr19 genes into elite cultivars of wheat, and the development of a genetic map will accelerate the map-based cloning of these two genes.

  10. Molecular characterization of durum and common wheat recombinant lines carrying leaf rust resistance (Lr19) and yellow pigment (Y) genes from Lophopyrum ponticum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Lukaszewski, Adam J; Kolmer, Jim; Soria, Marcelo A; Goyal, Sham; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2005-08-01

    Chromosome 7E from Lophopyrum ponticum carries a valuable leaf rust resistant gene designated Lr19. This gene has not been widely used in common wheat breeding because of linkage with the yellow pigment gene Y. This gene tints flour yellow, reducing its appeal in bread making. However, a high level of yellow pigment is desirable in durum wheat breeding. We produced 97 recombinant chromosomes between L. ponticum transfer 7D.7E#1 and its wheat homoeologues, using the ph1b mutation that promotes homoeologous pairing. We characterized a subset of 37 of these lines with 11 molecular markers and evaluated their resistance to leaf rust and the abundance of yellow pigment. The Lr19 gene was mapped between loci Xwg420 and Xmwg2062, whereas Y was mapped distal to Xpsr687, the most distal marker on the long arm of chromosome 7. A short terminal 7EL segment translocated to 7A, including Lr19 and Y (line 1-23), has been transferred to durum wheat by backcrossing. The presence of this alien segment significantly increased the abundance of yellow pigment. The Lr19 also conferred resistance to a new durum leaf rust race from California and Mexico that is virulent on most durum wheat cultivars. The new durum lines with the recombinant 7E segment will be useful parents to increase yellow pigment and leaf rust resistance in durum wheat breeding programs. For the common wheat breeding programs, we selected the recombinant line 1-96, which has an interstitial 7E segment carrying Lr19 but not Y. This recombinant line can be used to improve leaf rust resistance without affecting flour color. The 7EL/7DL 1-96 recombinant chromosome did not show the meiotic self-elimination previously reported for a 7EL/7BL translocation.

  11. Effects of pig manure compost and nonionic-surfactant Tween 80 on phenanthrene and pyrene removal from soil vegetated with Agropyron elongatum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K Y; Lai, K M; Wong, J W C

    2008-10-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of pig manure compost (PMC) and Tween 80 on the removal of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) from soil cultivated with Agropyron elongatum. Soils spiked with about 300 mg kg(-1) of PHE and PYR were individually amended with 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% (dry wt) of PMC or 0, 20 and 100 mg kg(-1) of Tween 80. Unplanted and sterile microcosms were prepared as the controls. PAH concentration, total organic matter (TOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total heterotrophic and PAH degrading microbial populations in soil were quantified before and after 60d period. The results indicated that A. elongatum could significantly enhance PYR removal (from 46% to 61%) but had less impact on PHE removal (from 96% to 97%). Plant uptake of the PAHs was insignificant. Biodegradation was the key mechanism of PAH removals (<3% losses in the sterile control). Increase in PMC or Tween 80 levels increased the removal of PYR but not of PHE. Maximal PYR removal of 79% and 92% were observed in vegetated soil receiving 100 mg kg(-1) Tween 80 and 7.5% PMC, respectively. Enhanced PYR removal in soil receiving PMC could be explained by the elevated levels of DOC, TOM and microbial populations as suggested by Pearson correlation test. While the positive effect of Tween 80 on PYR removal could probably due to its capacities to enhance PYR bioavailability in soil. This paper suggests that the addition of either PMC or nonionic-surfactant Tween 80 could facilitate phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soil.

  12. Synthesis of trigeneric hybrids of hexaploid wheat with diploid wheatgrasses: Specificity of chromosome pairing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild grasses in the tribe Triticeae are excellent sources of genes for superior traits, including resistance to various diseases. Diploid wheatgrasses – Lophopyrum elongatum (Host) Á. Löve (2n = 2x = 14; EE genome) and Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul. & Rayss) Á. Löve (2n = 2x = 14; JJ genome) – are...

  13. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  14. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  15. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

  16. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  17. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  18. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  19. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  20. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks of using synthetic cathinones (bath salts)? Another danger of bath salts is that they might contain ... Drugs: Is There a Way to Reduce the Dangers? June 09, 2015 / The NIDA Blog Team Concert ...

  1. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  2. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  3. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  5. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  6. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  7. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  8. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    2015-06-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  9. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  10. Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    metal tetrafluoroborates were examined for similar behavior. Commercial samples of the lithium, sodium and potassium salts were used, while the...REPORT a PERID C £0 inal, 1 June 1980-31 March Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems 1983 6 PERFORMING OŘG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) I CONTRACT OR...dilfferent from Reporl) IS. KEY WORDS (Continue ora ow... side 55 n~cssay and Identify by block number ) Molten Salt , Phase Diagram, Electrolyte 30

  11. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  12. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  13. Salt Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  14. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  16. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  17. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  18. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  19. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  20. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  1. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  2. Stress, salt and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Henry, J P

    1988-01-01

    Reasons are given why calcium, obesity and genetics cannot be considered primary factors in the etiology of essential hypertension. This leaves the major protagonists as salt and neuroendocrine responses to the emotions aroused by the social environment. Most essential hypertension is renin dependent and associated with the physiological changes induced by arousal of the defence response. The psychosocial stimulation associated with this arousal induces an increase in salt appetite. This makes the salt consumption of society a measure of the social stress to which it is exposed. Primitive people whose blood pressure remains normal throughout their lives may lack modern societies' physically protective achievements but their religiously prescribed social solidarity may protect them from psychosocial stress. Our chronic suppression of awareness of emotional arousal together with loss of the ritualized support of affiliative behavior may result in repressed emotional responses which find somatic expression in diseases such as essential hypertension. Hypertensiologist George Pickering proposed that the primitive's ritual and taboo (the equivalent in our society might be the Alcoholic's Anonymous belief in a 'Higher Power') protect them from much anger and despair. He gave this precedence over salt as the primary factor in essential hypertension. New evidence supports this. Despite a high salt diet the blood pressure of socially adjusted rodents remains normal throughout their lifespan. On the other hand, the hypertension that develops when they are psychosocially stimulated is not abated by a low salt diet. In humans, the blood pressure of cloistered, secluded Italian nuns on a high salt diet has remained normal for 20 years while that of nearby village women has risen at a startling 2 mmHg/annum during the same period. On the other hand, in rapidly changing Malawi mature adult, rural and urban blood pressures are rising fast despite a low salt intake. Thus the

  3. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  4. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOEpatents

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  5. Cooking without salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor and nutrition. Plant-based foods -- carrots, spinach, apples, and peaches -- are naturally salt-free. Sun-dried ... types of pepper, including black, white, green, and red. Experiment with vinegars (white and red wine, rice ...

  6. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  8. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  9. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  10. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, T.R.

    1994-09-27

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford`s high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  12. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  13. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  14. [Salt intake in children].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2014-05-01

    Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children.

  15. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  16. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  17. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  18. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  19. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  1. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  2. Salt repository design approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

  3. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  6. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  7. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods available to you and millions of other consumers. You will have the power to choose the ... cutting back and how to build a healthier relationship with food. Sea Salt Versus Table Salt Discover ...

  8. Salt acclimation processes in wheat.

    PubMed

    Janda, Tibor; Darko, Éva; Shehata, Sami; Kovács, Viktória; Pál, Magda; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mv Béres) were exposed to 0 or 25 mM NaCl for 11 days (salt acclimation). Thereafter the plants were irrigated with 500 mM NaCl for 5 days (salt stress). Irrigating the plants with a low concentration of NaCl successfully led to a reduction in chlorotic symptoms and in the impairment of the photosynthetic processes when the plants were exposed to subsequent high-dose salt treatment. After exposure to a high concentration of NaCl there was no difference in leaf Na content between the salt-acclimated and non-acclimated plants, indicating that salt acclimation did not significantly modify Na transport to the shoots. While the polyamine level was lower in salt-treated plants than in the control, salt acclimation led to increased osmotic potential in the leaves. Similarly, the activities of certain antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione reductase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in salt-acclimated plants. The results also suggest that while SOS1, SOS2 or NHX2 do not play a decisive role in the salt acclimation processes in young wheat plants; another stress-related gene, WALI6, may contribute to the success of the salt acclimation processes. The present study suggested that the responses of wheat plants to acclimation with low level of salt and to treatment with high doses of salt may be fundamentally different.

  9. Improving crop salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Flowers, T J

    2004-02-01

    Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very limited success, due to the complexity of the trait: salt tolerance is complex genetically and physiologically. Tolerance often shows the characteristics of a multigenic trait, with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tolerance identified in barley, citrus, rice, and tomato and with ion transport under saline conditions in barley, citrus and rice. Physiologically salt tolerance is also complex, with halophytes and less tolerant plants showing a wide range of adaptations. Attempts to enhance tolerance have involved conventional breeding programmes, the use of in vitro selection, pooling physiological traits, interspecific hybridization, using halophytes as alternative crops, the use of marker-aided selection, and the use of transgenic plants. It is surprising that, in spite of the complexity of salt tolerance, there are commonly claims in the literature that the transfer of a single or a few genes can increase the tolerance of plants to saline conditions. Evaluation of such claims reveals that, of the 68 papers produced between 1993 and early 2003, only 19 report quantitative estimates of plant growth. Of these, four papers contain quantitative data on the response of transformants and wild-type of six species without and with salinity applied in an appropriate manner. About half of all the papers report data on experiments conducted under conditions where there is little or no transpiration: such experiments may provide insights into components of tolerance, but are not grounds for claims of enhanced tolerance at the whole plant level. Whether enhanced

  10. SALT IN AYURVEDA I

    PubMed Central

    Mooss, N S

    1987-01-01

    In basic Ayurveda texts, Susruta, Caraka and Vagbhata, some quite specific Salts (Lavanam) have been described and their properties and actions are enumerated. By comparing those accounts with the present methods of preparation, conclusions have been made and evidently spurious methods are pointed out. The reported properties of Saindhava, Samudra, Vida, Sauvarcha, Romaka, Audbhida, Gutika, the Katu Group, Krsna and Pamsuja Lavanas are discussed in terms of their chemical constituents here and, thus, the authors establish its inter-connections. PMID:22557573

  11. Is Salt at Fault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-28

    because the kidney requires 3 - 5 days (and sweat glands Ve - : re -Q L0 dar ., to adant to full sal t-cc, nservino C. a r- a.CE i _"/ It h-so cEhoLLld -,e...TITLE: Estimating Salt Losses During Exercise 1. Measure your sweat rate (qt/hr) by weighing yourself nude on an accurate scale , before and after

  12. A Trail of Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

  13. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  14. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  17. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  18. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  19. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  20. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  1. Salt appetite in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

    2014-11-28

    The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite.

  2. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  3. Should we eat less salt?

    PubMed

    Delahaye, François

    2013-05-01

    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. There is overwhelming evidence that high salt consumption is a major cause of increased blood pressure. There is also a link between high salt consumption and risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, obesity, renal stones and stomach cancer. Reducing salt consumption leads to a decrease in blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. There are no deleterious effects associated with reducing salt consumption and it is also very cost-effective. Many organizations and state governments have issued recommendations regarding the suitable amount of salt consumption. In France, the objective is a salt consumption<8g/day in men and<6.5g/day in women and children. As 80% of consumed salt comes from manufactured products in developed countries, reduction of salt consumption requires the participation of the food industry. The other tool is consumer information and education. Salt consumption has already decreased in France in recent years, but efforts must continue.

  4. Diclofenac salts. III. Alkaline and earth alkaline salts.

    PubMed

    Fini, Adamo; Fazio, Giuseppe; Rosetti, Francesca; Angeles Holgado, M; Iruín, Ana; Alvarez-Fuentes, Josefa

    2005-11-01

    Diclofenac salts containing the alkaline and two earth alkaline cations have been prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX spectroscopy; and by thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): all of them crystallize as hydrate when precipitated from water. The salts dehydrate at room temperature and more easily on heating, but recovery the hydration, when placed in a humid environment. X-ray diffraction spectra suggest that on dehydration new peaks appear on diffractograms and the lattice of the salts partially looses crystallinity. This phenomenon is readily visible in the case of the calcium and magnesium salts, whose thermograms display a crystallization exotherm, before melting or decomposing at temperatures near or above 200 degrees C; these last salts appear to form solvates, when prepared from methanol. The thermogram of each salt shows a complex endotherm of dehydration about 100 degrees C; the calcium salt displays two endotherms, well separated at about 120 and 160 degrees C, which disappear after prolonged heating. Decomposition exotherms, before or soon after the melting, appear below 300 degrees C. The ammonium salt is thermally unstable and, when heated to start dehydration, dissociates and leaves acidic diclofenac.

  5. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  6. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  7. Studies of Absorption in Salt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Pressed Salt ........................................... 9 2.5.2 Natural Salt ........................................... 14 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ...micrographs with sufficient contrast could not be obtained. 2.3 Crack Decoration We found that the most effective method to enhance the grain boundaries and...corrections based on the methods developed by Johnson (1946), Saltikov (1958) and more recently discussed by Underwood (1968). Corrected values for grain

  8. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  9. Ammoniated salt heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. R.; Jaeger, F. J.; Giordano, T. J.

    A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat. Several liquid ammoniates are identified and the critical properties of three of the most promising are presented. Results of small scale (5000 Btu) system tests are discussed and a design concept for a prototype system is given. This system represents a significant improvement over the system using solid ammoniates investigated previously because of the increase in heat transfer rates (5 to 60 Btu/hr sq ft F) and the resulting reduction in heat exchanger size. As a result the concept shows promise of being cost competitive with conventional systems.

  10. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; ...

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  11. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  12. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  13. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.; Kramer, C. M.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Nissen, D. A.; Goods, S. H.; Mar, R. W.; Munford, J. W.; Karnowsky, M. M.; Biefeld, R. N.; Norem, N. J.

    1981-03-01

    Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage, molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures were used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use was at temperatures of about 4500 C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 6000 C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program was developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms.

  14. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  15. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-12-31

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated.

  16. Developments in Molten Salt and Liquid-Salt-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    In the last 5 years, there has been a rapid growth in interest in the use of high-temperature (700 to 1000 deg C) molten and liquid fluoride salts as coolants in nuclear systems. This renewed interest is a consequence of new applications for high-temperature heat and the development of new reactor concepts. Fluoride salts have melting points between 350 and 500 deg C; thus, they are of use only in high-temperature systems. Historically, steam cycles with temperature limits of {approx}550 deg C have been the only efficient method to convert heat to electricity. This limitation produced few incentives to develop high-temperature reactors for electricity production. However, recent advances in Brayton gas turbine technology now make it possible to convert higher-temperature heat efficiency into electricity on an industrial scale and thus have created the enabling technology for more efficient nuclear reactors. Simultaneously, there is a growing interest in using high-temperature nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen and shale oil. Five nuclear-related applications are being investigated: (1) liquid-salt heat-transport systems in hydrogen and shale oil production systems; (2) the advanced high-temperature reactor, which uses a graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel and a liquid salt coolant; (3) the liquid-salt-cooled fast reactor which uses metal-clad fuel and a liquid salt coolant; (4) the molten salt reactor, with the fuel dissolved in the molten salt coolant; and (5) fusion energy systems. The reasons for the new interest in liquid salt coolants, the reactor concepts, and the relevant programs are described. (author)

  17. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  18. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  19. Iodized salt sales in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-03-10

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  20. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  1. Early evolution of salt structures in north Louisiana salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lobao, J.J.; Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Several salt diapirs and pillows in southern and central north Louisiana have been studied using approximately 355 mi (570 km) of seismic reflection data and information from 57 deep well holes. Using seismic profiles with deep well-hole data is the most advantageous method to document regional salt tectonism through time. The following conclusions were reached on diapirism in the North Louisiana Salt basin. (1) The diapiric event began early (early Coahuilan) in the southern and central part of the basin, and later (late Coahuilan to Comanchean) in the northern part. (2) The initial diapiric event is much more abrupt and intense in the southern and central diapirs when compared with the later diapiric event in the northern diapirs. (3) Regional depocenter shifting, relative sea level, local erosion with salt extrusion, and rapid depositional loading of sediments are the major controls on diapirism in the basin.

  2. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  3. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal geometry of the Gorleben diapir reflect an asymmetric salt supply driven by an asymmetric differential loading. The Kłodawa Salt Structure of Poland is also an asymmetric salt structure driven by asymmetric differential loading from the overlying sediments. The KSS is a salt ridge built of Zechstein evaporite series located in the axial part of the former Mid-Polish Trough. This extensional basin was filled with Zechstein to Cretaceous sediments and was inverted in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene time. The diapir was triggered in Triassic above a basement fault. In late Triassic, after intruding cover sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir was upbuilt by the sand cover above the basement fault. The ductile layer was allowed to extrude a wide overhang at the model "late Triassic" time. The diapir was later downbuilt

  4. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  5. Synthesis of Quaternary Heterocyclic Salts

    PubMed Central

    Winstead, Angela J.; Nyambura, Grace; Matthews, Rachael; Toney, Deveine; Oyaghire, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The microwave synthesis of twenty quaternary ammonium salts is described. The syntheses feature comparable yields to conventional synthetic methods reported in the current literature with reduced reaction times and the absence of solvent or minimal solvent. PMID:24256924

  6. Nucleophilic arylation with tetraarylphosphonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zuyong; Lin, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Organic phosphonium salts have served as important intermediates in synthetic chemistry. But the use of a substituent on the positive phosphorus as a nucleophile to construct C–C bond remains a significant challenge. Here we report an efficient transition-metal-free protocol for the direct nucleophilic arylation of carbonyls and imines with tetraarylphosphonium salts in the presence of caesium carbonate. The aryl nucleophile generated from phosphonium salt shows low basicity and good nucleophilicity, as evidenced by the successful conversion of enolizable aldehydes and ketones. The reaction is not particularly sensitive to water, shows wide substrate scope, and is compatible with a variety of functional groups including cyano and ester groups. Compared with the arylmetallic reagents that are usually moisture sensitive, the phosphonium salts are shelf-stable and can be easily handled. PMID:26822205

  7. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  8. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Ammari, Manel; Mssedi, Dorsaf; Benzerti, Maali; Snoussi, Sana; Abdelly, C

    2010-09-01

    Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.

  10. Sedimentation dynamics about salt features

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Blake, D.W.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed side-scan sonar and gridded bathymetric surveys on continental margins reveal the existence of numerous submarine canyons. Recently published compilations of current velocities in submarine canyons indicate that alternating and undirectionaly flows often exceed 20-30 cm/sec with peak velocities ranging from 70 to 100 cm/sec. Current meters attached to the ocean floor have been lost at current velocities of 190 cm/sec. Such velocities are ample to transport sand-size sediments. The results of DSDP Leg 96 show the existence of massive sands and gravels on the Louisiana slope, deposited during the last glacial advance. Thus, present physical oceanographic data may be an analog to conditions during glacially induced lowered sea levels. Salt ridges and domes underlie much of the Louisiana slope, determining morphology. Submarine canyons lace the slope. Given a prograding shelf, the net sediment transport routes will be down the submarine canyons. Sediment deposition patterns around the salt ridges and domes include parallel-bedded foredrifts on the upslope side, lee drifts on the downslope side, and moats along the lateral flanks of the salt features. Major differences exist between the sedimentation patterns around a ridge and a dome. The size and shape of the flow pattern will determine whether there can be a flow over the salt feature with a resulting turbulent wave that may influence sedimentation. Sedimentation patterns about salt features on the present slope should be applicable to similar paleoenvironments.

  11. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  12. COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF BILE SALTS IN BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Hagey, Lee R.; Vidal, Nicolas; Hofmann, Alan F.; Krasowski, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are important in lipid digestion and shaping of the gut microflora. There have been limited studies of bile-salt variation in birds. The purpose of our study was to determine bile-salt variation among birds and relate this variation to current avian phylogenies and hypotheses on the evolution of bile salt pathways. We determined the biliary bile-salt composition of 405 phylogenetically diverse bird species, including 7 paleognath species. Bile salt profiles were generally stable within bird families. Complex bile-salt profiles were more common in omnivores and herbivores than in carnivores. The structural variation of bile salts in birds is extensive and comparable to that seen in surveys of bile salts in reptiles and mammals. Birds produce many of the bile salts found throughout nonavian vertebrates and some previously uncharacterized bile salts. One difference between birds and other vertebrates is extensive hydroxylation of carbon-16 of bile salts in bird species. Comparison of our data set of bird bile salts with that of other vertebrates, especially reptiles, allowed us to infer evolutionary changes in the bile salt synthetic pathway. PMID:21113274

  13. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Salt release from potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Fisk, Ian D

    2012-04-01

    The rate of salt release in-mouth from salted potato crisps was evaluated. It was hypothesised that a slow steady release of sodium would occur on chewing and hydration; to test this a crisp was chewed and held in the oral cavity without swallowing for 60 s. Sodium release was measured over the entire holding period, after 20-30 s a peak in salivary sodium levels was recorded. A similar trend was observed with sensory perceived saltiness by trained panellists. The results suggest that a significant proportion of the crisp's salt flavouring is released in a pulse-type mechanism which would not be encountered when the crisp is exposed to normal eating patterns and would result in the consumption of a large proportion of unperceived sodium.

  15. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  16. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  17. Salt: important element, invisible menace.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2012-11-01

    Public health authorities have mounted campaigns aimed at educating Americans about the obesity epidemic and urging them to consume less sugar. Another food additive-salt-is also a culprit, and many experts believe it should be the target of our next major public health campaign. In addition to obesity, salt is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease (especially hypertension), gastric cancer, and osteoporosis. Most Americans consume much more salt than they need or is healthy, with up to 75% of it coming from prepared foods. To be successful, these campaigns must educate young consumers. These campaigns must also incorporate food manufacturers and change our dining environments so that low-sodium foods are accessible and affordable.

  18. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  19. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  20. Microplastic Pollution in Table Salts from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongqi; Shi, Huahong; Li, Lan; Li, Jiana; Jabeen, Khalida; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu

    2015-11-17

    Microplastics have been found in seas all over the world. We hypothesize that sea salts might contain microplastics, because they are directly supplied by seawater. To test our hypothesis, we collected 15 brands of sea salts, lake salts, and rock/well salts from supermarkets throughout China. The microplastics content was 550-681 particles/kg in sea salts, 43-364 particles/kg in lake salts, and 7-204 particles/kg in rock/well salts. In sea salts, fragments and fibers were the prevalent types of particles compared with pellets and sheets. Microplastics measuring less than 200 μm represented the majority of the particles, accounting for 55% of the total microplastics, and the most common microplastics were polyethylene terephthalate, followed by polyethylene and cellophane in sea salts. The abundance of microplastics in sea salts was significantly higher than that in lake salts and rock/well salts. This result indicates that sea products, such as sea salts, are contaminated by microplastics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on microplastic pollution in abiotic sea products.

  1. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  2. Cathode for molten salt batteries

    DOEpatents

    Mamantov, Gleb; Marassi, Roberto

    1977-01-01

    A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlCl.sub.3 and MCl having a molar ratio of AlCl.sub.3 /MCl from greater than 50.0/50.0 to 80/20.

  3. Infrared Spectrometry of Inorganic Salts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Martin N.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment which uses infrared spectroscopy to analyze inorganic ions and thereby serves to introduce an important instrumental method of analysis. Presents a table of eight anions and the ammonium ion with the frequencies of their normal modes, as well as the spectra of three sulfate salts. (RR)

  4. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 016 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND CYANIDE SALTS ( CAS No . various ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  5. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union’s free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  6. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  7. Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.L.

    1996-06-17

    Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

  8. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  9. Cardiovascular and other effects of salt consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2013-01-01

    Salt is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure and increased cardiovascular risk worldwide. However, a high salt intake has other adverse effects beyond those involving the cardiovascular system, so that there is renewed interest in the relationships between high salt intake and other diseases. PMID:25019010

  10. DEVELOPING INDICATORS OF SALT MARSH HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We relate plant zonation in salt marshes to key ecosystem services such as erosion control and wildlife habitat. Ten salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, with similar geological bedrock and sea exchange, were identified to examine plant zonation. Sub-watersheds adjacent to the salt ...

  11. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  14. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  16. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  17. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  18. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  19. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  1. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  2. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  3. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  4. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  5. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  6. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  8. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  9. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  13. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  14. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  15. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  18. Reactivity of pyrylium salts toward basic reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidlein, R.; Witerzens, P.

    1981-01-01

    The reactivity of some N-acyl and N-sulfonyl-hydrazines 2-4, 10a-10g, 12, 13, 16a, 16b and of hydrazones 18, benzyldihydrazone 21 towards pyrylium salts 1 was examined. By reaction of 2,4,6-trimethyl-pyrylium salt 1 with substituted hydrazines some pyridinium salts were obtained. Relationships between basicity and reactivity were discussed.

  19. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  1. Pharmaceutical salts: a summary on doses of salt formers from the Orange Book.

    PubMed

    Saal, C; Becker, A

    2013-07-16

    Over half of the active pharmaceutical ingredients currently approved within the US are pharmaceutical salts. Selection of suitable pharmaceutical salts is carried out during late research or early development phase. Therefore several properties of different pharmaceutical salts of a new chemical entity are assessed during salt screening and salt selection. This typically includes physico-chemical behavior, dissolution rate and pharmacokinetics of a pharmaceutical salt. Beyond these properties also toxicological aspects have to be taken into account. As a starting point for a toxicological assessment we present an overview of the usage of pharmaceutical salts as described in the FDA's Orange Book including maximum daily doses for the most important administration routes.

  2. Dry Creek salt dome, Mississippi Interior Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.; Ericksen, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Recent drilling of salt dome flanks in the Mississippi Salt basin has resulted in important new discoveries and the opening of a frontier play. This play is focused on gas/condensate reserves in several Cretaceous formations, most notably the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw and lower Tuscaloosa intervals and Lower Cretaceous Paluxy and Hosston formations. As many as eight domes have been drilled thus far; sandstones in the upper Hosston Formation comprise the primary target. Production has been as high as 3-5 Mcf and 500-1200 bbl of condensate per day, with estimated ultimate reserves in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 MBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) per well. As typified by discovery at Dry Creek salt dome, traps are related to faulting, unconformities, and updip loss of permeability. Previous drilling at Dry Creek, and in the basin generally, avoided the flank areas of most domes, due to geologic models that predicted latestage (Tertiary) piercement and breached accumulations. Recent data from Dry Creek and other productive domes suggest that growth was episodic and that piercement of Tertiary strata did not affect deeper reservoirs charged with hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  4. Community solar salt production in Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa’s riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans. Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1–2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested. Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced. The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa’s history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the

  5. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  6. Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

    2006-01-01

    Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

  7. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which have been proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The salt composition of greatest interest is drawsalt, nominally a 50-50 molar mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3 with a melting point of 220 C. Several technical uncertainties have been identified that must be resolved before nitrate based solar plants can be commercialized. Research programs at Sandia National Laboratories, universities, and industrial suppliers have been implemented to resolve these technical uncertainties. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications such as the repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration program are presented.

  8. The taste of table salt.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D

    2015-03-01

    Solutions of table salt (NaCl) elicit several tastes, including of course saltiness but also sweet, sour, and bitter. This brief review touches on some of the mileposts concerning what is known about taste transduction for the Na(+) ion, the main contributor to saltiness. Electrophysiological recordings, initially from single gustatory nerve fibers, and later, integrated impulse activity from gustatory nerves led researchers to predict that Na(+) ions interacted with a surface molecule. Subsequent studies have resolved that this molecule is likely to be an epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. Other Na(+) transduction mechanisms are also present in taste buds but have not yet been identified. The specific type(s) of taste cells responsible for salt taste also remains unknown.

  9. Molten nitrate salt materials studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. M.

    1981-03-01

    An overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program is presented. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which were proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications are presented.

  10. Novel Paradigms of Salt and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenguang; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Sanders, Paul W

    2017-02-20

    Salt resistance/sensitivity refers specifically to the effect of dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake on BP. Increased dietary salt intake promotes an early and uniform expansion of extracellular fluid volume and increased cardiac output. To compensate for these hemodynamic changes and maintain constant BP in salt resistance, renal and peripheral vascular resistance falls and is associated with an increase in production of nitric oxide. In contrast, the decline in peripheral vascular resistance and the increase in nitric oxide are impaired or absent in salt sensitivity, promoting an increase in BP in these individuals. Endothelial dysfunction may pose a particularly significant risk factor in the development of salt sensitivity and subsequent hypertension. Vulnerable salt-sensitive populations may have in common underlying endothelial dysfunction due to genetic or environmental influences. These individuals may be very sensitive to the hemodynamic stress of increased effective blood volume, setting in motion untoward molecular and biochemical events that lead to overproduction of TGF-β, oxidative stress, and limited bioavailable nitric oxide. Finally, chronic high-salt ingestion produces endothelial dysfunction, even in salt-resistant subjects. Thus, the complex syndrome of salt sensitivity may be a function of the endothelium, which is integrally involved in the vascular responses to high salt intake.

  11. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  12. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  13. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    PubMed

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms.

  14. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  15. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  16. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  17. Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Misner, M.; Yang, L.; Gang, O.; Ocko, B.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ion complexation within cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films was found to affect the ordering process of the copolymer films during solvent annealing, significantly enhancing the long-range positional order. Small amounts of alkali halide or metal salts were added to PS-b-PEO, on the order of a few ions per chain, where the salt complexed with the PEO block. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains strongly depended on the salt concentration and the ability of the ions to complex with PEO. The process shows large flexibility in the choice of salt used, including gold or cobalt salts, whereby well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated inside the copolymer microdomains. By further increasing the amount of added salts, the copolymer remained highly ordered at large degrees of swelling and demonstrated long-range positional correlations of the microdomains in the swollen state, which holds promise as a route to addressable media.

  18. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR...EQUILIBRIA AND OXIDE SOLUTION RELATIONS IN MOLTEN SALTS ............................................. 2 IV. METHODS FOR DETERMINING SOLUBILITIES

  19. Louisiana slope salt-ridge continuity confirmed

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Hoffman, K.S.; Sullivan, N.

    1989-03-01

    The Louisiana offshore is a world-class hydrocarbon province. Abundant reservoirs develop as the result of interaction between salt tectonics and sedimentation. Thus, it is essential to know both regional and local characteristics of the extent and timing of salt tectonics as an aid in hydrocarbon exploration. Exploration mythology mandates that salt domes and ridges are virtually random across the slope area. In sharp contrast, the authors describe a definite pattern to the salt ridges of slightly concave (to the north) arcs, with the southernmost arc located along the Sigsbee Escarpment and the northernmost along the shelf break. Furthermore, salt domes may not be truly randomly located but rather part of ancestral or existent salt ridges. Confirming data are provided by dip bathymatric and seismic profiles. The bathymetric profiles are at 5-mi (8-km) spacings from 1987 published charts of the Gulf of Mexico. Dip seismic lines reveal that bathymetric highs are associated with underlying salt. Buried salt accumulations are surficially expressed by actual ridges and domes, a leveling of sea floor, or a local decrease in the rate of regional slope descent. Salt is the Neogene-age basement of the Louisiana slope. The existence of an overall salt-ridge pattern implies that there is a single dynamic geologic system controlling the evolution of this slope. As salt tectonic rates and timing are deciphered for specific sites along dip, intervening rates may be interpolated to unmapped zones. Confirming an overall salt tectonic pattern is mandatory prior to quantifying regional and specific rates for the whole slope.

  20. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  1. Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maru, H. C.; Dullea, J. F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.; Marianowski, L. G.; Ong, E.; Sampath, V.; Huang, V. M.; Wolak, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450 C to 535 C in the form of latent heat of fusion was examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures were chosen as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. Means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored.

  2. Advanced salt receiver for solar power towers

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, M.; Sanchez, M.; Barrera, G.

    1995-11-01

    Falling Film receivers constitute an alternative to the traditional Salt in Tube receivers, widely used and tested in the Central Receiver Systems. This report presents an innovative concept of Internal Film Receiver (IFR), in which a film made of a eutectic mixture of molten salts flows down the back side of a stainless steel panel. The installation with 550 kW nominal power, molten salt inlet temperature 300 C and outlet temperature 550 C is described.

  3. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O. M.; Drobchak, O. Z.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of urine salts in the normal state and with oxalate, urate, and phosphate salts. We found that the presence of pathological salts leads to a decrease of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional TLS bands with maxima at 118 and 205 K in addition to the characteristic bands at 173 and 260 K. The TLS bands are related to the urine components. The TSL intensities of urine salts of different chemical composition are compared. The thermal activation energy of the strongest TSL bands is determined.

  4. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  5. Helping crops stand up to salt

    SciTech Connect

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  6. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Amy B.; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  7. Salt formation to improve drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2007-07-30

    Salt formation is the most common and effective method of increasing solubility and dissolution rates of acidic and basic drugs. In this article, physicochemical principles of salt solubility are presented, with special reference to the influence of pH-solubility profiles of acidic and basic drugs on salt formation and dissolution. Non-ideality of salt solubility due to self-association in solution is also discussed. Whether certain acidic or basic drugs would form salts and, if salts are formed, how easily they would dissociate back into their free acid or base forms depend on interrelationships of several factors, such as S0 (intrinsic solubility), pH, pKa, Ksp (solubility product) and pHmax (pH of maximum solubility). The interrelationships of these factors are elaborated and their influence on salt screening and the selection of optimal salt forms for development are discussed. Factors influencing salt dissolution under various pH conditions, and especially in reactive media and in presence of excess common ions, are discussed, with practical reference to the development of solid dosage forms.

  8. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  9. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  10. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  11. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  12. SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

  13. Salt intake and reproductive function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Digby, S N; Chadwick, M A; Blache, D

    2011-06-01

    Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils.

  14. Noncentrosymmetric salt inclusion oxides: Role of salt lattices and counter ions in bulk polarity

    SciTech Connect

    West, J. Palmer; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2012-11-15

    The synthesis and structural features of a newly emerged class of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) are reviewed. The descriptive chemistry with respect to the role of ionic salt and its correlation with bulk noncentrosymmetricity and polarity of the covalent oxide lattice in question is discussed by means of structure analysis. These unprecedented discoveries have opened doors to novel materials synthesis via the utilities of salt-inclusion chemistry (SIC) that are otherwise known as the molten-salt approach. The result of these investigations prove that the bulk acentricity, or cancellation of which, can be accounted for from the perspective of ionic and/or salt lattices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and structure of newly emerged salt-inclusion solids are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt lattice and its symmetry correlation with polar framework are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preservation of acentricity is accounted for from the perspective of ionic and salt lattices.

  15. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  16. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the work is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture. 18 refs.

  17. Identifying acid salts of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

    1987-11-05

    In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

  18. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  19. Salt domes: is there more energy available from their salt than from their oil?

    PubMed

    Wick, G L; Isaacs, J D

    1978-03-31

    Calculations indicate that a typical oil-bearing salt dome along the Gulf Coast of the United States contains more energy in its salt than is present in its oil. The magnitude of the potential salinity gradient energy is even greater when all of the salt domes are considered.

  20. Investigation of salt loss from the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats study area is located in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in northwestern Utah, about 110 miles west of Salt Lake City. The salt crust covers about 50 square miles, but the extent varies yearly as a result of salt being dissolved by the formation and movement of surface ponds during the winter and redeposited with the evaporation of these ponds during the summer.A decrease in thickness and extent of the salt crust on the Bonneville Salt Flats has been documented during 1960-88 (S. Brooks, Bureau of Land Management, written commun., 1989). Maximum salt-crust thickness was 7 feet in 1960 and 5.5 feet in 1988. No definitive data are available to identify and quantify the processes that cause salt loss. More than 55 million tons of salt are estimated to have been lost from the salt crust during the 28-year period. The Bureau of Land Management needs to know the causes of salt loss to make appropriate management decisions.

  1. 250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  2. Physicochemical changes of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscle during salting.

    PubMed

    Chaijan, Manat

    2011-12-01

    The effect of wet and dry saltings on the physicochemical changes of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscle was investigated. Dry salting resulted in the higher rate of salt uptake into tilapia muscle facilitating the faster decrease in Aw (p<0.05). The pH of both dry and wet salted fish muscles tended to decrease throughout the salting time and the lower pH was found in dry salted fish (p<0.05). The increase in the protein content in the salting medium was found during wet salted tilapia production (p<0.05). The TCA-soluble peptide content tended to decrease with increasing the salting time in both salting methods (p<0.05), suggesting a leaching effect of the salting medium or the exudative loss occurred in salted tilapia. Wet salting caused the greater formation of metmyoglobin in tilapia muscle when compared to dry salting at all time points (p<0.05) and the content of metmyoglobin increased as salting time increased in both salting methods (p<0.05). A lowered metmyoglobin with a lowered redness index of dry salted tilapia muscle was found, indicating the continuous oxidation of metmyoglobin to other hypervalent derivatives and hence the discolouration of salted tilapia. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation of tilapia meat occurred with varying degrees in both salting methods and these changes depended on salting time. Dry salting resulted in a higher oxidation of tilapia muscle lipid as indicated by the higher PV and TBARS throughout the salting period when compared with that of wet salting (p<0.05). In conclusion, the physicochemical changes of tilapia muscle during salting are governed by the salting method and the salting time applied.

  3. Rheological contrasts in salt and their effects on flow in salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    The majority of numerical and analogue models of salt tectonics assume homogeneous rheological models, and consequently produce simple internal structures. This is in contrast to observations in salt mines and 3D seismic, showing complex folding at a wide range of scales, in combination with boudinage and fracturing, which point to large rheological contrasts in salt bodies. The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation can be both Newtonian and Power law. Dislocation creep and dissolution-precipitation processes, such as solution-precipitation creep and dynamic recrystallisation, both play a significant role and grain boundary healing in deforming salt may result in cyclic softening and hardening behaviour. The switch between these processes can cause major changes in rock salt rheology, at time scales both relevant to geologic evolution and subsurface operations. In the dislocation creep field, a compilation of laboratory data show that different rock salts can creep at four orders of magnitude different strain rates under otherwise the same conditions. Potassium - Magnesium salts are in turn much weaker, and Anhydrite much stronger than rock salt. Anhydrite - carbonate inclusions embedded in deforming salt bodies respond to the movements of the salt in a variety of ways including boudinage and folding. New methods of microstructure analysis integrated with paleorheology indicators observed in natural laboratories allows an integration of these data and the development of a unified model for salt creep for both underground cavities and natural deformation, including the effect of high fluid pressures in salt which lead to a dramatic increases in permeability. For example, modeling of anhydrite stringer sinking is an important way to obtain the long term rheology of the halite, indicating that the rheology of Zechstein salt during the Tertiary was dominated by dislocation creep. These form the basis of a new generation of mechanical models to predict the

  4. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  5. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  6. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  7. Acyclic telluroiminium salts: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Yuichiro; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamago, Shigeru

    2004-12-29

    The isolation, structure, and reactions of acyclic telluroiminium salts were disclosed. The delocalization of electrons on the tellurium atom and the partial double-bond character of C-Te bonds in the salts are discussed on the basis of X-ray molecular structure analysis, 13C and 125Te NMR spectroscopy, and molecular orbital calculation.

  8. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  9. Impact of thiocyanate salts on zein properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new class of zein plasticizer was investigated, thiocyanate salts. Ammonium (ATC), potassium (KTC), guanidine (GTC) and magnesium thiocyanate (MTC) salts were added to solutions of zein in 90% ethanol/10% water with various amounts of tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG), cast as films and then tested to de...

  10. Grains of Salt. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joly, Dominique

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume provides information on the origin and uses of salt, both in the ancient world and today. Topics are: (1) relationship of salt to the human body; (2) collection methods; (3) uses for human life;…

  11. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  12. [Global strategies to reduce salt intake].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Landaeta, Karen; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    Currently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide. High blood pressure is one of the main risk factors for the development of CVD and blood pressure levels are strongly associated with salt intake. Worldwide, salt consumptions accounts more than two fold the recommended daily intake, which has been described to be associated with CVD and some cancers. Benefits of decrease salt intake (reduction of morbidity, mortality and health related costs) have promoted several public health strategies to reduce salt consumption globally. Among the most commonly used strategies include educational campaigns and the gradual decrease of added salt in processed foods. Chile has joined these initiatives with an agreement between the producers of bread and the Ministry of Health to gradually decrease the concentration of salt in bread nationwide. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information regarding recommended intakes of salt, real intake, adverse effects of excess consumption, profits attributable to a decline and analyze the global strategies to reduce salt intake in the population.

  13. Salt glacier and composite sediment-salt glacier models for the emplacement and early burial of allochthonous salt sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.C.; Hudec, M.R.; Watson, I.A.

    1996-12-31

    Allochthonous salt sheets in the northern Gulf of Mexico were emplaced as extrusive {open_quotes}salt glaciers{close_quotes} at the sediment-water interface. Massive dissolution was suppressed by a thin carapace of pelagic sediments. During emplacement, several hundred meters of bathymetric relief restricted rapid sedimentation to outside the glacial margins. The glaciers acted as sediment dams, influencing the transport and deposition of sediment from an upslope source. Because of contemporaneous sedimentation, the base of the glaciers climbed upward in all directions away from their feeder stocks, and successive sedimentary horizons were truncated against it. The local slope at the base of the sheets is equal to the local rate of sedimentation divided by the local rate of salt advance. Alternating episodes of slow and rapid sedimentation gave rise to a basal salt surface of alternating flats and ramps, which are preserved. Many salt sheets have nearly circular map patterns but are strongly asymmetric. Feeder stocks occur near upslope edges, and base-of-salt slopes are greater updip of the feeder. The asymmetry is due to more rapid sedimentation at the upslope edge and to slower advance induced by the smaller hydraulic head between the salt fountain and the upslope edge compared to the downslope edge. Rapid emplacement of the Mickey salt sheet (Mitchell dome) from a preexisting salt stock took {approximately}4 m.y, as {approximately}1 km of sediment was deposited. A three-dimensional geomechanical model for the rapid salt emplacement yields the following relationship for the diapir`s downdip radius versus time: R(t) {approx} Mt{sup q} {approx} B[({rho} - {rho}{sub w})gK{sup 3} / {eta}]{sup 1/8}t{sup q}, where M, q, b, and K are constants related to salt supply into the sheet, {rho} and {rho}{sub w} are the densities of salt water, g is the acceleration of gravity, {eta} is salt viscosity, and t is a model time extrapolated back to zero sheet volume at t = 0.

  14. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  15. Salt intake, knowledge of salt intake, and blood pressure control in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Li, Ting; Lou, Peian; Chang, Guiqiu; Zhang, Pan; Chen, Peipei; Qiao, Cheng; Dong, Zongmei

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 2502 subjects was conducted to evaluate salt intake, knowledge of salt intake, and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. The blood pressure control rate was 33.5% among the hypertensive patients. Of the patients, 69.9% had salt intake higher than 6 g/d. Overall 35.0% knew the recommended salt intake, and 94.9% knew that "excess salt intake can result in hypertension." Altogether, 85.8% of patients had received health education related to a low-salt diet at some time. Patients who consumed less than 6 g/d of salt had a higher control rate than those who consumed more than 6 g/d (48.7% vs. 27.0%; χ(2) = 111.0; P < .001). Patients with knowledge of the recommended salt intake had a higher control rate than those without (45.8% vs. 26.9%; χ(2) = 91.3; P < .001). Our findings suggest a high salt intake and low blood pressure control rate among Chinese hypertensive patients. Knowledge of recommended salt intake is inappropriate for patients with education of a low-salt diet.

  16. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  18. 25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES OF THE SALT RIVER POWER CANAL, SHOWING HEADWORKS OF POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, October 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  19. 5. Monighan dragline at work in the Salt River at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Monighan dragline at work in the Salt River at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Expression of LeNHX isoforms in response to salt stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant tomato species.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Francisco Javier; Baghour, Mourad; Hao, Gangping; Cagnac, Olivier; Rodríguez-Rosales, María Pilar; Venema, Kees

    2012-02-01

    In general, wild tomato species are more salt tolerant than cultivated species, a trait that is related to enhanced Na(+) accumulation in aerial parts in the wild species, but the molecular basis for these differences is not known. Plant NHX proteins have been suggested to be important for salt tolerance by promoting accumulation of Na(+) or K(+) inside vacuoles. Therefore, differences in expression or activity of NHX proteins in tomato could be at the basis of the enhanced salt tolerance in wild tomato species. To test this hypothesis, we studied the expression level of four NHX genes in the salt sensitive cultivated species Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Volgogradskij and the salt tolerant wild species Solanum pimpinelifolium L in response to salt stress. First, we determined that in the absence of salt stress, the RNA abundance of LeNHX2, 3 and 4 was comparable in both species, while more LeNHX1 RNA was detected in the tolerant species. LeNHX2 and LeNHX3 showed comparable expression levels and were present in all tissues, while LeNHX4 was expressed above all in stem and fruit tissues. Next, we confirmed that the wild species was more tolerant and accumulated more Na(+) in aerial parts of the plant. This correlated with the observation that salt stress induced especially the LeNHX3 and LeNHX4 isoforms in the tolerant species. These results support a role of NHX genes as determinants of salt tolerance in tomato, inducing enhanced Na(+) accumulation observed in the wild species when grown in the presence of NaCl.

  1. Divergences in morphological changes and antioxidant responses in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice seedlings after salt stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hee; Cho, Eun Ju; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyoungwoo; Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Jae-Young; Lee, Sungbeom; Kim, Jin-Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2013-09-01

    Salinization plays a primary role in soil degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. We observed that salt stress reversed photosynthesis and reactive oxygen scavenging responses in leaves or roots of two rice cultivars, a salt-tolerant cultivar Pokkali and a salt-sensitive cultivar IR-29. Salt treatment (100 mM NaCl) on IR-29 decreased the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), thereby inhibiting photosynthetic activity. By contrast, the salt treatment on Pokkali had the converse effect on Fv/Fm and qP, while increasing the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), thereby favoring photosynthetic activity. Notably, chloroplast or root cells in Pokkali maintained their ultrastructures largely intact under the salt stress, but, IR-29 showed severe disintegration of existing grana stacks, increase of plastoglobuli, and swelling of thylakoidal membranes in addition to collapsed vascular region in adventitious roots. Pokkali is known to have higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-scavenging enzyme activities in non-treated seedlings, including ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase activities. However, these enzymatic activities were induced to a greater extent in IR-29 by the salt stress. While the level of endogenous H2O2 was lower in Pokkali than in IR-29, it was reversed upon the salt treatment. Nevertheless, the decreased amount of H2O2 in IR-29 upon the salt stress didn't result in a high scavenging activity of total cell extracts for H2O2, as well as O2(·-) and (·)OH species. The present study suggests that the tolerance to the moderate salinity in Pokkali derives largely from the constitutively maintained antioxidant enzymatic activities as well as the induced antioxidant enzyme system.

  2. Initial salt screening procedures for manufacturing ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tu; Wang, Yeh Wen

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to design initial salt screening procedures for manufacturing ibuprofen. Salt forms of a pharmaceutical acid racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-ibuprofen and their "developable" synthetic routes were ferreted out simultaneously through the screening of seven bases of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, L-arginine, L-histidine, L-lysine, diethanolamine, and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM), and the match with the use of nine organic solvents of methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, isopropyl alcohol, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran mainly in the presence of water in 20 mL scintillation vials. Racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-sodium ibuprofen dihydrate, a well-known ibuprofen salt and the newly discovered racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-THAM ibuprofen, appeared as white-squared powders with a molecular weight of 327.42 g/mol, a melting point of 160.17 degrees C, and the apparent solubility product, K'(sp), of 6.0 x 10(-4) M(2) at 25 degrees C were successfully synthesized by the initial salt screening methods. The new amine salt of ibuprofen was monoclinic and had a space group of P2(1)/c and lattice parameters of a = 17.578(8) degrees, b = 10.428(4) degrees, c = 9.991(4) A, alpha = 90.00 degrees , beta = 97.17(1) degrees, gamma = 90.00 degrees, and V = 1,817.05(244) A(3). The aspect ratio of the amine salt crystals of ibuprofen of approximately 1.0 implied that the crystals had a better flowability than the sodium salt counterparts. This amine salt of ibuprofen was more stable in moist or dried atmospheres and was more hydrophobic than the sodium salt of ibuprofen. Moreover, the slow dissolution of this amine salt of ibuprofen might have made it less bitter and more suitable as a sustained release drug than the sodium salt of ibuprofen. The future work is to search for the different polymorphs of this amine salt of ibuprofen and to extend the initial salt screening working logics to the formation of co-crystals.

  3. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Eight salt forms of sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Buist, Amanda R; Dennany, Lynn; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig; McPhie, Katherine; Walker, Brandon

    2014-09-01

    Proton transfer to the sulfa drug sulfadiazine [systematic name: 4-amino-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide] gave eight salt forms. These are the monohydrate and methanol hemisolvate forms of the chloride (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium chloride monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Cl(-) · H2O, (I), and 2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium chloride methanol hemisolvate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Cl(-) · (0.5)CH(3)OH, (II)); a bromide monohydrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Br(-) · H2O, (III)), which has a disordered water channel; a species containing the unusual tetraiodide dianion [bis(2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium) tetraiodide, 2C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · I4(2-), (IV)], where the [I4](2-) ion is located at a crystallographic inversion centre; a tetrafluoroborate monohydrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium tetrafluoroborate monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · BF(4)(-) · H2O, (V)); a nitrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium nitrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · NO(3)(-), (VI)); an ethanesulfonate {4-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]anilinium ethanesulfonate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · C(2)H(5)SO(3)(-), (VII)}; and a dihydrate of the 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate {4-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]anilinium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · HOC(6)H(4)SO(3)(-) · 2H2O, (VIII)}. All these structures feature alternate layers of cations and of anions where any solvent is associated with the anion layers. The two sulfonate salts are protonated at the aniline N atom and the amide N atom of sulfadiazine, a tautomeric form of the sulfadiazine cation that has not been crystallographically described before. All the other salt forms are instead protonated at the aniline group and on one N atom of the pyrimidine ring. Whilst all eight species are based upon

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of layered hydroxy salts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Nygil

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Ultrafast synthesis method was developed for the synthesis of layered hydroxy salts. ► Preparation of hydroxy single salt by this method requires only one minute. ► Hydroxy salts with variable Ni/Zn ratio could be synthesized by varying the metal contents of the starting mixture. ► This synthesis method is solvent free and environment friendly. -- Abstract: A simple one minute synthesis method was adapted for the preparation of layered hydroxy salts of copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium by grinding the metal salts with sodium hydroxide in a mortar. This solvent free method is environment friendly and fast. This method could be extended to the preparation of Ni/Zn hydroxy double salts. The Ni/Zn ratio could be varied from 1.2 to 1.9 by varying the metal contents of the precursor salts without the formation of any impurities in the sample. The prepared compounds had similar characteristics as that of the samples prepared by precipitation route. No sign of carbonate contamination was observed in any of the prepared samples.

  6. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Ayanna U.; Talaty, Nari; Cooks, R G; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Salt Tolerance in Miscanthus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Lin; van der Schoot, Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered mechanisms and traits that can be used to improve the yield under salt stress. Seventy genotypes of Miscanthus (including 57 M. sinensis, 5 M. sacchariflorus, and 8 hybrids) were evaluated for salt tolerance under saline (150 mM NaCl) and normal growing conditions using a hydroponic system. Analyses of shoot growth traits and ion concentrations revealed the existence of large variation for salt tolerance in the genotypes. We identified genotypes with potential for high biomass production both under control and saline conditions that may be utilized for growth under marginal, saline conditions. Several relatively salt tolerant genotypes had clearly lower Na+ concentrations and showed relatively high K+/Na+ ratios in the shoots under salt stress, indicating that a Na+ exclusion mechanism was utilized to prevent Na+ accumulation in the leaves. Other genotypes showed limited reduction in leaf expansion and growth rate under saline conditions, which may be indicative of osmotic stress tolerance. The genotypes demonstrating potentially different salt tolerance mechanisms can serve as starting material for breeding programs aimed at improving salinity tolerance of Miscanthus. PMID:28261243

  8. Ecogeomorphic Heterogeneity Sculpts Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, N.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    state for marsh boundaries, which would make the prediction of failure events impossible. Internal physical processes allowing salt marshes to reach self-organized criticality are geotechnical, biological, and related to the non-homogeneity of salt marshes whose material discontinuities act as stress raisers.

  9. Kidney, salt, and hypertension: how and why.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, K

    1996-06-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that the aberrant response of the tubuloglomerular feedback to salt load is the abnormality in the kidney in the genesis of essential hypertension. This thesis is based upon the following facts on the kidney, salt and hypertension. To effectively achieve the primary function of the kidney, that is, to maintain the milieu interieur or the extracellular fluids, the kidney must maintain a high glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and almost a complete tubular reabsorption in the face of limited salt intake or low ECF volume and in the face of changes in systemic blood pressure. Autoregulation of renal blood flow and GFR is therefore critical. In addition to myogenic responses in the resistant afferent artery, the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) plays a crucial role in the autoregulation of renal plasma flow and GFR through tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). That the JGA and TGF have appeared first in amphibian species in evolution suggests that the transition from aquatic sea life, where salt is always in excess to terrestrial life, required this particular structure and function of the kidney. Salt intake in the natural environments on land is very limited, and chronic excess salt intake is a habit peculiar to humans in recent culture or civilization. Thus, it is hypothesized that through evolution the TGF is primarily set to maintain high GFR in the face of low salt intake. We propose that aberrant TGF responses to salt loading may underlie the genesis of essential hypertension in humans. Indeed, hypertension is not seen in human cultures that ingest a very low salt intake.

  10. Salt, salted food intake, and risk of gastric cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2005-01-01

    Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer, its prevention is one of the most important aspects of Japan's cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the USA and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and the change in incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors, such as the intake of salt and salted food. In international and intra-Japanese ecological studies, the average salt excretion level, estimated using randomly selected 24-h urine samples in each population, was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Several case-control and cohort studies, including the author's recent works, have shown that a higher intake of some traditional salt-preserved food and salt per se, which was estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, was associated with a risk of gastric cancer. While salted food intake may increase the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection, it can also act synergistically to promote the development of gastric cancer. Based on substantial evidence about the association between salt and salted food intake and the risk of gastric cancer from ecological, case-control, and cohort studies conducted in Japan and other countries, as well as mechanistic plausibility, dietary modification involving less salt and salted food intake is a practical strategy with which to prevent gastric cancer.

  11. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer

  12. Diet and Physical Performance: Water and Salt,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    EQUIVALENT TO AN EARLY SALT DEPLETION DEFICIT Sweat Sweat Sweat Sweat Sodium NaCl Volume Sodium (mEq/L) (%) (L) (Total mEq) 75 0.43 8 600 40 0.23 15...I AD-A114 200 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE N TICK MA F/6 6/5 IDIET AN. PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE: ATER AND SALT (U) IMAR .2 R W HUBBARD...Water and Salt S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR() a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( ) Roger W. Hubbard 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

  13. Preparation of iodized salt for goitre prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Holman, J. C. M.

    1953-01-01

    The methods employed for iodizing free-running salts are discussed. They are not suitable for the iodization of coarse crystalline salts and a new process has been devised by the Chilean Iodine Educational Bureau of London for the iodization of open-pan and solar evaporated salts. This process is described and illustrated by photographs of suitable plants. Attention is drawn to the advantages of potassium iodate as an iodizing agent. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:13094511

  14. Phytotoxicity of salt and plant salt uptake: Modeling ecohydrological feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Rasmussen, Nikolaj F.; Feificova, Dagmar; Trapp, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    A new model of phytotoxicity of salt and plant salt uptake is presented and is coupled to an existing three-dimensional groundwater simulation model. The implementation of phytotoxicity and salt uptake relationships is based on experimental findings from willow trees grown in hydroponic solution. The data confirm an s-shaped phytotoxicity relationship as found in previous studies. Uptake data were explained assuming steady state salt concentration in plant roots, passive salt transport into the roots, and active enzymatic removal of salt from plant roots. On the one hand, transpiration strongly depends on groundwater salinity (phytotoxicity); on the other hand, transpiration significantly changes the groundwater salinity (uptake). This feedback loop generates interesting dynamic phenomena in hydrological systems that are dominated by transpiration and are influenced by significant salinity gradients. Generic simulations are performed for the Okavango island system and are shown to reproduce essential phenomena observed in nature.

  15. The science of salt: a systematic review of clinical salt studies 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Claire; Raj, Thout Sudhir; Trudeau, Luc; Bacon, Simon L; Padwal, Raj; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norm

    2015-05-01

    The authors provided a systematic review of the clinical and population health impact of increased dietary salt intake during 1 year. Randomized controlled trials or cohort studies or meta-analyses on the effect of sodium intake were examined from Medline searches between June 2013 to May 2014. Quality indicators were used to select studies that were relevant to clinical and public health. A total of 213 studies were reviewed, of which 11 (n=186,357) were eligible. These studies confirmed a causal relationship between increasing dietary salt and increased blood pressure and an association between several adverse health outcomes and increased dietary salt. A new association between salt intake and renal cell cancer was published. No study that met inclusion criteria found harm from lowering dietary salt. The findings of this systematic review are consistent with previous data relating increased dietary salt to increased blood pressure and adverse health outcomes.

  16. Mesoscale modeling of polyelectrolyte brushes with salt.

    PubMed

    Ibergay, Cyrille; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2010-06-03

    We report dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of a polyelectrolyte brush under athermal solvent conditions. The electrostatic interactions are calculated using the particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) method with charges distributed over the particles. The polymer beads, counterions, co-ions, and solvent particles are modeled explicitly. The DPD simulations show a dependence of the brush height on the grafting density and the charge fraction that is typical of the nonlinear osmotic brush regime. We report the effect of the addition of salt on the structural properties of the brush. In the case of a polyelectrolyte brush with a high surface coverage, the simulations reproduce the transition between the nonlinear osmotic brush regime where the thickness of the brush is independent of the salt concentration and the salted regime where the brush height decreases weakly with the salt concentration.

  17. TOWARDS DEVELOPING INDICATORS OF SALT MARSH CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five ecosystem services: water quality maintenance, erosion and flood control, recreation and cultural use, wildlife habitat, and food production were identified from the literature as key services to characterize salt marshes of high integrity. We describe a systems approach to ...

  18. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  19. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  20. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  1. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. Cross-reactivity of Halogenated Platinum Salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated platinum (Pt) salts are well-known respiratory sensitizers associated with the development of asthma. People may be exposed to a variety of platinum compounds in different contexts (e.g. occupationally, automobile exhaust). Published reports suggest that sensitizati...

  3. What's the Use of a Salt Marsh?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Raalte, Charlene

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes information about salt marshes, including descriptions of their development and structure, details of their values in terms of commercial fishing, stabilization of coastal zones, "reclamation" for grazing and cropfields, recreation and aesthetics. (CS)

  4. Salt-finger convection under reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    Salt-finger convection in a double-diffusive system is a motion driven by the release of gravitational potential due to differential diffusion rates. Because of the fact that the destabilizing effect of the concentration gradient is amplified by the Lewis number (the ratio of thermal diffusivity to solute diffusivity) salt-finger convection can be generated at very much reduced gravity levels. This effect may be of importance in the directional solidification of binary alloys carried out in space. The transport of solute and heat by salt-finger convection at microgravity conditions is considered; instability arising from surface tension gradients, the Marangoni instability, is discussed, and the possible consequences of combined salt-finger and Marangoni instability are considered.

  5. Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

  6. Classification of 17 DES supernovae by SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 17 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  7. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  8. Protective coating for salt-bath brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, A. C.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Ceramic coating, consisting of graphite, enameler's clay, and algin binder, applied to materials prior to salt bath brazing facilitates brazing process and results in superior joints. Alternate coating materials and their various proportions are given.

  9. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  10. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  11. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  12. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  13. Salt-thermal zeolitization of fly ash.

    PubMed

    Choi, C L; Park, M; Lee, D H; Kim, I E; Park, B Y; Choi, J

    2001-07-01

    The molten-salt method has been recently proposed as a new approach to zeolitization of fly ash. Unlike the hydrothermal method, this method employs salt mixtures as the reaction medium without any addition of water. In this study, systematic investigation has been conducted on zeolitization of fly ash in a NaOH-NaNO3 system in order to elucidate the mechanism of zeolite formation and to achieve its optimization. Zeolitization of fly ash was conducted by thermally treating a powder mixture of fly ash, NaOH, and NaNO3. Zeolitization of fly ash took place above 200 degrees C, a temperature lower than the melting points of salt and base in the NaOH-NaNO3 system. However, it was uncertain whether the reactions took place in a local molten state or in a solid state. Therefore, the proposed method is renamed the "salt-thermal" method rather than the "molten-salt" method. Mainly because of difficulty in mobility of components in salt mixtures, zeolitization seems to occur within a local reaction system. In situ rearrangement of activated components seems to lead to zeolite formation. Particle growth, rather than crystal growth through agglomeration, resulted in no distinct morphologies of zeolite phases. Following are the optimal zeolitization conditions of the salt-thermal method: temperature, 250-350 degrees C; time, 3-12 h; weight ratio of NaOH/NaNO3, 0.3-0.5; weight ratio of NaNO3/fly ash, 0.7-1.4. Therefore, it is clear from this work that the salt-thermal method could be applied to massive zeolitization of fly ash as a new alternative method for recycling this waste.

  14. DNA nanosensor surface grafting and salt dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Fagundes, J.; Martin, A. A.; Raniero, L.; Favero, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigated the Paracoccidoides brasiliensis fungus nanosensor by simulations of simple strand DNA grafting on gold nanoparticle. In order to improve the knowledge of nanoparticle environment, the addiction of salt solution was studied at the models proposed by us. Nanoparticle and DNA are represented by economic models validated by us in this paper. In addition, the DNA grafting and salt influences are evaluated by adsorption and bond energies calculations. This theoretical evaluation gives support to experimental diagnostics techniques of diseases.

  15. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  16. Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET ADLEE INVENTORY Physical Properties Data for Rock salt N DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION DJsbTRIuT10IN STATEMENT A DISTRIUTION...Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt )ata Book (see block 18) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S. 167RCORGRN NUMBER(n) SH. H. Li, R. A...Chemical properties -Electrical properties --- : Mechanical properties --Optical properties --Magnetic properties -- .1Theruophysical properties -Geological

  17. Organic Perfluorohalogenate Salts; New Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Cesium Hexadecafluorotriiodide Ion In an earlier report Hargreaves reported the results of a study on the reaction of iodide salts with IF5. It is...as methathatical reactions (Reaction 4) with cesium IF6- initially produced colorless solids which upon standing at room temperature decomposed. It...of the cesium salt of a complex anion with tetramethylammonium fluoride in an appropriate solvent (Figure 18). The reaction of Cesium fluoride with

  18. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  19. 238Pu recovery and salt disposition from the molten salt oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, M. L.; Stimmel, Jay J.; Wong, Amy S.; Ramsey, Kevin B.

    2000-07-01

    We have begun designing and optimizing our recovery and recycling processes by experimenting with samples of "spent salt" produced by MSO treatment of surrogate waste in the reaction vessel at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head. One salt was produced by treating surrogate waste containing pyrolysis ash spiked with cerium. The other salt contains residues from MSO treatment of materials similar to those used in 238Pu processing, e.g., Tygon tubing, PVC bagout bags, HDPE bottles. Using these two salt samples, we will present results from our investigations.

  20. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  1. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  2. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER AND BURNER. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO.sub.2 -balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C. making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C. and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

  4. Evolution of salt-related structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Several types of structures (piercements, turtles, and nonpiercements) are caused by salt movement. Reconstructions show that the emplacement process is basically the same for many geometrically dissimilar structures, but that the great differences of shape originated from different patterns of sediment loading, salt thickness, and basin evolution. The reconstructions are generalizations derived from numerous real examples to show timing, evolution of dip, origin of thickness changes and overchanges, how the salt-sediment volume exchange occurs, and diagnostic criteria to interpret these events. Such reconstructions help to discriminate between turtles and nonpiercements, to interpret lithofacies, and to unravel the role of sedimentary events on the structural evolution. In addition, they illustrate the mechanism of diapirism, using criteria to help distinguish diapirism in an overburden having strength (the mechanism assumed here) from diapirism in a viscous overburden (the classical buoyancy theory). In general, many piercements may start quite early (even before a density inversion exists) and move primarily by extrusion or may alternate between extrusion and intrusion beneath a thin overburden. The pattern of sedimentation largely determines the pattern of diapirism. In contrast, nonpiercements and turtle structures are passive features and may form whenever salt migrates away from them to an adjacent ''escape hatch.'' For example, nonpiercements may not form by salt rising vertically, but rather by salt moving away horizontally to some point of escape. In other words, the dome remains static while the overburden collapses into the rim syncline.

  5. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered.

  6. Interrelationships between downslope transport and salt tectonism

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, E.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Echo characteristics of high resolution (3.5 kHz) seismic reflection profiles were used to map the distribution of coarsely textured shelf sediments transported downslope by turbidity current and/or mass transport processes. Piston cores provided ground truth for the interpretation of sediment character; and multichannel reflection data showed the distribution of salt structures. Where salt is extensive but occurs in more or less distinctly isolated structures, it creates interdomal intraslope basins that are successively filled basins (i.e., the extent of downslope transport) may vary considerably over short distances along strike. Pathways may be clearly discernable or quite enigmatic. Where salt structures are more sparse, sediments flow downslope, around the bathymetric highs created by the diapirs, in broad or narrow valleys that are structurally controlled. Where salt structures are so extensive that they form coalescing canopies (lower slope), they broadly pond downslope flow. However, downslope flow may continue through the salt complex along channels following canopy sutures and transit the entire slope. The Alaminos Canyon Fan is evidence of shelf sediments bypassing the entire slope in spite of very extensive salt diapirism.

  7. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ<60° while a percolation threshold exists for θ>60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  8. Salt stimulated respiration of Chlorella fusca.

    PubMed

    Löppert, H G

    1976-01-01

    ATP contents have been measured before and after addition of KCl (5 mM final concentration) to suspensions of Chlorella in distilled water under different conditions of energy supply. The levels decreased immediately after salt addition and returned to the original values under conditions both of oxidative phosphorylation and of cyclic photophosphorylation, but not under conditions of fermentation. It appears that this decrease in the ATP level is the cause for salt stimulated respiration (S.S.R.). Furthermore, it is shown that cycloheximide and EDTA, which interact with Rb+ uptake (active and ATP-driven) at low salt concentration, also reduce S.S.R. From this parallelism it is concluded that the ATPase involved in Rb+ uptake at low salt concentration is also responsible for S.S.R. at high salt concentration. As S.S.R. provides far more energy than is required for the small influx of ions it is suggested that the ATPase is decoupled by the salt from ion transport.

  9. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  10. Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

  11. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  12. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  13. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  14. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24.00 and 2835.39.10 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China:...

  15. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  16. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  17. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  18. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  19. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  20. Gibsland salt-stock family in northwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Saucier, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    A semiregional isopach map of the Hosston-Sligo interval in north Louisiana suggests the existence of a salt-stock family similar to D. Sanneman's example in the Zechstein basin of northwestern Germany. The mother salt stock appears to be the Gibsland salt dome in Bienville Parish, which the isopach map indicates had a well-developed rim syncline during Hosston deposition. Withdrawal of salt into the Gibsland dome appears to have triggered the growth of peripheral salt pillows such as Vacherie, Minden, Athens, Sugar Creek, and Arcadia. Some of these pillows subsequently developed into salt stocks. The centrifugal or outward growth of salt structures continued with the withdrawal of salt from beneath the Minden subbasin into the Minden and Bistineau salt domes. This accentuated growth of the Sligo, Bellevue, and Cotton Valley salt pillows, which in turn triggered development of the Pine Island salt pillow in latest Early Cretaceous time. The growth of the salt structures progressed outward from deeper to shallower portions of the North Louisiana salt basin. An older salt-stock family may be centered on the Winnfield or Cedar Creek salt domes in the deepest part of the salt basin. Centrifugal growth of these stock should be discernible in seismic profiles. A knowledge of the relative ages of these structures is important in predicting sites of Lower Cretaceous reefs and hydrocarbon migration paths.

  1. SEXTON'S HOUSE. 200 NORTH N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SEXTON'S HOUSE. 200 NORTH N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18996, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  2. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  3. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  4. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  5. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts of furcelleran may be safely used in food... occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium) of furcelleran to the level that it is...

  6. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  7. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts of carrageenan may be safely used in food... occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium) of carrageenan to the level that it is...

  8. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  9. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  10. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  11. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature

  12. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  13. Salt sensitivity is associated with insulin resistance in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, N; Moreira, E; Cubeddu, L X

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between salt sensitivity and insulin resistance was investigated in nondiabetic, nonobese (body mass index < or = 28) untreated patients with uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Alterations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal were assessed by means of the insulin suppression test. Subjects were classified as salt sensitive and salt resistant according to their blood pressure response to low and high salt intake. Fasting serum glucose levels were within normal limits and did not differ between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives, irrespectively of the level of salt intake. Fasting serum insulin levels increased in salt sensitive patients when on a high intake of salt. The insulin suppression test revealed the existence of marked differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives. Much higher steady-state glucose values (nanomoles of glucose/ liter) were obtained during the insulin suppression test in salt sensitive than in salt-resistant hypertensives (7.4+/-1.6 v 3.5+/-0.1 under low salt; and 12.5+/-1.1 v 4.3+/-0.1 under high salt intake). The product of glucose times insulin obtained at steady state during low and high salt intakes were 2.5 and 5 times greater, respectively, in salt sensitive than in salt resistant hypertensives. Therefore, the impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal observed in salt sensitive hypertensives was present both under low salt (60 to 70 mEq/day) and high salt intake (300 mEq/day). However, it was exacerbated under high salt intake. These results suggest that untreated salt sensitive hypertensives have a considerable impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal because of a state of insulin resistance. High salt intake increased BP, induced hyperinsulinemia, and worsened insulin-mediated glucose disposal only in salt sensitive patients. We propose that salt sensitivity contributes, separately from hypertension, to insulin

  14. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials.

  15. Effect of counterions on physicochemical properties of prazosin salts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokesh; Meena, Chhuttan Lal; Pawar, Yogesh B; Wahlang, Banrida; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Jain, Rahul; Bansal, Arvind K

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of counterions on the physicochemical properties of prazosin salts. Salt forms of prazosin, namely, mesylate, besylate, tosylate, camsylate, oxalate, and maleate, were prepared and compared with the marketed anhydrous and polyhydrate forms of prazosin hydrochloride. Physicochemical characterization was performed in the order of crystallinity, hygroscopicity, solubility, and stability to select the optimal salt(s). Permeability study in Caco-2 cell lines and in vivo bioavailability study in rat model were investigated to ascertain their biopharmaceutical advantage. All salt forms were crystalline, nonhygroscopic (except the anhydrous hydrochloride salt), and had solubility in the range of 0.2 to 1.6 mg/ml. All salts were physically and chemically stable at 40°C/75% relative humidity, but degraded in UV-visible light, except the anhydrous hydrochloride salt. Prazosin mesylate was selected as the optimal salt, as it possessed higher solubility, permeability, and bioavailability, compared to the commercial hydrochloride salts. Hydrochloride salt is reported to have poor bioavailability that is partially attributed to its low solubility and extensive common-ion effect in the gastric region. Factors like hydrophilicity of the counterion, hydration state of the salt, and melting point of the salt contribute to the physicochemical properties of the salts. This study has implications in the selection of an optimal salt form for prazosin, which is suitable for further development.

  16. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  17. Quaternary geology of Vacherie salt dome, north Louisiana salt dome basin. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.R.; Holmes, J.C.; Alford, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    This volume comprises 14 appendices: lineations on Vacherie and Rayburn's domes (1977); possible geomorphic influence of Vacherie salt dome on the Quaternary fluvial geomorphology of Bashaway Creek (1980); remote sensing and analysis of radar imagery (1978); uphole seismic survey at Vacherie salt dome (1977); electrical resistivity survey at Vacherie salt dome (1978); pedologic investigations (1977); ionium-thorium dating of ironstones from terrace deposits, Vacherie salt dome, North Louisiana (1978); grain-shape and grain-surface studies (1981); the terrace concept - Gulf Coastal Plain (1981); interpretation of Quaternary sediments along lines of seismic shot hole (1976); topographic lows above domes (1977); structural significance of topographic lows above North Louisiana salt domes (1981); diagnostic microfossils - Vacherie dome (1978); and development of stratigraphy above Vacherie dome from Cretaceous to Sparta times (1982).

  18. Gamma irradiation of nitrate-based salts. [Hitec and Draw Temp. 430 molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Breon, S.R.; Chellew, N.R.; Clemmer, R.G.; Hoh, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    An experiment was devised to determine the radiolytic stability of two commercially available candidate salts - Hitec and Draw Temp 430. The salts were exposed to 0.8 x 10/sup 9/ R of gamma radiation in the /sup 60/Co facility at the Argonne National Laboratory and simultaneously heated to temperatures in excess of 530/sup 0/C. A helium gas stream circulated over the salts was analyzed for decomposition products. It was found that there was no observable thermal or radiolytic decomposition of either salt. Although the exposure was equivalent to only about 1 minute in a controlled thermonuclear reactor, the results were very encouraging and suggest that further experimentation on molten nitrate-based salts is warranted.

  19. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemia, Z.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-08-01

    The Gorleben diapir, which has been targeted for radioactive waste disposal, contains large blocks of anhydrite. Numerical models that depict the geometrical configuration of the Gorleben diapir are used to understand internal structure of diapir caused by movement of the anhydrite blocks for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 10 18-10 19 Pa s. Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously "stationary" anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir.

  20. Novel graphite salts of high oxidizing potential

    SciTech Connect

    McCarron, E.M. III

    1980-08-01

    The intercalation of graphite by the third-transition-series metal hexafluorides has yielded the graphite salts, C/sub 8//sup +/OsF/sub 6//sup -/, C/sub 8//sup +/IrF/sub 6//sup -/ and C/sub 12//sup 2 +/PtF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. The fluoroplatinate salt represents the highest electron withdrawal from the graphite network yet achieved. Analogues to the Os and Ir salts have been obtained both by fluorination of Group V pentaflouride intercalates, C/sub 8/MF/sub 5/ (M = As, Sb), and by the interaction of the dioxygenyl salts with graphite (8C + O/sub 2/MF/sub 6/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/MF/sub 6/ + O/sub 2/+). Non-intercalating binary fluorides have been observed to intercalate in the presence of a fluorine-rich environment (e.g., 8C + PF/sub 5/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/PF/sub 6/). GeF/sub 4/, which also does not spontaneously intercalate graphite, has been observed to interact with graphite in the presence of 2 atmospheres of fluorine overpressure to give the fluoroplatinate salt analogue, C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. This material is in equilibrium with the pentafluorogermanate at ordinary pressures and temperatures. C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/ ..-->.. C/sub 12//sup +/GeF/sub 5//sup -/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/. C/sub 12/GeF/sub 6/ must have an oxidizing potential close to that of fluorine itself. The graphite fluorometallate salts are both electronic and ionic (F/sup -/) conductors. For the C/sub 8//sup +/MF/sub 6//sup -/ salts, a maximum electronic conductivity an order of magnitude greater than the parent graphite has been observed for stage two. The high oxidizing potential, coupled with the fluoride ion transport capability of the graphite salts, has been exploited in the construction of solid-state galvanic cells. These cells use the graphite fluorometallate salts as electrode materials in combination with a superionic fluoride-ion-conducting solid electrolyte.

  1. Salt Mechanics Primer for Near-Salt and Sub-Salt Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Field Developments

    SciTech Connect

    FOSSUM, ARLO F.; FREDRICH, JOANNE T.

    2002-07-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is the most active deepwater region in the world and provides some of the greatest challenges in scope and opportunity for the oil and gas industry. The complex geologic settings and significant water and reservoir depths necessitate high development costs, in addition to requiring innovating technology. The investment costs are substantial: because of the extreme water depths (up to 8000 feet) and considerable reservoir depths (to 30,000 feet below mudline), the cost of drilling a single well can be upwards of 50 to 100 million dollars. Central, therefore, to successful economic exploitation are developments with a minimum number of wells combined with a well service lifetime of twenty to thirty years. Many of the wells that are planned for the most significant developments will penetrate thick salt formations, and the combined drilling costs for these fields are estimated in the tens of billions of dollars. In May 2001, Sandia National Laboratories initiated a Joint Industry Project focused on the identification, quantification, and mitigation of potential well integrity issues associated with sub-salt and near-salt deepwater GoM reservoirs. The project is jointly funded by the DOE (Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership) and nine oil companies (BHP Billiton Petroleum, BP, ChevronTexaco, Conoco, ExxonMobil, Halliburton, Kerr-McGee, Phillips Petroleum, and Shell). This report provides an assessment of the state of the art of salt mechanics, and identifies potential well integrity issues relevant to deepwater GoM field developments. Salt deformation is discussed and a deformation mechanism map is provided for salt. A bounding steady-state strain rate contour map is constructed for deepwater GoM field developments, and the critical issue of constraint in the subsurface, and resultant necessity for numerical analyses is discussed.

  2. Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.; Coburn, M.D.

    1984-05-17

    The ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol% of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO/sub 2/-balanced composition of 90 mol%, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

  3. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Salt screening and characterization of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezhi; Zhang, Na; He, Lan; Du, Guanhua; Lu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    With the aim of improving the solubility of ciprofloxacin, polybasic organic acids were utilized to react with ciprofloxacin in different stoichiometric proportions. The use of the solvent drop grinding (SDG) method, as well as the solvent evaporation method, resulted in the crystalline salts ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (1:1, 2:1), ciprofloxacin/maleic acid (1:1) and ciprofloxacin/citric acid (2:1). The solubilities of these salts in pure water (pH 7.0) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 310 K, with the salts showing considerably greater solubility than ciprofloxacin itself and, interestingly, ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (2:1) being more soluble than ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (1:1). Intrigued by this phenomenon, we undertook a comparison of the crystal structures of the salts: the three-dimensional sandwich-like structure observed in the 2:1 salt indicates that the preferred stacking may be a factor in increasing the solubility of ciprofloxacin.

  5. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali; Bilal, Salma

    2013-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  7. The transcriptome of NaCl-treated Limonium bicolor leaves reveals the genes controlling salt secretion of salt gland.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lyu, Ming-Ju Amy; Leng, Bing-Ying; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Limonium bicolor, a typical recretohalophyte that lives in saline environments, excretes excessive salt to the environment through epidermal salt glands to avoid salt stress. The aim of this study was to screen for L. bicolor genes involved in salt secretion by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We established the experimental procedure of salt secretion using detached mature leaves, in which the optimal salt concentration was determined as 200 mM NaCl. The detached salt secretion system combined with Illumina deep sequencing were applied. In total, 27,311 genes were annotated using an L. bicolor database, and 2040 of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 744 were up-regulated and 1260 were down-regulated with the NaCl versus the control treatment. A gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that genes related to ion transport, vesicles, reactive oxygen species scavenging, the abscisic acid-dependent signaling pathway and transcription factors were found to be highly expressed under NaCl treatment. We found that 102 of these genes were likely to be involved in salt secretion, which was confirmed using salt-secretion mutants. The present study identifies the candidate genes in the L. bicolor salt gland that are highly associated with salt secretion. In addition, a salt-transporting pathway is presented to explain how Na(+) is excreted by the salt gland in L. bicolor. These findings will shed light on the molecular mechanism of salt secretion from the salt glands of plants.

  8. Arabidopsis sos1 mutant in a salt-tolerant accession revealed an importance of salt acclimation ability in plant salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Hirotaka; Katori, Taku; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Hase, Yoshihiro; Nozawa, Shigeki; Narumi, Issay; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Tezuka, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Hayashi, Takahisa; Taji, Teruaki

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of the salinity tolerance of 354 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions showed that some accessions were more tolerant to salt shock than the reference accession, Col-0, when transferred from 0 to 225 mM NaCl. In addition, several accessions, including Zu-0, showed marked acquired salt tolerance after exposure to moderate salt stress. It is likely therefore that Arabidopsis plants have at least two types of tolerance, salt shock tolerance and acquired salt tolerance. To evaluate a role of well-known salt shock tolerant gene SOS1 in acquired salt tolerance, we isolated a sos1 mutant from ion-beam-mutagenized Zu-0 seedlings. The mutant showed severe growth inhibition under salt shock stress owing to a single base deletion in the SOS1 gene and was even more salt sensitive than Col-0. Nevertheless, it was able to survive after acclimation on 100 mM NaCl for 7 d followed by 750 mM sorbitol for 20 d, whereas Col-0 became chlorotic under the same conditions. We propose that genes for salt acclimation ability are different from genes for salt shock tolerance and play an important role in the acquisition of salt or osmotic tolerance.

  9. Arabidopsis sos1 mutant in a salt-tolerant accession revealed an importance of salt acclimation ability in plant salt tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Hirotaka; Katori, Taku; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Hase, Yoshihiro; Nozawa, Shigeki; Narumi, Issay; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Tezuka, Kenji; Sakata, Yoichi; Hayashi, Takahisa; Taji, Teruaki

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the salinity tolerance of 354 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions showed that some accessions were more tolerant to salt shock than the reference accession, Col-0, when transferred from 0 to 225 mM NaCl. In addition, several accessions, including Zu-0, showed marked acquired salt tolerance after exposure to moderate salt stress. It is likely therefore that Arabidopsis plants have at least two types of tolerance, salt shock tolerance and acquired salt tolerance. To evaluate a role of well-known salt shock tolerant gene SOS1 in acquired salt tolerance, we isolated a sos1 mutant from ion-beam-mutagenized Zu-0 seedlings. The mutant showed severe growth inhibition under salt shock stress owing to a single base deletion in the SOS1 gene and was even more salt sensitive than Col-0. Nevertheless, it was able to survive after acclimation on 100 mM NaCl for 7 d followed by 750 mM sorbitol for 20 d, whereas Col-0 became chlorotic under the same conditions. We propose that genes for salt acclimation ability are different from genes for salt shock tolerance and play an important role in the acquisition of salt or osmotic tolerance. PMID:23656872

  10. Little known mid-Paleozoic salts of northwestern North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.W.; Anderson, S.B.

    1984-07-01

    Four Paleozoic formations that contain bedded salts previously undescribed in North Dakota have been identified and mapped. They are the Silurian Interlake, and Devonian Ashern, Souris River, and Duperow Formations. A series of stratigraphically and areally discontinuous, thin, bedded salts has been identified in the Silurian Interlake Formation. As many as five, thin, bedded salts are present in the upper gray member of the Devonian Ashern Formation. Where found, these salts are stratigraphically correlatable but laterally discontinuous. A thin, bedded salt is present in both the Souris River and Duperow. These salts are laterally continuous with salts previously described in Saskatchewan. Although the occurrences of the salts discussed commonly are discontinuous, knowledge of their presence can be helpful in designing a drilling and testing program for wells in areas where they occur. Furthermore, a knowledge of the presence of these salts is helpful in understanding the overall tectonic and depositional history of the Williston basin.

  11. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mariner

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift.

  12. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  13. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  14. SALT segmented primary mirror: inductive edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Hitesh; Menzies, John; Buckley, David; Neel, Christian; Parbaud, Philippe; Royet, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    The development of an inductive edge sensor is in process for the control of the Southern African Large Telescope's (SALT)1 segmented mirror primary. The original capacitive edge sensing system was not capable of maintaining the figure of the primary mirror due to excessive noise and a severe sensitivity to humidity despite exhaustive attempts at characterisation1. The prototype of the inductive edge sensor has progressed to a mature industrialised version that is in the process of being installed and commissioned on SALT. The performance of the sensor in response to temperature and RH is very good with a maximum error of 10nm typical after temperature compensation. The noise and control characteristics of the array have been simulated in order to establish the maximum cumulative error and error rate tolerable for the SALT specific case. It has been established through simulation that over the expected 5 day alignment cycle, a maximum cumulative error of 30nm can be tolerated.

  15. Time resolved astronomy with the SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; McPhate, J.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Potter, S. B.; O'Donoghue, D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Schellart, P.; Spark, M.; Welsh, B. Y.; Zietsman, E.

    2010-07-01

    While time resolved astronomical observations are not new, the extension of such studies to sub-second time resolution is and has resulted in the opening of a new observational frontier, High Time Resolution Astronomy (HTRA). HTRA studies are well suited to objects like compact binary stars (CVs and X-ray binaries) and pulsars, while asteroseismology of pulsating stars, occultations, transits and the study of transients, will all benefit from such HTRA studies. HTRA has been a SALT science driver from the outset and the first-light instruments, namely the UV-VIS imager, SALTICAM, and the multi-purpose Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), both have high time resolution modes. These are described, together with some observational examples. We also discuss the commissioning observations with the photon counting Berkeley Visible Image Tube camera (BVIT) on SALT. Finally we describe the software tools, developed in Python, to reduce SALT time resolved observations.

  16. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  17. Molten nitrate salt technology development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

    1981-03-01

    Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

  18. Thermodynamics of salt-doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-03-01

    There is much current interest in salt-doped polymers as materials for energy applications. For example, a promising system for rechargeable battery applications consists of diblock copolymers of an ion-dissolving block, such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a nonconducting block such as polystyrene. Experimentally, it has been shown that the addition of lithium salts significantly alters the order-order and order-disorder transition (ODT) temperatures. In particular, the ODT temperature can increase substantially upon adding even a small amount of lithium salt, and the domain spacing in the ordered phases also increases significantly. Both changes are found to depend on the anion type. In this talk, I describe a simple theory for explaining these phenomena. A key effect is the solvation energy of the anions by the polymers, which we approximate using the Born solvation model. The difference in the Born energy between different polymers provides a driving force towards phase separation. By studying the shift in the mean-field spinodal of the disordered phase, we can identify an effective χ parameter, with a systematic dependence on the anion radius, in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, by studying the behavior of the domain spacing with salt concentration, we clarify the relationship between different definitions of the effective χ parameter. We propose that the effective χ parameter determined from the structure factor of the disordered phase is a more robust measure of the change in miscibility between the two blocks. Finally, we demonstrate that salt doping induces a strongly first-order transition from the disordered phase to the lamellar phase, with different salt concentrations in the two phases.

  19. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake. PMID:27668747

  20. Geothermal patterns of Louisiana salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.B. )

    1989-09-01

    Seven salt domes of Louisiana, in the shallow to intermediate depth ranges, were selected for the investigation of geothermal patterns associated with them. Equilibrium geotemperatures were determined from the bottom hole temperatures of wells drilled in the salt dome areas. Isothermal contour mapping was attempted for various depth levels, namely, 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 12,000, and 14,000 ft. Limited availability of data permitted construction of isothermal contour maps on some of the depth horizons for each of the domes.

  1. Cerebral salt wasting versus SIADH: what difference?

    PubMed

    Sterns, Richard H; Silver, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective arterial blood volume." With no gold standard, the reported measures of volume depletion do not stand scrutiny. We cannot tell the difference between CSW and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Furthermore, the distinction does not make a difference; regardless of volume status, hyponatremia complicating intracranial disease should be treated with hypertonic saline.

  2. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  3. Cerebral salt wasting in a postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Janus, Dominika; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Dolezal-Oltarzewska, Katarzyna; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Poplawska, Karolina; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW-cerebral salt wasting) was first described in 1950 by Peters. This syndrome can occur in patients who have sustained damage to the central nervous system (e.g. patients with subarachnoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis or after neurosurgery). Patients present with excessive natriuresis and hyponatremic dehydration. Differentiating this syndrome with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH-syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion), which may occur in the same group of patients, is necessary in order to administer the correct treatment which consists of fluid restriction and sodium replacement in SIADH and fluid and sodium replacement as well as occasional mineralocorticoid therapy in CSW.

  4. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  5. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  6. Numerical simulation of salt cementation in the porous rocks adjacent to salt diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, Raphael; Li, Shiyuan; Marquart, Gabriele; Reuning, Lars; Niederau, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Porosity and permeability are among the most important petrophysical properties of reservoirs rocks in oil systems. Observations during exploration indicate that in the vicinity of salt domes the porosity of reservoir rocks is often reduced by halite cementation. In this study we present results of simulating the process of salt precipitation near salt diapirs by using a schematic model of a Zechstein diapir in the North Sea basin. The numerical simulation is based on solving the transport equations for heat, porous flow and dispersive and reactive chemical species. Chemical reaction and equilibrium is based on the PHREEQC computer code. In our model over-pressured brine is entering from below and is deflected towards the diapir due to an intermediate layer of low permeability. The high thermal conductivity of salt yields a lateral temperature gradient starting from the diapir. Due to this effect the simulated temperature profile shows lower temperatures close to the salt dome than in comparable depths further away. Caused by the temperature-controlled solubility of NaCl in the brine and supplied ions by the diapir, halite first precipitates near the salt diapir by cementing the pore spaces and thus reducing the porosity. Salt-precipitation in the simulation starts after 840 000 years and reduces the porosity from 10 % to 5.5 % after 19 Mill. years. The permanent influx of brine causes growth of the cementation area and the related reduction of porosity in the reservoir.

  7. Archaeological and chemical evidence for early salt production in China

    PubMed Central

    Flad, Rowan; Zhu, Jiping; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Pochan; von Falkenhausen, Lothar; Sun, Zhibin; Li, Shuicheng

    2005-01-01

    Salt production and trade is thought to be critical to the development of all states and emergent empires. Until now, however, scientific evidence of early salt production has rarely been presented, and no studies of early Chinese salt production have provided unequivocal proof. Here, we report x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses that demonstrate that salt was the primary product during the first millennium before Christ (B.C.) at Zhongba in Central China. This work provides an early example of salt production discovered in China and presents a methodology for evaluating salt production sites in other regions. PMID:16116100

  8. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Adam M.; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A.; Peretz, Fred J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Wilson, Dane F.; Yoder, Jr, Graydon L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  9. Plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive rats decreases during high salt intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Tewolde, Teclemicael K.; Forte, Camille; Wang, Min; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Emmett, Nerimiah L.; White, Jolanda; Griffin, Keri

    2002-01-01

    Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)(2)D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats. Rats were fed a high salt diet (8%) and sacrificed at day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations of salt-sensitive rats were reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 2-when blood pressure and plasma 25-OHD concentration were unchanged, but 25-OHD content in the kidney was 81% of that at baseline. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration was reduced further to 10% of that at baseline from day 7 to 14 of high salt intake, a reduction that was prevented in rats switched to a low salt (0.3%) diet at day 7. Exogenous 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), administered at a level that increased plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration to five times normal, did not attenuate the salt-induced hypertension of salt-sensitive rats. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration of salt-resistant rats was gradually reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 14 and returned to baseline value at day 28 of high salt intake. We conclude that the decrease in plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration in salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake is caused by decreased 25-OHD content in the kidney and also by another unidentified mechanism.

  10. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  11. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  12. Stability of salt in the Permian salt basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, with a section on dissolved salts in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell; Johnson, Ross Byron

    1973-01-01

    The Permian salt basin in the Western Interior of the United States is defined as that region comprising a series of sedimentary basins in which halite and associated salts accumulated during Permian time. The region includes the western parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, and eastern parts of Colorado and New Mexico. Following a long period of general tectonic stability throughout the region during most of early Paleozoic time, there was much tectonic activity in the area of the Permian salt basin during Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time just before bedded salt was deposited. The Early Permian tectonism was followed by stabilization of the basins in which the salt was deposited. These salt basins were neither contemporaneous nor continuous throughout the region, so that many salt beds are also discontinuous. In general, beds in the northern part of the basin (Kansas and northern Oklahoma) are older and the salt is progressively younger towards the south. Since Permian time the Permian salt basin has been relatively stable tectonically. Regionally, the area of the salt basin has been tilted and warped, has undergone periods of erosion, and has been subject to a major incursion of the sea; but deep-seated faults or igneous intrusions that postdate Permian salt are rare. In areas of the salt basin where salt is near the surface, such as southeastern New Mexico and central Kansas, there are no indications of younger deep-seated faulting and only a few isolated igneous intrusives of post-Permian age. On the other hand, subsidence or collapse of the land surface resulting from dissolution has been commonplace in the Permian salt basin. Some dissolution of salt deposits has probably been taking place ever since deposition of the salt more than 230 million years ago. Nevertheless, the subsurface dissolution fronts of the thick bedded-salt deposits of the Permian basin have retreated at a very slow average rate during that 230 million years. The preservation of

  13. Salt and hypertension: why is there still a debate?

    PubMed Central

    Batuman, Vecihi

    2013-01-01

    More than a quarter of human populations now suffer from hypertension paralleling the marked increase in the dietary intake of salt during the recent several decades. Despite overwhelming experimental and epidemiological evidence, some still debate the relation between salt and hypertension. Pointing to some conflicting data in a few flawed studies, they argue that policy interventions to reduce the dietary intake of salt are premature and maybe unsafe without further studies. A brief review of data relating salt intake to hypertension, along with an overview of the history of the introduction of salt to human diet on an historic and evolutionary time scale, should help dispel doubts on the effectiveness and safety of low-salt diet. The recorded history confirms how rare and inaccessible salt has been until recent times. Like all other terrestrial life forms, humans evolved in a salt-free environment under intense evolutionary pressure for the selection of salt-conserving genes. Hypertension is a prototypical evolutionary maladaptation disorder of the modern man—a species exquisitely well adapted to low salt conditions suddenly confronted with salt excess. The World Health Organization and many governments have finally taken action to reduce dietary intake of salt, which already has started to reduce the burden of hypertension and the associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This brief review is to broadly look at the evidence linking salt to hypertension from a historic and evolutionary perspective as well as touching upon some of the epidemiological and experimental data. PMID:25019011

  14. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarmugam, Rani; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge. PMID:25470377

  15. Oscillations in a Linearly Stratified Salt Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Our physics students like to watch a ball bouncing underwater. They do this by dropping a weighted plastic ball into a 1000-ml cylinder filled with a linearly stratified salt-water solution at room temperature. The ball oscillates and comes to rest at about mid-depth. Its motion is analogous to the damped vertical oscillations of a mass hanging…

  16. A suitable model for emeraldine salt.

    PubMed

    Varela-Alvarez, Adrián; Sordo, José A

    2008-05-07

    A new mechanism for the formation of doped polyaniline is presented. Besides providing suitable structural and spectroscopic parameters, the new mechanism allows for the rationalization of the experimentally observed equilibrium between polaron and bipolaron defects in emeraldine salt. The magnetic behavior and the "metallic island" model for conduction in doped polyaniline are also theoretically supported by the new proposal.

  17. Mouse Model of Halogenated Platinum Salt Hypersensitivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. Concern for increased asthma risk exists for the general population due to the use of platinum (Pt) in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive. To investigate a...

  18. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Arnold B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the story of "The Perpetual Salt Fountain" to illustrate some fairly typical ramifications and vagaries in the workings of science. Outlines the discovery of double diffusive convection and uses the fact that it had been observed in the laboratory a century before its independent rediscovery to emphasize the vagaries of…

  20. Grating Formation in Diazo Salt (Sensitized) Gelatin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-03

    AD-AO8O 745 ARMY ENBINEER TOPOGRAPHIC LABS FORT BrLVOR VA " 7 *RATING FORMATION IN DIAZO SALT (SENSITIZED) GELATIN,(U) OCT 79 J V GLAOOEM...arrangements. The diffraction efficiency was measured as a quotient of the power diffrated into the first order beam and the power in the incident

  1. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  2. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  3. Formation of alkylaminium salts in particulate matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amines in the atmosphere derive from sources, such as sewage treatment and livestock feeding. The abundance of these amines in the atmosphere makes it important to determine how amines react to form particles, specifically amine salts. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber to determine the ch...

  4. Formation of alkylaminium salts in particulate matter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smog chamber experiments were conducted to determine how amines react to form particles, specifically amine salts, in the atmosphere. All of the experiments were performed in a smog chamber at University of California Riverside’s College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technolo...

  5. Preservation of hides using low salt methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, environmentally friendly, economical preservation of hides for shipping to hide processing plants is a major concern to the hides and skins industry. Raw hides are traditionally preserved with a high amount of salt before they are stored and shipped to tanneries to be processed into leat...

  6. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  7. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D; Miller, Laurence F

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  8. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Chlorate salts and solutions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Berget, Deanna J.; Adams, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    Chlorate (ClO3-) is an intermediate oxidation species between chloride (Cl-) and perchlorate (ClO4-), both of which were found at the landing site by the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL). The chlorate ion is almost as stable as perchlorate, and appears to be associated with perchlorate in most terrestrial reservoirs (e.g. Atacama and Antarctica). It is possible that chlorate contributed to the ion sensor response on the WCL, yet was masked by the strong perchlorate signal. However, very little is known about chlorate salts and their effect on the stability of water. We performed evaporation rate experiments in our Mars simulation chamber, which enabled us to determine the activity of water for various concentrations. From this we constructed solubility diagrams for NaClO3, KClO3, Mg(ClO3)2 and Ca(ClO3)2, and determined the Pitzer parameters for each salt. Chlorate salt eutectic temperatures range from 270 K (KClO3) to 204 K (Mg(ClO3)2). Modeling the addition of chlorate to the initial WCL solutions shows that it precipitates in concentrations comparable to other common salts, such as gypsum and epsomite, and implies that chlorates may play an important role in the wet chemistry on Mars.

  10. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  11. Polymer additives improve cementing in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, P. )

    1988-12-05

    Recently, new anionic aromatic polymers (AAP's) have been identified that simultaneously impart to salt-rich cement slurries improved fluid-loss control and exceptional rheological properties. At the same time, these materials do not significantly extend the slurry-thickening time or impair the compressive strength development of the cement. Thus, the casing strings are protected in plastic zones very soon after completing the cement job. The cementing of wells penetrating massive salt formations has posed a number of problems over the years. Contributing to the problem was the fact that some cements displayed poor characteristics in saline environments, and that conventional additives were of limited use in these systems. Other additives, designed for salt water, were found to provide characteristics far from the optimum, while at the same time causing detrimental effects on other slurry properties, notably rheology, thickening time, and early compressive strength. In several areas, the presence of salt domes and massive evaporite sequences cause problems in the drilling, completion, and long-term production of oil and gas wells that penetrate these zones.

  12. Fate of chlorate salts excreted from animals.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new pre-harvest food safety technology, based upon the oral administration of chlorate to food animals, selectively eliminates gram-negative pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella species in economically important livestock species. Residue trials have demonstrated that chlorate salts ar...

  13. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer…

  14. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  15. Cutting Salt a Health Boost for Kidney Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163628.html Cutting Salt a Health Boost for Kidney Patients Blood pressure ... Encouraging people with kidney disease to reduce their salt intake may help improve blood pressure and cut ...

  16. 5. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Salt River Project Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Salt River Project Archives, Tempe, Lubken collection, #R-273) Transformer house under construction. View looking north. July 1, 1908. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Transformer House, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 8. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Salt River Project Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Salt River Project Archives, Tempe, Box 8040, File 29) View of transformer house looking north. No date. CA. 1920. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Transformer House, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 6. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Salt River Project Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Salt River Project Archives, Tempe, Lubken collection, #R-295) Transformer house under construction. View looking north. October 5, 1908. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Transformer House, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y.; Revet, A.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  20. Salt, Chlor-Alkali, and Related Heavy Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommaraju, Tilak V.

    The chemical category of inorganic salts encompasses many substances that dissociate completely in water, but only one salt, sodium chloride, is referred to by the common name, salt. Sodium chloride is ubiquitous in both its occurrence and its many uses. To date, there are over 14,000 uses for salt.1 Salt is used as a feedstock for many chemicals including chlorine, caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), synthetic soda ash (sodium carbonate), sodium chlorate, sodium sulfate, and metallic sodium. By indirect methods, sodium chloride is also used to produce hydrochloric acid and many other sodium salts. In its natural mineral form, salt may take on some color from some of the trace elements and other salts present, however, pure sodium chloride is a white to colorless crystalline substance, fairly soluble in water.2 Also known as halite, the substance is an essential nutrient to humans and animals for proper bodily functions.

  1. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. 12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  3. Organic ionic salt draw solutions for osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Katie S; Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E

    2012-10-01

    This investigation evaluates the use of organic ionic salt solutions as draw solutions for specific use in osmotic membrane bioreactors. Also, this investigation presents a simple method for determining the diffusion coefficient of ionic salt solutions using only a characterized membrane. A selection of organic ionic draw solutions underwent a desktop screening process before being tested in the laboratory and evaluated for performance using specific salt flux (reverse salt flux per unit water flux), biodegradation potential, and replenishment cost. Two of the salts were found to have specific salt fluxes three to six times lower than two commonly used inorganic draw solutions, NaCl and MgCl(2). All of the salts tested have organic anions with the potential to degrade in the bioreactor as a carbon source and aid in nutrient removal. Results demonstrate the potential benefits of organic ionic salt draw solutions over currently implemented inorganics in osmotic membrane bioreactor systems.

  4. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants. PMID:25551682

  5. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake more than double the recommended daily limit ... did in 1999. Between 1999 and 2012, salt (sodium) consumption rose from about 2,900 milligrams a ...

  6. An innovative spraying setup to obtain uniform salt(s) mixture deposition to investigate hot corrosion.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Venkateswararao; Swaminathan, A Vignesh; Kamaraj, M; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2016-02-01

    A hot corrosion study via molten salt deposition and its interaction with creep/fatigue play a critical role in predicting the life of gas turbine engine components. To do systematic hot corrosion studies, deposition of molten salts on specimens should be uniform with good adherence. Thus, the present study describes an in-house developed spraying setup that produces uniform and reliable molten salt deposition in a repeatable fashion. The efficacy of the present method was illustrated by depositing 90 wt. % Na2SO4 + 5 wt. % NaCl + 5 wt. % NaVO3 salt mixture on hot corrosion coupons and on creep specimens, and also by comparing with other deposition methods.

  7. An innovative spraying setup to obtain uniform salt(s) mixture deposition to investigate hot corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannava, Venkateswararao; Swaminathan, A. Vignesh; Kamaraj, M.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2016-02-01

    A hot corrosion study via molten salt deposition and its interaction with creep/fatigue play a critical role in predicting the life of gas turbine engine components. To do systematic hot corrosion studies, deposition of molten salts on specimens should be uniform with good adherence. Thus, the present study describes an in-house developed spraying setup that produces uniform and reliable molten salt deposition in a repeatable fashion. The efficacy of the present method was illustrated by depositing 90 wt. % Na2SO4 + 5 wt. % NaCl + 5 wt. % NaV O3 salt mixture on hot corrosion coupons and on creep specimens, and also by comparing with other deposition methods.

  8. Nano-biphasic ionic liquid systems composed of hydrophobic phosphonium salts and a hydrophilic ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Satomi; Ichikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Takashi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-28

    A combination of a phosphonium-type-zwitterions-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide complex and a hydrophilic ammonium salt provides a nanosegregated liquid-crystalline matrix consisting of hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) domains and hydrophobic IL domains.

  9. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  10. Mercury volatilization from salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lora M.; Reinfelder, John R.

    2009-06-01

    In situ volatilization fluxes of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), were estimated for tidally exposed salt marsh sediments in the summer at the urban/industrial Secaucus High School Marsh, New Jersey Meadowlands (Secaucus, New Jersey) and in the early autumn at a regional background site in the Great Bay estuary (Tuckerton, New Jersey). Estimated daytime sediment-air mercury volatilization fluxes at the Secaucus High School Marsh ranged from -375 to +677 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive (land to air flux) in 16 out of 20 measurement events. At the Great Bay estuary, mercury fluxes measured continuously over a 48-h period ranged from -34 to +81 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive during the day and negative at night. At both sites, mercury volatilization fluxes peaked at midday, and cumulative mercury fluxes exhibited strong positive correlations with cumulative solar radiation (r2 = 0.97, p < 0.01) consistent with a light-driven mercury volatilization efficiency of about 15 ng Hg mol PAR-1 or about 0.06 ng Hg kJ-1. No significant correlations were found between mercury fluxes and wind speed, air temperature, or tide height at either site. Thus despite a tenfold difference in sediment mercury concentration, photochemistry appears to be the dominant factor controlling mercury volatilization from these salt marsh sediments. The average mercury volatilization flux estimated for the Great Bay salt marsh in this study (17 ng m-2 h-1) compares well with other micrometeorological mercury fluxes for nonpoint source contaminated salt marsh and forest soils (8-18 ng m-2 h-1) and is more than 10 times higher than the average mercury emission flux from land (˜1 ng m-2 h-1). Annual mercury emissions from salt marsh wetlands may be comparable to individual industrial emissions sources in coastal states of the eastern United States.

  11. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars

  12. Effect of temperature & salt concentration on salt tolerant nitrate-perchlorate reducing bacteria: Nitrate degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Nguyen, Thi Hau; Roberts, Deborah J

    2015-10-15

    The sustainability of nitrate-contaminated water treatment using ion-exchange processes can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin several times. Our previous study shows that the use of multi-cycle bioregeneration of resin enclosed in membrane is an effective and innovative regeneration method. In this research, the effects of two independent factors (temperature and salt concentration) on the biological denitrification rate were studied. The results of this research along with the experimental results of the previous study on the effect of the same factors on nitrate desorption rate from the resin allow the optimization of the bioregeneration process. The results of nitrate denitrification rate study show that the biodegradation rate at different temperature and salt concentration is independent of the initial nitrate concentration. At each specific salt concentration, the nitrate removal rate increased with increasing temperature with the average value of 0.001110 ± 0.0000647 mg-nitrate/mg-VSS.h.°C. However, the effect of different salt concentrations was dependent on the temperature; there is a significant interaction between salt concentration and temperature; within each group of temperatures, the nitrate degradation rate decreased with increasing the salt concentration. The temperature affected the tolerance to salinity and culture was less tolerant to high concentration of salt at low temperature. Evidenced by the difference between the minimum and maximum nitrate degradation rate being greater at lower temperature. At 35 °C, a 32% reduction in the nitrate degradation rate was observed while at 12 °C this reduction was 69%. This is the first published study to examine the interaction of salt concentration and temperature during biological denitrification.

  13. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  14. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  15. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  16. View of the Salt Lake City, Utah area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An oblique view of the Salt Lake City, Utah area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. Approximately two-thirds of the Great Salt Lake is in view. The smaller body of water south of Salt Lake City is Utah Lake. The Wasatch Range is on the east side of the Great Salt Lake.

  17. Supramolecular Complexes Formed in Systems Bile Salt-Bilirubin-Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Severinovskaya, O. V.; Golovkova, L. P.

    The formation of supramolecular complexes between bilirubin and primary micelles of bile salts has been studied. The association constants of bile salts and binding of bilirubin with these associates have been determined. The adsorption of bilirubin and bile salts from individual and mixed aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic silica surfaces has been investigated. The interaction of bilirubin with primary bile salt micelles and the strong retention in mixed micelles, which are supramolecular complexes, result in the adsorption of bilirubin in free state only.

  18. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  19. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  20. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  1. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  2. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  3. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  4. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  6. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    PubMed

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p < 0.01), whereas heterogeneity of ham aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products.

  7. Salt matters: How salt affects the rheological and physical properties of gelatine for analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, S.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Mojoli, G.

    2016-06-01

    Gelatine is extensively used as analogue material for the easiness to tune its physical and rheological properties. The addition of salt to gelatine is generally adopted to increase the density of the material, improving the scaling of the models. However, the way the addition of salt changes the rheological properties of gelatine is generally underestimated. Here, we investigate both rheological and physical properties (i.e., density and transparency) of type A pig-skin 2.5 wt.% gelatine at T = 10 °C as a function of salt concentration, cNaCl, and ageing time. We established a standard preparation recipe and measuring protocol, yielding to uniform samples with reproducible behaviour. Rheometric measurements show that the presence of salt weakens the gelatine structure, with a decrease of both material rigidity and viscosity as cNaCl increases. Salted gelatine behaviour moves from viscoelastic to dominantly elastic as the ageing time increases. Density and cloudiness also increase with cNaCl. Finally, we present results from subduction interplate seismicity models performed with pure and salted gelatines, showing that the modified material may improve the modelling performance and open new perspectives in experimental tectonics.

  8. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  9. Salt or cocrystal of salt? Probing the nature of multicomponent crystal forms with infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cameron Capeletti; Guimarães, Freddy Fernandes; Ribeiro, Leandro; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-10-01

    The recognition of the nature of a multicomponent crystal form (solvate, salt, cocrystal or cocrystal of salt) is of great importance for pharmaceutical industry because it is directly related to the performance of a pharmaceutical ingredient, since there is interdependence between the structure, its energy and its physical properties. In this context, here we have identified the nature of multicomponent crystal forms of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine with mandelic acid through infrared spectroscopy. These investigated crystal forms were the known S-mandelic acid cocrystal of lamivudine R-mandelate trihydrate (1), a cocrystal of salt, and lamivudine R-mandelate (2), a salt. This approach also supports the identification and distinction of both ionized and unionized forms of mandelic acid in the infrared spectrum of 1. In this way, infrared spectroscopy can be useful to distinguish a cocrystal of salt from either salt or cocrystal forms. In the course of this study, for the first time we have also characterized and determined the crystal structure of R-mandelic acid cocrystal of sodium R-mandelate (3).

  10. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  18. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  18. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate (``DKP'') and... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 1, 2010 (Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  3. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  18. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  19. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  20. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with... residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl...

  1. 23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. HEFU generator deck is at center bottom. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing general plan, plan of top chord, elevation of main girder, transverse section, plan section at deck level. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  3. 17. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919," showing plan of bars in top flange, elevation of girder reinforcement, plan of bars in bottom flange - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  4. 18. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919," showing elevation of center pier, elevation and plan of north and south abutments, sections of abutments, pier, and pier footings - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  5. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10114 - Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10114 Polyhydroxyaminoether salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyhydroxyaminoether salts (PMNs P-04-578, P-04-579, P-04-580, P-04-581, P-04-582, and-P-04-583) are subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN P-08-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10456 - Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10456 Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (PMN P-03-104) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9570 - Halophenyl sulfonamide salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. 721.9570... Substances § 721.9570 Halophenyl sulfonamide salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halophenyl sulfonamide salt (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10689 - Organo zinc salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organo zinc salts (generic). 721.10689... Substances § 721.10689 Organo zinc salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as organo zinc salts (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (PMN P-03-530) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10456 - Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10456 Tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tristyryl phenol alkoxylate salt (PMN P-03-104) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10569 - Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tricyclic quaternary amine salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10569 Tricyclic quaternary amine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... tricyclic quaternary amine salt (PMN P-08-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...