Science.gov

Sample records for los angeles urban

  1. Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

  2. The Urban Los Angeles American Indian Experience: Perspectives from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Rita

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the findings from two studies conducted in the Los Angeles urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) community. The research investigated the relationship between the American Indian and Alaska Native cultural values and the social problems that challenge the urban Native community in the greater Los Angeles and Orange…

  3. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  4. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  5. Governing Urban School Districts: Efforts in Los Angeles to Effect Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka

    2006-01-01

    Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…

  6. Evapotranspiration of the urban forest at the municipal scale in Los Angeles, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, E.; Pataki, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The severest drought on record in southern California and predictions of continued water shortages make it essential to understand urban water use. However, urban evapotranspiration (ET), which is an important part of municipal water budgets, remains a major uncertainty. Urban ET is difficult to measure and model, particularly in cities with diverse plant composition. The city of Los Angeles contains more than 6 million trees, most of which are non-natives that originate from multiple geographic regions, which further complicates predictions of urban forest transpiration. Previously, we made extensive in situ measurements of tree transpiration and turfgrass ET in greater Los Angeles area. Here, we utilize these data to systematize transpiration of different tree species based on physiological mechanisms underlying plant water relations. The resulting empirical model estimates Los Angeles urban forest ET from easy-to-collect plant characteristics and freely available environmental parameters. Plant characteristics are tree diameter, wood type (e.g. coniferous), phenological type (e.g. evergreen) and plant composition. Environmental parameters are vapor pressure deficit of the air, incoming solar radiation and reference ET (all available at http://cimis.water.ca.gov). By combining this model with existing surveys of urban trees in Los Angeles, we estimated that citywide ET of irrigated landscapes varies from 1.2 ± 0.5 mm/d in winter to 2.8 ± 1.1 mm/d in summer. On average, trees and turfgrass contributed 27% and 73% to total tree+turfgrass ET, correspondingly. To our knowledge, this model provides the first citywide estimates of Los Angeles ET differentiated by wood types and plant composition. These results will inform decision makers about species-specific water use by urban trees and assist with determining landscape designs that are beneficial for water conservation. This model may also be incorporated into a regional hydrologic model to provide spatially

  7. Variability of site response in the Los Angeles urban area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Cranswick, E.; Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Meremonte, M.

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses the variability of site response in the Los Angeles area and possible structural causes for the observations. Aftershock records from 231 sites in the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins and the surrounding mountains are used in this study. Spectral ratios, taken with respect to a low-amplitude reference site, are used to document the variation in site amplification in the frequency range 2 to 6 Hz, both spatially and with backazimuth to the source. At higher frequencies (6 to 10 Hz), spectral ratios are shown to have greater spatial variability. Interstation spectral ratios are used to measure the standard deviation among sources as a function of station separation. An increase in the variation in ground motion is shown to take place at a station separation of 1 km. Relative site-response estimates between nearby stations are used to demonstrate that preferred directions of motion can exist even in areas with no surface topographic effects. Significant variations in site response exist over short baselines (up to a factor of 2 over 200 m) that are not explained by differences in surficial geology or shallow shear-wave velocity. A variety of investigative approaches is used, including spectral ratios, arrival-time variations, 1D and 2D waveform modeling, and comparison with seismic reflection lines, to determine the most likely causes of these observations. A correlation is demonstrated between late arrival times of P and S waves and larger site amplification in Sherman Oaks and Northridge. This observation, in conjunction with waveform modeling and seismic reflection profiles, is used to infer that sedimentary structures in the upper 1 to 2 km and topography on the sediment-basement interface play an important role in determining site amplification. These structures, in the form of folds and buried basins, focus energy in spatially restricted areas at the surface. Comparison of displacement waveforms at nearby stations having disparate site

  8. Urban irrigation effects on WRF-UCM summertime forecast skill over the Los Angeles metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, we explicitly address the impacts of urban irrigation on the local hydrological cycle by integrating a previously developed irrigation scheme within the coupled framework of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Canopy Models (WRF-UCM) over the semiarid Los Angeles metropolitan area. We focus on the impacts of irrigation on the urban water cycle and atmospheric feedback. Our results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of WRF-UCM simulated surface turbulent fluxes to the incorporation of urban irrigation. Introducing anthropogenic moisture, vegetated pixels show a shift in the energy partitioning toward elevated latent heat fluxes. The cooling effects of irrigation on daily peak air temperatures are evident over all three urban types, with the largest influence over low-intensity residential areas (average cooling of 1.64°C). The evaluation of model performance via comparison against CIMIS (California Irrigation Management Information System) evapotranspiration (ET) estimates indicates that WRF-UCM, after adding irrigation, performs reasonably during the course of the month of July, tracking day-to-day variability of ET with notable consistency. In the nonirrigated case, CIMIS-based ET fluctuations are significantly underestimated by the model. Our analysis shows the importance of accurate representation of urban irrigation in modeling studies, especially over water-scarce regions such as the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We also illustrate that the impacts of irrigation on simulated energy and water cycles are more critical for longer-term simulations due to the interactions between irrigation and soil moisture fluctuations.

  9. Spatial patterns and source attribution of urban methane in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Francesca M.; Kort, Eric A.; Bush, Susan E.; Ehleringer, James R.; Lai, Chun-Ta; Blake, Donald R.; Randerson, James T.

    2016-03-01

    Urban areas are increasingly recognized as a globally important source of methane to the atmosphere; however, the location of methane sources and relative contributions of source sectors are not well known. Recent atmospheric measurements in Los Angeles, California, USA, show that more than a third of the city's methane emissions are unaccounted for in inventories and suggest that fugitive fossil emissions are the unknown source. We made on-road measurements to quantify fine-scale structure of methane and a suite of complementary trace gases across the Los Angeles Basin in June 2013. Enhanced methane levels were observed across the basin but were unevenly distributed in space. We identified 213 methane hot spots from unknown emission sources. We made direct measurements of ethane to methane (C2H6/CH4) ratios of known methane emission sources in the region, including cattle, geologic seeps, landfills, and compressed natural gas fueling stations, and used these ratios to determine the contribution of biogenic and fossil methane sources to unknown hot spots and to local urban background air. We found that 75% of hot spots were of fossil origin, 20% were biogenic, and 5% of indeterminate source. In regionally integrated air, we observed a wider range of C2H6/CH4 values than observed previously. Fossil fuel sources accounted for 58-65% of methane emissions, with the range depending on the assumed C2H6/CH4 ratio of source end-members and model structure. These surveys demonstrated the prevalence of fugitive methane emissions across the Los Angeles urban landscape and suggested that uninventoried methane sources were widely distributed and primarily of fossil origin.

  10. Expanding Urban Metabolism: Coupling Methodologies and Integrating Social Factors, a Pilot for Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, S.

    2011-12-01

    Urban metabolism is a powerful method for describing resource flows into cities and the waste streams produced as a result of resource use. To date these flows have rarely been geospatially correlated to reveal who uses what type of energy where and the concomitant waste streams. Thus there is little ability to understand energy use in urban areas. Additionally, the social and ecological footprint of the flows have not been drawn and explained. We are developing an expanded and integrated urban metabolism analysis for Los Angeles County, attempting to integrate socio-demographic and geospatial grounding of resource flows and sinks, as well as life cycle, cradle to grave information. This presentation will focus on the reasons for this approach and methodological innovations and challenges.

  11. A plot scale evapotranspiration model for urban landscapes in Los Angeles, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, E.; Pataki, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Southern California is experiencing the worst drought on record and facing more dramatic decreases in water supply due to regional climate change trends. In Los Angeles, evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated landscapes is likely to be a major contributor to the urban water budget. However, data on water use by irrigated urban plants is very scarce and ET patterns from urban vegetation are not well quantified. Methods currently used for estimating water use by urban lawns are mainly based on Penman-Monteith model, which depends on a set of empirical coefficients that are hard to define, as well as a simplified crop coefficient approach that has low accuracy. Previously, we performed continuous in-situ measurements of transpiration from 126 urban trees in the Los Angeles area using sapflux sensors and ET from 8 turfgrass lawns using portable chambers. Here, we synthesize the results of those measurements as well as literature data and construct biologically meaningful equations for assessment of ET from urban landscapes. The resulting empirical model is reasonably accurate yet relatively simple for managers to apply with basic weather and tree inventory data. It explains 72% of tree transpiration variability and 79% of turfgrass ET variability. The parameters of the model currently include vulnerability of branches to cavitation for trees, turfgrass area and percent tree canopy cover for lawns, and incoming solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit of the air and soil water content for defining environmental conditions. To give an illustration, the model estimate of the highest ET from a vegetated area in Los Angeles during a typical summer day is 5 - 8 mm/d (high transpiring street trees with turfgrass groundcover or unshaded turfgrass) and the lowest ET is 0.6 - 0.8 mm/d (low-transpiring trees without groundcover). The next step is to substitute vulnerability to cavitation, the only model parameter that requires laboratory equipment, with parameters that can be more

  12. Predicting tree water use and drought tolerance from leaf traits in the Los Angeles urban ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, G. P.; Scoffoni, C.; Sack, L.

    2013-12-01

    Urban green space provides a suite of valuable ecosystem services. In semiarid systems, like Los Angeles, trees rely primarily on irrigation water for transpiration. Managers may need to reduce irrigation associated with urban trees given climate change, urban expansion, and the steady decrease in available freshwater. While leaf and whole plant water relations have been extensively studied, we are only now gaining a detailed understanding of diverse leaf anatomical designs, and their use for predicting physiology and water use at landscape scale. For 50 diverse urban species, we quantified leaf anatomical and physiological traits important to tree drought tolerance and water use efficiency including turgor loss point, vein architecture, cellular anatomy, leaf mass per unit area, and petiole and leaf dimensions. We hypothesized detailed relationships to develop models relating leaf functional traits to tree water relations. These models provide key insights regarding the role of anatomical designs in leaf stress tolerance and water use efficiency. Additionally we predicted how traits measured at the leaf level would scale with existing data for individuals at the whole plant level. We tested our predictions by determining correlations between leaf level anatomical traits and drought tolerance. Additionally, we determined correlations between functional traits, physiology and water use, and the climate of origin for the urban species. Leaf level measurements will be valuable for rapid estimation of more difficult to measure whole plant water relations traits important at the landscape scale. The Los Angeles urban ecosystem can serve as a model for other semiarid system and provide more informed system wide water conservation strategies.

  13. Development of urban water consumption models for the City of Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2011-12-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanization coupled with uncertain climate change are causing new challenges for meeting urban water needs. In arid and semi-arid regions, increasing drought periods and decreasing precipitation have led to water supply shortages and cities are struggling with trade-offs between the water needs of growing urban populations and the well-being of urban ecosystems. The goal of the current research is to build models that can represent urban water use patterns in semi-arid cities by identifying the determinants that control both total and outdoor residential water use over the Los Angeles urban domain. The initial database contains monthly water use records aggregated to the zip code level collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) from 2000 to 2010. Residential water use was normalized per capita and was correlated with socio-demographic, economic, climatic and vegetation characteristics across the City for the 2000-2010 period. Results show that ethnicity, per capita income, and the average number of persons per household are linearly related to total water use per capita. Inter-annual differences in precipitation and implementation of conservation measures affect water use levels across the City. The high variability in water use patterns across the City also appears strongly influenced by income and education levels. The temporal analysis of vegetation indices in the studied neighborhoods shows little correlation between precipitation patterns and vegetation greenness. Urban vegetation appears well-watered, presenting the same greenness activity over the study period despite an overall decrease in water use across the City. We hypothesize that over-watering is occurring and that outdoor water use represents a significant part of the residential water budget in various regions of the City. A multiple regression model has been developed that integrates these fundamental controlling factors to simulate residential

  14. Site response for urban Los Angeles using aftershocks of the Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Leeds, A.; Frankel, A.; Michael, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-motion records from aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used to estimate site response in the urban Los Angeles area. Over 1300 shear-wave records from 61 sources and 90 sites are used in a linear inversion for source and site-response spectra. The methodology makes no assumptions about the shape of the source spectrum. To obtain a stable unique inverse, a Q model and geometrical spreading factor are assumed. In addition, the site response at a hardrock site is constrained to be approximately 1.0 with a kappa of 0.02. The site-response spectra compare favorably with the results of previous and on-going investigations in Los Angeles. A couple of first-order effects are lower site response in the surrounding mountains, dominated by Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, and higher values in the San Fernando and Los Angeles Basins, containing surficial Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits. Results show good correlation of high site-response spectral values with localized areas of severe damage (Interstate 10 collapse, Sherman Oaks, Northridge, Interstate 5/14 collapse). However, widespread trends in site response across the sedimentary basins are not obvious. The data suggest that site responses are lower near the southern margin of the San Fernando Valley for sources to the north, due to north-dipping sedimentary structures. But the general pattern of site response is characterized by high variability on length scales less than a kilometer. Variations of a factor of 2 in site response are observed over the length scale of 200 m and for the same surficial geologic unit. For some of the alluvial basin sites, surface-wave generation is a significant contributor to elevated site response at lower frequencies, below 2 Hz. The total damage pattern for the Northridge earthquake is influenced by strong source directivity to the north and strong local site effects. The correlation of weak-motion site-response estimates with areas of significant damage

  15. Los Angeles Mission College Year-End Narrative Report. Ford Foundation Urban Community College Transfer Opportunities Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Horacio R.

    This report presents an assessment of the activities conducted at the Los Angeles Mission College under a Ford Foundation Urban Community College Transfer Opportunities Program grant. First, the program achievements are presented including the identification of 86 students who declared an interest in transferring to a four-year institution; the…

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Measures on Urban Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    California is experiencing one of the most severe droughts on record. In response, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted emergency regulations in May, implementing a mandatory 25% statewide reduction in potable urban water use. Prior to this, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power had implemented mandatory restrictions and a pricing increase in 2009 and 2010, respectively to encourage reduced consumption. Understanding where conservation measures are having the greatest impact and how it is affecting water fluxes throughout the basin is critical, especially when considering the push for increased reliance on local water resources. Los Angeles is selected as the study area due to its high degree of urbanization, while the Ballona Creek watershed is used for runoff analysis due to the lack of dams and wastewater treatment plants altering flow in the channel. Utilizing a combination of runoff gages, groundwater monitoring well data, consumption data, and hydrologic models, we aim to evaluate how hydrologic processes have been influenced by water conservation measures. The work focuses on how changes in outdoor water use have influenced discharge patterns and groundwater recharge since most of the water conservation efforts have been focused on decreasing landscape irrigation. Previous work has shown that outdoor irrigation rates have decreased after the implementation of conservation measures, causing a decrease in vegetation greenness across the city. Runoff has also significantly decreased, especially dry season discharge. Further work is also being conducted to evaluate changes to evapotranspiration, using a combination of NLDAS model results and CIMIS reference ET data, as well as groundwater and recharge, utilizing a Bayesian Hierarchical model to fill missing groundwater monitoring well data. Results provide improved understanding of response to, and impacts of, conservation measures which ultimately allow for better water resources management

  17. Los Angeles, CA.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A general view of the greater Los Angeles region of California (34,0N, 118.5W) showing the coastline, Vandenberg AFB, the south end of the Central Valley and the dry lake beds at Edwards AFB, landing site of the space shuttle.

  18. Developing Urban School Leaders: Building on Solutions 15 Years after the Los Angeles Riots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevarez, Carlos; Wood, J. Luke

    2007-01-01

    The 15th Anniversary of the Los Angeles riots serves as an impetus to continue efforts in addressing how institutionalized theories, norms, and practices in schools and society lead to social, political, economic, and educational inequalities. The challenges of school inequalities continue to be chronic and remain unresolved through traditional…

  19. Creating an Urban Oasis of Learning. Los Angeles City College Strategic Plan, 2002-2008.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary; Seymour, Dan

    This report details the Los Angeles City College's (California) strategic plan for the years 2002 to 2008. The report, the product of a process of commissioning a "Vision Team" and holding "Town Meetings," resulted in eight institution-wide priorities: (1) to foster a culture of academic excellence; (2) to maintain and enhance a safe campus…

  20. Los Angeles, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This rare cloud and smog free view of Los Angeles, CA (34.0N, 118.5W) is a result of strong Santa Ana winds blowing from the east. Both cultural and natural features are well displayed and all of the major streets, highways and freeways can be traced in their entirety throughout the city as well as the major business and commercial sections. On the eastern edge of the scene, the San Andreas fault cuts across from southeast to northwest.

  1. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Wei, Jiahua; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-07-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm.

  2. Drivers of Variability in Water Use of Native and Non-native Urban Trees in the Greater Los Angeles Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, H. R.; Pataki, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    A number of cities, including Los Angeles, have started programs aimed at increasing urban tree cover, due to growing recognition that urban trees can mitigate urban heat island effects, storm water runoff, atmospheric CO2 emissions and pollution, and energy expenditures. There is considerable interest in trying to quantify the magnitude of these tree-induced benefits, yet water use and water relations of urban trees have rarely been studied. Urban trees are exposed and presumably adapted to a different set of growing conditions than natural trees, including growth-enhancing environmental alterations such as irrigation and fertilization, but also detrimental conditions like increased ozone and restricted rooting area. In order to study the factors which control whole tree water use of common species in the Los Angeles Basin urban forest, four sites in Los Angeles and Orange County have been instrumented with sap flow and meteorological sensors. These sites allow comparisons of the water use of the same species under different environmental conditions: urban vs. non- urban, coastal vs. inland climates, and comparisons of native vs. non-native species. We found that over a similar vapor pressure deficit (daytime average 0.5-3.5 kPa; VPD) range, California native sycamores in the inland urban site exhibited far higher (up to 3 times) rates of daily sap flow (g cm-2 d-1) than sycamores in an inland non-urban (natural riparian, non-irrigated) site. However daily sap flow rates of sycamores at an urban coastal site, where VPD is generally lower (daytime average <1.2 kPa), were much lower than in the inland urban site even at the same VPD. In contrast, Canary Island pines showed lower daily sap flow rates over the same VPD range at an inland, urbanized site in comparison to a coastal, irrigated urban site. These differing behaviors in contrasting environments could result from differences in a number of allometric or hydraulic properties. In order to determine what drives

  3. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  4. Fault zone regulation, seismic hazard, and social vulnerability in Los Angeles, California: Hazard or urban amenity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toké, Nathan A.; Boone, Christopher G.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón

    2014-09-01

    Public perception and regulation of environmental hazards are important factors in the development and configuration of cities. Throughout California, probabilistic seismic hazard mapping and geologic investigations of active faults have spatially quantified earthquake hazard. In Los Angeles, these analyses have informed earthquake engineering, public awareness, the insurance industry, and the government regulation of developments near faults. Understanding the impact of natural hazards regulation on the social and built geography of cities is vital for informing future science and policy directions. We constructed a relative social vulnerability index classification for Los Angeles to examine the social condition within regions of significant seismic hazard, including areas regulated as Alquist-Priolo (AP) Act earthquake fault zones. Despite hazard disclosures, social vulnerability is lowest within AP regulatory zones and vulnerability increases with distance from them. Because the AP Act requires building setbacks from active faults, newer developments in these zones are bisected by parks. Parcel-level analysis demonstrates that homes adjacent to these fault zone parks are the most valuable in their neighborhoods. At a broad scale, a Landsat-based normalized difference vegetation index shows that greenness near AP zones is greater than the rest of the metropolitan area. In the parks-poor city of Los Angeles, fault zone regulation has contributed to the construction of park space within areas of earthquake hazard, thus transforming zones of natural hazard into amenities, attracting populations of relatively high social status, and demonstrating that the distribution of social vulnerability is sometimes more strongly tied to amenities than hazards.

  5. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES APS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES APS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  APS - Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Location:  Los Angeles, ... Data Guide Documents:  Los Angeles APS Guide Los Angeles Project Plan  (PDF) Los Angeles ...

  6. Estimating trends of urban residential irrigation extent and rate using satellite imagery in the city of Los Angeles, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Clarke, K. C.; Roberts, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban residential irrigation is a large component of urban water budgets in Mediterranean climate cities, and plays a significant role for managing landscape vegetation and water resources. This is particularly occurring at cities such as Los Angeles, where water availability is limited during dry summers. This study applied 10-m SPOT 5 satellite imagery and a database of monthly water use records for residential water customers in Los Angeles in order to examine the interactions between vegetation water demand and residential water consumption. Here, we identify the spatial distribution of vegetation greenness and the extent of irrigation rates through water year 2005-2007, including normal, dry, and wet extremes of annual rainfall. Additionally, the water conservation ratio, which is between rates of irrigation and vegetation water demand, is used to assess over-irrigation. Although residential outdoor water usage was found as highest in the dry year, landscape vegetation under water stress that cannot maintain greenness condition as well as in wetter years. However, the decreasing trend of over-irrigation occurred from wet to drier years, since vegetation water demand increased significantly but irrigation rates changed little, implying over-irrigation in urbanized areas. This over watering issue can be implemented by water resource management, and urban planning, especially in current severe California drought.

  7. Estimating Spatially and Temporally Varying Recharge and Runoff from Precipitation and Urban Irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  8. Estimating spatially and temporally varying recharge and runoff from precipitation and urban irrigation in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-17

    A daily precipitation-runoff model, referred to as the Los Angeles Basin watershed model (LABWM), was used to estimate recharge and runoff for a 5,047 square kilometer study area that included the greater Los Angeles area and all surface-water drainages potentially contributing recharge to a 1,450 square kilometer groundwater-study area underlying the greater Los Angeles area, referred to as the Los Angeles groundwater-study area. The recharge estimates for the Los Angeles groundwater-study area included spatially distributed recharge in response to the infiltration of precipitation, runoff, and urban irrigation, as well as mountain-front recharge from surface-water drainages bordering the groundwater-study area. The recharge and runoff estimates incorporated a new method for estimating urban irrigation, consisting of residential and commercial landscape watering, based on land use and the percentage of pervious land area.The LABWM used a 201.17-meter gridded discretization of the study area to represent spatially distributed climate and watershed characteristics affecting the surface and shallow sub-surface hydrology for the Los Angeles groundwater study area. Climate data from a local network of 201 monitoring sites and published maps of 30-year-average monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum air temperature were used to develop the climate inputs for the LABWM. Published maps of land use, land cover, soils, vegetation, and surficial geology were used to represent the physical characteristics of the LABWM area. The LABWM was calibrated to available streamflow records at six streamflow-gaging stations.Model results for a 100-year target-simulation period, from water years 1915 through 2014, were used to quantify and evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of water-budget components, including evapotranspiration (ET), recharge, and runoff. The largest outflow of water from the LABWM was ET; the 100-year average ET rate of 362 millimeters per year (mm

  9. Welfare Reform in Los Angeles: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods. The Project on Devolution and Urban Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polit, Denise F.; Nelson, Laura; Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Seith, David

    2005-01-01

    This report concludes the main portion of MDRC's Project on Devolution and Urban Change, an eight-year effort to chart the course of welfare reform in four big urban counties: Los Angeles, Cuyahoga (Cleveland), Miami-Dade, and Philadelphia. The goal of the study was to find out whether federal welfare reform would lead to meaningful changes in…

  10. Estimating Urban-Induced Groundwater Recharge Through Coupled Hydrologic Modeling in Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, B.; Hogue, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    The current research focuses on the modeling and prediction of urban-induced groundwater recharge in highly developed, semi-arid regions. The groundwater component of the hydrologic cycle goes through significant changes during urbanization and has historically been understudied. The changes brought on by urbanization not only include physical alterations (increased surface imperviousness, channelized flow, increased sub-surface infrastructure etc.) but also changes to the water cycle due to human interactions (increased use of imported water, variable landscape irrigation, industrial water use, etc.). We undertake our initial analysis in Ballona Creek watershed, which contains highly urbanized and diverse portions of the cities of Santa Monica and Los Angeles, California along with more natural land surfaces in the northern portions of the watershed in the Santa Monica Mountains. The primary focus of this research is the development of a fully distributed and coupled surface-groundwater model of the Ballona Creek watershed. We use the three-dimensional finite-difference surface and groundwater flow model, ParFlow, fully-coupled to a land surface model, CLM, at a 30-meter by 30-meter resolution forced by observed meteorological data from 2000 to 2010. Previous work in Ballona includes a detailed historical water budget analysis from the early 1900s to the present. This extensive in situ data set will be used to estimate model parameters as well as provide upper and lower boundaries for groundwater recharge values across the system. Preliminary results focus on annual and seasonal (wet/dry periods) surface and groundwater fluxes, including the influence of natural spring flow and dry weather runoff in the watershed. Los Angeles and the surrounding metropolitan area rely on some of the most extensive and oldest centralized water redistribution projects in the United States where water is transported hundreds of kilometers to support agricultural and urban activities

  11. Climatic influences on the spatial distribution of ecosystem services and costs in the Los Angeles urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, H. R.; Pataki, D. E.; Weller, L. T.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial distribution of urban ecosystem services (e.g. shading, flowering or provision of food) and costs (such as irrigation) is dependent in part on the biogeography of the species and plant communities of interest. In natural ecosystems, the distribution of plant species and functional types is in large part limited by climatic conditions and the ability of plants to disperse. However, in urban ecosystems many species are planted, and their distribution may depend largely on social factors such as income and neighborhood age. The importance of climatic gradients in these settings is unknown. In order to understand the factors that affect the distribution of urban trees with different functional traits and ecosystem services, urban forest inventories were conducted on >350 plots within the city of Los Angeles. Los Angeles is a city with extreme socioeconomic diversity and a complex history of urban development patterns, as well as a sharp climatic gradient largely influenced by proximity to the coast. Thus, the plots covered a range of neighborhood ages, household incomes, and climates. We found that more moderate climate zones (generally closer to the coast) had a higher proportion of evergreen species and flowering species than warmer, more inland areas. In general, we have found that many of these flowering species have relatively low water use efficiency. In contrast, the distribution of fruiting trees seemed largely related to land use history in this area: the proportion of fruiting trees was highest in areas formerly used for citrus production. There was also a slight trend towards a higher proportion of high water using species in inland areas. This pattern could result in significant water costs, as the combination of intrinsically high water use and high atmospheric demand will compound urban forest water loss in inland areas. Although environmental drivers can be difficult to disentangle from social drivers, our results thus far suggest that

  12. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  13. Strange Little Flies in the Big City: Exotic Flower-Breeding Drosophilidae (Diptera) in Urban Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Lesley; McEvey, Shane; Hauser, Martin; Brown, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Urban landscapes are commonly considered too mundane and corrupted to be biotically interesting. Recent insect surveys employing 29 Malaise traps throughout Los Angeles, California, however, have uncovered breeding populations of two unexpected species of one of the most studied and familiar groups of organisms, Drosophila “fruit” flies. Unlike most introduced species of drosophilids, which breed in fresh or decaying fruits, these are specialized flower-breeders. A common species in the survey was Drosophila (Drosophila) gentica Wheeler and Takada, previously collected only once, in El Salvador. It belongs to the flavopilosa species group, all species of which have been known until now from central Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, to Veracruz, Mexico and the Caribbean, breeding in flowers of Cestrum (“jessamine”) and Sessea (Solanaceae). The Los Angeles populations are probably breeding in a native and/or introduced Cestrum; in addition, populations in San Luis Obispo County were visiting ornamental Cestrum. Drosophila gentica occurs as far north as San Francisco, where it was found breeding in Cestrum aurantiacum. D. gentica is redescribed and figured in detail for diagnostic and identification purposes. Specimens from Jamaica previously identified as D. gentica are a distinct species but are not formally described in lieu of complete male specimens. Rare in the Malaise traps was Drosophila (Sophophora) flavohirta Malloch, a common species in Australia on the blossoms of native Myrtaceae, found on introduced Eucalyptus in South Africa and both Eucalyptus and Syzygium in Madagascar; adults feed on myrtaceous pollen and nectar, larvae breed in the flowers. It is also redescribed in detail, including its unusual egg. This is the first New World report of this species; DNA sequences confirm it is a morphologically highly aberrant member of the D. melanogaster species group. This study reveals how intensive field sampling can uncover remarkable biodiversity in

  14. Strange little flies in the big city: exotic flower-breeding drosophilidae (Diptera) in urban Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David; Ginsberg, Paul S; Thayer, Lesley; McEvey, Shane; Hauser, Martin; Turelli, Michael; Brown, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Urban landscapes are commonly considered too mundane and corrupted to be biotically interesting. Recent insect surveys employing 29 Malaise traps throughout Los Angeles, California, however, have uncovered breeding populations of two unexpected species of one of the most studied and familiar groups of organisms, Drosophila "fruit" flies. Unlike most introduced species of drosophilids, which breed in fresh or decaying fruits, these are specialized flower-breeders. A common species in the survey was Drosophila (Drosophila) gentica Wheeler and Takada, previously collected only once, in El Salvador. It belongs to the flavopilosa species group, all species of which have been known until now from central Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, to Veracruz, Mexico and the Caribbean, breeding in flowers of Cestrum ("jessamine") and Sessea (Solanaceae). The Los Angeles populations are probably breeding in a native and/or introduced Cestrum; in addition, populations in San Luis Obispo County were visiting ornamental Cestrum. Drosophila gentica occurs as far north as San Francisco, where it was found breeding in Cestrum aurantiacum. D. gentica is redescribed and figured in detail for diagnostic and identification purposes. Specimens from Jamaica previously identified as D. gentica are a distinct species but are not formally described in lieu of complete male specimens. Rare in the Malaise traps was Drosophila (Sophophora) flavohirta Malloch, a common species in Australia on the blossoms of native Myrtaceae, found on introduced Eucalyptus in South Africa and both Eucalyptus and Syzygium in Madagascar; adults feed on myrtaceous pollen and nectar, larvae breed in the flowers. It is also redescribed in detail, including its unusual egg. This is the first New World report of this species; DNA sequences confirm it is a morphologically highly aberrant member of the D. melanogaster species group. This study reveals how intensive field sampling can uncover remarkable biodiversity in even the

  15. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  16. Los Angeles and Its Mistress Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Wesley

    1973-01-01

    Los Angeles city has acute air pollution problems because of lack of an adequate mass transit system and the type of local industries. Air pollution in Los Angeles has affected agricultural production, vegetation, and public health in nearby areas. (PS)

  17. Palace Revolt in Los Angeles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Antonio Villaraigosa, the mayor of Los Angeles, comes alive when recalling his start in local politics--as a labor organizer agitating for reform inside decrepit and overcrowded schools. In his quest to turn around the schools, the mayor has united working-class Latino parents, civil rights leaders, and big-money Democrats to challenge union…

  18. Preventing the repetition: Or, what Los Angeles' experience in water management can teach Atlanta about urban water disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, David L.

    2009-04-01

    Southern California's water history is an epic story with larger-than-life characters and ambitions and abundant hubris. Students of water policy might reasonably ask: Does this story, while unique to greater Los Angeles, hold lessons for other metropolises experiencing water conflict caused by explosive growth? We examine this question by considering similarities between the challenges facing Atlanta, Georgia, one of the nation's fastest growing cities in the 21st century, with those of Los Angeles. We focus on junctures where important decisions regarding water were made and how these decisions continue to challenge both cities' futures. Atlanta's financial, cultural, and environmental imprint on its surrounding region share remarkable similarities with Los Angeles' influence trajectory: it is the largest city in the southeast, a principal transportation and business hub, and it is embroiled in water conflict with nearby communities and adjoining states.

  19. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TENTH FLOOR SOUTH WING CAFETERIA FOOD LINE, FACING NORTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-FOURTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-SIXTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-SIXTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-FOURTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-SIXTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-FOURTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING EAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-SIXTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TENTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING RADIATOR AND WINDOW, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. John Ash, ALA., Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, ALA., Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING PARTITIONS, WINDOWS AND RADIATOR, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING PARTITIONS, WINDOWS AND RADIATOR, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR BREAK ROOM OFF OF ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR BREAK ROOM OFF OF ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIRST FLOOR DOORS TO THE CITY CLERK AND TAX & PERMIT DIVISION OFFICES, FACING NORTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR SHOWING ROTUNDA COLUMN CAPITALS AND LIGHT FIXTURES, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TENTH FLOOR SOUTH WING CAFETERIA LIGHT FIXTURE, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR SHOWING ROTUNDA COLUMN CAPITALS AND LIGHT FIXTURES, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR SHOWING ROTUNDA STANDING LIGHT FIXTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SOUTH ENTRY SHOWING DOORS AND LIGHT FIXTURES, FACING NORTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL EAST ENTRANCE PORCH SHOWING VAULTS AND LIGHT FIXTURE, FACING UP. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL WEST ENTRANCE COURTYARD SHOWING BRONZE DOORS, LIGHT FIXTURES AND GRILLS, FACING EAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS SHOWING COLUMN, ARCADE AND SPECTATOR SEATING, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS SHOWING PODIUM AND SEATING, FACING SOUTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS SHOWING COLUMN, ARCADE AND SPECTATOR SEATING, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR CORRIDOR NEAR ELEVATOR LOBBY SHOWING FIRE HOSE CABINET, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FOURTEENTH FLOOR FIRE HOSE NEAR NORTHEAST STAIR, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR SOUTH OFFICE AREA SHOWING RADIATOR AND WINDOWS, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR WEST OFFICE AREA THAT WAS ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTION NEAR NORTHWEST CORNER, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING DEMOLITION OF SOUTH WALL, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTION NEAR SOUTHEAST CORNER, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR SOUTH OFFICE AREA SHOWING WOOD AND GLASS PARTITIONS, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FOURTEENTH FLOOR, SERVICE AREA DOOR NEAR ELEVATOR LOBBY, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SEVENTH FLOOR SOUTH OFFICE AREA SHOWING STRUCTURAL PIERS AND FLORESCENT LIGHTS, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING DEMOLITION OF WEST WALL, FACING WEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR WEST OFFICE AREA THAT WAS ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia and urban Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Frost, Stephanie; Moore, Lucas; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We described the prevalence of overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia (WV) and urban Los Angeles County (LA County). Both communities participated in the national Communities Putting Prevention to Work program during 2010-2012. In each community, we completed health assessments on adult women recruited from public-sector clinics serving low-income populations. All participants answered survey questions regarding socio-demographics and diets. In both jurisdictions, we assessed obesity using objectively measured height and weight (calculated BMI). As part of each community case study, we performed multivariable regression analyses to describe the relationships between overweight and obesity and selected covariates (e.g., dietary behaviors). Overweight and obesity were prevalent among low-income women from WV (73%, combined) and LA County (67%, combined). In both communities, race and ethnicity appeared to predict the two conditions; however, the associations were not robust. In LA County, for example, African American and Hispanic women were 1.4 times (95% CI=1.12, 1.81) more likely than white women to be overweight and obese. Collectively, these subpopulation health data served as an important guide for further planning of obesity prevention efforts in both communities. These efforts became a part of the subsequent Community Transformation Grants portfolio.

  20. Risks and benefits of gardening in urban soil; heavy metals and nutrient content in Los Angeles Community Gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L. W.; Jenerette, D.; Bain, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients and heavy metals in urban community gardens can influence health of crops and participants. Interactions between garden history, management, and soils are understudied in cities. In July 2011, we collected soil samples from 45 plots at 6 Los Angeles community gardens. For comparison, 3 samples were collected from uncultivated garden soils and 3 more from outside soils. Samples were then tested for major nutrients- Nitrogen(N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorous (P)- and organic matter (SOM). We also measured concentrations of 29 metals in 3 gardens using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Potassium and phosphorus exceeded optimum levels in all plots, with some over twice the maximum recommended levels. Over-fertilized soils may contribute to local watershed pollution and crop micronutrient deficiencies. Low soil SOM was observed in gardens in impoverished neighborhoods, possibly due to low quality amendments. Our metals analysis showed dangerous levels of lead (Pb)-- up to 1700 ppm in outside soils and 150 ppm in garden soils-- near older gardens, indicating lead deposition legacies. California lead safety standards indicate that children should not play near soils with Pb above 200 ppm, indicating need for long term monitoring of lead contaminated gardens. Arsenic (As) levels exceeded federal risk levels (0.3 ppm) and average CA background levels (2 ppm) in all areas, with some gardens exceeding 10 ppm. Heavy metal legacies in gardens may pose risks to participants with prolonged exposure and remediation of soils may be necessary.

  1. Holocene to Pliocene tectonic evolution of the region offshore of the Los Angeles urban corridor, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.; Gardner, J.V.; Sliter, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary tectonism in the coastal belt of the Los Angeles urban corridor is diverse. In this paper we report the results of studies of multibeam bathymetry and a network of seismic reflection profiles that have been aimed at deciphering the diverse tectonism and at evaluating the relevance of published explanations of the region's tectonic history. Rapid uplift, subsidence in basins, folds and thrusts, extensional faulting, and strike-slip faulting have all been active at one place or another throughout the Quaternary Period. The tectonic strain is reflected in the modern physiography at all scales. Los Angeles (LA) Basin has filled from a deep submarine basin to its present condition with sediment impounded behind a large sill formed behind uplifts near the present shoreline. Newport trough to the south-southeast of LA Basin also accumulated a large volume of sediment, but remained at midbathyal depths throughout the Period. There is little or no evidence of Quaternary extensional tectonism in either basin although as much as 6 km of subsidence, which mainly occurred by sagging, has been recorded in places since the middle Miocene. The uplifts include folded and thrust faulted terranes in the Palos Verdes Hills and the shelves of Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays. The uplifted areas have been shortened in a southwest-northeast direction by 10% or slightly more, and some folds are reflected in the bathymetry. Two large adjacent midbathyal basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, show strong evidence of subsidence and slight west-northwest extension (10%) during the same time folding was taking place in the uplifts. The tectonic boundaries between uplifts and basins are folded, normal faulted, reverse-faulted, and strike-slip faulted depending on location. The rapid Quaternary uplift and subsidence, along with the filling of LA Basin, have produced a reversal in the regional physiography. In the early Pliocene, LA Basin was a submarine deep, Palos Verdes and the shelves

  2. Determination of site amplification in the Los Angeles urban area from inversion of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The amplification of strong ground motion at sites in the greater Los Angeles, California, region is determined using the generalized-inverse method of Andrews (1986). Site-amplification estimates are determined at 281 strong-motion sites that provided horizontal-component accelerograms from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, or 1994 Northridge mainshocks. The estimates are determined relative to the spectral level recorded at a single reference site. In a second inversion, a source-site interaction term is added to Andrews's (1986) model to quantify the effect selected mainshock records have on site-amplification estimates. The source-site interaction term is applied to the San Fernando Valley sites' records of the Northridge earthquake and to three Los Angeles basin sites' records of the Whittier Narrows mainshock. Site-amplification spectra are averaged within two frequency bands: the intermediate-frequency band (IFB) from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz and the high-frequency band (HFB) from 2 to 6 Hz. Results are displayed on maps of surficial geology. Average spectral levels are correlated with average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m, a geotechnical parameter used by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) to characterize site amplification. Statistically significant correlation is found in both frequency bands. Average spectral amplification levels for NEHRP class B, C, and D sites in the LA urban area are determined. These averages display an expected increase in spectral amplification with category, with a more pronounced variation in the IFB than in the HFB. Considerable overlap in the one-standard-deviation range of the C and D site levels is found in both IFB and HFB, suggesting that site-specific spectral amplification is influenced by more than just near-surface shear-wave velocity. Average site-amplification levels are compared with those obtained from Northridge aftershock records at 28 collocated sites and

  3. Remote Sensing of Urban Mixed Layer Structure in Los Angeles, with Applications to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, J.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R. M.; Decola, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are responsible for a large and increasing part of global greenhouse gas emissions. Effective policy for controlling urban emissions depends on an accurate understanding of those emissions, including their trends in time, distribution across source types, and the effects of regulatory, economic, or technological changes on the rate of emissions. The level of detail required will demand input both from bottom-up inventories and from top-down atmospheric concentration measurements, which must then be translated into emissions fluxes. Among the meteorological information needed for that translation, the mixing dynamics of the lower atmosphere are crucial; an error in the depth of the mixed layer produces a proportional error in the flux estimate. Ground-based remote sensing can provide continuous information about the mixed layer. We present results highlighting the importance of such continuous information. A Sigma Space mini-Micro Pulse Lidar (miniMPL) and a Vaisala ceilometer were deployed in the Los Angeles megacity, California over a period of several years. A locally appropriate, wavelet-based algorithm was devised to estimate the depth of the mixed layer on the basis of this remote sensing data. A voting scheme, novel for this application, was used to establish confidence. While a seasonal trend in mixed layer depth does exist, that trend is masked by very high day-to-day variability. Daily maximum mixed layer depths often differ by a factor of two from monthly or seasonal averages. We use a simplified model to demonstrate the impact of this variability on top-down approaches to greenhouse gas emissions quantification, demonstrating the value of continuous observations.

  4. Los Angeles from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 23, 2001 and covers an area of 64 x 72 km. The data were processed to create a simulated natural color image. From its start as a sleepy Spanish pueblo in 1781, LA and its metropolitan area has grown to become an ethnically diverse, semitropical megalopolis, laying claim as the principal center of the western US and the nation's second largest urban area. The city's economy is based on international trade, aerospace, agriculture, tourism, and filmmaking. LA provides a glimpse of the typically cosmopolitan and global city of the future.

    The image is located at 34.1 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution

  5. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Sha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Newman, Sally; Rao, Preeti; Ahmadov, Ravan; Deng, Aijun; Díaz-Isaac, Liza I.; Duren, Riley M.; Fischer, Marc L.; Gerbig, Christoph; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; Jeong, Seongeun; Li, Zhijin; Miller, Charles E.; O'Keeffe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Sander, Stanley P.; Song, Yang; Wong, Kam W.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-07-01

    Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA) megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as ˜ 1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May-June 2010). Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km) and high-resolution (1.3 km) simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution) and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution) fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of individual measurement sites when a

  6. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-09-16

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/Δm=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Finally, long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

  7. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES SMPS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES SMPS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Particle Properties Particulate Matter Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:   Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Los Angeles, California SCAR-B ...

  8. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES PARTISOL DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES PARTISOL DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Properties Trace Elements Trace Metals Order Data:  Reverb:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Los Angeles, California SCAR-B ...

  9. Trouble Brewing in Los Angeles. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of Los Angeles will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Los Angeles faces a total $152.6 billion liability for pensions that are underfunded--including $49.1 billion for the city pension systems, $2.4 billion for…

  10. 82. FIRST AND SECOND AQUEDUCTS LOOKING NORTHEAST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. FIRST AND SECOND AQUEDUCTS LOOKING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 87. AQUEDUCT IN COVERED CONDUIT LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. AQUEDUCT IN COVERED CONDUIT LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Estimating the diminution of shear-wave amplitude with distance: Application to the Los Angeles, California, urban area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The rate of decay with distance of shear-wave amplitude, computed from 20-sec S-wave spectra, is determined from TERRAscope records of small earthquakes in the greater Los Angeles area. Piecewise log-linear interpolation functions and traditional diminution functions are used to fit spectral decay to a maximum distance of 150 km. Simultaneously, isotropic source and receiver terms are determined. Separate branches of the spectral decay function are found for two categories of source depth: greater than 10 km and less than 10 km. In the hypocentral distance range of 20 to 150 km and in the frequency range of 0.5 to 8.0 Hz, an important result of the investigation is that the horizontal-component decay rate associated with deeper-crustal sources is generally greater than that associated with shallower sources and is greater than that which is estimated using more traditional models of spectral decay with distance. The same behavior generally holds for vertical-component spectra. The variation in apparent attenuation rate with source depth should affect seismic-hazard estimates associated with the rupture of blind thrust faults in the Los Angeles basin and vicinity. The results of the inversions suggest that interpolation function representations of spectral decay are sensitive to perturbations of S-wave amplitude due to crustal reflectors, such as post-critical S-wave arrivals from mid-crustal to deep-crustal velocity interfaces.

  14. Impact of remotely sensed albedo and vegetation fraction on simulation of urban climate in WRF-urban canopy model: A case study of the urban heat island in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    Modeling the climate of urban areas is of interest for studying urban heat islands (UHIs). Reliable assessment of the primary causes of UHIs and the efficacy of various heat mitigation strategies requires accurate prediction of urban temperatures and realistic representation of land surface physical characteristics in models. In this study, we expand the capabilities of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by implementing high-resolution, real-time satellite observations of green vegetation fraction (GVF) and albedo. Satellite-based GVF and albedo replace constant values that are assumed for urban pixels in the default version of WRF. Simulations of urban meteorology in Los Angeles using the improved model show marked improvements relative to the default model. The largest improvements are for nocturnal air temperatures, with a reduction in root-mean-square deviation between simulations and observations from 3.8 to 1.9°C. Utilizing the improved model, we quantify relationships between surface and 2 m air temperatures versus urban fraction, GVF, albedo, distance from the ocean, and elevation. Distance from the ocean is found to be the main contributor to variations in temperatures around Los Angeles. After conditionally sampling pixels to minimize the influence of distance from the ocean and elevation, we find that variations in GVF and urban fraction are responsible for up to 58 and 27% of the variance in temperatures. The satellite-supported meteorological modeling framework reported here can be used for studying UHIs in other cities and can serve as a foundation for testing the efficacy of various heat mitigation strategies.

  15. Opportunity in our Ignorance: Urban Biodiversity Study Reveals 30 New Species and One New Nearctic Record for Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) in Los Angeles (California, USA).

    PubMed

    Hartop, Emily A; Brown, Brian V; Disney, R Henry L

    2015-01-01

    An urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA), reveals the presence of fifty-six species of Megaselia within the first few months of sampling. Thirty of these are described as new to science: M. armstrongorum, M. bradyi, M. brejchaorum, M. carthayensis, M. ciancii, M. creasoni, M. defibaughorum, M. donahuei, M. francoae, M. fujiokai, M. hardingorum, M. heini, M. hentschkeae, M. hoffmanorum, M. hoggorum, M. hoguei, M. isaacmajorum, M. kelleri, M. lombardorum, M. marquezi, M. mikejohnsoni, M. oxboroughae, M. pisanoi, M. renwickorum, M. rodriguezorum, M. sacatelensis, M. seaverorum, M. sidneyae, M. steptoeae, and M. wiegmanae. M. largifrontalis is newly reported from the Nearctic Region. The implications these findings have for future taxonomic work in Megaselia, particularly in urban areas, are discussed. PMID:25947525

  16. Application of earth resources technology satellite data to urban and regional planning: Test site, County of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Mcknight, J.; Willoughby, G.; Economy, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The County of Los Angeles photointerpreted ERTS film products to define problems of interest, coordinated ground truth over the complex test site including interfaces with secondary users as well as participated in on-line analyses of the GE multispectral information extraction systems. Interactive machine analyses were carried out, developing techniques and procedures as well as evaluating the outputs for community and regional planning. Extensive aircraft underflight coverage was provided that was valuable both in inputs preparation and outputs evaluation of the machine-aided analyses. One of the nonstandard ERTS images led to the discovery of a major new fault lineament on the northern slope of the Santa Monica Mountains.

  17. Shuttle Endeavour Flyover of Los Angeles Landmarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Endeavour atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flew over many Los Angeles area landmarks on its final ferry flight Sept. 21, 2012, including the Coliseum, the Hollywood Sign, Griffith...

  18. Drop Out Patterns in the East Los Angeles Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waktola, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to analyze the drop out problem from spatial perspectives within the context of East Los Angeles Community College, California. Selected urban land-use types, which positively and negatively influence the propensity to drop out or persist-in colleges, were selected and captured during a global positioning system (GPS)-based…

  19. Urban solar photovoltaics potential: An inventory and modelling study applied to the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, G. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Freta, R. K.; Friedman, S. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing the potential of solar photovoltaic collectors to meet energy requirements in a metropolitan region are described and a modeling effort is applied to the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The procedure involves a series of steps designed to produce maps and tabulations revealing the amount of rooftop area available for establishing solar collectors and the proportion of energy requirement that could be potentially supplied by solar photovoltaics within each of the 533 mainline feeder service areas in the study area. For the sixty five square mile study area, the results showed that, with half the available flat and south facing roofs used and assuming the availability of energy storage, 52.7 percent of the actual kWh energy requirements could have been met in 1978 using photovoltaic collectors. Hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly fluctuations in potential supply and actual loads and recommendations of avenues for further research are discussed. Some further potential applications of the modeling technique are suggested.

  20. Review of the Organizational Structure and Operations of the Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District is the second largest public school system in the United States, and one of the largest organizations of any kind in the country. As with urban school systems across the country, the Los Angeles school district is under enormous pressure to improve. The district is under public scrutiny and is the subject of…

  1. Vertically resolved measurements of nighttime radical reservoirs in Los Angeles and their contribution to the urban radical budget.

    PubMed

    Young, Cora J; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Roberts, James M; Mielke, Levi H; Osthoff, Hans D; Tsai, Catalina; Pikelnaya, Olga; Stutz, Jochen; Veres, Patrick R; Cochran, Anthony K; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Flynn, James; Grossberg, Nicole; Haman, Christine L; Lefer, Barry; Stark, Harald; Graus, Martin; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B; Kuster, William C; Brown, Steven S

    2012-10-16

    Photolabile nighttime radical reservoirs, such as nitrous acid (HONO) and nitryl chloride (ClNO(2)), contribute to the oxidizing potential of the atmosphere, particularly in early morning. We present the first vertically resolved measurements of ClNO(2), together with vertically resolved measurements of HONO. These measurements were acquired during the California Nexus (CalNex) campaign in the Los Angeles basin in spring 2010. Average profiles of ClNO(2) exhibited no significant dependence on height within the boundary layer and residual layer, although individual vertical profiles did show variability. By contrast, nitrous acid was strongly enhanced near the ground surface with much smaller concentrations aloft. These observations are consistent with a ClNO(2) source from aerosol uptake of N(2)O(5) throughout the boundary layer and a HONO source from dry deposition of NO(2) to the ground surface and subsequent chemical conversion. At ground level, daytime radical formation calculated from nighttime-accumulated HONO and ClNO(2) was approximately equal. Incorporating the different vertical distributions by integrating through the boundary and residual layers demonstrated that nighttime-accumulated ClNO(2) produced nine times as many radicals as nighttime-accumulated HONO. A comprehensive radical budget at ground level demonstrated that nighttime radical reservoirs accounted for 8% of total radicals formed and that they were the dominant radical source between sunrise and 09:00 Pacific daylight time (PDT). These data show that vertical gradients of radical precursors should be taken into account in radical budgets, particularly with respect to HONO.

  2. Acute Rheumatic Fever in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Propp, Richard P.

    1965-01-01

    There was a general downward trend in the reported incidence of acute rheumatic fever in Los Angeles County during the years 1954-1963. A survey of hospital records in five large hospitals in 1962 revealed 100 cases diagnosed, 39 of which were reported. Diagnoses in the charts reviewed conformed to the Modified Jones Criteria. Most of the patients were born in Los Angeles County. Mortality rates for acute rheumatic fever during the same period were greatly in excess of those expected from the reported morbidity. The mean crude mortality rate for the period concerned was higher than for New York City, although not as high as for Boston. Acute rheumatic fever appears to constitute a health problem in need of review in Los Angeles County. PMID:5834286

  3. WRF-UCM Modeling of Urban Land-Atmosphere Interactions with a Focus on Landscape Irrigation in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a demographic trend worldwide. Urban irrigation can exceed natural precipitation and is an important component of the water cycle in water stressed cities. 14-30% of municipal water consumption in California is used for irrigation. Understanding and quantifying the potential influence of urban anthropogenic soil moisture contribution on local and regional hydrological cycle is an imperative step toward sustainable and better-managed water resources in water scarce regions. In the current study we address the impact and feedback of urban irrigation by integrating a developed irrigation scheme within the coupled framework of the WRF-UCM (Urban Canopy Model) over the Los Angeles metropolitan area at 1 km spatial resolution. We focus on the impacts of irrigation on the urban water cycle and atmospheric feedback during the summer period. Our results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of WRF-UCM simulated surface turbulent fluxes to the incorporation of irrigation. Introducing anthropogenic moisture, the vegetated pixels show increased latent heat fluxes and decreased sensible and ground heat fluxes confirming irrigation induced shift in the energy partitioning toward elevated latent heat fluxes. The evaluation of the model performance against ground-based reference evapotranspiration (ET) observations indicates that WRF-UCM, after adding irrigation, performs reasonably during the course of the simulation, tracking day to day variability of ET. In the absence of irrigation, simulated ET values are significantly underestimated. This is due to fact that soil moisture is the only source of water in the absence of significant precipitation. In the course of model spin up, the moisture sorted in the soil layers is consumed, resulting in considerable decreases in the latent heat fluxes. Evaluating the model outputs against MODIS based land surface temperature illustrates that this ET reduction leads to reduced cooling effects of urban vegetation

  4. Los Angeles County Poor Farm, Patient Ward Nos. 210 & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Los Angeles County Poor Farm, Patient Ward Nos. 210 & 211 - Type B Plan, 7601 Imperial Highway; bounded by Esperanza Street, Laurel Street, Flores Street, and Descanso Street, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Los Angeles County Poor Farm, Patient Wards 201, 202, 203, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Los Angeles County Poor Farm, Patient Wards 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208 & 209 - Type A Plan, 7601 Imperial Highway; bounded by Esperanza Street, Hawthorn Avenue, Laurel Street, and Descanso Street, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation Rehabilitation Unit (California) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer,…

  7. African American Art: A Los Angeles Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Harriet

    This curriculum unit focuses on the importance of Los Angeles (California) as a center for African American art and shows how African American artists have developed their own styles and how critics and collectors have encouraged them. The unit consists of four lessons, each of which can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. It…

  8. Los Angeles Settles ACLU Suit on Layoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A settlement crafted last week seeking to curb the use of seniority as a factor in teacher layoffs in the Los Angeles school system could become one of the nation's most far-reaching overhauls of the "last hired, first fired" policies common in school districts. If approved by a judge, the settlement would shield up to 45 low-performing schools in…

  9. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  10. Fostering K-12 Inquiry-based Lesson Development on Regional Water Resource Issues in Los Angeles Urban Schools through the NSF UCLA SEE-LA GK-12 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.; Burke, M. P.; Thulsirag, V.; Daniel, J.; Moldwin, M.; Nonacs, P.

    2010-12-01

    A National Science Foundation Graduate Teaching Fellows in K- 12 Education program at UCLA (SEE-LA; http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/ ) partners UCLA faculty and graduate students (fellows) with urban middle and high school science teachers and their students to foster programs of science and engineering exploration that bring the environment of Los Angeles into the classroom. UCLA graduate fellows serve as scientists-in-residence at four partner schools to integrate inquiry-based science lessons, facilitate advancements in science content teaching, and ultimately, to improve their own science communication skills. As part of their fellowship, graduate students are required to develop inquiry-based lessons in their partner classroom. During the first two years of the project, the SEE-LA fellows have developed a range of inquiry-based activities, from invertebrate observations in an urban stream system, to water and home energy consumption surveys, to a school biodiversity investigation, to a school-wide alternative energy fair, to engineering the cleanup of environmental disasters, such as the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of the current fellows have dissertation research in water resource related fields and are specifically integrating lessons specific to their research into their partner classrooms, including urban stream water quality, post-fire watershed behavior, beach water quality assessment and E. coli source tracking. This presentation will provide an overview of goals of the SEE-LA GK-12 program, development of inquiry-based water resource lessons and resulting engagement in the partner classrooms. University and local pre-college school partnerships provide an excellent opportunity to support the development of graduate student communication and teaching skills while also contributing significantly to the integration of science education into K-12 curriculum.

  11. Was all that Los Angeles River flood control concrete necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzert, W. C.; Regalado, S. S.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In 1938, heavy rains over the Los Angeles Basin resulted in widespread and costly flooding of the Los Angeles River floodplain. In response to the resultant damage, 51 miles of the River was concreted from the San Fernando Valley to the Pacific Ocean. Today proposals to modify the river to capture more water and to restore it to a more natural state have been approved. Through comparison of rainfall data, we test whether channelization can adequately handle the extreme flooding events occurring since 1938. Between February 27th to March 3rd 1938, two major storms resulted in 14.1 inches of rain in Pasadena, CA leading to the flooding of the Los Angeles River, 115 fatalities, the destruction of 5,601 buildings, and to $627 million (2011 dollars) in damages. Downtown Los Angeles averages 15 inches of precipitation a year, while the San Gabriel Mountains, where most of the Los Angeles River watershed rainfall is collected, typically receive more than 40 inches of rain annually. Eight record storms, each with rainfall totals over 11 inches, since the 1938 flood could have created devastating deluges were it not for channelization. Presently, at full stage the channelized Los Angeles River can accommodate a discharge of 129,000 cfs. During the 1938 flood event the discharge peaked at 68,000 cfs above Arroyo Seco and 79,000 cfs below Firestone Blvd. A similar storm event today would have led to increased discharge due to urbanization. Since 1938, the greatest discharge recorded at the same stations was 52,200 and 74,400 cfs during the February 16th 1980 storm. Although damage was substantial during this storm, river channelization prevented fatalities and much damage. To date, the channelization of the Los Angeles River has been successful in flood control. However, our research shows that southern California precipitation is becoming more intense which may result in increased flooding. Any future modifications to the river must be prepared to handle the extreme flooding

  12. Wolf Fire West of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph taken from the International Space Station on June 7, 2002, shows the Copper Fire burning in the hills outside Los Angeles. Astronauts use a variety of lenses and look angles as their orbits pass over wildfires to document the long-distance movements of smoke from the fires as well as details of the burning areas. This image clearly illustrates the difficult, rugged terrain that firefighters must face when fighting these wildland fires.

  13. The Visiting Nurse Association of Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    In short, the VNA of Los Angeles has a proud tradition. For almost 50 years, it has been providing needed health care and supportive services to the chronically ill and disabled in their own homes. Thanks to the efforts of all who made these traditions, the VNA also has a bright future. The VNA is a source of pride in California not only because of what it has accomplished but also because of what the good people of the VNA will be able to accomplish in the future. The VNA of Los Angeles is a valuable community resource whose services will be needed now more than ever before. The combination of demographics, consequences of the greying of America, the effects of the expected AIDS epidemic, and the evolution of new technology all point in the direction of home care. The VNA is already in the vanguard of what surely will become a national trend. Because of these contributions--past, present, and future--CARING is proud to salute the Visiting Nurse Association of Los Angeles.

  14. Application of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data to urban development and regional planning: Test site, County of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S. (Principal Investigator); Economy, R.; Mcknight, J. S.; Garofalo, P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Signigicant results have been obtained from the analyses of ERTS-1 imagery from five cycles over Test Site SR 124 by classical photointerpretation and by an interactive hybrid multispectral information extraction system (GEMS). Photointerpretation has produced over 25 overlays at 1:1,000,000 scale depicting regional relations and urban structure in terms of several hundred linear and areal features. A possible new fault lineament has been discovered on the northern slope of the Santa Monica mountains. GEMS analysis of the ERTS-1 products has provided new or improved information in the following planning data categories: urban vegetation; land cover segregation; manmade and natural impact monitoring; urban design; land suitability. ERTS-1 data analysis has allowed planners to establish trends that directly impact planning policies. For example, detectable grading and new construction sites quantitatively indicated the extent, direction, and rate of urban expansion which enable planners to forecast demand and growth patterns on a regional scale. This new source of information will not only assist current methods to be more efficient, but permits entirely new planning methodologies to be employed.

  15. Alterations in nitrogen biogeochemistry in Los Angeles, California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Pataki, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    The biogeochemistry and ecology of the Los Angeles region have been heavily altered by humans. Irrigation and fertilization have changed the landscape dramatically, with concomitant changes in the regional N budget. Anthropogenic N additions to the region have resulted in increased losses of N. We studied two aspects of N cycling in Southern California: soil-atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas, and dissolved N losses to the coastal ocean in streams and urban runoff. Nitrous oxide fluxes from irrigated and fertilized lawns in the Los Angeles region are similar to results from agricultural fields in Southern California and elsewhere, indicating that urban landscapes may be a significant contributor to regional greenhouse gas budgets. Content of N-15 and O-18 in N2O from agricultural and urban land cover is highly variable, and isotope signatures are not useful indicators of urban versus agricultural N2O sources. We found that the isotopic signature of N2O was highly variable from soils, but very useful for distinguishing among sources of dissolved nitrate. Irrigation in urban areas has also increased the flux of fresh water to the coastal ocean, with concurrent increases in nutrient fluxes to coastal ecosystems. Wastewater and soil N are the major sources of N to Aliso Creek, an urban/suburban stream in the Los Angeles area, with atmospheric N only a small source during infrequent rain events. Inorganic fertilizers do not appear to be a large source of N to the stream. Concentrations of nitrate in this stream are much higher (~ 10 micromoles per liter) than streams in watersheds that are less impacted by humans. N-15 in nitrate in the stream increases along a longitudinal gradient downstream, indicating that denitrification along the stream channel and in riparian areas may be helping to reduce the total N loading to the coastal ocean, although this may also be associated with increases in N2O emissions. Irrigation with recycled

  16. Space Radar Image of Los Angeles, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of Los Angeles, California, taken on October 2, 1994. Visible in the image are Long Beach Harbor at the bottom right (south corner of the image), Los Angeles International Airport at the bottom center, with Santa Monica just to the left of it and the Hollywood Hills to the left of Santa Monica. Also visible in the image are the freeway systems of Los Angeles, which appear as dark lines. The San Gabriel Mountains (center top) and the communities of San Fernando Valley, Simi Valley and Palmdale can be seen on the left-hand side. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit. The image is centered at 34 degrees north latitude, 118 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers by 52 kilometers (62 miles by 32 miles). This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do freeways and other flat surfaces such as the airport runways. Mountains in the image are dark grey, with brighter patches on the mountain slopes, which face in the direction of the radar illumination (from the top of the image). Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of Los Angeles, appear as lighter grey. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as downtown Los Angeles, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Scientists hope to use radar image data from SIR-C/X-SAR to map fire scars in areas prone to brush fires, such as Los Angeles. In this image, the Altadena fire area is visible in the top center of the image as a patch of mountainous terrain which is slightly darker than the nearby mountains. Using all the radar frequency and polarization images provided by SIR

  17. Interactive analysis and evaluation of ERTS data for regional planning and urban development: A Los Angeles Basin case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Willoughby, G.; Mcknight, J.

    1974-01-01

    The progression endemic to the ERTS Data Use Experiment SR 124 in data quality, analysis sophistication and applications responsiveness is reviewed. The roles of the variety of ERTS products, including the supporting underflight aircraft imagery at various scales, are discussed in the context of this investigation. The versatility of interpretation techniques and outputs developed and implemented via the General Electric Multispectral Information Extraction Systems is described and exemplified by both system-expository and applications-explanatory products. The wide-ranging and in-depth applications studied in the course of this experiment can be characterized as community-oriented and agency-directed. In the former, generic category, which is primarily data-contextual, problems analyzed dealt with agricultural systems, surface water bodies, snow cover, brush fire burns, forestry, grass growth, parks - golf courses - cemeteries, dust storms, grading sites, geological features and coastal water structure. The ERTS MSS band selectivity and measurements thresholds were of primary interest here. The agency-directed application areas have been user-evaluational in nature. Beginning with overall urbanized regional analysis of land cover density-development intensity, residential areas were analyzed for ascertaining if housing types could be aggregated with any degree of reliability.

  18. Implementing Municipal Tree Planting: Los Angeles Million-Tree Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic—living—infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests, but little has been written on the process of implementing urban tree planting programs. The investigative methods were primarily qualitative, involving interviews, attending meetings and conducting literature reviews. Results indicate that multiple nonprofit and city agency programs are involved in planting and maintaining trees and this has required coordination among groups that here-to-fore were unaccustomed to having to collaborate. The main finding that emerge from this research is that the implementation of such a program in Los Angeles is more complicated than it may seem due to several interacting factors: the need to rely on multiple public and private organizations to put trees into the ground and to maintain them; coordination of these multiple efforts must be centralized, but requires a great deal of time and effort and maybe resisted by some of the partners; funding for planting and long term maintenance must be pieced together from multiple sources; acceptance of trees by residents varies by neighborhood as does tree canopy cover; appropriate nursery supply can be limited; the location of the program within the city administration is determined by who initiates the program.

  19. Ecological simulation model of Los Angeles Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, James N.; Kremer, Patricia

    1983-05-01

    A quasi-steady state numerical ecosystem model was designed to help evaluate the potential impact of various scenarios of effluent treatment and of a landfill on the distribution of phytoplankton and inorganic nutrients in Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors Formulations included (a) tidal circulation, (b) phytoplankton growth and oxygen production as a function of temperature, light, and nutrients, (c) grazing by zooplankton, (d) respiration and nutrient regeneration by the benthos, (e) biochemical oxidation of organics, and (f) nitrification Phytoplankton nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and oxygen were the state variables, which were simulated with diel and spatial variability for a range of seasonal conditions. Physical circulation was indicated to be a primary factor governing the distribution of state variables, and the landfill resulted in significant alterations. Simulated phytoplankton stocks approximated the upper range of reported concentrations, indicating a satisfactory prediction of bloom conditions. The model indicated that while light may usually regulate maximum phytoplankton levels, under bloom conditions nutrient limitation may also be important Most of the outer Los Angeles Harbor was affected by the effluent, as shown by comparison to the case with zero input Simulations for secondary versus primary treatment converged a short distance from the outfall in response to high BOD oxidation rates. In general, total phytoplankton crop was not greatly affected by the change from primary to secondary treatment, and predation on phytoplankton was small

  20. Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles, Calif., is one of the world's largest metropolitan areas with a population of about 15 million people. The urban areas mostly cover the coastal plains and lie within the inland valleys. The intervening and adjacent mountains are generally too rugged for much urban development. This in large part because the mountains are 'young', meaning they are still building (and eroding) in this seismically active (earthquake prone) region.

    Earthquake faults commonly lie between the mountains and the lowlands. The San Andreas fault, the largest fault in California, likewise divides the very rugged San Gabriel Mountains from the low-relief Mojave Desert, thus forming a straight topographic boundary between the top center and lower right corner of the image. We present two versions of this perspective image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): one with and one without a graphic overlay that maps faults that have been active in Late Quaternary times (white lines). The fault database was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    For the annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 2 mB jpeg)

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on May 4, 2001, about seven weeks before the summer solstice, so natural terrain shading is not particularly strong. It is also not especially apparent given a view direction (northwest) nearly parallel to the sun illumination (shadows generally fall on the backsides of mountains). Consequently, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, with a false sun illumination from the left (southwest). This synthetic shading enhances the appearance of the topography.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and

  1. How Diverse Schools Affect Student Mobility: Charter, Magnet, and Newly Built Institutions in Los Angeles. Los Angeles School Infrastructure Project. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauter, Luke; Fuller, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that student achievement often suffers when children and families move, leaving behind their school and neighborhood, yet, in urban districts like Los Angeles, mobility is now encouraged by the development of mixed-markets of diverse schools, including charter, pilot, and magnet schools in. Over 60 new school facilities were opened…

  2. Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund: Los Angeles Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.

    The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…

  3. Envisioning a Public Research Agenda in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelgesang, Lori J.; Gilliam, Franklin D., Jr.; O'Byrne, Kathy; Leal-Sotelo, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles is an institution founded on a public mission and positioned as a world-renowned research university. This article describes the successes, challenges and future directions of a concerted institutional effort to engage with the broader Los Angeles community to address pressing social issues and needs. The…

  4. Battle in Los Angeles: Conflict Escalates as Charter Schools Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s and well into the new millennium, the massive Los Angeles Unified School District barely noticed the many charter schools that were springing up around the metropolis. But Los Angeles parents certainly took notice, and started enrolling their children. In 2008, five charter-management organizations announced plans to…

  5. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES AETHALOMETER EC DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES AETHALOMETER EC DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Carbonaceous Aerosols Particulate Matter Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:   Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Los Angeles, California SCAR-B ...

  6. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES TEOM PM25 DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES TEOM PM25 DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Particulate Matter Mass Concentration Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:   Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Earth Related Data:  Environmental Protection Agency Supersites Los Angeles, California SCAR-B ...

  7. Los Angeles Tries Luring Back Dropouts via Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that education leaders in Los Angeles, faced with unrelenting pressure to raise anemic high school graduation rates, are turning to YouTube, MySpace, text messaging, and the radio waves to reach students at risk of dropping out of school and lure back thousands who have already left. The Los Angeles Unified School…

  8. Korean Language Maintenance in Los Angeles. Professional Papers K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    Characteristics of the Korean population in Los Angeles, intergenerational cultural problems, and efforts to promote language maintenance are described. The majority of Koreans in Los Angeles have been in the United States less than 10 years. A high percentage are from middle class and professional backgrounds. The traditional hierarchical family…

  9. Los Angeles Trade-Technical College Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Trade-Technical Coll., CA.

    This assessment report concerns the Los Angeles Trade-Technical College and the information, which is reported to the Los Angeles Community College District. The data was gathered through interviews conducted by an outside company. The report summarizes what interviewers learned about Trade-Tech's past and present and offers recommendations to…

  10. The Politics of School Desegregation in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Nibbrig, Nand E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the influences that city and State politics have on school desegregation in Los Angeles. Asserts that the Los Angeles desegregation plan reflects the influence and power of the city's westside by providing an escape from its provisions of mandatory busing while meeting the school district's desegregation guidelines. (Author/GC)

  11. Glitches in Los Angeles Payroll System Spark Furor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of Los Angeles teachers have not been paid properly for months because of errors in a corporate-style payroll system that was introduced in January as part of a sweeping, $95 million computer modernization. The Los Angeles Unified School District acknowledges that the payroll system's rollout was rushed and tainted by numerous…

  12. Roberto Gutierrez and the Art of Mapping Latino Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Chicano artist Roberto Gutierrez is one of the most important artists to come out of the East Los Angeles artistic boom of the early 1970s. Gutierrez's life and the significance of his work to the evolving Chicano artistic narrative about Latino life and aesthetics in Los Angeles are discussed.

  13. A Study of Unincorporated East Los Angeles. Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Reynaldo F.; And Others

    The aim of this study was to collect data and printed materials on and from unincorporated East Los Angeles and contiguous, predominantly Chicano neighborhoods to help determine the feasibility and/or desirability of incorporation of any or all of East Los Angeles. Information is given on: (1) incorporation procedures; (2) the past incorporation…

  14. 83. FIRST AND SECOND AQUEDUCTS LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. FIRST AND SECOND AQUEDUCTS LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 91. FAIRMONT RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST Los Angeles Aqueduct, From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. FAIRMONT RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. The Los Angeles Riots Revisited: The Changing Face of the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Challenge for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donna M.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), including an analysis of the demographic shifts and the tensions between the African American and Korean American communities at the time of the Los Angeles riots in 1992. The article includes my own experiences teaching high school English during the…

  17. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources of Los Angeles County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal waters produced from large oil fields are currently the most important geothermal resources in Los Angeles County. Otherwise, the County does not appear to have any large, near-surface geothermal resources. The oil fields produce thermal water because of both the moderate depths of production and normal to above-normal geothermal gradients. Gradients are about 3.0-3.5/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Ventura Basin and range from that up to about 5.5-6.0/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Los Angeles Basin. The hottest fields in the County are west of the Newport-Inglewood Structural Zone. The Los Angeles Basin has substantially more potential for uses of heat from oil fields than does the Ventura Basin because of its large fields and dense urban development. Produced fluid temperatures there range from ambient air to boiling, but most are in the 100-150/sup 0/F range. Daily water production ranges from only a few barrels at some fields to over a million barrels at Wilmington Oil Field; nearly all fields produce less than 50,000 barrels/day. Water salinity generally ranges from about 15,000-35,000 mg/liter NaCl. Fields with the most promise as sources of heat for outside applications are Wilmington, Torrance, Venice Beach, and Lawndale. The centralized treatment facilities are the most favorable sites for extraction of heat within the oil fields. Because of the poor water quality heat exchangers will likely be required rather than direct circulation of the field water to users. The best sites for applications are commercial-industrial areas and possibly institutional structures occupied by large numbers of people.

  18. Los Angeles, California, Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic radar image shows the relationships of the dense urban development of Los Angeles and the natural contours of the land. The image includes the Pacific Ocean on the left, the flat Los Angeles Basin across the center, and the steep ranges of the Santa Monica and Verdugo mountains along the top. The two dark strips near the coast at lower left are the runways of Los Angeles International Airport. Downtown Los Angeles is the bright yellow and pink area at lower center. Pasadena, including the Rose Bowl, are seen half way down the right edge of the image. The communities of Glendale and Burbank, including the Burbank Airport, are seen at the center of the top edge of the image. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities such as Leangles.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between

  19. Smog chamber simulation of Los Angeles pollutant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Glasson, W.A.

    1981-06-01

    A smog chamber study simulated pollutant transport from Los Angeles to downwind areas by irradiating a typical Los Angeles hydrocarbon/nitrogen oxides mixture for extended periods of time. Smog chamber experiments were extended to 22 hr to obtain an integrated light intensity equal to that which occurs in this city. Results show that downwind oxidant levels are only slightly affected by large changes in emissions of nitrogen oxides. However, it is clear that reduced emissions will lead to an increase in oxidant in downtown Los Angeles. (6 graphs, 9 references, 1 table)

  20. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  1. 78 FR 68135 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Podesta, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), 100 S. Main Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012, telephone (213) 897-0309 and tami_podesta@dot.ca.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Effective July 1,...

  2. Final Ferry Takes SCA-Endeavour Over Los Angeles

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Endeavour atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft overflew many landmarks in Los Angeles to conclude its final ferry flight into history on Sept. 21, 2012. Among highlights in this video...

  3. Evapotranspiration from irrigated turfgrass in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, E.; Bijoor, N. S.; Pataki, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the United States, turfgrasses cover an area larger than any cultivated crop. In arid and semiarid cities, where up to 75% of household water is used for irrigation, turfgrass may contribute to a substantial portion of evapotranspiration (ET) from urban landscapes. However, urban ET and the role of turfgrass have seldom been directly quantified. Using portable chambers, we directly measured ET from irrigated turfgrass in 8 locations in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We addressed the following questions: (1) How does ET from irrigated turfgrass compare with transpiration of urban trees in the study region? (2) What are the major environmental controls on turfgrass ET? (3) How variable is turfgrass ET spatially and temporally? We found summertime ET from irrigated turfgrass to vary from 2.2 ± 0.2 mm/d to 8.8 ± 0.8 mm/d, which exceeded the maximum, plot-level transpiration of irrigated trees in the study region. The main driver of spatial variability of turfgrass ET was incoming solar radiation. This allowed us to evaluate ET from turfgrass partially shaded by trees as a function of tree canopy cover. Our results contribute to an improved representation of irrigated lawns in urban water budgets and can inform decisions about water-wise landscape planning, which is vital in semi-arid cities facing water shortages.

  4. Caring for Immigrants: Health Care Safety Nets in Los Angeles, New York, Miami, and Houston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Leighton; Freilich, Alyse

    This report assesses how the loss of Medicaid coverage following welfare reform has influenced changes in health care systems for immigrants in four urban areas: Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Houston, Texas; and Miami, Florida. Survey data indicate that over half of low-income immigrants were uninsured in 1998, a level roughly…

  5. Comparing Outcomes for Los Angeles County's HUD-Assisted and Unassisted CalWORKS Leavers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Nandita; Hendra, Richard

    The impact of supplemental assistance from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) on CalWORKs leavers was examined in a study of CalWORKs recipients in Los Angeles County, California, who stopped receiving welfare benefits in the third quarter of 1998. Two groups received federal housing assistance at the time of exit from…

  6. Achievement Effects of Five Comprehensive School Reform Designs Implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District. Dissertation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Bryce

    2005-01-01

    Achievement effects as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test 9 were estimated for students in grades 1-11 that participated in America's Choice, Co-nect, Different Ways of Knowing, Success for All (SFA), and Urban Learning Centers comprehensive school reform (CSR) designs implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District between 1999 and…

  7. 3D View of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California's topography poses challenges for road builders. Northwest of Los Angeles, deformation of Earth's crust along the Pacific-North American crustal plate boundary has made transportation difficult. Direct connection between metropolitan Los Angeles (image lower left) and California's Central Valley (image top center) through the rugged terrain seen on the left side of this image was long avoided in favor of longer but easier paths. However, over the last century, three generations of roads have traversed this terrain. The first was 'The Ridge Route', a two-lane road, built in 1915, which followed long winding ridge lines that included 697 curves. The second, built in 1933, was to become four-lane U.S. Highway 99. It generally followed widened canyon bottoms. The third is the current eight lane Interstate 5 freeway, built in the 1960s, which is generally notched into hillsides, but also includes a stretch of several miles where the two directions of travel are widely separated and driving is 'on the left', a rarity in the United States. Such an unusual highway configuration was necessary in order to optimize the road grades for uphill and downhill traffic in this topographically challenging setting. This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  8. Transport of delight: The mythical conception of rail transit in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, J.E.D.

    1991-01-01

    The author notes that Los Angeles' once extensive Red Car' interurban rail system went out of existence because it no longer served consumer needs in an increasingly dispersed autopolis. Rail remains a poor choice, he feels precisely because of the dispersed form of the Lost Angeles economy. There is better scope for improving transit by using buses. Efforts to bring rail to Los Angeles failed until a consensus was reached. The consensus came in a climate where newly-prominent environmental concerns had focused attention on transit as a vehicle for combating urban problems, making rail appear an increasingly favorable option. Richmond uses a theory of myth and extensive documentation to test for the operation and mechanism of a hypothesized mythical belief in the power of rail to help solve the transportation and certain other urban problems of Los Angeles. Images are found to give misleadingly favorable impressions of trains, compared to buses. He concludes that a mythical belief in rail leads to bad decision making; it leads to the uncritical adoption of a particular technology, rather than to a discussion of social problems to be addressed.

  9. 77 FR 25739 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    .... ADDRESSES: Wendy G. Teeter, Ph.D., Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles... contact Wendy G. Teeter, Ph.D., Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles,...

  10. 77 FR 25743 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    .... Teeter, Ph.D., Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1549...., Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1549, telephone (310)...

  11. Turning Neighbors into Friends: The Los Angeles Camp Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenya, Judith

    2002-01-01

    A camp for Los Angeles (California) children traumatized by war, community violence, and hatred gives them time to heal and feel safe. The camp's theme of reconciliation and nonviolence is expressed by an all-volunteer staff through community, teamwork, and cooperation. Nature's diversity is used to show how diverse groups can interact, thrive,…

  12. Americas Unidas; Pilot Broadcasting Program Los Angeles, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Samuel W.

    A proposed Spanish-speaking pilot broadcasting program in the Los Angeles area is described in this prospectus. The purpose of Americas Unidas, a proposed non-profit California corporation, will be to do research and development, production, distribution, and broadcasting of educational films and other audiovisual materials for the…

  13. 40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, dated July 1937. (Microfiched drawings located at the Denver Service Center, #113/41906-set of 2) IMPROVEMENTS IN SEWAGE TREATMENT AND FILTER CHAMBER. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  14. Los Angeles Community Colleges Fall 2000 Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, George; Kelly, Dexter

    This report gives a historical overview of the Los Angeles Community Colleges District Student Survey and provides details about the current survey results. The student survey was started in fall 1976 in order to provide a picture of students by identifying their goals, levels of college preparation, extra curricular interests, transportation…

  15. Case Study Number Four: Los Angeles County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Marvin R.

    For any administrator evaluation system to work, reasonableness, integrity, and trust must be present, according to the author of these descriptions of two California evaluation programs in the Los Angeles County School District. These two programs are intended to comply with California's Stull Act, which mandates personnel evaluation in the…

  16. Annual Information Digest, Los Angeles Community Colleges, 1992-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, May K. C.

    Providing historical data up to 1992-1994 on the nine colleges in the Los Angeles community college District (LACCD), this statistical digest presents tables and graphs on student characteristics, enrollment trends, instructional programs, student performance and articulation, special services, and fiscal and personnel resources. Highlighted…

  17. Working Smart: The Los Angeles Workplace Literacy Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    The Working Smart workplace literacy project was sponsored by a public school district and several profit and nonprofit companies and conducted for the hotel and food industry in the Los Angeles area. Literacy instruction was merged with job requirements of the customer service job classifications. Videodisc courseware was developed, as were…

  18. Los Angeles School Board Race Shatters Spending Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    The price tag to win a seat in this week's primary election for the Los Angeles school board climbed to unprecedented levels, as a massive influx of outside cash has turned a local campaign into a national showdown pitting the long-standing influence of teachers' unions against the expanding imprint of deep-pocketed education activists. The high…

  19. FINE PORE DIFFUSER FOULING: THE LOS ANGELES STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes five fine pore diffuser evaluations conducted at three different wastewater treatment plants located in the greater Los Angeles area. The overall goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of fine pore diffusers using selected cleaning methods for ex...

  20. Spring 1987 Student Survey: Summary. Los Angeles Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrath, Nancy; Fong Lai, Kit

    Since 1974, student surveys have been conducted in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) to gather information on student goals, plans, academic preparation, characteristics, financial aid, and evaluations of college services. In spring 1987, a random sample of 15% of the current enrollment at each college in the LACCD were surveyed…

  1. The Community College General Academic Assessment: Los Angeles District, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Michelle

    Information is provided on the characteristics of Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) students and their general education and liberal arts knowledge. The first sections of the report provide information on the development and administration of the General Academic Assessment (GAA), an instrument containing representative items in the…

  2. The South Central Los Angeles Eruption: A Latino Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Armando

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the changing demographics of South Central Los Angeles (California); and considers the Latino role in the 1992 riots, the etiology of the riots, and the rift created among ethnic and racial groups. The Latino perspective on the riots and the future is developed. (SLD)

  3. Los Angeles Community College District Annual Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    This 1993 annual report provides information on student demographics, college programs, and educational finances in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD), which, with more than 117,000 students, is the largest community college district in the nation. The report begins with a statement from Donald Phelps, the outgoing chancellor of…

  4. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  5. Los Angeles City College Credit Manual. Revision, Spring 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Coll., CA.

    This manual lists regulations and practices governing credit procedures at Los Angeles City College (California). Grading practices and record updating procedures are covered, including credit by examination, credit/no credit grading, credit on early military withdrawal, course repetition, course duplication, incompletes, and credit transfer. The…

  6. The Science Curriculum in the Los Angeles Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jack; Sillman, Donna

    The 1979-1980 class schedules for the nine institutions within the Los Angeles Community College District were examined to document the number and variety of courses offered by the colleges in six areas of science: agriculture, biological sciences, engineering sciences and technology, mathematics and computer science, physical sciences, and social…

  7. Los Angeles City College, Presidential Inauguration, October 22, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    On October 22, 1998, Los Angeles City College's 70th anniversary, Dr. Mary Spangler was inaugurated as the 12th president of the college. In this, her message to faculty, staff, and family attending the event, Spangler revisits the college's past, citing historical highlights from each decade. She also focuses on the present state of the college,…

  8. SOFT FLOOR COVERING IN THE LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUNLIFF, DONALD D.

    A STUDY REGARDING THE INSTALLATION OF CARPET IN SCHOOLS IS DISCUSSED. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO HAVE A CONSULTANT REVIEW UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE DISTRICT BUILDING AND GROUNDS SERVICES ADMINISTRATOR OF THE LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS, THE SOFT FLOOR COVERING INSTALLATIONS AT ARAGON AVENUE AND TWENTY-FOURTH STREET SCHOOLS. SECTIONS…

  9. Student Volunteer Service Programs: Los Angeles Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Roger

    This study investigated the extent and diversity of student volunteer programs in the Los Angeles Community College District (California) to determine the amount of college support and acceptance accorded them. The junior colleges should take advantage of the great student potential for positive social action and realize that, in the area of…

  10. Food Buying Practices of Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles in the spring of 1969, questions were asked concerning their families' buying and food practices. This paper reports on the information obtained from the 21 questionnaires which were returned. Answers to the following…

  11. Arts in Focus: Los Angeles Countywide Arts Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report baseline study information about the state of arts education in Los Angeles County, California, the most populous county in the United States. Students in the districts covered in this survey represent 27% of all students enrolled in California public schools (K-12) and 3.4% of all students enrolled in U.S. public schools. The survey's…

  12. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water-a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways-through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management. PMID:27174451

  13. CCN, hygroscopicity, and activation kinetics of Los Angeles aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. J.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.; Suski, K.; Cahill, J. F.; Prather, K. A.; Craven, J. S.; Metcalf, A. R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The CalNex field campaign was designed as a comprehensive regional air quality and climate assessment study with an emphasis on the interaction between air quality and climate change. The southern California region is an excellent location for the study of air quality and climate change due to the existence and interaction of biogenic, dust, and urban plumes. Research flights aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter platform focused on the origin and evolution of the Los Angeles plume as it is advected across the basin and outflows into the Coachella valley and Mojave Desert. This study focuses on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements taken aboard the Twin Otter. A continuous flow streamwise thermal gradient chamber operating in scanning flow CCN analysis (SFCA) mode provided high resolution, in situ CCN spectra (0.4-0.8% supersaturation) once every 40 seconds. In conjuncture with other aerosol instrumentation aboard the Twin Otter, the data provide a comprehensive picture of the interaction of ambient aerosol with water vapor. The analysis presented then quantifies the relationship between aerosol size, chemical composition, mixing state, hygroscopicity, and activation kinetics of aerosol from the variety of sources sampled.

  14. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  15. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water-a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways-through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  16. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  17. East Los Angeles College Community Demographics: A Look in 1980. Research Report 80-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Kenneth; Sachs, Steven Mark

    A study was conducted by East Los Angeles College (ELAC) to determine the economic, demographic, and ethnic composition of ELAC's service district. The study involved the examination of community data collected from a variety of sources, including the Los Angeles County Regional Planning Department, the Los Angeles Times Marketing Research…

  18. Hate Crime in Los Angeles County 1990. A Report to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Bunny Nightwalker

    A report on 1990 hate crimes in Los Angeles County (California) found 275 racially motivated hate crimes, 150 religiously motivated hate crimes, and 125 sexual orientation hate crimes. The data were collected primarily from law enforcement and community agencies. Of the racially motivated crimes, most were aimed at Blacks, followed by Asians. Jews…

  19. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  20. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  1. Blood lead levels in children in south central Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, S J; Williams, F A; Delrahim, S; Khan, F; Kraft, M; Lu, M; Manalo, M; Sanchez, M; Wooten, D J

    1996-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 3 679 pediatric records from King/Drew Medical Center, south central Los Angeles, between 1991 and 1994. Blood lead levels of children were followed to age 18 y. Patients were not referred specifically for lead poisoning. The sample was primarily Latino. Geometric mean blood lead peaked at 6.7 micrograms/dl (0.32 mumol/l) between 2 and 3 y of age. There was a downward secular trend and a seasonal trend. Males had higher lead levels than females. Children who lived in several zipcode areas, in which the lowest family incomes were reported, had higher lead levels. More Latino children had higher lead levels than African American children. Latino children (i.e., 20.2%) who were 1-5 y of age had blood lead levels that were > or = 10 micrograms/dl. Young Latino children in this zone of Los Angeles may be at increased risk for lead exposure.

  2. Early Landsat View of Los Angeles and Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Landsat 1 (originally named the Earth Resources Technology Satellite, or ERTS) was the first of what was to become a series of satellites designed to map and monitor the Earth's land surfaces. This view of Los Angeles and vicinity is a scene acquired by a single pass of Landsat 1 on 25 June 1974. The image is derived from visible and reflected infrared light and is displayed with the visible green, the visible red, and an infrared channel coded as blue, green, and red, respectively. Healthy vegetation is highly reflective in the infrared and therefore appears red in this standard display. Chaparral and forested areas form bold red patterns in the Sierra, Santa Monica, San Gabriel, and other mountain ranges. Agricultural fields form a textured red pattern in the San Joaquin Valley in the upper left. Downtown Los Angeles appears as a light blue patch in the lower right.

  3. Lidar observation of elevated pollution layers over Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Wakimoto, R.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Elevated pollution layers are observed over Los Angeles with an aircraft equipped with a downward-looking lidar. For the first time, detailed ancillary upper-air kinematic and thermodynamic data were collected simultaneously to aid in the interpretation of these elevated layers. It is concluded that upper-level winds within the inversion, orographic effects, and thermally induced changes in the depth of the mixed layer control the evolution of these layers.

  4. Sustainable Hydrogen Fueling Station, California State University, Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Blekhman, David

    2013-01-25

    The College of Engineering, Computer Science, & Technology at California State University, Los Angeles as part of its alternative and renewable energy leadership efforts has built a sustainable hydrogen station to teach and demonstrate the production and application of hydrogen as the next generation of fully renewable fuel for transportation. The requested funding was applied toward the acquisition of the core hydrogen station equipment: electrolyzer, compressors and hydrogen storage.

  5. Interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.; Peltzer, Gilles; Crampé, FréDeric; Webb, Frank H.

    2005-04-01

    We use global positioning system (GPS) geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to distinguish between interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles. We establish a relationship between horizontal and vertical seasonal oscillations of the Santa Ana aquifer, use this relationship to infer cumulative horizontal anthropogenic motions from cumulative vertical motions caused by water and oil resource management, and estimate horizontal interseismic velocities corrected for anthropogenic effects. Vertical anthropogenic rates from 1992 to 1999 are slower than 3 mm yr-1 in the Santa Ana and San Gabriel aquifers and faster than 5 mm yr-1 in the Chino aquifer and in many oil fields. Inferred horizontal anthropogenic velocities are faster than 1 mm yr-1 at 18 of 46 GPS sites. Northern metropolitan Los Angeles is contracting, with the 25 km south of the San Gabriel Mountains shortening at 4.5 ± 1 mm yr-1 (95% confidence limits). The thrust fault in an elastic edge dislocation model of the observed strain is creeping at 9 ± 2 mm yr-1 beneath and north of a position 6 ± 2 km deep and 8 ± 8 km north of downtown Los Angeles. The model fault is near the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills thrust but south of the Sante Fe Springs segment of the thrust. Disagreement between the 6 km locking depth in the model and the 15 km seismogenic depth inferred from earthquakes suggests that the elastic continuum model may be unsatisfactory; models with different stiffnesses of sedimentary basin and crystalline basement must be investigated.

  6. Interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D. F.; Heflin, M. B.; Peltzer, G.; Crampe, F.; Webb, F. H.

    2005-05-01

    We use global positioning system (GPS) geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to distinguish between interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles. We establish a relationship between horizontal and vertical seasonal oscillations of the Santa Ana aquifer, use this relationship to infer cumulative horizontal anthropogenic motions from cumulative vertical motions caused by water and oil resource management, and estimate horizontal interseismic velocities corrected for anthropogenic effects. Vertical anthropogenic rates from 1992 to 1999 are slower than 3 mm/yr in the Santa Ana and San Gabriel aquifers and faster than 5 mm/yr in the Chino aquifer and in many oil fields. Inferred horizontal anthropogenic velocities are faster than 1 mm/yr at 18 of 46 GPS sites. Northern metropolitan Los Angeles is contracting, with the 25 km south of the San Gabriel mountains shortening at 4.5 ±1 mm/yr (95% confidence limits). The thrust fault in an elastic edge dislocation model of the observed strain is creeping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath and north of a position 6 ±2 km deep and 8 ±8 km north of downtown Los Angeles. The model fault is near the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills thrust but south of the Sante Fe Springs segment of the thrust. Disagreement between the 6 km locking depth in the model and the 15 km seismogenic depth inferred from earthquakes suggests that the elastic continuum model may be unsatisfactory; models with different stiffnesses of sedimentary basin and crystalline basement must be investigated.

  7. Modeling the formamtion and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of A...

  8. The American Indian Family in Los Angeles: A Comparison of Premigration Experience, Postmigration Residence and Employment Mobility, and Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Joan

    Urban adaptation patterns of male and female American Indians were investigated via comparison of premigration statistics (48 Navajo and 40 Oklahoma families) with postmigration statistics on a sample of 23 Navajo and 21 Oklahoma families now living in Los Angeles. The premigration variables were residence patterns; population density;…

  9. Indians and Their Education in Los Angeles. National Study of American Indian Education, Series II, No. 1, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this report deals with the urbanization of American Indians in the Los Angeles area, where the present Indian population consists almost entirely of people who have in-migrated within the last 35 years. It is noted that the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), with its relocation program for…

  10. Initial results from a CO2 monitoring network in the Los Angeles megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Hsu, Y. K.; Kort, E. A.; Sander, S. P.; Eldering, A.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.

    2012-04-01

    Urban regions, such as Los Angeles, CA, contain more than half of the world's population and contribute an even larger fraction of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One practical method for tracking these emissions is by high-resolution space-borne remote-sensing instruments, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2, spatial resolution of ~3 km2). In conjunction with space-borne measurements, in situ measurements can be used to elucidate the details of urban emission patterns and trends. Indeed, to understand GHG emissions in complex urban regions, we must sample in multiple locations with the goal of obtaining specific information from each site. We have studied CO2 in Los Angeles from three sites that form the anchor points of a developing megacity monitoring network. The sites form a ~45 km transect that extends from the Pacific Ocean coastline to the southwest, over the Los Angeles basin, to the San Gabriel Mountains that form the northern boundary of the basin. Using in situ measurements of CO2 from Palos Verdes peninsula (PV), Pasadena, and Mt. Wilson (MW), from May 2010 - April 2011, with additional analysis of data since 2001 in Pasadena, we determined the seasonal variations of boundary layer CO2 mixing ratios. The amplitude of the seasonal and diurnal variations is much larger in Pasadena than at the other two sites, and the PV site shows more variability than the MW site. PV is on the coast, with dominant westerly breezes bringing air from the ocean, except when unusual weather patterns occur. The average patterns here reflect the global clean-air pattern, with lowest mixing ratios during the summer and highest during the winter. Pasadena is inland, in the San Gabriel Valley close to the mountains, and is a good receptor site for receiving the emissions signal from the Los Angeles basin. The CO2 signal here is strongly affected by diurnal changes in boundary layer height, reflected in diurnal variations averaging 70 ppm during winter, with the

  11. First look analyses of five cycles of ERTS-1 imagery over County of Los Angeles: Assessment of data utility for urban development and regional planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Mcknight, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results have been obtained from the analyses of ERTS-1 imagery from five cycles over Test Site SR 124 by classical photointerpretation and by an interactive hybrid multispectral information extraction system (GEMS). The synopticity, periodicity and multispectrality of ERTS coverage, available for the first time to LA County planners, have opened up both a new dimensionality in data and offer new capability in preparation of planning inputs. Photointerpretation of ERTS images has produced over 25 overlays at 1:1,000,000 scale depicting regional relations and urban structure in terms of several hundred linear and areal features. To mention only one such result, a possible new fault lineament has been discovered on the northern slope of the Santa Monica mountains in the scene 1144-18015, composited of MSS bands 4, 5, 6,. GEMS analysis of the ERTS products has provided new or improved information in the following planning data categories: urban vegetation; land cover segregation; man-made and natural impact monitoring; urban design; and suitability. ERTS data analysis has allowed planners to establish trends that directly impact planning policies. This new source of information will not only assist current methods to be more efficient, but permits entirely new planning methodologies to be employed.

  12. Water Use in Los Angeles, California: Consumption Patterns, Ecosystem Response and Impact on Regional Water Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    The City of Los Angeles relies heavily on external water sources, primarily the Eastern Sierra, Northern California and the Colorado River, and approximately 90% of the City's water supply is snowpack dependent. In recent years, water conservation measures have been implemented in response to regional drought, which include a tiered pricing structure and watering restrictions. As a result of implemented conservation policies, Los Angeles reported the lowest water consumption per capita per day in 2011 among cities over 1 million people in the U.S. This presentation will highlight our ongoing work to better understand the coupling between humans, ecosystems and water across the City of Los Angeles, especially during the recent drought period. Our work is unique in that we integrate social, ecological, and hydrologic data, including ten years of residential water consumption data for the entire city of Los Angeles, extensive groundwater well data, socio-economic information and remote sensing to evaluate relationships as well as spatial and temporal patterns. Developed statistical models demonstrated that Single-Family Residential (SFR) water use across the City is primarily driven by household income, landscape greenness, water rates and water volume allocation,, with higher consumption rates in the northern, warmer and more affluent parts, and lower consumption rates in the less affluent neighborhoods near Downtown. Landscape use also varies greatly across the city, averaging 50% of total SFR. Our evaluation of conservation efforts shows that the combination of mandatory watering restrictions and price increase led to a water reduction of 23%, while voluntary restrictions led to only a 6% reduction in water use. Relationships of water use to ecosystems (greenness) and groundwater variability were also evaluated and will be highlighted. Our ultimate goal is to improve predictions of human-water interactions in order to drive policy change and guide future demand

  13. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  14. C1-C14 carbonyls in Los Angeles air

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, E.; Grosjean, D.; Fraser, M.; Cass, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    Air samples collected at five Los Angeles locations have been analyzed for carbonyls as their DNPH derivatives using liquid chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Twenty-three carbonyls have been measured: 14 aliphatic aldehydes (from formaldehyde to tetradecanal); 2 aromatics (benzaldehyde and m-tolualdehyde), 3 ketones (acetone, 2-butanone and cyclohexanone), one unsaturated carbonyl (crotonaldehyde) and 3 dicarbonyls (glyoxal, methylglyoxal and biacetyl). Another nineteen carbonyls have been tentatively identified including four high MW (C{sub 15}-C{sub 18}) aliphatic carbonyls.

  15. Masculinity and HIV Risk among Homeless Men in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Brown, Ryan A; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Tucker, Joan S; Wertheimer, Samuel R

    2013-01-01

    HIV continues to be a serious public health problem for men who have sex with women (MSW), especially homeless MSW. Although consideration of gender has improved HIV prevention interventions, most of the research and intervention development has targeted how women's HIV risk is affected by gender roles. The effect of gender roles on MSW has received relatively little attention. Previous studies have shown mixed results when investigating the association between internalization of masculine gender roles and HIV risk. These studies use a variety of scales that measure individual internalization of different aspects of masculinity. However, this ignores the dynamic and culturally constructed nature of gender roles. The current study uses cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to test for the existence of culturally agreed upon masculinity and gender role beliefs among homeless MSW in Los Angeles, as well as the relationship between these beliefs and HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Interviews included 30 qualitative and 305 structured interviews with homeless MSW in Los Angeles's Skid Row area. Analysis identified culturally relevant aspects of masculinity not represented by existing masculinity scales, primarily related to barriers to relationships with women. Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV were significantly associated with men's level of agreement with the group about masculinity. The findings are discussed in light of implications for MSW HIV intervention development.

  16. Masculinity and HIV Risk among Homeless Men in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Brown, Ryan A; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Tucker, Joan S; Wertheimer, Samuel R

    2013-01-01

    HIV continues to be a serious public health problem for men who have sex with women (MSW), especially homeless MSW. Although consideration of gender has improved HIV prevention interventions, most of the research and intervention development has targeted how women's HIV risk is affected by gender roles. The effect of gender roles on MSW has received relatively little attention. Previous studies have shown mixed results when investigating the association between internalization of masculine gender roles and HIV risk. These studies use a variety of scales that measure individual internalization of different aspects of masculinity. However, this ignores the dynamic and culturally constructed nature of gender roles. The current study uses cultural consensus analysis (CCA) to test for the existence of culturally agreed upon masculinity and gender role beliefs among homeless MSW in Los Angeles, as well as the relationship between these beliefs and HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Interviews included 30 qualitative and 305 structured interviews with homeless MSW in Los Angeles's Skid Row area. Analysis identified culturally relevant aspects of masculinity not represented by existing masculinity scales, primarily related to barriers to relationships with women. Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV were significantly associated with men's level of agreement with the group about masculinity. The findings are discussed in light of implications for MSW HIV intervention development. PMID:23730216

  17. Inadvertent ingestion of marijuana - Los Angeles, California, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-09-01

    On April 8, 2009, the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) notified officials from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH) in California about a group of preschool teachers with nausea, dizziness, headache, and numbness and tingling of fingertips after consumption of brownies purchased 3 days before from a sidewalk vendor. To characterize the neurologic symptoms and determine whether these symptoms were associated with ingestion of the brownies, the police and health departments launched a collaborative investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which detected cannabinoids in a recovered sample of the brownies. Two patients sought medical attention, and one patient's urine and serum tested positive for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a marijuana metabolite. The findings in this report demonstrate the utility of a collaborative investigation by public health and law enforcement.The findings also underscore the need to consider marijuana as a potential contaminant during foodborne illness investigations and the importance of identifying drug metabolites by testing of clinical specimens soon after symptom onset.

  18. 40 CFR 52.229 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.223 is retained. (ii) Rule 1115, Automotive Coatings, adopted on March 16, 1984 by the...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.229 Section 52.229... oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) (b) The following rules...

  19. 40 CFR 52.229 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.223 is retained. (ii) Rule 1115, Automotive Coatings, adopted on March 16, 1984 by the...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.229 Section 52.229... oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) (b) The following rules...

  20. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  1. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  2. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  3. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  4. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  5. Kindling Hope in the Ashes: LACCD and Los Angeles after the Riots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the Los Angeles Community College District's three most affected campuses to help rebuild Los Angeles in the wake of the 1992 riots. Discusses sensitivity gatherings, new job development partnerships with business and government, community outreach, and the district's long-term commitment to the city. (DMM)

  6. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a line...

  7. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a line...

  8. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a line...

  9. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a line...

  10. 33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a line...

  11. Evaluation of the Life Skills Training Program, Los Angeles County, California: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mark E.; Zinn, Andrew; Zielewski, Erica H.; Bess, Roseana J.; Malm, Karin E.; Stagner, Matthew; Pergamit, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a rigorous evaluation of the Life Skills Training Program (LST) in Los Angeles County. LST provides 30 hours of life skills training over five weeks to foster youths ages 16 and older. The classes are held on community college campuses throughout Los Angeles County. The program is staffed by workers tasked with…

  12. Confronting Homophobia at School: High School Students and the Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Greg; Gregorio, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses student responses to curriculum taught by the Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles to choral students in local high schools. The Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles's A-LIVE Music Project brings live music and standards-driven curriculum to high school youth with the express purpose of teaching content in innovative ways and…

  13. 75 FR 65512 - Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of... Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, California (the subject firm). The Notice of determination was issued on January 14, 2010 and published in the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75...

  14. 76 FR 67020 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Street Viaduct Seismic Improvement Project in Los Angeles County, California. DATES: The comment period for the 6th Street Viaduct Seismic Improvement Project will end 30 days after publication of the NOA... for 6th Street Viaduct Seismic Improvement project in Los Angeles County, California. The City of...

  15. Isotopic constraints on sources of methane in Los Angeles, California, USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Tyler, S. C.; Christensen, L.; Xu, X.; Pataki, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and an important contributor to global warming. Recent studies have suggested that methane emissions in large cities are underestimated with several models even indicating that substantial emissions attributed to cities are in part from regional and/or encroaching agricultural sources rather than from urban fossil fuel sources. We have found that stable isotopes (13-C and D) and radiocarbon (C-14) are excellent tracers of various sources of methane in Los Angeles, California. Measurements of the d13C and dD of methane from discrete sources show excellent separation between urban sources, such as vehicle emissions, power plants, oil refineries, landfills, and sewage treatment plants and agricultural sources like cows, biogas, and cattle feedlots. In addition, radiocarbon is an excellent tracer of modern versus fossil fuel contributions to methane emissions in the region. Preliminary measurements of background air in Los Angeles indicate that the major source of excess methane is vehicle emissions with most additional CH4 likely contributed from among other fossil fuel sources such as oil refining or power plants. We are currently confirming these results with broader field campaigns and additional measurements, including continuous measurements of atmospheric methane concentration using tunable laser spectroscopy. The combination of high-resolution tunable laser concentration measurements and precise isotope measurements using mass spectrometry is a very promising and powerful tool for methane source monitoring.

  16. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  17. 77 FR 11571 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1549, telephone (310) 825-1864... Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1549, telephone (310) 825- 1864,...

  18. Los Angeles County drug court programs: initial results.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jonathan E; Tye, Grace; Ogawa, Patrick L; Imam, Iraj J; Long, Anna M

    2002-10-01

    Los Angeles County established its first drug court program in 1994 in response to escalating criminal activity associated with substance abuse and overcrowded jails. This paper describes results of an evaluation of 803 drug court participants admitted to the program between 1994 and 1997. Of all drug court participants, 76% remained free of any new arrests throughout the one-year followup period, compared to 63% of participants in a drug diversion education program and 49% of the felony defendants not exposed to either program. Of offenders completing the drug court program 80% had no arrests, compared to 67% for non-completers. Drug related re-arrests were significantly lower among drug court graduates (13%) than offenders with no program participation (30%). The study results suggest that drug court participation and graduation decrease the likelihood of repeated arrests, including drug-related arrests. Drug courts represent a promising collaboration between criminal justice and public health agencies.

  19. Clustering of giardiosis among AIDS patients in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, A; Swartz, J; Teklehaimanot, S

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mode of the spread of the enteric parasitic infections among HIV+/AIDS patients attending the AIDS clinic of the King/Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles. Two hundred forty three patients diagnosed with HIV+/AIDS agreed to participate. The study was conducted by several interviews, questionnaires and stool sample collections over a one year period. Stool samples were processed for protozoan cysts and Helminth Ova using standard stool concentration and staining techniques. An indirect immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody technique was also used as an alternate to detect the parasites in samples. Forty three cases were positive for Giardia Lamblia (17.7%) and 10 cases were positive for Cryptosporidium (4%). No Helminth Ova were detected. The majority of the participants were African-American (72.6%) and 27.6% were Hispanic. Clustering studies were performed to determine the mechanism of spread of the parasites among the population study. The Nearest Neighbor Clustering Technique (NNT) was used to determine if there was spatial clustering of positive cases. Geocoding with the MapInfo Program was performed to determine the precise coordinates of the residence of the subjects. Application of the NNT showed a high degree of clustering for Giardia. The NNT statistic for Giardia was significant with the p value for 0.020 using the Simes multiple comparisons correction. Examination of the map plots indicated that there were two areas with high Giardia prevalence, one in Hollywood region, the other in South-Central Los Angeles. The odds ratio for sexual orientation was 14.2 (for homosexuals vs heterosexuals) with a p value of less than 0.001. These findings strongly suggest that male homosexual contact was the main mode of transmission of observed Giardia cases.

  20. On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Mui, Wilton; Fischer, Marc L.; Wunch, Debra; Kort, Eric A.; Blake, Donald R.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Jeong, Seongeun

    2012-01-01

    We use historical and new atmospheric trace gas observations to refine the estimated source of methane (CH4) emitted into California's South Coast Air Basin (the larger Los Angeles metropolitan region). Referenced to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) CO emissions inventory, total CH4 emissions are 0.44 +/- 0.15 Tg each year. To investigate the possible contribution of fossil fuel emissions, we use ambient air observations of methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and carbon monoxide (CO), together with measured C2H6 to CH4 enhancement ratios in the Los Angeles natural gas supply. The observed atmospheric C2H6 to CH4 ratio during the ARCTAS (2008) and CalNex (2010) aircraft campaigns is similar to the ratio of these gases in the natural gas supplied to the basin during both these campaigns. Thus, at the upper limit (assuming that the only major source of atmospheric C2H6 is fugitive emissions from the natural gas infrastructure) these data are consistent with the attribution of most (0.39 +/- 0.15 Tg yr-1) of the excess CH4 in the basin to uncombusted losses from the natural gas system (approximately 2.5-6% of natural gas delivered to basin customers). However, there are other sources of C2H6 in the region. In particular, emissions of C2H6 (and CH4) from natural gas seeps as well as those associated with petroleum production, both of which are poorly known, will reduce the inferred contribution of the natural gas infrastructure to the total CH4 emissions, potentially significantly. This study highlights both the value and challenges associated with the use of ethane as a tracer for fugitive emissions from the natural gas production and distribution system.

  1. Climate Change and Adaptation Planning on the Los Angeles Aqueduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. B.; Bales, R. C.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Chen, L.; Maurer, E. P.; Miller, N. L.; Mills, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the Eastern Sierra Nevada snowpack and snowmelt timing, using a combination of empirical (i.e., data-based) models, and computer simulation models forced by GCM-projected 21st century climatology (IPCC 2007 AR4 projections). Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada is one of the main water sources for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people - a source whose future availability is critical to the city's growing population and large economy. Precipitation in the region falls mostly in winter and is stored in the large natural reservoir that is the snowpack. Meltwater from the Eastern Sierra is delivered to the city by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueducts. The analysis is focused on the nature of the impact to the LAA water supplies over the 21st century due to potential climate change, including volume of precipitation, the mix of snowfall and rainfall, shifts in the timing of runoff, interannual variability and multi-year droughts. These impacts further affect the adequacy of seasonal and annual carryover water storage, and potentially water treatment. Most of the snow in the 10,000 km^2 Mono-Owens basins that feed the LAA occurs in a relatively narrow, 10-20 km wide, high-elevation band on the steep slopes of 20 smaller basins whose streams drain into the Owens River and thence LAA. Extending over 240 km in the north-south direction, these basins present special challenges for estimating snowpack amounts and downscaling climate-model data. In addition, there are few meteorological stations and snow measurements in the snow-producing parts of the basins to drive physically based hydrologic modeling.

  2. Public health impact of the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C A

    1993-01-01

    The Los Angeles civil unrest in April 1992 stunned the nation. The days of violence resulted in 53 deaths, 2,325 reported injuries, more than 600 buildings completely destroyed by fire, and approximately $735 million in total damages. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the activities of the Public Health Programs and Services Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services during and after the civil unrest and to illustrate the types of public health issues and problems that may result from large-scale civil disturbance. Public health agencies and jurisdictions should consider these issues in their disaster planning. Public Health Programs and Services Branch activities were directly affected by the violence and destruction. Women, Infants and Children Program vouchering sites and 20 drug program and alcohol recovery sites were damaged or burned and 15 county health centers closed during the unrest. At least 38 private medical and dental offices and 45 pharmacies were destroyed or damaged. County health authorities offered facilities to house relocated private care providers and filled prescriptions for medications where needed. The environmental health impact required the inspection of 2,827 burned and damaged sites for hazardous waste including asbestos; at 9 percent of the inspected sites, waste required special disposal. More than 1,000 food facilities suffered damage and required inspection before reopening. In the 3 months following the unrest, a 20-percent increase in disposal capacity was authorized at four county landfills to accommodate the disposal of debris. Violence was a public health issue of particular concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8497562

  3. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  4. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  5. Flies from L.A., The Sequel: A further twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) from the BioSCAN Project in Los Angeles (California, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Disney, R. Henry L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). New information Twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) are described: M. baileyae, M. friedrichae, M. gonzalezorum, M. joanneae, M. losangelensis, M. phyllissunae, M. pongsaiae, M. shatesae, M. stoakesi, M. studentorum, M. voluntariorum, M. wongae. PMID:27226746

  6. 76 FR 43721 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA... Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1549, telephone (310) 825- 1864... Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects...

  7. Investigating high concentrations of three greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpes, R.; Blake, D. R.; Marrero, J.

    2013-12-01

    Following the Montreal Protocol of 1987 calling for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, HCFCs and HFCs were introduced as alternatives despite still being greenhouse gases with high global warming potentials. In this study, whole air samples were collected during four research flights over Southern California aboard the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory as part of the NASA Student Airborne Science Program. These samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a suite of detectors for many compounds, including HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a. HCFC-22 is primarily used as a refrigerant, while HFC-134a and HFC-152a are also used as aerosol propellants and foam blowing agents. High concentrations of these three compounds were observed for samples taken at low altitudes over urban areas around Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Exceptionally high concentrations were seen for all three compounds in samples taken near the Ontario and San Bernardino airports. Concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a were enhanced above background levels near other airports sampled in the Los Angeles Basin and San Bernardino Valley. It is clear that concentrations of these three gases are higher in the San Bernardino Valley than in the Los Angeles Basin, and locations with exceptionally high concentrations were investigated to identify potential point sources. Concentrations of these three compounds were also compared to data from past SARP missions and data collected at Trinidad Head, California since 2005 as part of the AGAGE network. Comparison of the average values for each of these campaigns reveal that the background concentrations of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and HFC-152a are all increasing with a strong linear trend in Southern California.

  8. Preliminary geologic map of the Los Angeles 30' x 60' quadrangle, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    complied by Yerkes, Robert F.; Campbell, Russell H.; digital preparation by Alvarez, Rachel M.; Bovard, Kelly R.

    2005-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Los Angeles 30? x 60? quadrangle, southern California. Compilation of the Los Angeles quadrangle is based upon published mapping at scales of 1:12,000 and smaller, unpublished mapping at scales of 1:12,000 and smaller, with reconnaissance mapping by the compilers to resolve some edge-matching problems. The Los Angeles 30? x 60? quadrangle covers approximately 5,000 km2 including some of the most densely populated urban and suburban areas of the southern California megalopolis. It extends about 90 km E-W and about 55 km N-S, from Fillmore and Thousand Oaks in the west to Vincent in the northeast and Montebello in the southeast, and includes urban San Gabriel Valley and San Gabriel Mountain foothill communities from Monrovia to Pasadena, as well as Glendale, downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood, Santa Monica, Malibu, in addition to all the communities in the San Fernando Valley, Simi Valley, and the upper Santa Clara River Valley. From the 2000 Census, the population of these urban and suburban areas totals approximately 5.6 million, and estimates of property value total hundreds of billions of dollars. Residents and transient visitors are subject to potential hazards from earthquakes, debris flows and other landslides, floods, wildfires, subsidence from ground water and petroleum withdrawal, and swelling soils; and coastal areas are exposed to flooding and erosion by storm and tsunami waves. Topographic relief ranges from about one hundred meters sub sea (in Santa Monica Bay) to more than 2,000 meters above sea level at Pacifico Mountain in the high San Gabriel Mountains. In addition to the populated area, the quadrangle includes significant areas of wilderness in the Angeles and Los Padres National Forests, in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, and the Sespe Condor Sanctuary. The geologic map illustrates the general distribution of the rocks and surficial deposits in the area and their structural and

  9. Isotopic measurements of atmospheric methane in Los Angeles, California, USA: Influence of “fugitive” fossil fuel emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Tyler, Stanley C.; Pataki, Diane E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Christensen, Lance E.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that CH4 emissions in Los Angeles and other large cities may be underestimated. We utilized stable isotopes (13C and D) and radiocarbon (14C) to investigate sources of CH4 in Los Angeles, California. First, we made measurements of δ13C and δD of various CH4 sources in urban areas. Fossil fuel CH4 sources (oil refineries, power plants, traffic, and oil drilling fields) had δ13C values between -45 and -30‰ and dD values between -275 and -100‰, whereas biological CH4 (cows, biofuels, landfills, sewage treatment plants, and cattle feedlots) had δ13C values between -65 and -45‰ and δD values between -350 and -275‰. We made high-altitude observations of CH4 concentration using continuous tunable laser spectroscopy measurements combined with isotope analyses (13C, 14C, and D) of discrete samples to constrain urban CH4 sources. Our data indicate that the dominant source of CH4 in Los Angeles has a δ13C value of approximately -41.5‰ and a δD value between -229 and -208‰. Δ14C of CH4 in urban air samples ranged from +262 to +344‰ (127.1 to 134.9 pMC), depleted with respect to average global background CH4. We conclude that the major source of CH4 in Los Angeles is leakage of fossil fuels, such as from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, and/or power plants. More research is needed to constrain fluxes of CH4 from natural gas distribution and refining, as this flux may increase with greater reliance on natural gas and biogas for energy needs.

  10. Application of Spectral Ratio Methods to an Investigation of Site Response in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, R.; Polet, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that sedimentary basins can increase the amplification and duration of earthquake ground motion. Past earthquakes have shown that site effects have a major influence on seismic damage and loss in urban areas. However, the response at any given site can vary significantly, even within the LA basin. We aim to investigate site response within the LA Basin through the application of the Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio method. This method was applied to 3-component broadband waveforms from the Los Angeles Syncline Seismic Interferometry Experiment (LASSIE). LASSIE is a collaborative, temporary, and dense array of 73 broadband seismometers that were active for a two month period starting October 2014 until November 2014, transecting the Los Angeles basin from Long Beach to La Puente. We use the Geopsy software to measure the fundamental frequency and minimum site amplification at each station. Data analysis and interpretation were conducted in accordance to the Site Effects Assessment Using Ambient Excitations (SESAME) guidelines for implementing the H/V ratio technique for investigations of site effects. Results from our initial data analysis indicate an average fundamental period at the basin center of 6 s - 12 s and peaks in the spectral ratio curves at much shorter periods for sites the basin edge of. We will show maps of the amplification and fundamental frequencies based on our spectral ratio analysis of the LASSIE data and compare our results with damage patterns of historic earthquakes, as well as models of the LA basin.

  11. Amplification and Attenuation in the Los Angeles and Kanto Sedimentary Basins using the Ambient Seismic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denolle, M.; Prieto, G.; Lawrence, J. F.; Beroza, G. C.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Miyake, H.; Kasahara, K.; Sakai, S.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2010-12-01

    Ground motion prediction is traditionally estimated in seismic hazard analysis using parametric scaling relations, which are often referred to as "attenuation relations." Increasingly, seismologists are turning to simulation-based hazard analysis. There are at least two reasons for this. First, it allows seismologists to overcome the scarcity of data from large events in the data. Second, it exploits our growing knowledge of the geological complexity of the Earth's crust and our ability to model wave propagation through it. The accuracy of these simulations is critical to their use for risk reduction, but is limited by our incomplete knowledge of the elastic and anelastic structure of the subsurface. The situation is particularly acute for sedimentary basins that underlie densely populated urban centers such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, both because the exposure is so high, and because it is difficult to obtain new images of Earth structure in urban settings. In this study, we show how ambient seismic field analysis can improve this situation. We take the advantage of the dense seismic networks in those areas and use 9 months of continuous records for about 180 stations from the Southern Californian Seismic Networks for Los Angeles and 6 months of a combination of 190 MeSO-net stations and 110 Hi-net instruments in Tokyo area. We estimate the basin amplification of these comparable urban centers with ambient field transfer function, or impulse response. The ambient seismic field also provides constraints on the attenuation signal in surface waves, and hence on the anelastic structure of the Earth. We exploit this by using the real part of the complex coherence to estimate the attenuation coefficient of Rayleigh waves, and from it variations in the anelastic structure. We acknowledge the support by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  12. Asthma and air pollution in the Los Angeles area

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; Korn, E.L.

    1980-07-01

    Daily asthma attack diaries of 16 panels of asthmatics residing in the Los Angeles area were collected by the Environmental Protection Agency for 34-week periods during the years 1972 to 1975. These data are examined here for the relationship between daily attack occurrence and daily levels of photochemical oxidant, total suspended particulates, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and average wind speed. A separate multiple logistic regression is used for each panelist's attack data. Variables representing the presence or absence of attack on the preceding day, as well as day of week and time since the start of the study, are included in the regressions. The most significant predictor of attacks was the presence of an attack on the preceding day. On the average, the panelists tended to have increased attacks on days with high oxidant and particulate pollution, on cool days, and during the first two months of the study. Panelists' attack propensity also differed by day of week; in particular they had more attacks on Saturdays (the last day of the weekly reporting period) than on Sundays. Each panelist's regression coefficients are classified according to age, sex, hay fever status, and self-assessed attack precursors; this classification is used to examine subgroups among the panelists with high coefficients corresponding to the above factors.

  13. Puente Hills blind-thrust system, Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, J.H.; Plesch, A.; Dolan, J.F.; Pratt, T.L.; Fiore, P.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the three-dimensional geometry and Quaternary slip history of the Puente Hills blind-thrust system (PHT) using seismic reflection profiles, petroleum well data, and precisely located seismicity. The PHT generated the 1987 Whittier Narrows (moment magnitude [Mw] 6.0) earthquake and extends for more than 40 km along strike beneath the northern Los Angeles basin. The PHT comprises three, north-dipping ramp segments that are overlain by contractional fault-related folds. Based on an analysis of these folds, we produce Quaternary slip profiles along each ramp segment. The fault geometry and slip patterns indicate that segments of the PHT are related by soft-linkage boundaries, where the fault ramps are en echelon and displacements are gradually transferred from one segment to the next. Average Quaternary slip rates on the ramp segments range from 0.44 to 1.7 mm/yr, with preferred rates between 0.62 and 1.28 mm/yr. Using empirical relations among rupture area, magnitude, and coseismic displacement, we estimate the magnitude and frequency of single (Mw 6.5-6.6) and multisegment (Mw 7.1) rupture scenarios for the PHT.

  14. Geologic seepage of methane and light alkanes in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doezema, L. A.; Chang, K.; Baril, R.; Nwachuku, I.; Contreras, P.; Marquez, A.; Howard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Natural geologic seepage of methane from underground oil and natural gas reservoirs has been suggested to be an underreported part of the global methane budget. Other light alkanes are also given off in combination with the methane seepage, making it possible that geologic seepage is also a potentially significant global source of these light alkanes. This study reports C1-C5 findings from geologic seepage made in the Los Angeles region. Microseepage, invisible escape of gases, was measured primarily at Kenneth Hahn Regional Park, while macroseepage, the visible release of gases, was measured at the La Brea Tar Pits. Samples were collected using stainless steel canisters and flux chambers and were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID). Average microseepage flux rates of 0.95 μg m-2 h-1 for ethane and 0.51 μg m-2 h-1 were found for propane, while average macroseepage rates for methane, ethane, and propane were 664, 19.8, and 18.1 mg m-2 h-1 respectively. Relationships between microseepage flux rate and location of underground oil and natural deposit and earthquake fault lines are presented. Additionally, the relative importance of findings in context with global budgets and local air quality is discussed.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit is approximately 860 square miles and consists of the Santa Monica, Hollywood, West Coast, Central, and Orange County Coastal Plain groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The basins are bounded in part by faults, including the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, and are filled with Holocene-, Pleistocene-, and Pliocene-age marine and alluvial sediments. The Central Basin and Orange County Coastal Plain are divided into a forebay zone on the northeast and a pressure zone in the center and southwest. The forebays consist of unconsolidated coarser sediment, and the pressure zones are characterized by lenses of coarser sediment divided into confined to semi-confined aquifers by lenses of finer sediments. The primary aquifer system in the study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of public-supply wells. The majority of public-supply wells are drilled to depths of 510 to 1,145 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 300 to 510 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer systems.

  16. Water quality improvement by implementation of Proposition O in the Los Angeles river watershed, California.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Pincetl, Stephanie; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    Proposition O was created to help the City of Los Angeles comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements under the Clean Water Act. In this study, the effectiveness of the Proposition O projects in Los Angeles River watershed was examined to show whether it achieves the goal of meeting water quality standards. Our analysis shows the most effective single project will remove at most 2% of pollutant loads from Los Angeles River Watershed and will not achieve TMDL compliance, although several projects can make important contributions to achieve compliance. The ranking results show that the projects that treat the runoff from the largest drainage area have the greatest impact on the water quality of Los Angeles river. PMID:19092205

  17. 77 FR 39507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... G. Teeter, Ph.D., Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum at UCLA, Box 951549, Los Angeles, CA 90095... associated funerary objects should contact Dr. Wendy G. Teeter, Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum at...

  18. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  19. Los Angeles Finds Recycling Success with Multi-Lingual Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Roland

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program established in Los Angeles to introduce curbside recycling and automated trash collection to multilingual residents. Discusses a grass-roots community-based outreach strategy designed to change attitudes toward waste. (LZ)

  20. Poisoning of animals in the Los Angeles area with pesticides during 1977.

    PubMed

    Maddy, K T; Winter, J

    1980-12-01

    During 1977, there were 289 pesticide exposure incidents involving animals that were handled by the Thomas J. Fleming Memorial Poison Information Center in Los Angeles. Almost all of this service was provided to veterinarians and most of the incidents involved dogs. Cases handled by this center are considered typical for small animal practices in urban areas of California. Ingestion was the major route of exposure. As recently as 10 years ago, arsenic, strychnine, and phosphorus were major causes of such poisonings. During 1977, the n-methylcarbamates (27%), anticoagulants (19%), and organo-phosphates (15%) were the major pesticides involved in exposure incidents. Lesser percentages of cases attributed to a specific chemical included: Vacor (5%), metaldehyde (4%), chlorinated hydrocarbons (4%), and arsenicals (4%). A variety of other pesticides, classified as miscellaneous, were also involved in poisonings to a lesser extent.

  1. "Weak-Center" Gentrification and the Contradictions of Containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Reese, Ellen; DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Thach, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This case study of recent efforts to deconcentrate poverty within the Skid Row area of Los Angeles examines processes of "weak-center" gentrification as it applies to a "service dependent ghetto," thus filling two key gaps in prior scholarship. We document the collaboration between the government, business and development interests, and certain non-profit agencies in this process and identify two key mechanisms of poverty deconcentration: housing/service displacement and the criminalization of low income residents. Following Harvey, we argue that these efforts are driven by pressures to find a "spatial fix" for capital accumulation through Downtown redevelopment. This process has been hotly contested, however, illustrating the strength of counter-pressures to gentrification/poverty deconcentration within "weak-center" urban areas.

  2. "Weak-Center" Gentrification and the Contradictions of Containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Reese, Ellen; DeVerteuil, Geoffrey; Thach, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This case study of recent efforts to deconcentrate poverty within the Skid Row area of Los Angeles examines processes of "weak-center" gentrification as it applies to a "service dependent ghetto," thus filling two key gaps in prior scholarship. We document the collaboration between the government, business and development interests, and certain non-profit agencies in this process and identify two key mechanisms of poverty deconcentration: housing/service displacement and the criminalization of low income residents. Following Harvey, we argue that these efforts are driven by pressures to find a "spatial fix" for capital accumulation through Downtown redevelopment. This process has been hotly contested, however, illustrating the strength of counter-pressures to gentrification/poverty deconcentration within "weak-center" urban areas. PMID:20827846

  3. Site-response maps for the Los Angeles region based on earthquake ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen H.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Carver, David L.; Cranswick, Edward; Meremonte, Mark E.; Michael, John A.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-motion records from aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake and main-shock records from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, and 1994 Northridge earthquakes are used to estimate site response in the urban Los Angeles, California, area. Two frequency bands are considered, 0.5-1.5 Hz and 2.0-6.0 Hz. Instrument characteristics prevented going to lower frequencies, and frequencies above 6.0 Hz are less important to the building inventory. Site response determined at the instrumented locations is associated with the surficial geology and contoured to produce a continuous spatial estimation of site response. The maps in this report are preliminary and will evolve as more data become available and more analysis is done.

  4. Are Schools Prepared for Emergencies?: A Baseline Assessment of Emergency Preparedness at School Sites in Three Los Angeles County School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kano, Megumi; Ramirez, Marizen; Ybarra, William J.; Frias, Gus; Bourque, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    A survey of emergency preparedness was conducted in three public school districts in urban areas of Los Angeles County. Eighty-three school sites were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires. Although designated respondents generally felt that their schools were well prepared, the survey also revealed the need for improvements in written…

  5. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  6. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  7. Anaglyph, Metro Los Angeles, Calif.: Malibu to Mount Baldy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount San Antonio (more commonly known as Mount Baldy) crowns the San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles in this computer-generated east-northeast anaglyph perspective viewed from above the Malibu coastline. On the right, the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica are in the foreground. Further away are downtown Los Angeles and then the San Gabriel Valley, which lies adjacent to the mountain front. The San Fernando Valley appears in the left foreground, separated from the ocean by the Santa Monica Mountains. At 3,068 meters (10,064 feet) Mount Baldy rises above the tree line, exposing bright white rocks that are not snow capped in this early autumn scene.

    This anaglyph perspective (stereoscopic 3-D) view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 7 satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times. Two perspectives (from slightly differing geographic positions) were created, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a near horizontal view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  8. Speciation of arsenic in ambient aerosols collected in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Rabano, E S; Castillo, N T; Torre, K J; Solomon, P A

    1989-01-01

    First-time measurements of the potentially toxic inorganic species of arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) have been obtained in fine (less than 2.5 microns AD) and coarse (greater than 2.5 microns AD) atmospheric particles in the Los Angeles area. A recently developed method that includes procedures for sample collection, preparation, and analysis was used in this study. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected with a high-volume dichotomous virtual impactor that employed polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Results were obtained for the recovery of arsenic standards added to unexposed and collected filters. Data from this study, indicated that the recently developed speciation method can be used to determine concentrations of As(III) and As(V) in atmospheric particulate matter samples. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected in the city of Industry during January and February 1987. In most samples, As(III) and As(V) were above the detection limit (approximately 1 ng m-3 of either species) in both aerosol size fractions. A greater portion (about 75 percent) of the two species were observed in the fine particles. The As(III)/As(V) ratio for both particle sizes was close to 1 (i.e., an equal mixture of both species). Comparison of total suspended particulate arsenic measured by the speciation method to that measured by a routine California Air Resources Board-approved procedure showed good agreement (r = 0.94), indicating both methods were approximately equivalent for the collection and analysis of aerosol arsenic. PMID:2709077

  9. The work experience of undocumented Mexican migrants in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Simon, R J; Deley, M

    1984-01-01

    This study, based on interviews with Mexican documented and undocumented women workers in Los Angeles county, finds that most of the women in both categories work in factories. Contrary to popular impression, only 10% of the undocumented women in this survey are engaged in private household employment, although 19% were so employed when they 1st came to the US. Despite this obvious change in occupation, in general occupational mobility from 1st jobs is insignificant. On the average, undocumented women's hourly rate of pay was 40 US cents higher than the minimum wage, and US$1.57 lower than the average documented women's wages. Within the same occupational category, the undocumented women earned less per hour. The smallest difference occured in the 'laborer's' category. Another departure from popular impression was that, 76% of undocumented workers were paid by check. The figure was 94% for documented women workers. The respondents who said they were paid in cash were most likely to be in the private household sector. 80% of the undocumented workers did not think that they were discriminated against in their jobs, suggesting that they are a rather timid group of workers who believe that they have no real options regarding their work life, and are relatively satisfied with what they have. Almost all the women said that they came to the US with the intention of staying permanently, or as long as they are not caught and sent back to Mexico, which is their biggest fear. Better job and better pay are the most important reasons given by most women for coming. Being temporarily laid off would not prompt them to return to Mexico, as they are confident that their chances of finding another minimum wage paying job are better in the US. A closek knit network of support usually tides them over during their period of joblessness.

  10. Energy recovery from biosolids: The City of Los Angeles experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.; Moore, G.L.; Harrison, D.S.

    1995-11-01

    The City of Los Angeles` Hyperion Treatment Plant serves an area of 1,500 sq km (600 sq mi) with a contributory population of nearly 4 million. The plant currently produces more than 250 dry tonnes per day (dtpd) of digested, dewatered biosolids and is being expanded and upgraded to provide pure oxygen, full secondary treatment by 1998. The modern Hyperion Plant began operating in 1951. Since that time, Hyperion has provided anaerobic digestion for its biosolids and has used the produced biogas for power generation. In the 1980`s the City completed a major expansion of its power generation and biosolids handling facilities at Hyperion. These facilities became known as the Hyperion Energy Recovery System (HERS) and their objective is to maximize the recovery of energy from the renewable biosolids. Today, these facilities are operational and continue to be modified to optimize performance and expanded to meet the increased loadings from full secondary treatment. Biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion process is compressed, scrubbed to remove H{sub 2}S, and used to power a gas turbine, combined cycle cogeneration system. Emergency flares are provided in the event of a power plant outage. A portion of the biosolids are transported offsite for beneficial reuse, such as composting and direct land application. The remaining solids are centrifugally dewatered and dried by indirect rotary dryers to produce about 50 dtpd of dried biofuel. Biofuel produced from the drying processes is fired in a fluidized bed gasification and staged combustion process (FBC) designed to recover energy and reduce air emissions. Superheated steam is produced in a waste heat boiler and converted to electrical power is a condensing steam turbine. Bioash from the FBC`s is contracted for off-site reuse, primarily as a fluxing agent in copper smelting and as a source of silica, aluminum, iron and calcium for manufacture of portland cement.

  11. Project Overview of the Restoration Center Los Angeles: Steps to Wholeness – Mind, Body, and Spirit

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Wong, Eunice; Litt, Paula; Wright, Reverend Ronald; Hill, Delores A.; Jones, Felica; Corbin, Dennis; Gray, Ruthie; Patel, Kavita; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Unmet needs for depression and substance abuse services are a concern in urban communities. This article summarizes the design and recommendations of the Restoration Center Planning Project to better address depression and substance abuse while promoting resiliency and wellness for persons of African descent in South Los Angeles. Design A partnered participatory planning process during 18 months involving community members, faith-based and service agency leaders, and investigators from academic organizations was implemented. Leaders formulated a set of principles to address diversity of the group, hosted community conferences and working groups, while developing recommendations. Results The community-academic partnership recommended the establishment of restoration centers in Los Angeles (RCLAs) that would serve as a one-stop shop for holistic services addressing depression, substance abuse, related social and spiritual needs, and coordinated care with a network of existing community-based services. Specific recommendations included that the RCs would aim to: 1) support community resilience and improve outcomes for depression and substance abuse; 2) be one-stop shops; 3) promote cultural competency; 4) facilitate ongoing community input and quality review; 5) assure standards of quality within centers and across the broader network; and 6) support the enterprise through a multi-stake-holder community-based board dedicated to RCLA goals. Conclusion A community-academic partnered planning process acknowledged the importance of respect for diversity and formulated plans for the RC network including the integration of health, social, cultural, and faith-based approaches to services with a multi-agency network and community leadership board. The feasibility of the plan will depend on the subsequent implementation phase. PMID:22352087

  12. Analysis of the September 2010 Los Angeles Extreme Heating Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, K. C.; Kaplan, M. L.; Smith, C.; Tilley, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern California coastal region has a temperate climate, however, there are days with extreme heating where temperatures may reach above 37°C, stressing the region's power grid, leading to health issues, and creating environments susceptible to fires. These extreme localized heating events occur over a short period, from a few hours to one to two days and may or may not occur in conjunction with high winds. The Santa Ana winds are a well-studied example of this type of phenomena. On September 27, 2010, Los Angeles, CA (LA), reached a record maximum temperature of 45°C during an extreme heating event that was not a Santa Ana event. We analyzed the event using observations, reanalysis data, and mesoscale simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to understand the mechanisms of extreme heating and provide guidance on forecasting similar events. On 26 September 2010, a large synoptic ridge overturned and broke over the midwestern United States (US), driving momentum and internal energy to the southwest. A large pool of hot air at mid-levels over the four-corners region also shifted west, moving into southern California by 26 September. This hot air resided over the LA basin, just above the surface, by 00 GMT on 27 September. At this time, the pressure gradient at low levels was weak. Based on WRF model and wind profiler/RASS observations, we propose that separate mountain-plains solenoids (MPS) occurred on both 26 and 27 of September. The MPS on 26 September moved the hot air into place just above the surface over the LA basin. Overnight, the hot air is trapped near the surface due to the action of gravity waves in conjunction with orographic density currents and remnant migrating solenoids that form over the mountains surrounding LA. When the MPS forms during the late morning on the 27th, the descending return branch flow plus surface sensible heating creates a mechanism to move the heat to the surface, leading to record temperatures.

  13. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF... Abandonments to abandon its freight rail operating easement over a 5.3-mile line of railroad owned by the Los... abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad-- ] Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  14. 40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.227 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los... the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (b) The following regulations are disapproved...

  15. Can lessons learned from a Cuban experience improve health disparities in south Los Angeles?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Fred; Ortega, Alex N

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe Cuba's working healthcare models in an effort to improve ethnic health disparities in south Los Angeles through generating a new level of synergy by mobilizing resources to create academic-community partnerships and apply lessons learned. During a three-year period beginning in 2005, a team of 12-14 Charles R. Drew University and UCLA faculty, south Los Angeles community leaders, and health providers completed three one-week visits to Cuba to survey the country's approach to various health problems and ascertain their potential to improve health conditions in south Los Angeles. Various methods such as opinion surveys, evaluations, and team meetings were used to measure the direction and progress of translating lessons learned into creating a working relationship with community leaders. After two visits, opinion surveys demonstrated an increase in the response to acknowledging that there were lessons learned. However, respondents acknowledged that they encountered difficulty in attempting to make these changes. One outcome from these visits resulted in a community forum at which community leaders and residents from south Los Angeles heard various speakers present on lessons learned in Cuba. In conclusion, after observing Cuba's approach to health problems that are also encountered in south Los Angeles, the team has begun to plan research projects and next steps to incorporate lessons learned into current programs with the community.

  16. Water Quality Assessment of the Los Angeles River Watershed, California, USA in Wet and Dry Weather Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M. H.; Von L Coo, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify sources of potential pollutants and characterize urban water quality along the Los Angeles River from its head to the mouth during dry and wet weather periods. Los Angeles (LA) River flows through heavily populated urbanized area in the Los Angeles downtown. The LA River is an effluent-dominated water body during the dry season. The three waste water treatment plants (WWTP) including the Tillman, Burbank, and Glendale discharge the majority of the volume flowing in the LA River during the dry and wet period. The concentration values (ppm) for anions in the dry season ranging 5.5-16,027 (Cl), 0-1.0 (F), 0-21(NO3), 0-1.6 (PO4), and 13.3-2,312 (SO4); whereas the values (ppm) for anions in the wet season ranging 3.4-5,860 (Cl), 0-0.66 (F), 0-17 (NO3), 0-0.67 (PO4), 7.9- 745 (SO4). Dry season concentrations values for trace metals were obtained with values (ppb) ranging 0.9-10 (Ni), 0.8-62 (Zn), 1-4 (As), 0-1 (Pb) and 0-3 (Se). As for wet season trace metals (ppb) ranging 0.001-0.008 (Ni), 0.000001-0.038 (Zn), 0.0016-0.016 (As), 0.00099-0.0058 (Pb), 0.000001-0.0093 (Se). Higher concentrations values during the dry period in the LA River watershed may be attributed to the three WWTPs discharge (75% of the volume of water flowing in the LA River). In water-limited areas such as the Los Angeles basin, urban runoff is a water resource that could enhance restricted water supplies and to enhance localized renewable groundwater resources, thus an assessment of this precious water resource is important for local city and regulatory organizations. In water-limited areas such as the LA basin, urban runoff is a water resource that could enhance restricted water supplies and groundwater resources, thus an assessment of this precious water resource is important for local regulatory organizations.

  17. Seismic images and fault relations of the Santa Monica thrust fault, West Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Okaya, D.

    2001-01-01

    a hazard to millions of people, its lateral extent and rupture history are not well known, due largely to limited knowledge of the fault location, geometry, and relationship to other faults. The Santa Monica fault has been obscured at the surface by alluvium and urbanization. For example, Dolan et al. (1995) could find only one 200-m-long stretch of the Santa Monica fault that was not covered by either streets or buildings. Of the 19-km length onshore section of the Santa Monica fault, its apparent location has been delineated largely on the basis of geomorphic features and oil-well drilling. Seismic imaging efforts, in combination with other investigative methods, may be the best approach in locating and understanding the Santa Monica fault in the Los Angeles region. This investigation and another recent seismic imaging investigation (Pratt et al., 1998) were undertaken to resolve the near-surface location, fault geometry, and faulting relations associated with the Santa Monica fault.

  18. Crisis & Commitment: 150 Years of Service by Los Angeles County Public Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cousineau, Michael R.; Tranquada, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county’s current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county’s public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base. PMID:17329642

  19. West Nile Virus Emergence and Persistence in Los Angeles, California, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Jennifer L.; Kluh, Susanne; Madon, Minoo B.; Reisen, William K.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) invaded Los Angeles in September 2003, and during the subsequent five-year period followed a pattern of amplification, subsidence, and resurgence. Enzootic transmission was tracked by abundance and infection incidence in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis and by seroprevalence in peridomestic passerine birds, infection in dead birds, and seroconversions in sentinel chickens. Culex p. quinquefasciatus served as the primary vector of WNV, with gravid traps serving as the best sampling method and the most consistent indicator of viral activity. Spatial scan statistics applied to mosquito infection and positive dead bird data delimited three major clusters of WNV transmission, with introduction occurring in the Los Angeles Basin, and amplification and dispersal events carrying transmission to the San Fernando and Santa Clarita valleys. Los Angeles experienced major epidemics in 2004 and 2008, providing a unique opportunity to investigate specific patterns of enzootic amplification preceding epidemics. PMID:20682890

  20. Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program site operator program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    During the term of the above mentioned agreement, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), a municipal utility serving the citizens of Los Angeles, marked its tenth year of involvement in testing and promoting electric vehicles as part of Los Angeles` overall air quality improvement program, and as a means of improving the regions` economic competitiveness through the creation of new industries. LADWP maintained and operated twenty electric vehicles (EVs) during the test period. These vehicles consisted of six G-Vans, four Chrysler TEVans, five U.S. Electricar pickup trucks, and five U.S. Electricar Prizms. LADWP`s electric transportation program also included infrastructure, public transit development, public and awareness, and legislative and regulatory activities.

  1. Using Research to Improve College Readiness: A Research Partnership Between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors to produce accessible and high-quality research to inform pressing problems of practice. The article also presents findings from an ongoing partnership research project analyzing a district policy focused on improving college readiness by aligning high school graduation and college-eligibility requirements. In a cohort that went through high school before the policy became mandatory for all students, less than 1/5 of all students (and 30% of graduates) met the college eligibility criteria. Our findings indicate that academic and behavioral indicators from 8th and 9th grade can help identify for possible intervention students who are not on track to meet these new graduation requirements. PMID:26709340

  2. A Permanent Site for Los Angeles Mission College: A Report to the Legislature and Governor in Response to a Request for Capital Funds from the Los Angeles Community College District. Commission Report 86-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Prepared in response to a proposal by the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) for state funds for the construction of a permanent site for Los Angeles Mission College (LAMC), this report offers historical background, evaluates the request, and presents recommendations. Chapter 1 chronicles the history of LAMC and the LACCD's attempts to…

  3. Multiple Imputation of Groundwater Data to Evaluate Spatial and Temporal Anthropogenic Influences on Subsurface Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Hering, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the City of Los Angeles, groundwater accounts for 11% of the total water supply on average, and 30% during drought years. Due to ongoing drought in California, increased reliance on local water supply highlights the need for better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics and estimating sustainable groundwater supply. However, in an urban setting, such as Los Angeles, understanding or modeling groundwater levels is extremely complicated due to various anthropogenic influences such as groundwater pumping, artificial recharge, landscape irrigation, leaking infrastructure, seawater intrusion, and extensive impervious surfaces. This study analyzes anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels using groundwater monitoring well data from the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works. The groundwater data is irregularly sampled with large gaps between samples, resulting in a sparsely populated dataset. A multiple imputation method is used to fill the missing data, allowing for multiple ensembles and improved error estimates. The filled data is interpolated to create spatial groundwater maps utilizing information from all wells. The groundwater data is evaluated at a monthly time step over the last several decades to analyze the effect of land cover and identify other influencing factors on groundwater levels spatially and temporally. Preliminary results show irrigated parks have the largest influence on groundwater fluctuations, resulting in large seasonal changes, exceeding changes in spreading grounds. It is assumed that these fluctuations are caused by watering practices required to sustain non-native vegetation. Conversely, high intensity urbanized areas resulted in muted groundwater fluctuations and behavior decoupling from climate patterns. Results provides improved understanding of anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels in addition to providing high quality datasets for validation of regional groundwater models.

  4. Landsat - SRTM Shaded Relief Comparison, Los Angeles and Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs), such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), allow user-controlled visualization of the Earth's landforms that is not possible using satellite imagery alone. This three-view comparison shows Los Angeles, Calif., and vicinity, with a Landsat image (only) on the left, a shaded relief rendering of the SRTM DEM on the right, and a merge of the two data sets in the middle. Note that topographic expression in the Landsat image alone is very subtle due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day (May 4, 2001). In contrast, computer generated topographic shading of the DEM provides a pure and bold image of topographic expression with a user specified illumination direction. The middle image shows how combining the Landsat and DEM shaded relief can result in a topographically enhanced satellite image in which the information content of both data sets is merged into a single view.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA

  5. Vertical Transport of Aerosol Particles across Mountain Topography near the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Schill, S.; Freeman, S.; Bertram, T. H.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Transport of aerosol particles is known to affect air quality and is largely dependent on the characteristic topography of the surrounding region. To characterize this transport, aerosol number distributions were collected with an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS, DMT) during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) in and around the Los Angeles Basin in Southern California. Increases in particle number concentration and size were observed over mountainous terrain north of Los Angeles County. Chemical analysis and meteorological lagrangian trajectories suggest orographic lifting processes, known as the "chimney effect". Implications for spatial transport and distribution will be discussed.

  6. New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Richard C.

    2003-03-10

    Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

  7. Statistical and Biophysical Models for Predicting Total and Outdoor Water Use in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling water demand is a complex exercise in the choice of the functional form, techniques and variables to integrate in the model. The goal of the current research is to identify the determinants that control total and outdoor residential water use in semi-arid cities and to utilize that information in the development of statistical and biophysical models that can forecast spatial and temporal urban water use. The City of Los Angeles is unique in its highly diverse socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics across neighborhoods, which introduces significant challenges in modeling water use. Increasing climate variability also contributes to uncertainties in water use predictions in urban areas. Monthly individual water use records were acquired from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) for the 2000 to 2010 period. Study predictors of residential water use include socio-demographic, economic, climate and landscaping variables at the zip code level collected from US Census database. Climate variables are estimated from ground-based observations and calculated at the centroid of each zip code by inverse-distance weighting method. Remotely-sensed products of vegetation biomass and landscape land cover are also utilized. Two linear regression models were developed based on the panel data and variables described: a pooled-OLS regression model and a linear mixed effects model. Both models show income per capita and the percentage of landscape areas in each zip code as being statistically significant predictors. The pooled-OLS model tends to over-estimate higher water use zip codes and both models provide similar RMSE values.Outdoor water use was estimated at the census tract level as the residual between total water use and indoor use. This residual is being compared with the output from a biophysical model including tree and grass cover areas, climate variables and estimates of evapotranspiration at very high spatial resolution. A

  8. The 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study: A Multilevel, Population-Based Study of Maternal and Infant Health in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shin M.; Wakeel, Fathima; Herman, Dena; Higgins, Chandra; Shi, Lu; Chow, Jessica; Sun, Stacy; Lu, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study's development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study's implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518) and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264). Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20–34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC's varied demographic groups. PMID:25580305

  9. An Analysis of the Use and Validity of Test-Based Teacher Evaluations Reported by the "Los Angeles Times": 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durso, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    In May of 2011, the "Los Angeles Times" published, for the second time, results of statistical studies examining the variation in teacher and school performance in the Los Angeles Unified School District, based on the California Standards Tests for math and English Language Arts (ELA). The studies use data from the seven academic years ending in…

  10. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded...

  11. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters....500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach consists of three parts: a Precautionary...

  12. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded...

  13. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded...

  14. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters....500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach consists of three parts: a Precautionary...

  15. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters....500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach consists of three parts: a Precautionary...

  16. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters....500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach consists of three parts: a Precautionary...

  17. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded...

  18. 33 CFR 167.503 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. 167.503 Section 167.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach TSS: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded...

  19. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters....500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach consists of three parts: a Precautionary...

  20. 76 FR 35369 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... the Los Angeles VFR Task Force, and the Los Angeles Class B Workgroup. This action would further... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Aviation Administration proposes to amend 14 CFR part 71 as follows: PART 71--DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B,...

  1. 77 FR 44609 - Los Angeles Department of Water and Power v. PacifiCorp; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Los Angeles Department of Water and Power v. PacifiCorp; Notice of Complaint... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e), the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (Complainant) filed a...

  2. The effectiveness of recent water restriction policies on single-family water use in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2013-12-01

    Residential water consumption represents the largest urban water consumer category and is projected to have significant increase over the next 20 years in Los Angeles, California. Successive severe droughts have occurred in Los Angeles over the past 30 years leading to the implementation of emergency water conservation measures that include limiting the time and frequency of urban irrigation as well as applying shortage year water rates. Reliance on imported water sources dramatically increased during the past drought periods, which questions the reliability of future water supply. The objectives of the current study include quantifying the impact of past water restrictions on single-family residential water use in single-family areas in Los Angeles. Three phases of water restrictions were implemented during the 2007-2010 drought period to reduce water consumption: voluntary restrictions during fiscal year 2007-2008, mandatory outdoor use restrictions in fiscal year 2008-2009, and more stringent mandatory restrictions limiting the frequency of irrigation coupled with a water rate increase in fiscal year 2009-2010. Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) monthly individual water use records from 2000 to 2010 were aggregated at the block level in the San Fernando Valley. The effectiveness of the three water restrictions phases was analyzed through a linear regression model developed over 2000-2007 with single-family water use as the dependent variable, climate, and economic variables as the predictors at the block level. Predicted water use during the 2007-2010 period was estimated using results from the statistical model and compared with actual water use to calculate the amount of water savings due to the restrictions. The comparison of the impact of water restrictions on single-family water use reveals that the more stringent mandatory water restrictions provided a higher and statistically significant decrease in water use. Single-family water

  3. Early Grade Retention and Student Success: Evidence from Los Angeles. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jill S.; Lipscomb, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report uses administrative data provided by the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) on kindergarten to third-grade students. The records begin with kindergartners in 2001, first-graders in 2002, second-graders in 2003, and third-graders in 2004 and include all LAUSD students in grades K-3 for 2004 to 2008. Altogether, the raw data…

  4. How Census Tract Data Are Used to Assist Los Angeles Unified School District to Forecast Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Milan; Rackerby, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District contracted with GeoBased Systems to produce an enrollment projection model based on a set of assumptions regarding fertility, mortality, and migration for each of four ethnic groups. This article discusses the data, methodology, and results used by individual schools to project student numbers. (MLH)

  5. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  6. The Impact of Proposition 13 on Public Employee Relations: The Case of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swimmer, Gene

    1982-01-01

    The impact of Proposition 13 and subsequent state bailout legislation on public employee relations in the City and County of Los Angeles (California) has been a new collective bargaining environment. The 1979 negotiations, where a countywide strike was narrowly averted, illustrate the hardening of management attitudes and union militancy. (MLF)

  7. 76 FR 14103 - The Jewelry Stream; Los Angeles, CA, Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration The Jewelry Stream; Los Angeles, CA, Notice of Negative Determination... in the Federal Register (75 FR 71455). Workers of The Jewelry Stream are engaged in employment...). Conclusion After reconsideration, I affirm the original notice of negative determination of eligibility...

  8. Methodology for Obtaining a Representative Sample of Homeless Persons: The Los Angeles Skid Row Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnam, M. Audrey; Koegel, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Drawing a probability sample of homeless adults in Los Angeles' Skid Row resulted in a sampling design meeting statistical criteria. The design uses data from meal centers, bed counts, and outdoor congregations; and allows unbiased estimates of prevalence of mental disorders and assessment of service needs of the homeless. (TJH)

  9. The Eighth Annual Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, March 2-4, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Papers read before the Eighth Annual American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, California, March 2-4, 1966, are presented in this document. Topics deal with basic approaches to the study of the effects of inhaled irritants on the lung; environmental parameters in relation to host responses; biological…

  10. Master Plan for the Drew Postgraduate Medical School, Los Angeles, Calif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    With the assistance of a consortium of subcontractors and with additional support provided by the Commonwealth Fund, the contractor has produced a Master Plan for the Drew Postgraduate Medical School in Los Angeles. The Bureau on developing a scope of work defined its interest in this contract as a demonstration of the planning process by which an…

  11. University of California at Los Angeles: Translating Alumni Loyalty into Donations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strout, Erin

    2006-01-01

    When the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) ended a $3-billion campaign in December, the effort was known as a success not only because of its large goal, but also because of the high participation by alumni. Three out of every 10 alumni made a donation, accounting for 22 percent of the total take. Now the institution faces the…

  12. Sports and Politics: Los Angeles Times' Coverage of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salwen, Michael B.; Garrison, Bruce

    To investigate whether political assertions were interjected into American sports coverage of the 1984 Olympic games and which direction those assertions took, a study examined the Los Angeles Times' coverage of the games in its award-winning special supplement sections. The "Times" included these special supplements in its papers from July 22,…

  13. Disabled Students in Vocational Education Programs: Los Angeles Community Colleges, 1981-1982--Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzkamper, Charlot

    This report reviews efforts by the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) to meet the needs of handicapped students in its vocational education programs. The report begins with a summary of district statistics and California and federal legislation regarding access for the disabled in vocational programs. Part II focuses on the students…

  14. 76 FR 35946 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA. On... employees will be protected by the conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion..., following abandonment of rail service and salvage of the Line, the Line may be suitable for other public...

  15. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Specific regulations pertaining to vessels operating in these areas are contained in 33 CFR 165.1109(d). .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the...

  16. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Specific regulations pertaining to vessels operating in these areas are contained in 33 CFR 165.1109(d). .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the...

  17. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Specific regulations pertaining to vessels operating in these areas are contained in 33 CFR 165.1109(d). .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the...

  18. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Specific regulations pertaining to vessels operating in these areas are contained in 33 CFR 165.1109(d). .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the...

  19. 33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Specific regulations pertaining to vessels operating in these areas are contained in 33 CFR 165.1109(d). .../Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section 167.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary area consists of the...

  20. Los Angeles OneSource System Youth Participant Customer Satisfaction Survey, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisley, Deborah D.; Moore, Richard W.; Patch, Robin N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Los Angeles OneSource Centers offer low-income youth ages 14-21 services aimed at improving educational achievement, enhancing job skills, and preparing for college. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the youths' satisfaction with services received at 14 OneSource Centers throughout…

  1. Catholic Education for Mexican Americans in Los Angeles: A Brief Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Eduardo F.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the historical development of Catholic schools for Mexican Americans in Los Angeles, California. It provides a brief overview of events spanning the 1700s to the 1970s, with particular attention placed on examining the administration of Cardinal James Francis Aloysius McIntyre from 1948-1969. While his predecessor, Archbishop…

  2. West Los Angeles College Transfer Opportunities Program: Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Los Angeles Coll., Culver City, CA.

    This report presents an overview and evaluation of activities conducted at West Los Angeles College in operating the college's Transfer Opportunity Program. First, the report outlines the program's objectives, which included expanding the identification of potential transfer students; reducing transfer shock through the use of mentor/counselors…

  3. Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape Takes on the "New Callousness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape, located in the middle of the city's Central Library. This technically sophisticated library space, opened after the 1992 L.A. riots, provides custom furnishings, postmodernist architecture, and equipment and materials specifically catered to the local teens, amid the culture of "anti-youth"…

  4. No Justice, No Teachers: Theorizing Less-Unjust Teacher Firings in Los Angeles Unified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira; Theisen-Homer, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article combines original interviews, secondary policy analysis, and non-ideal theory to determine the "least unjust" approach to budget-driven "Reduction in Force" teacher firings in Los Angeles. Building from the a priori claim that schools should serve children's interests, this article addresses the following…

  5. An Expression of Black Identity: The Use of Gospel Music in a Los Angeles Catholic Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djedje, Jacqueline

    1983-01-01

    Gives a brief history of Black Catholics in the United States. Presents the history of one Catholic church in Los Angeles that began to use gospel music at Mass, and shows how this church met the needs of the Black community by enhancing the liturgy with traditional Black culture and values. (ML)

  6. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority treatment for buses and... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street...

  7. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority treatment for buses and... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street...

  8. Intergroup Conflict in Los Angeles County Schools. Report on a Survey of Hate Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    This report discusses the findings of a survey on school hate crime which was distributed to all schools in Los Angeles County (California). The survey was designed to assess the level of inter-ethnic conflict and hate crime on kindergarten through twelfth-grade campuses. Chapter 1 discusses the background of the problem, including information…

  9. Korean-Americans in Los Angeles: Their Concerns and Language Maintenance. Technical Report 01-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    A preliminary study was conducted by the National Center for Bilingual Education on the Korean community living in the United States. The study focused on Korean Americans residing within the Los Angeles Long Beach area of southern California, one of the largest Korean communities in the United States. This report includes: (1) a history of the…

  10. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  11. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This document is the second quarterly progress report for the evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs for the Los Angeles County Probation Department. The report covers the period from July 1, 2008, through September 30, 2008. The intent of the report is to provide Probation and the community-based organizations (CBOs)…

  12. East Los Angeles College Student and Staff Transportation Survey. Research Report 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Steven Mark

    In response to the 1979 gasoline shortage, East Los Angeles College (ELAC) conducted a survey of faculty and staff to determine the primary means of transportation to ELAC, the number of miles which students and faculty commuted, the accessibility of bus lines to student and staff homes, the number of transfers made by those riding the bus to…

  13. The Rise in Methamphetamine Use among American Indians in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Suzanne; Crevecoeur, Desiree A.; Rawson, Richard A.; Clark, Rose

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary review of substance abuse treatment admission data from 2001-2005 was conducted to explore the use of methamphetamine among American Indians in treatment programs funded by Los Angeles County. Comparisons were made between primary methamphetamine users and users whose primary drug was a substance other than methamphetamine. In that…

  14. Los Angeles County Office Survey, Research Study Number 80-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudnitsky, Andrea

    A survey of area employers was conducted by Los Angeles City College in Fall 1979 to determine: (1) the skill requirements for entry-level secretarial and clerical workers, (2) the salaries earned by these employees, (3) the word processing equipment commonly used by employers, (4) future employment trends in secretarial/clerical fields, and (5)…

  15. 75 FR 71455 - The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmation Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Federal Register on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54187). The termination of investigation was based on... Employment and Training Administration The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmation... investigation applicable to workers and former workers of M&L Manufacturing, Inc. and The Jewelry Stream,...

  16. 75 FR 51283 - Approval of Los Angeles Bunker Surveyors, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, Los Angeles Bunker Surveyors, Inc., 214 N. Marine Ave., Wilmington, CA... with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.13. Anyone wishing to employ this entity to conduct gauger services... the specific gauger service this entity is approved to perform may be directed to the U.S. Customs...

  17. 76 FR 70051 - Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Los Angeles, CA (76 FR...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  18. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  19. Nature's Classroom. A Guide for the Los Angeles County Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korporaal, Arie R., Ed.

    Promoting understandings in outdoor science and conservation is the primary goal of the Los Angeles County Outdoor School as presented in this guide to its five-day resident program for elementary school pupils. The purpose of various program components is briefly described, including hikes, cabin living, campfires, conservation projects, crafts,…

  20. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

  1. Los Angeles Free Clinic [and]"Adolescent Health Care Programs That Work."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainwater, Mary; De Caprio, Chris

    The first paper describes The Los Angeles Free Clinic and its services, which are specifically designed to respond to the needs of low-income and homeless youth within the community. The paper describes a free-of-charge, free-of-judgment comprehensive response system that exists because of collaboration with other health facilities such as…

  2. Project Support Evaluation, Los Angeles Unified School District. Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovacek, Simeon P.; And Others

    This report describes the first operating year of Project Support, a 3-year gang/drug prevention program aimed at elementary students in six inner city schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District. The project involves the implementation of nine strategies described in the research literature as being effective in drug/gang prevention. These…

  3. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  4. "City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles," by Mike Davis [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Mike Davis's book presents a history and current sociology of Los Angeles from a socialist perspective, arguing that inequalities in the distribution of power and wealth underlie the area's serious, growing problems: ethnic fear and discrimination, social disinvestment and withdrawal by the "haves," and an epidemic of youth violence. (SV)

  5. Evaluation of the Early Start to Emancipation Preparation Tutoring Program, Los Angeles County, California: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mark E.; Zinn, Andrew; Zielewski, Erica H.; Bess, Roseana J.; Malm, Karin E.; Stagner, Matthew; Pergamit, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a rigorous evaluation of the Early Start to Emancipation Preparation (ESTEP)-Tutoring Program in Los Angeles. ESTEP-Tutoring provides up to 50 hours of remedial one-on-one tutoring in reading and math to foster youths ages 14 to 15 who are one to three years behind grade level in either reading or math. The…

  6. What Is an Egalitarian Family: Reflections from a Los Angeles Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Carol Chapnick

    The degree to which spouses actually share household tasks and income production is compared to their ideological commitment to sex role equity. Data were obtained from long-term intensive fieldwork with 19 Los Angeles nurses and their 18 families and from the researcher's doctoral dissertation. All data on family performance patterns indicate a…

  7. 76 FR 86 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., filed 12/11/2009); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA Pursuant...

  8. 76 FR 53115 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 47536-47537, 08/06/2010) and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to its...

  9. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  10. The 1990 Transfer Assembly: Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, March 15-16, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana Nicole, Ed.

    In March 1990, the Center for the Study of Community Colleges in Los Angeles hosted a Transfer Assembly as part of an on-going effort to stabilize the imprecise definitions and data relating to student transfers from community colleges to four-year institutions. This report provides excerpts from six of the presentations given to the assembly.…

  11. Water quality improvement policies: lessons learned from the implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Stenstrom, Michael; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2009-03-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had insufficient revenues to deploy new projects in its budget. The bond initiative required a supermajority vote (two-thirds of the voters), hence the public had to be convinced that such funding both was necessary and would be effective. The bond act language included project solicitation from the public, as well as multiple benefit objectives. Accordingly, nonprofit organizations mobilized to present projects that included creating new parks, using schoolyards for flood control and groundwater recharge, and replacing parking lots with permeable surfaces, among others. Yet few, if any, of these projects were retained for funding, as the city itself also had a list of priorities and higher technical expertise in justifying them as delivering water quality improvements. Our case study of the implementation of Proposition O points to the potentially different priorities for the renovation of urban infrastructure that are held by nonprofit organizations and city agencies and the importance of structuring public processes clearly so that there are no misimpressions about funding and implementation responsibilities that can lead to disillusionment with government, especially under conditions of fiscal constraints. PMID:19184186

  12. Water quality improvement policies: lessons learned from the implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Stenstrom, Michael; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2009-03-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had insufficient revenues to deploy new projects in its budget. The bond initiative required a supermajority vote (two-thirds of the voters), hence the public had to be convinced that such funding both was necessary and would be effective. The bond act language included project solicitation from the public, as well as multiple benefit objectives. Accordingly, nonprofit organizations mobilized to present projects that included creating new parks, using schoolyards for flood control and groundwater recharge, and replacing parking lots with permeable surfaces, among others. Yet few, if any, of these projects were retained for funding, as the city itself also had a list of priorities and higher technical expertise in justifying them as delivering water quality improvements. Our case study of the implementation of Proposition O points to the potentially different priorities for the renovation of urban infrastructure that are held by nonprofit organizations and city agencies and the importance of structuring public processes clearly so that there are no misimpressions about funding and implementation responsibilities that can lead to disillusionment with government, especially under conditions of fiscal constraints.

  13. Water Quality Improvement Policies: Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Proposition O in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Stenstrom, Michael; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2009-03-01

    This article evaluates the implementation of Proposition O, a stormwater cleanup measure, in Los Angeles, California. The measure was intended to create new funding to help the city comply with the Total Maximum Daily Load requirements under the federal Clean Water Act. Funding water quality objectives through a bond measure was necessary because the city had insufficient revenues to deploy new projects in its budget. The bond initiative required a supermajority vote (two-thirds of the voters), hence the public had to be convinced that such funding both was necessary and would be effective. The bond act language included project solicitation from the public, as well as multiple benefit objectives. Accordingly, nonprofit organizations mobilized to present projects that included creating new parks, using schoolyards for flood control and groundwater recharge, and replacing parking lots with permeable surfaces, among others. Yet few, if any, of these projects were retained for funding, as the city itself also had a list of priorities and higher technical expertise in justifying them as delivering water quality improvements. Our case study of the implementation of Proposition O points to the potentially different priorities for the renovation of urban infrastructure that are held by nonprofit organizations and city agencies and the importance of structuring public processes clearly so that there are no misimpressions about funding and implementation responsibilities that can lead to disillusionment with government, especially under conditions of fiscal constraints.

  14. Geographic variation in rates of selected surgical procedures within Los Angeles County.

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, D M; Valdez, R B; Shapiro, M F; Brook, R H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We explore the contribution of income and ethnicity to geographic variation in utilization of surgical procedures. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. We assessed the use of eight procedures from 1986 through 1988 among residents of Los Angeles County using data from the California Discharge Dataset, the 1980 census, and other secondary sources. Procedures chosen for evaluation were coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), coronary artery angioplasty, permanent pacemaker insertion, mastectomy, simple hysterectomy, transurethral prostate resection (TURP), carotid endarterectomy, and appendectomy. STUDY DESIGN. The amount of inter-zip code variation for each procedure was first measured using various estimates including the analysis of variance coefficient of variation (CVA). Population-weighted multivariate regression analysis was used to model variation in age- and gender-adjusted rates of procedure use among 236 residential zip codes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Highest-variation procedures were coronary artery angioplasty (CVA = .392) and carotid endarterectomy (CVA = .374). The procedures with the lowest degree of variation were cardiac pacemaker implantation (CVA = .194) and hysterectomy (CVA = .195). Variation was significantly related to income (carotid endarterectomy) and either African American or Latino zip code ethnicity for all procedures except pacemaker implantation. For all procedures except appendectomy, the direction of the effect was toward fewer procedures with lower income. However, the effect of African American or Latino population ethnicity varied. CONCLUSIONS. In this large urban area both population ethnicity and socioeconomic status are significantly associated with the geographic utilization of selected surgical procedures. PMID:7721583

  15. Gas phase C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} organic acids concentrations in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, C.G.; Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-02-15

    The atmospheric concentrations of gas-phase C{sub 2}--C{sub 10} monocarboxylic and benzoic acids are reported in samples collected during a severe Los Angeles area photochemical smog episode. Average urban concentrations are 10--50 {times} greater than concentrations observed at a remote background location, indicating an anthropogenic origin for these compounds. Average urban concentrations during the episode were 16.1 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (6.6 ppb) for acetic acid and 1.67 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (0.55 ppb) for propionic acid, with progressively lesser amounts as the carbon chain length of the acids is increased. Spatial and diurnal variations in atmospheric organic acids concentrations point to the importance of both direct emissions from primary sources and formation by photochemical reaction of precursor compounds.

  16. Extraction and Analysis of PAHs in Surface Soils Near Freeways in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, I.

    2004-12-01

    Large urban areas such as Los Angeles are characterized by high levels of motor vehicle traffic. A by-product of this traffic is the emission of a group of compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are a global-scale persistent environmental hazard, many of which are considered to be carcinogenic. This study investigated the prevalence of 16 PAHs in surface soils near major Los Angeles highways. The first phase of the study was the development of a methodology for efficiently extracting PAHs from soil. Preliminary findings suggested that the most efficient extraction method using an accelerated solvent extractor employed a mixture of acetone and hexane and a static extraction time of 5 minutes (completed in 2 cycles). Extraction efficiency was measured by spiking clean sand with a known amount of a PAH standard and extracting and analyzing the sand. The addition of an extra static cycle produced a significant increase in extraction efficiency. For example, utilization of 2 static cycles recovered 99.6% of the spiked phenanthrene compared to a 44% efficiency for the 1 cycle run. Preliminary results from a field sampling campaign indicated that significant concentrations of PAHs are deposited onto and accumulate in surface soils. Specifically, we found 12.13 μ g/kg of anthracene, 15.82 μ g/kg of benzo(a)pyrene, 23.42 μ g/kg of phenanthrene, and 23.43 μ g/kg of pyrene in surface soils, including soils from a public park. These results indicate that background levels of PAHs in soils may pose a significant health risk to humans. For example, the California preliminary remediation goal for benzo(a)pyrene in residential soils is 62 μ g/kg, slightly greater than our reported background values. A more detailed field sampling campaign will be pursued to elucidate the role of different environmental variables (i.e., time of day, sun intensity, traffic congestion, etc.), on the accumulation of PAHs in soils.

  17. Racial-Ethnic Variation in Park Use and Physical Activity in the City of Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Han, Bing; Williamson, Stephanie; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-12-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in physical activity present important challenges to population health. Public parks provide access to free or low-cost physical activity opportunities, but it is unclear to what extent parks are utilized by various race-ethnic groups in diverse urban settings. Here, we examine racial ethnic differences in park use and physical activity among adult residents (n = 7506) living within 1 mi of 50 parks in the city of Los Angeles. In multivariate analyses, we find few differences among race-ethnic groups in terms of their frequency of having visited the park in the past 7 days; however, we find numerous differences in how the groups used the park and in their levels of physical activity: Blacks and English-speaking Latinos were less likely than whites to report being physically active, exercising in the park, and exercising outside the park; Spanish-speaking Latinos were equally likely as whites to report exercising in park but less likely to report exercising outside the park and more likely to report using the parks for social interactions; Asians/Pacific Islanders (PI)/others were more likely than whites to report visiting the park in the past 7 days and using the parks for social interactions. Urban parks appear to be an important resource for physical activity and socialization, in particular among Spanish-speaking Latino and Asians/PI groups. Additional efforts may be needed for other racial-ethnic minorities to experience the same benefits.

  18. Quantifying sources of methane using light alkanes in the Los Angeles basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Brioude, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Andrews, A. E.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Daube, B. C.; Gouw, J. A.; Dlugokencky, E.; Frost, G. J.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Kofler, J.; Kuster, W. C.; Lang, P. M.; Novelli, P. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Trainer, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parrish, D. D.

    2013-05-01

    Methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and C2-C5 alkanes were measured throughout the Los Angeles (L.A.) basin in May and June 2010. We use these data to show that the emission ratios of CH4/CO and CH4/CO2 in the L.A. basin are larger than expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories, consistent with previously published work. We use experimentally determined CH4/CO and CH4/CO2 emission ratios in combination with annual State of California CO and CO2 inventories to derive a yearly emission rate of CH4 to the L.A. basin. We further use the airborne measurements to directly derive CH4 emission rates from dairy operations in Chino, and from the two largest landfills in the L.A. basin, and show these sources are accurately represented in the California Air Resources Board greenhouse gas inventory for CH4. We then use measurements of C2-C5 alkanes to quantify the relative contribution of other CH4 sources in the L.A. basin, with results differing from those of previous studies. The atmospheric data are consistent with the majority of CH4 emissions in the region coming from fugitive losses from natural gas in pipelines and urban distribution systems and/or geologic seeps, as well as landfills and dairies. The local oil and gas industry also provides a significant source of CH4 in the area. The addition of CH4 emissions from natural gas pipelines and urban distribution systems and/or geologic seeps and from the local oil and gas industry is sufficient to account for the differences between the top-down and bottom-up CH4 inventories identified in previously published work.

  19. Modeling diurnal land temperature cycles over Los Angeles using downscaled GOES imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Qihao; Fu, Peng

    2014-11-01

    Land surface temperature is a key parameter for monitoring urban heat islands, assessing heat related risks, and estimating building energy consumption. These environmental issues are characterized by high temporal variability. A possible solution from the remote sensing perspective is to utilize geostationary satellites images, for instance, images from Geostationary Operational Environmental System (GOES) and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). These satellite systems, however, with coarse spatial but high temporal resolution (sub-hourly imagery at 3-10 km resolution), often limit their usage to meteorological forecasting and global climate modeling. Therefore, how to develop efficient and effective methods to disaggregate these coarse resolution images to a proper scale suitable for regional and local studies need be explored. In this study, we propose a least square support vector machine (LSSVM) method to achieve the goal of downscaling of GOES image data to half-hourly 1-km LSTs by fusing it with MODIS data products and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. The result of downscaling suggests that the proposed method successfully disaggregated GOES images to half-hourly 1-km LSTs with accuracy of approximately 2.5 K when validated against with MODIS LSTs at the same over-passing time. The synthetic LST datasets were further explored for monitoring of surface urban heat island (UHI) in the Los Angeles region by extracting key diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) parameters. It is found that the datasets and DTC derived parameters were more suitable for monitoring of daytime- other than nighttime-UHI. With the downscaled GOES 1-km LSTs, the diurnal temperature variations can well be characterized. An accuracy of about 2.5 K was achieved in terms of the fitted results at both 1 km and 5 km resolutions.

  20. First-generation site-response maps for the Los Angeles region based on earthquake ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Michael, J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-motion records from aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake and mainshock records from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, and 1994 Northridge earthquakes are used to estimate site response relative to a rock site for the urban Los Angeles area. Site response is estimated at 232 mainshock and 201 aftershock sites relative to a low-amplitude site in the Santa Monica Mountains. Average amplification values are calculated for the frequency bands: 1 to 3, 3 to 5, and 5 to 7 Hz. These bands are chosen based on limitations in aftershock recording equipment at lower frequencies and reduced significance to the building inventory at higher frequencies. Site amplification factors determined at the instrumented locations are grouped by the surficial geology and contoured to produce a continuous spatial estimation of amplification. The maps in this article represent the first attempt to produce estimates of site amplification based on observations of ground motion for such a large areal extent of the Los Angeles region. These maps are expected to evolve as more data become available and more analysis is done.

  1. Designing an Innovative Data Architecture for the Los Angeles Data Resource (LADR).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sukrit; Jenders, Robert A; Delta, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Data Resource (LADR) is a joint project of major Los Angeles health care provider organizations. The LADR helps clinical investigators to explore the size of potential research study cohorts using operational clinical data across all participating institutions. The Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science (CDU) LADR team sought to develop an innovative data architecture that would aggregate de-identified clinical data from safety-net providers in the community into CDU LADR node. This in turn would be federated with the other nodes of LADR for a shared view in a way that was never available before. This led to a self-service system to assess patients matching study criteria at each medical center and to search patients by demographics, ICD-9 codes, lab results and medications.

  2. Identification of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eatough, D.J.; White, V.F.; Hansen, L.D.; Eatough, N.L.; Cheney, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    Gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate have been identified in the atmosphere in Los Angeles. Gas-phase concentrations of these two alkyl sulfates were determined by using analytical methods based on the collection of the compounds before collection of particles using diffusion denuders and after collection of particles using resin beds or sorption filters, and specific analysis of the collected alkyl sulfates by ion chromatography. The data show the dimethyl sulfate is present in both particles and the gas phase. The concentration of total gas-phase methyl sulfates was found to vary from 34 to 178 nmol/m/sup 3/ during the smog episode studied. These species constituted a significant fraction of the total sulfur budget in the Los Angeles basin during the sampling period.

  3. Identification of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eatough, D.J.; White, V.F.; Hansen, L.D.; Eatough, N.L.; Cheney, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques were developed for the collection and determination of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid based on collection of the alkyl sulfate compounds with both denuder tubes and resin sorption beds and analysis of the collected material by ion chromatography. Gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid were identified in Los Angeles using these techniques. The data indicate that dimethyl sulfate is present in both particles and in the gas phase. The concentration of gas-phase methyl sulfates was found to be several micrograms/cu m. These species thus account for a significant fraction of the total sulfur budget in the Los Angeles Basin during the sample period.

  4. Remote Sensing of Spatial Distributions of Greenhouse Gases in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Dejian; Sander, Stanley P.; Pongetti, Thomas J.; Cheung, Ross; Stutz, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The Los Angeles air basin is a significant anthropogenic source of greenhouse gasses and pollutants including CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. Recent legislation in California, the California Global Warning Solutions Act (AB32), established a statewide cap for greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 based on 1990 emissions. Verifying the effectiveness of regional greenhouse gas emissions controls requires high-precision, regional-scale measurement methods combined with models that capture the principal anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial distribution of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using high resolution remote sensing spectroscopy. We participated in the CalNex 2010 campaign to provide greenhouse gas distributions for comparison between top-down and bottom-up emission estimates.

  5. Seeking solace in West Hollywood: sexual orientation-based hate crimes in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, Rebecca L

    2010-01-01

    Many thriving "gay communities" across the United States report high levels of sexual orientation-based hate crimes every year, raising questions about the level of safety in these gay communities and neighborhoods. This study examines hate crime data from 2002-2006 in Los Angeles County and the relationship those hate crimes have to West Hollywood, the best known gay community of Los Angeles County. Results suggest that although West Hollywood does consistently report high numbers of hate crimes, this does not reflect a greatly increased risk to any one lesbian, gay, or bisexual person. Results suggest that we need to consider other variables as predictors (such as poverty, business density, and population density) in determining safe versus unsafe space, rather than just the percentage of lesbians, gay, and bisexuals in a population.

  6. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Webster, Larry S.; Marques, Adriana R.; Spano, Robyn; Rood, Michael; Burns, Joe; Hu, Renjie

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is Borrelia hermsii, a rodent-associated spirochete transmitted by the fast-feeding soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi. We describe a patient who had an illness consistent with relapsing fever after exposure in the mountains near Los Angeles, California, USA. The patient’s convalescent-phase serum was seropositive for B. hermsii but negative for several other vector-borne bacterial pathogens. Investigations at the exposure site showed the presence of O. hermsi ticks infected with B. hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. PMID:19624916

  7. Residential hierarchy in Los Angeles: an examination of ethnic and documentation status differences.

    PubMed

    Cort, David A; Lin, Ken-Hou; Stevenson, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Longitudinal event history data from two waves of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey are used to explore racial, ethnic, and documentation status differences in access to desirable neighborhoods. We first find that contrary to recent findings, undocumented Latinos do not replace blacks at the bottom of the locational attainment hierarchy. Whites continue to end up in neighborhoods that are less poor and whiter than minority groups, while all minorities, including undocumented Latinos, end up in neighborhoods that are of similar quality. Second, the effects of socioeconomic status for undocumented Latinos are either similar to or weaker than disadvantaged blacks. These findings suggest that living in less desirable neighborhoods is a fate disproportionately borne by non-white Los Angeles residents and that in some limited ways, the penalty attached to being undocumented Latino might actually be greater than the penalty attached to being black. PMID:24576634

  8. Barriers to participation in the food stamp program among food pantry clients in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Algert, Susan J; Reibel, Michael; Renvall, Marian J

    2006-05-01

    Substantial numbers of food pantry clients are eligible for food stamps but do not receive them. Background characteristics of 14317 food pantry users in Los Angeles were analyzed to provide information helpful in food stamp outreach programs. Ninety percent of food pantry users were living well below poverty level, 59% were Hispanic, and 44% were homeless. Only 15% of the food pantry clients received food stamps, with homelessness and limited English language skills acting as barriers to food stamp program participation.

  9. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) (b) Area A-2. Consisting of two parts in the outer basin of Fish Harbor on the...) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude 33°44′22.8″...

  10. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) (b) Area A-2. Consisting of two parts in the outer basin of Fish Harbor on the...) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude 33°44′22.8″...

  11. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) (b) Area A-2. Consisting of two parts in the outer basin of Fish Harbor on the...) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude 33°44′22.8″...

  12. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) (b) Area A-2. Consisting of two parts in the outer basin of Fish Harbor on the...) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude 33°44′22.8″...

  13. 33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) (b) Area A-2. Consisting of two parts in the outer basin of Fish Harbor on the...) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude 33°44′22.8″...

  14. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lightstone, Amy S.; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M.; Sturm, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents’ residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Results Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Discussion Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents’ homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation. PMID:26334715

  15. ERTS-1 applied for structural and morphological investigtions case studies. 1: Los Angeles, California. 2: Coastal plain, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, E. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Two major earth's resources management problems, the application of ERTS-1 imagery for geomorphotectonics, and subsequently seismic-risk, earthquake, and mineral exploration applications are discussed. Case studies are presented for Los Angeles, California, and New Jersey coastal plain.

  16. Developing and Teaching a Cultural Pluralism Course in One of America's "Uneasy Salad Bowls": "Immigration and Ethnicity in Los Angeles."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Faye W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes developing and teaching a college cultural pluralism course at California State University in Los Angeles. Maintains that the course used a political economy perspective and cooperative learning techniques. Discusses course objectives, class activities, and course materials. (CFR)

  17. Mapping Mortality and Geophysical Features During a Heat Wave in Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, L.

    2011-12-01

    With climate change, heat waves are predicted to increase in intensity and duration, particularly in areas where they have occurred previously. Human mortality increases during heat waves, and that increase may vary by community due to a variety of factors including differing geophysical and built environment features. In July 2006, California experienced a statewide heat wave that was unprecedented in duration, lasting 10 days in much of the state, and longer in some areas. To explore heat wave health impacts by community, we focused on Los Angeles County, selected for its urban density and diverse social and geographic landscapes. We calculated the ratio of deaths during the heat wave period (July 15 - Aug 1) to deaths in reference days from the non-heat wave period in the same summer. The raw and empirical Bayes smoothed rate ratios were mapped by census tract (average population size approximately 5000). We then used spatial scanning procedures to identify census tract clusters of high and low mortality. Onto the heat mortality maps, we overlaid such geographic and built environment characteristics as elevation, recordings from temperature monitors, building climate zone boundaries, and air conditioning use. In this presentation, we will discuss the potential relationship between mortality and geophysical and built environment features. In the future, we will expand this analysis statewide and share our findings with local stakeholders to explore factors which may make their communities more resilient (low health impact) or vulnerable (high health impact). Ultimately, knowledge of vulnerability and resiliency factors may inform future applied research and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Authors: Lauren Joe, Daniel Smith, Svetlana Smorodinksy, Sumi Hoshiko, Martha Harnly Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health

  18. The south San Fernando Valley fault, Los Angeles California: Myth or reality

    SciTech Connect

    Slosson, J.E.; Phipps, M.B. ); Werner, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    Based on related geomorphic and hydrogeologic evidence, the authors have identified the probable existence of a fault system and related Riedel faults along the southerly side of the San Fernando Valley (SFV), Los Angeles, CA. This fault system, which appears to be aligned along a series of pressure ridges, artesian springs and warm water wells, is termed the South SFV Fault for the purpose of this study. The trace of this fault is believed to roughly follow the southern extent of the SFV near the northern base of the east-west trending Santa Monica Mountains. The SFV is a fault-affected synclinal structure bounded on the north, east, and west by well-recognized and documented fault systems. The southern boundary of the SFV is defined by the complexly faulted anticlinal structure of the bordering Santa Monica Mountains. This presentation will suggest that the southern boundary of the SFV (syncline) is controlled by faulting similar to the fault-controlled north, east, and west boundaries. The authors believe that the trace of the fault system in the southeastern portion of the SFV has been somewhat modified and concealed by the erosion and deposition of coarse grained sediments derived from the vast granitic-metamorphic complex of the San Gabriel Mountains to the north, the major watershed, and in part by sediment derived from similar rock type to the east and southeast. The western half of the SFV has been largely filled with fine grained sediments derived from erosion of the surrounding sedimentary uplands. Further modification has occurred due to urbanization of the area. With reference to the fault-affected boundaries on the west, north, and east sides of the SFV, these structures are all considered youthfall and capable of producing earthquakes as the SFF did in 1971. The south-bounding fault may fall within a similar category. Accordingly, the authors believe that the proposed South SFV Fault has been a tectonic feature since the Pliocene epoch.

  19. Predicting traffic-related air pollution in Los Angeles using a distance decay regression selection strategy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective means of estimating exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies. We created the first LUR models of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the complex megalopolis of Los Angeles (LA), California. Two-hundred and one sampling sites (the largest sampling design to date for LUR estimation) for two seasons were selected using a location-allocation algorithm that maximized the potential variability in measured pollutant concentrations and represented populations in the health study. Traffic volumes, truck routes and road networks, land use data, satellite-derived vegetation greenness and soil brightness, and truck route slope gradients were used for predicting NOx concentrations. A novel model selection strategy known as “ADDRESS” (A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy) was used to select optimized buffer distances for potential predictor variables and maximize model performance. Final regression models explained 81%, 86% and 85% of the variance in measured NO, NO2 and NOx concentrations, respectively. Cross-validation analyses suggested a prediction accuracy of 87–91%. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with NOx concentrations, suggesting these data are useful surrogates for modeling traffic-related pollution when certain land use data are unavailable. Our study also demonstrated that reactive pollutants such as NO and NO2 could have high spatial extents of influence (e.g., > 5000 m from expressway) and high background concentrations in certain geographic areas. This paper represents the first attempt to model traffic-related air pollutants at a fine scale within such a complex and large urban region. PMID:19540476

  20. Organic Aerosol Formation and Processing in the Los Angeles Basin: Role of Gasoline vs. Diesel Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Holloway, J. S.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Wagner, N.; Parrish, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    During the CalNex-2010 field project in May-June 2010, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft performed flights up- and down-wind of metropolitan, industrial, agricultural and animal feeding sites in central-southern California. Here airborne data on organic aerosol (OA) properties as measured by a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer along with measurements of trace gases affecting secondary production of aerosols in the Los Angeles Basin are presented. The analysis presented indicates that the ratio of organic aerosol to carbon monoxide (OA/CO) is significantly higher than the previously observed ratios of primary OA/CO downwind of urban areas, indicating that even on short time scales of transport within the basin, there is significant production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The increase in the ratio of OA/CO is also accompanied by an increase in the fraction of oxygenated species of OA, providing evidence for production of more oxidized SOA as air masses are photochemically processed. Despite a smaller contribution from Diesel vehicles to traffic on weekends, analysis of the weekend vs. weekday data indicates that similar values of ΔOA/ΔCO are observed on the weekends compared to weekdays, for air masses with similar degrees of photochemical processing. This indicates that emissions of gas phase organic species from Diesel vehicles are not significant for OA production in the LA Basin. Our calculated steady-state concentrations of hydroxyl radical (OH) indicate that OH concentrations at mid-day are substantially higher on weekends compared to weekdays, indicating faster chemical processing of air masses during a fixed length of time on the weekends compared to weekdays.

  1. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Leslie, Phillip; Run, Grace; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Reporter, Roshan; Aguirre, Arturo; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    Although health departments routinely inspect restaurants to assess compliance with established hygienic standards, few data are available on the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing foodborne disease. The study reported here assessed the impact on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County of a restaurant hygiene grading system that utilized publicly posted grade cards. The grading systm was introduced in January 1998. Hospital discharge data on foodborne-disease hospitalizations were analyzed for Los Angeles County and, as a control, for the rest of California during the period 1993-2000. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was done to measure the effect of the grading progam on these hospitalizations. After baseline temporal and geographic trends were adjusted for, the restaurant hygiene grading program was associated with a 13.1 percent decrease (p < .01) in the number of foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County in the year following implementation the program (1998). This decrease was sustained over the next two years (1999-2000). The results suggest that restaurant hygiene grading with public posting of results is an effective intervention for reducing the burden of foodborne disease. PMID:15794461

  2. Public Perceptions of Tsunamis and the NOAA TsunamiReady Program in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2010-12-01

    After the devastating December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, California and other coastal states began installing "Tsunami Warning Zone" and "Evacuation Route" signs at beaches and major access roads. The geography of the Los Angeles area may not be conducive to signage alone for communication of the tsunami risk and safety precautions. Over a year after installation, most people surveyed did not know about or recognize the tsunami signs. More alarming is that many did not believe a tsunami could occur in the area even though earthquake generated waves have reached nearby beaches as recently as September 2009! UPDATE: FEB. 2010. Fifty two percent of the 147 people surveyed did not believe they would survive a natural disaster in Los Angeles. Given the unique geography of Los Angeles, how can the city and county improve the mental health of its citizens before and after a natural disaster? This poster begins to address the issues of community self-efficacy and resiliency in the face of tsunamis. Of note for future research, the data from this survey showed that most people believed climate change would increase the occurrence of tsunamis. Also, the public understanding of water inundation was disturbingly low. As scientists, it is important to understand the big picture of our research - how it is ultimately communicated, understood, and used by the public.

  3. Chagas Disease Awareness among Latin American Immigrants Living in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M.; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18–60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  4. Injury and violence in Los Angeles. Impact on access to health care and surgical education.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A W; Sterling-Scott, R P; Carabello, G; Imari-Williams, I; Allmond, B; Foster, R S; Kennedy, F; Shoemaker, W C

    1992-06-01

    The Los Angeles County (California) Trauma Hospital System was designed to ensure that all patients requiring specialized trauma care would be transported directly to a trauma center using established trauma triage criteria. The designation and implementation of all level 1, 2, and 3 (rural) trauma centers were completed between October 1983 and July 1985. However, by February 1, 1985, one level 2 trauma center withdrew, and nine other level 2 and 3 trauma centers followed suit over the next few months and years. The reasons for closure of these 10 trauma centers were almost exclusively related to economic factors. The major impact of trauma center closure on surgical educational programs at the Drew University of Medicine and Science and the Martin Luther King, Jr/Charles R. Drew Medical Center have been additive and cumulative. The high volume of patients with trauma has been cited, sometimes correctly and sometimes incorrectly, as the primary reason for a lack of access to health care for patients without trauma. We have developed a blueprint for survival that, when fully implemented, will improve access to health care for all residents in our catchment area and optimize surgical education. While the Los Angeles County Trauma Hospital System has had many difficulties during the last 9 years, the population it serves is greater than that in 42 states in the United States. The experiences gained in Los Angeles County may be beneficial to statewide systems in the United States and in countries of comparable size.

  5. Academic Performance of L.A.C.C. Transfers to California State University at Los Angeles, 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    A summary of the performance of Los Angeles City College (LACC) transfers to the California State University at Los Angeles (CSLA) during the 1973-74 school year, indicates that 719 (84 percent) of the 854 entrants completed some work. Their average first quarter GPA was 2.44 (-0.05 points below their LACC average of 2.49); one-third earned a "B"…

  6. Spatio-temporal Estimates of CO2 Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin from On-road and Airport Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P.; Song, Y.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Eldering, A.; O'Keeffe, D.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal distribution of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in urban landscapes is challenging. We use Hestia, an innovative "bottom up" approach for estimating FFCO2 emissions in the Los Angeles (LA) megacity and Southern California Air Basin (SCAB) which account for ~53% of the FFCO2 emissions in California. Hestia-LA, in coordination with "top down" atmospheric CO2 measurements, will provide baseline FFCO2 emissions, help monitor changes in emissions, and develop emissions mitigation policies. Hestia-LA characterizes FFCO2 emissions at the building/street spatial scale (10-100 m) and at hourly time steps in the basin by combining data on residential and commercial building emissions, industrial processes, electricity production, and different transportation sectors. We report here on the construction of the spatial and temporal structure in two key transportation sectors within the SCAB: on-road vehicle (46%) and aircraft (2%) emissions. We quantified on-road traffic emissions by merging traffic data from Southern California Association of Governments, California Freeway Performance Measurement System and modeled motor vehicle emissions from EPA's NMIM model. Preliminary analysis shows that (1) LA and Orange counties dominate the annual FFCO2 emissions from urban freeways and arterials, and (2) LA county has a wider peak traffic period during weekdays (2-6pm) than the other four counties (4-5pm). We characterized airport emissions by integrating information from Federal Aviation Administration, Los Angeles World Airports, and Airnav LLC for the temporal structure of aircraft arrivals and departures, and the National Emissions Inventory for total annual aircraft emissions. We categorized the 47 airports in LA basin based on the volume and type (commercial, general aviation and military) of aircraft traffic, and then assigned appropriate hour-of-day and day-of-week traffic volume-specific CO2 emission patterns to each airport. We found

  7. Seasonal and spatial variations of individual organic compounds of coarse particulate matter in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kalam; Olson, Michael R.; Shelton, Brandon; Schauer, James. J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2012-11-01

    To study the organic composition of ambient coarse particulate matter (CPM; 2.5-10 μm), coarse particles were collected one day a week from April 2008 to March 2009 at 10 sampling sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Samples were compiled into summer (June 2008 to September 2008) and winter (November 2008 to February 2009) composites, and were subsequently analyzed for individual organic constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. n-alkanoic acids and medium molecular weight (MW) n-alkanes (C25 to C35) - the major constituents in the coarse size fraction - showed good associations with crustal materials. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes (both in low concentrations), as well as high MW n-alkanes (C37 and C38), were associated with traffic-related emissions. In the summer, when prevailing onshore winds were strong, the downwind/rural sites had higher concentrations of PAHs, n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids. An opposite trend was observed at the urban sites, where the levels of PAHs, n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids were higher in the winter, when the low wind speed limited long-range atmospheric transport. In general, the contribution of organic compounds to CPM mass was higher during wintertime, due to a reduction in the fraction of other CPM components (sea salt, secondary ions, etc.) and/or the increase in source strengths of organic compounds. The latter is consistent with the traffic-induced re-suspension of mineral and road dust, as previously observed in this basin. Overall, our results suggest that emissions from natural sources (soil and associated biota) constitute the majority of the organic content in coarse particles, with a more pronounced influence in the semi-rural/rural areas in Riverside/Lancaster compared with urban Los Angeles in the summer.

  8. Estimating methane emissions from dairies in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viatte, C.; Lauvaux, T.; Hedelius, J.; Parker, H. A.; Chen, J.; Jones, T.; Franklin, J.; Deng, A.; Gaudet, B.; Duren, R. M.; Verhulst, K. R.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Wofsy, S.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2015-12-01

    Inventory estimates of methane (CH4) emissions among the individual sources (mainly agriculture, energy production, and waste management) remain highly uncertain at regional and urban scales. Accurate atmospheric measurements can provide independent estimates to evaluate bottom-up inventories, especially in urban region, where many different CH4 sources are often confined in relatively small areas. Among these sources, livestock emissions, which are mainly originating from dairy cows, account for ~55% of the total CH4 emissions in California in 2013. This study aims to rigorously estimate the amount of CH4 emitted by the largest dairies in the Southern California region by combining measurements from four mobile ground-based spectrometers (EM27/SUN), in situ isotopic methane measurements from a CRDS analyzer (Picarro), and a high-resolution atmospheric transport model (the Weather Research and Forecasting model) in Large-Eddy Simulation mode. The remote sensing spectrometers measure the total column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CH4 and CO2 (XCH4 and XCO2) in the near infrared region, providing information about total emissions of the dairies. Gradients measured by the four EM27 ranged from 0.2 to 22 ppb and from 0.7 to 3 ppm for XCH4 and XCO2, respectively. To assess the fluxes of the dairies, measurements of these gradients are used in conjunction with the local atmospheric dynamics simulated at 111 m resolution. Inverse modelling from WRF-LES is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the domain. A Bayesian inversion and a Monte-Carlo approach were used to provide the CH4 emissions over the dairy with their associated uncertainties. The isotopic δ13C sampled at different locations in the area ranges from -40 ‰ to -55 ‰, indicating a mixture of anthropogenic and biogenic sources.

  9. "Strategic Review of FY06 District & School-Level Resources". In Fulfillment of a Memorandum of Understanding between: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and The Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA). Phase II- Final ERS Report. An Executive Summary and Management Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Stephen; Travers, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In the fall of 2006, Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and the Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that called for a third-party research firm to analyze resource use across the Los Angeles school system. Education Resource Strategies (ERS) was chosen to conduct this analysis. The study was…

  10. Ultrafine particles and associated pollutants on roadways and in community air of Los Angeles California, Beijing China, and the Los Angeles International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdahl, Frederick Dane

    Particles smaller than 10 microm in diameter are harmful to health. However, the smallest of these particles, ultrafine particles (UFP), equal to or smaller than 100 nm, may be especially harmful. Most are emitted by combustion sources, with transportation sources being a dominant contributor. While these particles have recently been under intense research, little is known regarding UFP concentrations or its components where people live, work, and commute. This dissertation reports on investigations of UFP and other pollutants in transportation-dominated areas. Included are findings from on-road, near-road and community monitoring studies performed in two megacities: Los Angeles, California and Beijing, China. A common feature of these studies was the application of advanced technologies to gather time-resolved measurements. An important finding made in Los Angeles was that real-time pollutant measurements could be made on busy roadways. UFP size distribution measurements made on a freeway with heavy-duty truck traffic demonstrated that UFP were much higher than on other highways or in community air. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were also much higher in these truck-dominated microenvironments. High correlations were found between UFP, black carbon (BC), particle counts, (NO), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring at Los Angeles International Airport demonstrated that aircraft are important sources of UFP. Elevated UFP counts were found 900 meters from a runway used for take offs, while smaller values were found 500 meters downwind of a runway used for landings. These measurements showed a persistence of UFP at the community boundary in excess of measurements from roadside studies. A peak UFP measurement of 4.8 million particles cm -3 was made approximately 75 meters from a jet aircraft waiting to takeoff. Measurements made in Beijing demonstrated that heavy-duty diesel truck activity severely impacts community air quality. Black carbon was a

  11. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model (version 5.0) was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM) number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor), urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2) were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8-68.4 %) of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %), with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12 % (7.4-17.1), 2.1 % (1

  12. Public health assessment for Del Amo Facility, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, Region 9. Cerclis No. CAD029544731. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-12

    Located in Los Angeles, California, the 280-acre Del Amo hazardous waste site contains contamination resulting from a synthetic rubber manufacturing facility consisting of three plants, which formerly operated on the site from 1943 through the mid to late 1960s. Primary contaminants associated with a 3.7-acre waste disposal area located near the southern boundary of the Del Amo site include volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzene and ethylbenzene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, phenanthrene, and chrysene). Based on the information available for review, CDHS and ATSDR conclude that the Del Amo site presently poses an indeterminate public health hazard to nearby residents and workers.

  13. Near-infrared remote sensing of Los Angeles trace gas distributions from a mountaintop site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Blavier, J.-F. L.; Crawford, T. J.; Manatt, K. S.; Toon, G. C.; Wong, K. W.; Sander, S. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Los Angeles basin is a significant anthropogenic source of major greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and the pollutant CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial and temporal distributions of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using a high-resolution spectroscopic remote sensing technique. A new Fourier Transform Spectrometer called CLARS-FTS has been deployed since May 2010 at JPL's California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) on Mt. Wilson, California for automated long-term measurements of greenhouse gases. The instrument design and performance of CLARS-FTS are presented. From its mountaintop location at an altitude of 1673 m, the instrument points at a programmed sequence of ground target locations in the Los Angeles basin, recording spectra of reflected near-IR solar radiation. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases (XGHG) including XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are retrieved several times per day for each target. Spectra from a local Spectralon® scattering plate are also recorded to determine background (free tropospheric) column abundances above the site. Comparisons between measurements from LA basin targets and the Spectralon® plate provide estimates of the boundary layer partial column abundances of the measured species. Algorithms are described for transforming the measured interferograms into spectra, and for deriving column abundances from the spectra along with estimates of the measurement precision and accuracy. The CLARS GHG measurements provide a means to infer relative, and possibly absolute, GHG emissions.

  14. Near-infrared remote sensing of Los Angeles trace gas distributions from a mountaintop site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Blavier, J.-F. L.; Crawford, T. J.; Manatt, K. S.; Toon, G. C.; Wong, K. W.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-03-01

    The Los Angeles basin is a significant anthropogenic source of major greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and the pollutant CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial and temporal distributions of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using a high-resolution spectroscopic remote sensing technique. A new Fourier transform spectrometer called CLARS-FTS has been deployed since May, 2010, at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)'s California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) on Mt. Wilson, California, for automated long-term measurements of greenhouse gases. The instrument design and performance of CLARS-FTS are presented. From its mountaintop location at an altitude of 1673 m, the instrument points at a programmed sequence of ground target locations in the Los Angeles basin, recording spectra of reflected near-IR solar radiation. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases (XGHG) including XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are retrieved several times per day for each target. Spectra from a local Spectralon scattering plate are also recorded to determine background (free tropospheric) column abundances above the site. Comparisons between measurements from LA basin targets and the Spectralon plate provide estimates of the boundary layer partial column abundances of the measured species. Algorithms are described for transforming the measured interferograms into spectra, and for deriving column abundances from the spectra along with estimates of the measurement precision and accuracy. The CLARS GHG measurements provide a means to infer relative, and possibly absolute, GHG emissions.

  15. USGS Research Helps the County of Los Angeles Address New Arsenic Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    In January 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) enacted stringent standards on arsenic in drinking water. The new limitsraised concerns about wells in the Antelope Valley of northern Los Angeles County that had high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To meet the new standard, Los Angeles County Waterworks District No. 40, part of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, considered building arsenic-removal facilities at a cost of nearly $34 million. Instead, the District initiated a well-modification project that was based on the findings of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientific investigation. Using a well flowmeter and down-hole sampler - invented by USGS scientists ? the study team found that high-arsenic levels were concen-trated in the deepest portions of the wells, 600 feet or more below the land surface. Using this finding, the District implemented a well modification pilot project where the deep portions of five wells were sealed off permanently, while preserving the ability to pump high-quality water from the upper sections. Well screens in the upper sections were first cleaned using an innovative sonic technique to increase the yield of high-quality water. The deeper sections then were sealed using micro-fine cement technology. The District now pumps water that meets the new USEPA standard for arsenic from the affected wells. Arsenic concentrations are lower by an average of 84 percent, while well yield is lower by only 24 percent. The total cost of the modification project for the five wells was $608,580; a one-time net savings of 550 percent over construction of an arsenic-removal facility.

  16. Crustal structure and tectonics from the Los Angeles basin to the Mojave Desert, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Godfrey, N.J.; Okaya, D.A.; Murphy, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic refraction and low-fold reflection survey, known as the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), was conducted along a transect (line 1) extending from Seal Beach, California, to the Mojave Desert, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins and San Gabriel Mountains. The chief result of this survey is an interpreted cross section that addresses a number of questions regarding the crustal structure and tectonics of southern California that have been debated for decades and have important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. The results (or constraints) are as follows. (1) The maximum depth of the Los Angeles basin along line 1 is 8-9 km. (2) The deep structure of the Sierra Madre fault zone in the northern San Gabriel Valley is as follows. The Duarte branch of the Sierra Madre fault zone forms a buried, 2.5-km-high, moderately north dipping buttress between the sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the San Gabriel Valley and the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. (For deeper structure, see following.) (3) There are active crustal de??collements in southern California. At middle-crustal depths, the Sierra Madre fault zone appears to sole into a master de??collement that terminates northward at the San Andreas fault and projects southward beneath the San Gabriel Valley to the Puente Hills blind thrust fault. (4) The dip and depth extent of the San Andreas fault along line 1 dips steeply (???83??) northward and extends to at least the Moho. (5) The subsurface lateral extent of the Pelona Schist in southern California is as follows. Along line 1, the Pelona Schist underlies much, if not all of the San Gabriel Mountains south of the San Andreas fault to middle-crustal depths. North of the San Andreas fault, it is apparently not present along the transect.

  17. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Emily D.; Scotto, Jamie; Slater, Margaret; Weiss, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Low income has been reported to be a risk factor for dog relinquishment to shelters in the U.S. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. Risk factors for relinquishment in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles were examined. Cost was associated with relinquishment, and most people were not aware of available assistance. Those who relinquished reported emotional attachment to the dog and higher perceived stress than a comparison group. The majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance, highlighting an opportunity to provide community-specific alternatives to relinquishment. Abstract Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment. PMID

  18. Factors predicting the capacity of Los Angeles city-region recreation programs to promote energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kim D; Dahmann, Nicholas; Wolch, Jennifer; Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale; Dunton, Genevieve; Rudulph, Diana; Newell, Joshua; Thayer, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-07-01

    An audit of recreation programs with moderate or higher levels of physical activity (PA) in Los Angeles area cities (N=82) was conducted using internet, telephone, and survey methods. Metabolic Equivalents (METs) were used to code programs׳ physical activity intensity. MET-hours per recreation program was associated with required age for enrollment, percent of residents >64 years of age, and fiscal capacity of cities. Capacity to promote energy expenditure may depend on targeted age groups, age of population, and municipal fiscal capacity. Cities with lower fiscal capacity might offer those higher MET-hour activities which require less specialized equipment and seek outside funding to offer higher MET programs. PMID:24755531

  19. A model study of the impact of emission control strategies on Los Angeles air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hameed, S.; Stewart, R. W.; Lebedeff, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A generalized cell model is developed for the calculation of city-wide averages of photochemical smog components in Los Angeles. This model takes into account the effects of variations with time and within the city of the source strengths, the wind field, and the mixing depth. The effect of the influx of background pollution from outside the modeled volume is also included. Several control strategies for reducing automobile emissions are then introduced into the model, and their impact on predicted pollutant levels, particularly those of O3, are investigated.

  20. Differentiating Tectonic and Anthropogenic Earthquakes in the Greater Los Angeles Basin, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Goebel, T.; Cochran, E. S.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 flurry of moderate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region raised the concern if some of this or past seismicity was of anthropogenic origin as opposed to being caused by ongoing transpressional tectonics. The Mw5.1 La Habra sequence is located near several major oil fields but the Mw4.4 Encino sequence was located away from oil fields, within the Santa Monica Mountains. The last century of seismicity in the Los Angeles area consists of numerous small and large earthquakes. Most of these earthquakes occur beneath the basin sediments and are associated with transpressional tectonics, related to the big bend in the San Andreas fault, but some could be associated with large oil fields. In particular, both the 1933 Mw6.4 Long Beach and the 1987 Mw5.9 Whittier Narrows earthquakes were spatially associated with two major oil fields, the Huntington Beach and Montebello fields. Numerous large oil fields have been in production for more than 125 years. The geographical locations of the oil fields follow major tectonic trends such as the Newport-Inglewood fault, the Whittier fault, and the thrust belt located at the north edge of the Los Angeles basin. More than 60 fields have oil wells and some of these have both disposal and fracking wells. Before fluid injection became common, Kovach (1974) documented six damaging events induced by fluid extraction from 1947 to 1961 in the Wilmington oil field. Since 1981 the waveform-relocated earthquake catalog for the Los Angeles basin is complete on the average above M2.0. We compare the spatial distribution of these events and the proximity of nearby active oil fields. We will also analyze the seismicity in the context of available monthly fluid extraction and injection volumes and search for temporal correlations. The La Habra sequence apparently correlates with temporal changes in extraction and injection volumes in the Santa Fe Springs oil field but not with activities in other oil fields within closer spatial proximity.

  1. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  2. Factors predicting the capacity of Los Angeles city-region recreation programs to promote energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kim D; Dahmann, Nicholas; Wolch, Jennifer; Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale; Dunton, Genevieve; Rudulph, Diana; Newell, Joshua; Thayer, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-07-01

    An audit of recreation programs with moderate or higher levels of physical activity (PA) in Los Angeles area cities (N=82) was conducted using internet, telephone, and survey methods. Metabolic Equivalents (METs) were used to code programs׳ physical activity intensity. MET-hours per recreation program was associated with required age for enrollment, percent of residents >64 years of age, and fiscal capacity of cities. Capacity to promote energy expenditure may depend on targeted age groups, age of population, and municipal fiscal capacity. Cities with lower fiscal capacity might offer those higher MET-hour activities which require less specialized equipment and seek outside funding to offer higher MET programs.

  3. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  4. Use of Historical Radar Rainfall Estimates to Develop Design Storms in Los Angeles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, D. C.; Humphrey, J.; Moffitt, J.

    2007-12-01

    A database of 15-minute historical gage adjusted radar-rainfall estimates was used to evaluate the geometric properties of storms in the City of Los Angeles, CA. The database includes selected months containing significant rainfall during the period 1996-2007. For each time step, areas of contiguous rainfall were identified as individual storm cells. An idealized ellipse was fit to each storm cell and the properties of the ellipse (e.g., size, shape, orientation, velocity and other parameters) were recorded. To accurately account for the range of storm cell sizes, capture a large number of storm cells in a climatologically similar area, assess the variability of storm movement, and minimize the impact of edge effects (i.e., incomplete coverage of cells entering and leaving), a study area substantially larger than the City of Los Angeles was used. The study area extends from city center to 30 miles north to the crest of San Gabriel Mountains, 45 miles east to Ontario, 60 miles south to Santa Catalina Island, and 70 miles west to Oxnard, an area of about10,000 square miles. Radar data for this area over 30 months in the study yields many thousands of storm cells for analysis. Storms were separated into classes by origin, direction and speed of movement. Preliminary investigations considers three types: Arctic origin (west-northwest), Pacific origin (southwest) and Tropical origin (south or stationary). Radar data (for 1996-2007) and upper air maps (1948-2006) are used to identify the direction and speed of significant precipitation events. Typical duration and temporal patterns of Los Angeles historical storms were described by season and storm type. Time of maximum intensity loading variation were determined for a selection of historic storms Depth-Areal Reduction Factors (DARF) for cloudbursts were developedfrom the radar data. These data curves are fit to equations showing the relationships between DARF, area and central intensity. Separate DARF curves are

  5. Jewish spirituality through actions in time: daily occupations of young Orthodox Jewish couples in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Frank, G; Bernardo, C S; Tropper, S; Noguchi, F; Lipman, C; Maulhardt, B; Weitze, L

    1997-03-01

    Ethnographic methods were used to study daily occupations and weekly routines of four young Orthodox Jewish couples living in Los Angeles. Data from interviews and participant observation demonstrate the importance to the couples of fulfilling God's commandments [Hebrew, mitzvot], which organize and sanctify the otherwise mundane activities of daily living, such as eating, bathing sleeping, and rising. The article focuses on the couples' experiences in (a) observing the Sabbath, (b) studying and praying, and (c) keeping a kosher home. Orthodox Jewish ritual, practice, and spirituality are time bound and action oriented. Occupational therapists can benefit from understanding how Orthodox Jews invest and experience spiritual meaning in seemingly mundane occupations and routines.

  6. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity. PMID:24901796

  7. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  8. Associations Between Ethnic Labels and Substance Use Among Hispanic/Latino Adolescents in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jennifer B; Thing, James; Soto, Daniel Wood; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Self-identification with ethnic-specific labels may indicate successful ethnic identity formation, which could protect against substance use. Alternatively, it might indicate affiliation with oppositional subcultures, a potential risk factor. This study examined longitudinal associations between ethnic labels and substance use among 1,575 Hispanic adolescents in Los Angeles. Adolescents who identified as Cholo or La Raza in 9th grade were at increased risk of past-month substance use in 11th grade. Associations were similar across gender and were not confounded by socioeconomic status, ethnic identity development, acculturation, or language use. Targeted prevention interventions for adolescents who identify with these subcultures may be warranted. PMID:24779500

  9. CO2 Emissions from the Los Angeles Basin During Spring of 2010 - Measurements vs. Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.; Xu, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Haman, C. L.; Lefer, B. L.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.

    2011-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, contributing large fluxes of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Quantifying the spatiotemporal distribution of these emissions is critical for providing independent verification of future mitigation activities. We have used high precision measurements of CO2 and CO to determine the contribution of fossil fuel combustion (ffCO2 mixing ratio) to the total CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin during the CalNex-LA ground campaign of May-June 2010 in Pasadena. The ratio of COxs/CO2xs (the excess of each species above free tropospheric levels) varies significantly by time of day, giving a proxy for the fraction of ffCO2/CO2xs. Using an emission ratio for CO/CO2 for fossil fuel combustion of 0.011±0.002 (Wunch et al., 2009, Geophys Res Lett 36, L15810), we determined that burning of fossil fuels contributed ~50% overnight - 100% during midday of the total local contribution, resulting in ffCO2 of 13 - 23 ppm, respectively. These values compare very well with those calculated from Δ14C for measurements of two samples aggregated from 7-8 flask samples collected at 14:00 PST on alternate days during the first and second half of the CalNex-LA campaign: 17 and 24 ppm ffCO2, respectively. We then compared the measured values of ffCO2 with predictions combining a diurnally averaged version of the Vulcan 2.0 ffCO2 emission inventory (http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php) and mesoscale transport computed with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. To evaluate transport model uncertainty, we compared predicted and measured planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and found WRF predictions compared favorably with ceilometer measurements made during the day at the Pasadena site. Initial comparison of the diurnal cycle of ffCO2 determined by the CO/CO2 ratios to that predicted with a temporally constant map of diurnal mean emissions shows

  10. Estimating Top-down Emissions (2011-2014) of CH4 and CO2 From Los Angeles by an FTS Atop Mount Wilson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R. M.; Hsu, Y.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Megacities, such as Los Angeles, emit significant amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). As the world's population in urban regions is expected to increase from over 50% now to 70% by 2050, monitoring the temporal trends of urban GHG emissions are necessary to verify regulation policy. Since megacities tend to have large spatially and temporally varying GHG emission characteristics, it is important to perform measurements which provide continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the domain. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to track major greenhouse gases, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) using ground-based remote sensing technique from Mount Wilson. Since 2010, in Los Angeles, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) has been deployed on Mount Wilson to measure CO2, CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), the combustion tracer, and other tracer gases using reflected sunlight in the near-infrared spectral regions. Combining the unique vista from Mount Wilson and high-precision measurements from the FTS, the slant column abundances of these trace gases above and within the urban dome of Los Angeles are acquired. Within the urban dome, continuous daytime temporal and spatial measurements are recorded for 28 reflection points which are strategically located across the basin. Here we analyze the path-averaged dry air mixing ratios XCH4, XCO2 and XCO acquired by the FTS during a three-year period from 2011 to 2014. Using tracer-to-tracer correlation analysis, we investigate the ratios of XCH4:XCO2, XCH4:XCO and XCO:XCO2 in excess of the background values. Significant spatio-temporal variability in all three ratios is observed across the Los Angeles megacity during this measurement period. We then derive the top-down estimates of basin total CH4 and CO2 emissions between 2011 and 2014 using the existing bottom-up emission database of CO2and CO, and compare our estimates to the emissions reported by the state government and previous studies. Copyright 2014. California

  11. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively), and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode

  12. The Male-female Birth Ratio in California and the 1992 April Riots in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Grech, V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Male live births slightly exceed female live births. This is usually expressed as M/F, the ratio of male to total live births. A multitude of external influences have been shown to reduce this ratio, including stress provoked through witnessing violent events; M/F dips occur three to four months later. The April 1992 Los Angeles riots constituted six days of extreme civil unrest in the city of Los Angeles. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether M/F dipped in California following this event. Methods: Monthly male and female live births for California were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the state of California for 1992 and for January 1993. Results: This study analysed 649 073 live births; M/F was lowest in August 1992 (0.5085). This was significantly lower than for the period after (September 1992 to January 1993; p = 0.044). The ratio of male to total live births was higher in January to July 1992 than in August 1992 but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Stress has been shown to reduce M/F through an excess of male fetal loss during gestation and/or from gender-biased conception favouring females. Only the former mechanism is supported by these findings. This is the first time that violent events at state level have been shown to have potentially influenced M/F. PMID:26457417

  13. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  14. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities.

  15. Surveillance of listeriosis in Los Angeles County, 1985-1986. A first year's report.

    PubMed

    Mascola, L; Sorvillo, F; Neal, J; Iwakoshi, K; Weaver, R

    1989-07-01

    After a large food-borne outbreak of listeriosis in Los Angeles County, California, in 1985, the California State Department of Health Services instituted mandatory reporting of Listeria monocytogenes by clinical laboratories. From September 1, 1985, through August 31, 1986, 94 cases of listeriosis were reported in Los Angeles County for an annual crude incidence rate of 12 cases per million persons. Of the 94 cases, 37 (39%) were in neonates and/or their mothers and 57 (61%) were nonperinatal. The overall case fatality rate was 31%, with a perinatal case fatality of 16% (6 fetal and 23 nonperinatal); this compares with an epidemic perinatal case fatality rate of 32%. No significant differences were observed in age-adjusted, race-specific incidence rates among nonperinatal cases or race-specific incidence rates among perinatal cases. All but 2 of the nonperinatal patients had a known predisposing risk factor for the development of listeriosis, the most common of which was a prior history of steroid therapy. A clustering of cases was not identified. No common food sources were apparent. Patients presenting as perinatal cases were more likely to have ingested Mexican-style cheese, ice cream, and yogurt than those presenting as nonperinatal cases. Improved case ascertainment through mandatory reporting and laboratory-based surveillance will establish meaningful baseline levels of listeriosis. PMID:2742430

  16. Tectonic contraction across Los Angeles after removal of groundwater pumping effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, G.W.; Thatcher, W.; Stein, R.S.; Hudnut, K.W.; Peltzer, G.

    2001-01-01

    After the 1987 Whittier Narrows and 1994 Northridge earthquakes revealed that blind thrust faults represent a significant threat to metropolitan Los Angeles, a network of 250 continuously recording global positioning system (GPS) stations was deployed to monitor displacements associated with deep slip on both blind and surface faults. Here we augment this GPS data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery to take into account the deformation associated with groundwater pumping and strike-slip faulting. After removing these non-tectonic signals, we are left with 4.4 mm yr-1 of uniaxial contraction across the Los Angeles basin, oriented N 36??E (perpendicular to the major strike-slip faults in the area). This indicates that the contraction is primarily accommodated on thrust faults rather than on the northeast-trending strike-slip faults. We have found that widespread groundwater and oil pumping obscures and in some cases mimics the tectonic signals expected from the blind thrust faults. In the 40-km-long Santa Ana basin, groundwater withdrawal and re-injection produces 12 mm yr-1 of long-term subsidence, accompanied by an unprecedented seasonal oscillation of 55 mm in the vertical direction and 7 mm horizontally.

  17. Organic Carbon and Light Absorption Analysis of Los Angeles Aerosols through an Online Sampling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, M. K.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Brown carbon is a comprehensive term for organic compounds with wavelength dependent light absorption. Common sources of brown carbon include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and aqueous reactions in cloud and fog water. Nitrophenols have been proposed as one source of brown carbon in the Los Angeles area. In this work, we are interested in the relative strengths of each of these sources within Los Angeles. We have implemented a continuous online system of collection and analysis within our lab. The system consists of a particle into liquid sampler (PILS), a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC). Online analysis of organic carbon content and UV-Vis absorption has allowed us to study the ratio of the two as an intrinsic property of the aerosol particles, called the 'absorption coefficient.' Using a rearrangement of Beer's Law, we have analyzed the relationship: ɛ = A / C (where ɛ is the absorption coefficient, A is the light absorption of the sample and C is the concentration of organic carbon in the sample). Using our continuous online system, we have collected absorption spectra and total organic carbon measurements over several weeks and in varying environmental conditions. Our work has shown that different weather conditions, along with fog or cloud formation, can affect the absorption coefficient of the brown carbon compounds in the air.

  18. Tectonic contraction across Los Angeles after removal of groundwater pumping effects.

    PubMed

    Bawden, G W; Thatcher, W; Stein, R S; Hudnut, K W; Peltzer, G

    2001-08-23

    After the 1987 Whittier Narrows and 1994 Northridge earthquakes revealed that blind thrust faults represent a significant threat to metropolitan Los Angeles, a network of 250 continuously recording global positioning system (GPS) stations was deployed to monitor displacements associated with deep slip on both blind and surface faults. Here we augment this GPS data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery to take into account the deformation associated with groundwater pumping and strike-slip faulting. After removing these non-tectonic signals, we are left with 4.4 mm yr-1 of uniaxial contraction across the Los Angeles basin, oriented N 36 degrees E (perpendicular to the major strike-slip faults in the area). This indicates that the contraction is primarily accommodated on thrust faults rather than on the northeast-trending strike-slip faults. We have found that widespread groundwater and oil pumping obscures and in some cases mimics the tectonic signals expected from the blind thrust faults. In the 40-km-long Santa Ana basin, groundwater withdrawal and re-injection produces 12 mm yr-1 of long-term subsidence, accompanied by an unprecedented seasonal oscillation of 55 mm in the vertical direction and 7 mm horizontally. PMID:11518964

  19. Aeromagnetic Map with Geology of the Los Angeles 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangle, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Hildenbrand, T.G.; Jachens, R.C.; Campbell, R.H.; Yerkes, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: An important objective of geologic mapping is to project surficial structures and stratigraphy into the subsurface. Geophysical data and analysis are useful tools for achieving this objective. This aeromagnetic anomaly map provides a three-dimensional perspective to the geologic mapping of the Los Angeles 30 by 60 minute quadrangle. Aeromagnetic maps show the distribution of magnetic rocks, primarily those containing magnetite (Blakely, 1995). In the Los Angeles quadrangle, the magnetic sources are Tertiary and Mesozoic igneous rocks and Precambrian crystalline rocks. Aeromagnetic anomalies mark abrupt spatial contrasts in magnetization that can be attributed to lithologic boundaries, perhaps caused by faulting of these rocks or by intrusive contacts. This aeromagnetic map overlain on geology, with information from wells and other geophysical data, provides constraints on the subsurface geology by allowing us to trace faults beneath surficial cover and estimate fault dip and offset. This map supersedes Langenheim and Jachens (1997) because of its digital form and the added value of overlaying the magnetic data on a geologic base. The geologic base for this map is from Yerkes and Campbell (2005); some of their subunits have been merged into one on this map.

  20. Structure of the Los Angeles Basin from ambient noise and receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yiran; Clayton, Robert W.

    2016-06-01

    A velocity (Vs) and structure model is derived for the Los Angeles Basin, California based on ambient-noise surface-wave and receiver-function analysis, using data from a low-cost, short-duration, dense broadband survey (LASSIE) deployed across the basin. The shear wave velocities show lateral variations at the Compton-Los Alamitos and the Whittier Faults. The basement beneath the Puente Hills - San Gabriel Valley shows an unusually high velocity (˜4.0 km s-1) and indicates the presence of schist. The structure of the model shows that the basin is a maximum of 8 km deep along the profile, and that the Moho rises to a depth of 17 km under the basin. The basin has a stretch factor of 2.6 in the center grading to 1.3 at the edges and is in approximate isostatic equilibrium.

  1. Structure of the Los Angeles Basin from ambient noise and receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yiran; Clayton, Robert W.

    2016-09-01

    A velocity (Vs) and structure model is derived for the Los Angeles Basin, California based on ambient-noise surface wave and receiver-function analysis, using data from a low-cost, short-duration, dense broad-band survey (LASSIE) deployed across the basin. The shear wave velocities show lateral variations at the Compton-Los Alamitos and the Whittier Faults. The basement beneath the Puente Hills-San Gabriel Valley shows an unusually high velocity (˜4.0 km s-1) and indicates the presence of schist. The structure of the model shows that the basin is a maximum of 8 km deep along the profile and that the Moho rises to a depth of 17 km under the basin. The basin has a stretch factor of 2.6 in the centre grading to 1.3 at the edges and is in approximate isostatic equilibrium.

  2. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  3. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  4. The effects of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) on emergency medical services personnel following the Los Angeles Civil Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wee, D F; Mills, D M; Koehler, G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) upon technicians who provided emergency medical services in South Central Los Angeles during the 1992 Los Angeles Civil Disturbance. The relationships between exposure, debriefing and symptoms of stress were identified and examined. The Frederick Reaction Index-Adult (FRI-A) was used to measure the presence of symptoms characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder. EMTs who had the opportunity to participate in Critical Incident Stress Debriefings (n = 42) following the incident reported fewer symptoms and scored significantly lower on the FRI-A than those not participating in Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (n = 23).

  5. Understanding the socio-demographic and climate impacts on total and landscape water use in the City of Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization has environmental impacts that modify ecosystem services associated with vegetation. Semi-arid urban forests also have costs related to irrigation that are difficult to evaluate. In the face of climate change and population growth, quantifying and predicting ecosystems costs and benefits are important and challenging. In urban areas, residential water consumption includes both domestic needs and landscaping irrigation, yet accurate partitioning of each of these uses is rare in most environments. The goal of the current research is to quantify outdoor landscape water use in order to have a better understanding of urban water footprints and the dynamics of water consumption patterns within semi-arid cities. Data is being collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) to evaluate household water use by ZIP code and by census tract. Neighborhoods were selected to represent city characteristics based on socio-demographic factors such as density, ethnicity, income level, education level and housing types. Initial studies are focusing on the correlation between residential water use and socio-demographic factors at the ZIP code level inside each neighborhood over the 2000-2010 period. Other variables predicting water use include climate variability and vegetation type. As expected, monthly water use patterns follow seasonal temperature and precipitation variability across the study neighborhoods. Results also show that education, ethnicity, per capita income, and the number of persons per household are linearly related to water use per capita and per area. A positive correlation is also observed between landscape area, vegetation indices and outdoor water use. A multiple regression model is developed that integrates these fundamental factors controlling indoor and outdoor water use across the region. Estimates of urban landscape water use will ultimately be compared to a remotely-sensed evapotranspiration model with high spatial (250 m

  6. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic processes on the Los Angeles Basin with an integrated high-resolution hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, B.; Hogue, T. S.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing importance of sustainable urban water use practices globally has motivated the creation of various conservation and management schemes. However, many of the operational and management models used to inform these policies do not simulate the hydrologic system holistically. Anthropogenic fluxes and changes to the hydrologic cycle are known to have significant and interacting impacts on the hydrologic system as a whole; however, only recently has the hydrologic community been able to quantify the effects and understand their behavior. At regional scales in humid cities, infrastructure leakage has an overwhelming impact on subsurface storage change. In semi-arid cities, both the large amount of water importation and the natural hydrometerological regime are particularly important drivers of land surface processes. This work seeks to understand the relative importance of land cover change, unmanaged infrastructure recharge, and urban irrigation on the hydrologic fluxes of urban semi-arid regions. To assess the impacts of these changes we utilize an integrated hydrologic model (ParFlow) coupled to a land surface model (CLM) to simulate Ballona Creek watershed and the underlying groundwater system in Los Angeles, CA. All simulations are conducted at a very high (30-m) spatial resolution over the watershed, a 388-km2 (150 sq. mi.) domain, and modeled over a 2-year period at an hourly timestep. The following model simulations are used to study anthropogenic impacts to the semi-arid urban water cycle: (1) a "naturalized" hydrologic simulation with no anthropogenic inputs and no land-surface feedbacks; (2) a hydrologic simulation with current imperviousness levels; (3) a simulation with the inclusion of urban land use/land cover features to assess their impacts; (4) using the model developed in 3, we evaluate the impact of infrastructure leakage; (5) using the model developed in 3, we assess the effects of the urban irrigation flux; (6) finally, we simulate the

  7. Profile of Children Entering Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP), Fall 2007. First 5 LA Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study (UPCOS). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) is working to make high-quality voluntary preschool universally accessible to every 4-year-old in Los Angeles County by building upon the existing early care and education system. This brief provides a snapshot of children and families participating in LAUP center-based programs in the fall of 2007, at the…

  8. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A... events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  9. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  10. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  11. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  12. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15 to the... Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  13. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A... events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  14. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  15. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  16. Measurements of the impact of atmospheric aging on physical and optical properties of ambient black carbon particles in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasowsky, Trevor S.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Wang, Dongbin; Sioutas, Constantinos; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-10-01

    . Comparing f with the photochemical age (PCA) of sampled air showed increases in f as PCA increases; the mean value (±95% confidence interval) of f for PCA < 1 h was 0.037 ± 0.004, while that for PCA > 3 h was 0.12 ± 0.04. This suggests that even in winter, photochemistry in urban environments can lead to increased thickly coated BC particles. The mean (±95% confidence interval) enhancement in mass absorption cross-section (MAC) due to coatings on BC for our wintertime measurements in urban Los Angeles was found to be 1.03 ± 0.05. Comparisons to other studies that measure enhancement of MAC are presented.

  17. Violence and Intimidation: Rising Bigotry toward Arabs and Muslims. Report on a Public Hearing by the Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations (Los Angeles, California, March 14, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carole

    Responding to a rise in hate crimes directed toward persons of Arab descent and Muslims before and during the Gulf War, the Los Angeles County (California) Commission on Human Relations held a hearing. The commission heard presentations by representatives of the Arab and Muslim communities, law enforcement, schools, and social science, and…

  18. Age and tectonic significance of volcanic rocks in the northern Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Fleck, Robert J.; Denison, Rodger E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic rocks, mostly basalts and some andesites, are interbedded with middle Miocene strata and are overlain by younger rocks throughout the greater part of the Los Angeles Basin, California. Roughly correlative flows, previously dated radiometrically (or paleontologically) at about 16.4 to 10.7 Ma, crop out in five separate regions around the basin perimeter. Los Angeles Basin volcanic rocks have special meaning because they offer clues to tectonomagmatic events associated with onset of clockwise transrotation of the western Transverse Ranges region and to the timing and locus of the initial basin opening. Whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of near-tholeiitic olivine basalts of the Topanga Formation (Hoots, 1931) from three sites in the easternmost Santa Monica Mountains, combined with 87Sr/86Sr dating of fossil carbonates from interstratified marine beds at nine sites, establish a new age of 17.4 Ma for these oldest known Topanga-age volcanics of the Los Angeles Basin. We also record three new 40Ar/39Ar ages (15.3 Ma) from andesitic flows of the lower Glendora Volcanics at the northeast edge of the basin, 70 km east of the Santa Monica Mountains. A whole-rock determination of 17.2±0.5 Ma for nearby altered olivine basalt in the unfossiliferous Glendora volcanic sequence is questionable because of a complex 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum suggestive of 39Ar recoil, but it may indicate an older volcanic unit in this eastern area. We hypothesize that the 17.4-Ma volcanics in the eastern Santa Monica Mountains are an early expression of deep crustal magmatism accompanying the earliest extensional tectonism associated with rifting. The extremely thick younger volcanic pile in the western and central parts of the range may suggest that this early igneous activity in the eastern area was premonitory. Paleomagnetic declination data are needed to determine the pre-transrotational orientation of the eastern Santa Monica Mountains volcanic sequence. The new age determinations do not

  19. Relationship between Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutilová, Kateřina; Prikryl, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Various volcanic rocks contribute significantly to the production of crushed stone in the Czech Republic. When used for road surfacing, results of Los Angeles attrition test (LA value below 25 or 30 depending on the mode of use) together with polished stone value are required. In the recent study, we have focused on the search for possible correlation between results obtained by Los Angeles attrition test and Nordic abrasion test, a test widely employed in Scandinavia. For the experimental study, a set of volcanic rocks from 36 active quarries was used. The rocks under study represent range of volcanic rocks from ultrabasic to acid members, formed form Neoproterozoic to Tertiary. The most favourable results of Los Angeles attrition test (i.e. the lowest LA values) were obtained for basalts (range of values 9.4-19.4) and spilites (range of values 8.4-14.9) which are in fact Neoproterozoic to Late Palaeozoic basalts affected by low grade metamorphism. Nordic abrasion test exhibited much broader range of values (6.4 to 36.9) with average value at 15.2 for basalts, resulting in weak coefficient of determination (0.19). . On contrary, narrow range of values from Nordic abrasion test of spilites (7.2-15.9), very similar to the range of LA values, is reflect in higher coefficient of determination (0.56). On contrary, the least favourable properties (LA values 12.3-29.2, Nordic abrasion 16.8-43.3) have been observed for a group of basic to intermediate rocks classified in older literature as melaphyres and diabases (ranging from basalts to trachyndesites and/or trachybasalts) of Palaeozoic age. However, in this specific group of volcanic rocks, the highest coefficient of determination (0.89) between both tests has been achieved. For volcanic rocks exhibiting acid composition (rhyolites and quartz porphyry), coefficient of determination between LA values (15.1-19.3) and Nordic abrasion test (7.3-21.9) is weak (0.42). The weakest relationship between LA values (14

  20. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  1. Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies: Phase III--Center-Taxiway Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.

  2. Air pollution and morbidity: a further analysis of the Los Angeles student nurses data

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Hasselblad, V.; Pitcher, H.

    1988-02-01

    Hammer et al. analyzed daily diary reports of headache, eye irritation, cough, and chest discomfort in a study of Los Angeles student nurses, and found a statistically significant association between these symptoms and daily maximum one-hour oxidant concentrations at a nearby air quality monitor. Our analysis examines the student nurse data for the possible significance of other pollutants. We used new model specifications designed to account for the probabilistic nature of the outcome variables, and to allow for complications arising from the time series aspects of the data. We replicated the finding of a significant relationship between oxidants and coughing and eye irritation, and also found that; carbon monoxide was significantly related to headache symptoms; nitrogen dioxide was significantly related to eye irritation; and sulfur dioxide was significantly related to chest discomfort.

  3. Unequal Protection: Secondhand Smoke Threatens Health of Tenants in Multi-Unit Housing in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Rahman, Tamanna; Hanaya, Daniel; Lam, Vanessa; Gomez, Marlene; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke is dangerous to a person's health at any level of exposure. Yet policies that prevent smoking are not in place for a majority of market-rate multi-unit housing complexes, according to a new survey of nearly 1,000 apartment dwellers in the city of Los Angeles. Approximately 37 percent of respondents reported that secondhand smoke had drifted into their apartments in the past year. Households with members of vulnerable populations, such as children or individuals with chronic conditions, are more likely to report smoke drifting from adjacent units. Four out of five respondents--including more than half of those who self-reported currently smoking--supported a smoke-free policy in common areas and/or individual units.

  4. Methane emissions from the 2015 Aliso Canyon blowout in Los Angeles, CA.

    PubMed

    Conley, S; Franco, G; Faloona, I; Blake, D R; Peischl, J; Ryerson, T B

    2016-03-18

    Single-point failures of natural gas infrastructure can hamper methane emission control strategies designed to mitigate climate change. The 23 October 2015 blowout of a well connected to the Aliso Canyon underground storage facility in California resulted in a massive release of natural gas. Analysis of methane and ethane data from dozens of plume transects, collected during 13 research-aircraft flights between 7 November 2015 and 13 February 2016, shows atmospheric leak rates of up to 60 metric tons of methane and 4.5 metric tons of ethane per hour. At its peak, this blowout effectively doubled the methane emission rate of the entire Los Angeles basin and, in total, released 97,100 metric tons of methane to the atmosphere. PMID:26917596

  5. Amplification of long period ground motion by the Los Angeles basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Paul

    Empirically derived ground motion amplification in the Los Angeles Basin is presented. Data obtained from 15 separate seismic networks in southern California from events recorded between 1998 and 2009 are used to determine spectral response as a function of both basin depth and period. The response associated with basin depth, defined by the 1.0 km/s S-wave velocity isosurface, increases monotonically with depth for the horizontal component, and nearly monotonically for the vertical component for each oscillator period. This trend is similar for the 2.5 km/s S-wave velocity isosurface, though less smooth, especially when data is processed in smaller bins (500m). These results show consistency with amplifications derived from synthetic data in earlier studies. Additionally, amplification factors are similar to previous empirical studies, ranging from roughly 3.8 for the vertical component to about 4.2 for the horizontal component.

  6. Unequal Protection: Secondhand Smoke Threatens Health of Tenants in Multi-Unit Housing in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Rahman, Tamanna; Hanaya, Daniel; Lam, Vanessa; Gomez, Marlene; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke is dangerous to a person's health at any level of exposure. Yet policies that prevent smoking are not in place for a majority of market-rate multi-unit housing complexes, according to a new survey of nearly 1,000 apartment dwellers in the city of Los Angeles. Approximately 37 percent of respondents reported that secondhand smoke had drifted into their apartments in the past year. Households with members of vulnerable populations, such as children or individuals with chronic conditions, are more likely to report smoke drifting from adjacent units. Four out of five respondents--including more than half of those who self-reported currently smoking--supported a smoke-free policy in common areas and/or individual units. PMID:27197310

  7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION AT CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES

    SciTech Connect

    Blekhman, David

    2011-09-30

    California State University, Los Angeles, has partnered with the Department of Energy in addressing the workforce preparation and public education needs of the fuel cell industry and the US economy through a comprehensive set of curriculum development and training activities: * Developing and offering several courses in fuel cell technologies, hydrogen and alternative fuels production, alternative and renewable energy technologies as means of zero emissions hydrogen economy, and sustainable environment. * Establishing a zero emissions PEM fuel cell and hydrogen laboratory supporting curriculum and graduate students teaching and research experiences. * Providing engaging capstone projects for multi-disciplinary teams of senior undergraduate students. * Fostering partnerships with automotive OEMs and energy providers. * Organizing and participating in synergistic projects and activities that grow the program and assure its sustainability.

  8. Measles surveillance in five major US cities: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Maureen; Alexopoulos, Nicole; Diaz, Pamela; Kellachan, Jacqueline; Lowrey, Mary Jane; Shelton, Barbara; Harpaz, Rafael; Papania, Mark J

    2004-05-01

    Endemic measles, if it occurs in the United States, will likely be found in cities, because large populations are required to sustain transmission and importations of measles virus are most frequent in cities. We investigated measles surveillance systems in 5 cities (Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City) during 1995-1999. The passive reporting of a measles case activated the systems to look for more cases and to intervene to prevent more cases. During 1995-1999, 1363 suspected measles cases were investigated. Only 58 of these were confirmed as measles (0.24 cases/100000 people), and the majority (57%) of confirmed cases were imported or linked to an importation. Most (83%) suspected cases that met the case definition had a complete case investigation, including a laboratory test for measles. We conclude that surveillance in these 5 cities shows no evidence of endemic measles transmission.

  9. Diurnal tracking of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles basin megacity during spring, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.; Xu, X.; Haman, C. L.; Lefer, B.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglueck, B.; Kort, E. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Peischl, J.; Gurney, K. R.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.

    2012-02-01

    Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May-15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varying anthropogenic component of observed CO2 in the megacity of Los Angeles (LA). This affordable and simple technique, validated by carbon isotope observations, is shown to robustly attribute observed CO2 variation to anthropogenic or biogenic origin. During CalNex-LA, local fossil fuel combustion contributed up to ~50 % of the observed CO2 enhancement overnight, and ~100 % during midday. This suggests midday column observations over LA, such as those made by satellites relying on reflected sunlight, can be used to track anthropogenic emissions.

  10. Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

  11. Quantitative x-ray diffraction mineralogy of Los Angeles basin core samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Edwards, Brian D.; Lakota, Orion I.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of mineralogy for 81 sediment samples from cores taken from three drill holes in the Los Angeles Basin in 2000-2001. We analyzed 26 samples from Pier F core, 29 from Pier C core, and 26 from the Webster core. These three sites provide an offshore-onshore record across the Southern California coastal zone. This report is designed to be a data repository; these data will be used in further studies, including geochemical modeling as part of the CABRILLO project. Summary tables quantify the major mineral groups, whereas detailed mineralogy is presented in three appendices. The rationale, methodology, and techniques are described in the following paper.

  12. Evaluation of lead levels in children living near a Los Angeles county battery recycling facility.

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, A R; Dominguez, A; Flessel, P

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between environmental lead measurements surrounding a Los Angeles County battery recycling facility and the blood lead levels of the children living nearby. Environmental lead measurements and blood lead levels of young children living in a community adjacent to a stationary lead source were compared to those living in a community without a stationary lead source. Predictors of blood lead level were identified. The blood lead levels of the children living near the secondary lead smelter were within the normal range (< 5 micrograms/dl). The absence of ground cover was associated with slightly increased blood lead levels; however, this increase was not of biological significance. Lead levels in surface soil near the stationary lead source were elevated compared to the control community; however, the soil affected community, which may be due in part to controls recently installed at the stationary lead source. PMID:8919770

  13. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.L.; Shaw, J.H.; Dolan, J.F.; Christofferson, S.A.; Williams, R.A.; Odum, J.K.; Plesch, A.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (<600 m) above two segments of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  14. Earthquakes in the Los Angeles metropolitan region: A possible fractal distribution of rupture size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is debate on the maximum size of earthquake that is possible on any of several known fault systems in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan region, it is reasonable to assume that the distribution of earthquakes will follow a fractal distribution of rupture areas. For this assumption and an overall slip-rate for the region of approximately 1 centimeter per year, roughly one magnitude 7.4 to 7.5 event is expected to occur ever 245 to 325 years. A model in which the earthquake distribution is fractal predicts that additionally, there should be approximately six events in the range of magnitude 6.6 in this same span of time, a higher rate than has occurred in the historic record.

  15. A critical assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, F.P.; Chang, H.-C.; Keeley, J.E.; Pompa, J.; Woods, J.; Xu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Burning Index (BI) is commonly used as a predictor of wildfire activity. An examination of data on the BI and wildfires in Los Angeles County, California, from January 1976 to December 2000 reveals that although the BI is positively associated with wildfire occurrence, its predictive value is quite limited. Wind speed alone has a higher correlation with burn area than BI, for instance, and a simple alternative point process model using wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation and temperature well outperforms the BI in terms of predictive power. The BI is generally far too high in winter and too low in fall, and may exaggerate the impact of individual variables such as wind speed or temperature during times when other variables, such as precipitation or relative humidity, render the environment ill suited for wildfires. ?? IAWF 2007.

  16. Role of a psychiatric pharmacist in a Los Angeles "Skid-Row" safety-net clinic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Indriani; Dopheide, Julie Ann; Gregerson, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Limited access to a psychiatrist prompted a collaborative practice agreement between a psychiatric pharmacist, a psychiatric pharmacy resident, and primary care physicians at the Center for Community Health, a safety-net clinic providing comprehensive care to the homeless in Skid Row, Los Angeles, CA, USA. From July 2009 to February 2010, 36 (75%) of the 48 patients referred to the psychiatric pharmacy resident met the criteria for the chart review. Twenty-six (54%) were seen for regular follow-up care over 7 months. Most referrals were for depression, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The types of drug therapy problems, pharmacist interventions, and clinical mental health outcomes are discussed. PMID:21512832

  17. Community characteristics and violence against homeless women in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Kevin C; Robinson, Paul Langham; Baker, Richard S; Gelberg, Lillian

    2007-02-01

    Research on violence against homeless women has focused mainly on individual rather than community-level risk factors. Using an ecological conceptual framework, we estimated the independent association of community characteristics with sexual and physical assault in a probability sample of 974 homeless women. Participants were interviewed at 66 assistance programs in Los Angeles County, California in 1997. Individual responses were linked to community-level data from land use files and the U.S. Census by the facility ZIP codes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that women using service providers in closer proximity to Skid Row had higher odds of physical assault (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.03, 2.14). A number of individual characteristics were also associated with violent victimization. To reduce violence against homeless women, ensuring the safety of locations for shelters and other assistance programs should be a planning priority for local housing authorities. PMID:17337808

  18. Strengthening Families and Communities to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect: Lessons from the Los Angeles Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Pecora, Peter J.; Franke, Todd; Christie, Christina A.; Lothridge, Jaymie

    2012-01-01

    The Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project, funded by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS), is a community-specific strategy delivered through eight regional networks designed to address the full spectrum of community-based prevention. This article summarizes a strong and meaningful pattern of improvements…

  19. Network Correlates of Sexual Health Advice Seeking and Substance Use among Members of the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Wong, Carolyn F.; Dunlap, Shannon L.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants…

  20. An examination of the relationship between neighborhood income inequality, social resources, and obesity in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study examines whether local income inequality is associated with an increased likelihood of obesity among Los Angeles County residents and whether collective efficacy mediates the relationship. DESIGN. A cross-sectional study of 2875 adults in 65 neighborhoods that took part in wave 1 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey in 2000-2001. Neighborhood measures are taken from the Los Angeles Neighborhood Services and Characteristics Database and decennial census. MEASURES. Obesity is defined as a body mass index over 30. Income inequality is operationalized with the Gini coefficient. Collective efficacy is a neighborhood-level measure comprised of aggregated responses to items that capture trust, cohesion, and the willingness to intervene for the common good among residents. Controls are included at the individual level for demographics and health characteristics, and at the neighborhood level for median household income. ANALYSIS. Logistic regression models of individuals within neighborhoods. RESULTS. When neighborhood economic well-being is controlled, income inequality is associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of obesity while also controlling for individual demographic and health-related characteristics. Collective efficacy exerts an independent and beneficial effect but does not mediate the relationship between inequality and obesity. CONCLUSION. Neighborhood social resources and economic heterogeneity are associated with a lower likelihood of obesity. It may be that economically heterogeneous neighborhoods, perhaps especially in Los Angeles County, contain characteristics that promote health.

  1. The 200-Day Calendar Initiative in the Archdiocese of Los Angeles: Three Schools' Decision to Break the Mold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, Anthony; Huchting, Karen; Dell'Olio, Franca

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated the decision-making process utilized by three elementary schools in adopting the 200-day calendar initiative in the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. The schools in the study represented three distinct sets of demographics focusing primarily on high, middle, and low socioeconomic characteristics, as reported by the…

  2. Hate Crime in the 1980's: A Decade of Bigotry. A Report to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Bunny Nightwalker

    A report on hate-crimes in the 1980s in Los Angeles County (California) found that these acts had increased in number. Hate crimes are defined as criminal acts directed at an individual, institution, or business expressly because of race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation. Over the period 1980 to 1989, religiously motivated hate crimes…

  3. The Effectiveness of the Los Angeles County School-Based Probation Program: High School Administrators' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rickey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The Los Angeles County Probation Department is currently receives millions of dollars through the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act to fund deputy probation officers (DPOs) on high school campuses who provide services to increase student attendance, decrease student behavioral infractions, and decrease student recidivism. The purpose…

  4. Did the San Gabriel Mountains once floor the Los Angeles basin : Evidence from a Late Cenozoic magmatic event

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, G.B. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Nourse, J.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    A series of Late Cenozoic dikes intrude the crystalline basement complex of the San Gabriel Mountains. The dikes range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. Rocks of andesite composition are dominant. Cross-cutting relationships consistently show that the less abundant, high-silica units were emplaced during two or more initial pulses of magmatic activity. This was followed by at least four additional pulses of increasingly quartz-poor magma. The nature of the contacts between the dikes and their host suggest that the dikes were emplaced during progressive unroofing of the San Gabriel Mountains basement complex. In the northeastern corner of the Los Angeles basin, units within the Glendora Volcanics (Shelton, 1955) share many compositional and spatial characteristics with the dikes in the San Gabriel Mountains. The dikes may have served as mid-crustal conduits which fed the overlying Glendora Volcanics during widespread magmatism that accompanied the extensional opening of the Los Angeles basin sphenochasm (Luyendyk, 1991; Wright, 1991). The authors believe that the crystalline basement complex now exposed in the San Gabriel Mountains once floored portions of the Los Angeles basin prior to Miocene extension and magmatism. They feel that unroofing was accomplished by low-angle normal faulting during the opening of the Los Angeles basin.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Nuclear "Weapons": A Survey of Registered Voters in Los Angeles County in 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierulff, Stephen; Zippin, David

    This study examines the relationship between knowledge and attitudes with respect to nuclear issues, including the nuclear freeze proposal, MX missle, and Strategic Defense Initiative. Adults (N=750) drawn from a list of registered voters in Los Angeles County were sent a 53-item questionnaire. Of the respondents, 64 percent were male, 53 percent…

  6. The Impact of Turnaround Reform on Student Outcomes: Evidence and Insights from the Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Marsh, Julie A.; Hashim, Ayesha K.; Bush-Mecenas, Susan; Weinstein, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    We examine the Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice Initiative (PSCI), which sought to turnaround the district's lowest-performing schools. We ask whether school turnaround impacted student outcomes, and what explains variations in outcomes across reform cohorts. We use a Comparative Interrupted Time Series approach using…

  7. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  8. An Inquiry Into Asian American Preschool Children and Families in Los Angeles. Asian American Education Project: Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kenyon S.; And Others

    This report presents the preliminary findings of an in-depth study of small samples of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, and Hawaiian children and their families living in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Children's learning characteristics and style as well as their socialization for schooling prior to their entry into formal public schools…

  9. Los Angeles County Steps to Excellence Project: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Los Angeles County's Steps to Excellence Project prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;…

  10. Framing Peace as Violence: Television News Depictions of the 2007 Police Attack on Immigrant Rights Marchers in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto; Lopez, Layza; Munguia, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines two successive days of U.S. television news coverage of the May 1, 2007, immigration rights rally in Los Angeles. As thousands of demonstrators appealed peacefully for comprehensive immigration policy reform, they were assailed by 450 police officers firing munitions and using truncheons. We evaluated fifty-one television news…

  11. The Consumption Trend and Subscription Factors of Ethnic Newspaper: A Study of Asian-Americans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Won Yong

    Focusing on the general consumption pattern of ethnic newspapers by Asian-Americans and the underlying attributes of that consumption, a study surveyed 406 randomly selected Asian-Americans (Koreans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos) in the Los Angeles area. The data were analyzed in terms of developmental trends of consumption by years of…

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  14. "Low Income"--Levels in the Jewish Population; The "Jewish Poor" in Los Angeles. A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarik, Fred

    The concept "Jewish Poor" is defined simply as Jewish households (viz. households containing one or more persons defined as Jewish) whose total household cash income (1969, comparable to U.S. Census) was under 4000 dollars. The data were obtained from four sources: (1) analysis of "Jewish Poor" drawn from Los Angeles phase of National Jewish…

  15. Body Image of Dancers in Los Angeles: The Cult of Slenderness and Media Influence among Dance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiland, Teresa L.; Murray, Darrin S.; Edley, Paige P.

    2008-01-01

    Body image and self-esteem are examined through personal stories among Los Angeles college dancers who grew up in the Hollywood culture of the cult of slenderness. The study incorporates a body image survey, eating disorder screen, and an interview process capturing dancers' lived experiences with daily pressures. Dancers reveal their experiences…

  16. 76 FR 36955 - West Los Angeles VA Medical Center Veterans Programs Enhancement Act of 1998; Master Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... homeless veterans, especially those coping with mental health problems such as PTSD. The WLA campus is a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS West Los Angeles VA Medical Center Veterans Programs Enhancement Act of 1998; Master Plan...

  17. How Are Immigrants Faring after Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Ku, Leighton; Fix, Michael; Furgiuele, Chris; Passel, Jeff; Ramchand, Rajeev; McNiven, Scott; Perez-Lopez, Dan; Fielder, Eve; Greenwell, Michael; Hays, Tonya

    In 1999 and 2000, immigrants in Los Angeles, California, and New York, New York were aurveyed about their status in the context of welfare reform, examining the living conditions of 3,447 immigrant families roughly 3 years after welfare reform was implemented and several months before the federal government issued guidance about the public charge…

  18. Science Courses Participated in and Completed by Students at Each of the Colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jack

    The transcripts of 8,873 students, representing 7% of the enrollments in the Los Angeles Community College District, were examined to determine course participation and completion rates in science. Six curricular areas were investigated: (1) agriculture; (2) biological sciences; (3) engineering; (4) mathematics and computer science; (5) physical…

  19. Immigration and the Challenge of Education: A Social Drama Analysis in South Central Los Angeles. Education, Politics and Public Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Nathalia E.

    2012-01-01

    Part enthnograpy and part testimony, this book analyzes a school setting and community from the standpoint of a group of immigrant mothers (las madres) in South Central Los Angeles who were concerned about the education of their children and the violence in their communities. Written in both the first and third person, in Spanish and English, the…

  20. Trends in Los Angeles City College Day Course Enrollments, 1970-1974. Research Study No. 75-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    To identify discernible trends in day class enrollments, and thus assist in curriculum and course planning, detailed class enrollments for Los Angeles City College day classes were compiled over a five-year period. Over the period, total class enrollments decreased monotonically for the first four years, dropping in 1973 to about 90 percent of the…

  1. Repositioned Lives: Language, Ethnicity, and Narrative Identity among Chinese-Vietnamese Community College Students in Los Angeles' San Gabriel Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Russell Alan

    Chinese speakers from Vietnam are a distinctive but hidden ethnolinguistic minority group in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles. Many variables present barriers to their full participation in society from both the values and norms of dominant American society and non-Chinese co-nationals from Vietnam as well as higher status co-ethnics…

  2. Making Cultura Count inside and out of the Classroom: Public Art & Critical Pedagogy in South Central Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Luis-Genaro

    2012-01-01

    In this article, artist, educator, and activist Luis-Genaro Garcia describes the development and impact of the "May Day service learning project" on his advanced painting class in a high school in South Los Angeles. The project emerged from students' interests: their ideas, concerns for their community, socio-political consciousness, and…

  3. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES INVOLVED IN STIMULATING, DEVELOPING, AND IMPLEMENTING A CURRICULUM FOR LOW-ABILITY STUDENTS AT LOS ANGELES CITY COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POWELL, HOPE M.

    CALIFORNIA'S "OPEN-DOOR" POLICY HAS LED TO AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF LOW-ABILITY STUDENTS IN THE JUNIOR COLLEGES. IN SPRING, 1964, LOS ANGELES CITY COLLEGE BEGAN AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR 64 STUDENTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE 11TH PERCENTILE ON THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TESTS. FACULTY VOLUNTEERED THEIR SERVICES, AND AN INTEGRATED PROGRAM OF…

  5. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  6. 76 FR 14698 - Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of... Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Raleigh Film and... the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65512). The subject firm supplies sound...

  7. TREE-RING INDICES AND ISOTOPE SIGNATURES OF PINUS PONDEROSA RELATED TO HISTORIC OZONE CHANGES OUTSIDE LOS ANGELES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone concentrations in the Los Angeles (LA) basin were at historic highs in the late 1970s. Since that time Clean Air regulations have helped lower ozone, but little is known of the long-term vegetation responses. Extensive research has used tree-ring indices together with the...

  8. An exploration of the gateway math and science course relationships in the Los Angeles Community College District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Donald G.

    This study evaluated selected demographic, pre-enrollment, and economic status variables in comparison to college-level performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios for gateway math and science courses. The Transfer and Retention of Urban Community College Students (TRUCCS) project team collected survey and enrollment data for this study in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). The TRUCCS team surveyed over 5,000 students within the nine campus district beginning in the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001 with follow-up data for next several years. This study focused on the math and science courses; established background demographics; evaluated pre-enrollment high school self-reported grades; reviewed high school and college level math courses taken; investigated specific gateway courses of biology, chemistry and physics; and compared them to the overall GPAs and course completion ratios for 4,698 students. This involved the SPSS development of numerous statistical products including the data from frequency distributions, means, cross-tabulations, group statistics t-tests, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed demographic and economic relationships of significance for students' performance factors of GPA and course completion ratios. Furthermore, findings revealed significant differences between the gender, age, ethnicity and economic employment relationships. Conclusions and implications for institutions of higher education were documented. Recommendations for dissemination, intervention programs, and future research were also discussed.

  9. CicLAvia: Evaluation of participation, physical activity and cost of an open streets event in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn P; Williamson, Stephanie; Paley, Aaron; Batteate, Christina

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial for health, but there are limited opportunities in urban areas to safely access public streets for traffic-free cycling, skating or walking. Ciclovías are open streets programs that close major roads to motor vehicles so they can be exclusively used by bicyclists and pedestrians. We estimated participation in one Los Angeles Ciclovía event (CicLAvia) using intercept surveys and 14 surveillance cameras which were placed along the 6-mile route in April 2014. We also applied estimates of the distance and speed traveled from the use of GPS data acquired from subsequent CicLAvia events. CicLAvia attracted between 37,700 and 53,950 active participants generating 176,500 to 263,000 MET-hours of energy expenditure, at an estimated cost borne by tax dollars of $1.29 to $1.91 per MET-hour. Among participants, 37% had never previously participated in CicLAvia, but 40% of individuals said that if they were not at CicLAvia they would have been physically active elsewhere and 45% would have been sedentary. Given its large reach, it makes sense to increase the frequency of Ciclovías to occur more than a few times a year to promote population health. PMID:27317978

  10. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering in Mexico City: Comparison With Las Vegas, NV, and Los Angeles, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The primary site in Mexico City was an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP). Similar campaigns were held in Las Vegas, NV in January-February, 2003; and Los Angeles, CA at numerous sites during all seasons from 2003 through 2007. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions. The photoacoustic instrument (PAS) used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In Mexico City the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of Mexico City resulted in more direct solar radiation. Further insight on the meteorological connections and population dynamics will be discussed.

  11. Area use and movements of the white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors.

    PubMed

    Farris, Michael; Ahr, Bonnie; Lowe, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the movements of fish in relation to areas of contaminated and urbanized habitats is crucial to fisheries management and habitat remediation. In this study, the movements of white croaker in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors were examined using both active and passive acoustic telemetry tracking. Daily area use for 20 fish actively tracked over multiple days averaged 94,720 ± 78,720 m(2) (±SD), with daily activity spaces shifting over periods of up to 1 month. Long-term dispersal (up to 7 months) of 93 passively tracked white croaker followed significantly non-random patterns, with 55 individuals (59.1%) making inter-regional Harbor movements. Inter-regional movements took an average of 4.7 ± 4.1 weeks to complete. Dispersal was significantly faster than what was predicted by an individual-based random walk model generated from short-term white croaker movements recorded during active tracking within the Harbor. Longer-term dispersal is likely the result of intentional movements between patches of favorable habitat rather than random daily shifts in activity spaces, indicating that white croaker deliberately utilize different areas within the Harbor and over the course of a year utilize much of the favorable Harbor habitat. PMID:27552120

  12. Disparities in detection and treatment history among mothers with major depression in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Griffin, Beth Ann; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study's goal was to determine disparities in detection and treatment histories among a group of racial and ethnically diverse mothers with major depression. Methods Our sample included 276 racially and ethnically diverse mothers who participated in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) and who were classified with major depression based on the Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview -Short Form (CIDI-SF). We used logistic regression to assess the association between demographic factors and previous detection with major depression, mental health specialty use, and the use of a primary care physician among these women. The demographic factors examined included race and ethnicity, immigration status, marital status, education, income, body mass index (BMI), maternal age, number of children, children's ages, history of emotional problems, and history of diabetes. Results Results indicated that 69 percent of mothers had not been previously detected with major depression nor had they sought mental health treatment in the 12 months prior to the interview. The odds of having been previously detected with major depression were significantly higher among white and single mothers, as well as among mothers with higher BMIs and those with a history of emotional problems. Non-immigrant mothers without emotional problems had higher odds of having seen a mental health specialist in the 12 months prior to the interview compared to immigrant mothers without emotional problems; no differences in mental health treatment were found between non-immigrant and immigrant mothers with emotional problems. Finally, African-American mothers and those with a history of diabetes had significantly higher odds of seeing a primary care physician compared to Hispanic mothers and those with no history of diabetes, respectively. Conclusion Our analyses of a population of depressed mothers living in Los Angeles highlight the need for detection and treatment

  13. Using Arc/Info GIS to help implement the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater permit for Los Angeles County

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Pace, P.J.; Woods, J.A.; DePoto, W.

    1997-06-01

    One of Los Angeles County Department of Public Works` many responsibilities is to manage non-point pollution that enters the storm drain network within Los Angeles County. The management of this non-point source pollution is mandated by the NPDES guidelines under the Federal Clean Water Act. These guidelines require the County to monitor the drainage network and the storm water and urban runoff flowing through it. The County covers over 3,117 square miles, with the NPDES Permit covering over 3,100 square miles and over 2500 miles of storm drains. A proposed solution to monitor and manage this vast geographic area is centered upon an Arc/Info GIS. Some of the many concerns which need to be addressed include the administration and evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMP`s), storm drain inspection for illegal connections and illicit discharges, and pollutant load assessment and modeling. The storm drain network and other coverages will be related to external data bases currently used for facility management and planning. This system would be used for query purposes to perform spatial modeling and {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} scenarios needed to create maps and reports required by the permit and to evaluate various BMP implementation strategies.

  14. Increases in the climate change adaption effectiveness and availability of vegetation across a coastal to desert climate gradient in metropolitan Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Tayyebi, Amin; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization has increased heat in the urban environment, with many consequences for human health and well-being. Managing climate change in part through increasing vegetation is desired by many cities to mitigate current and future heat related issues. However, little information is available on what influences the current effectiveness and availability of vegetation for local cooling. In this study, we identified the variation in the interacting relationships among vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index), socioeconomic status (neighborhood income), elevation and land surface temperature (LST) to identify how vegetation based surface cooling services change throughout the pronounced coastal to desert climate gradient of the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan region, a megacity of >18 million residents. A key challenge for understanding variation in vegetation as a climate change adaptation tool spanning neighborhood to megacity scales is developing new "big data" analytical tools. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among socio-economic status data obtained from government census data, elevation and new LST and vegetation data obtained from an airborne imaging campaign conducted in 2013 for the urban and suburban areas across a series of fifteen climate zones. Vegetation systematically increased in cooling effectiveness from 6.06 to 31.77 degrees with increasing distance from the coast. Vegetation and neighborhood income were positively correlated throughout all climate zones with a peak in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of the interaction between these two relationships, we also found that higher income neighborhoods were cooler and that this effect peaked at about 30km from the coast. These results show the availability and effectiveness of vegetation on the local climate varies tremendously throughout the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. Further, using the more inland climate

  15. Increases in the climate change adaption effectiveness and availability of vegetation across a coastal to desert climate gradient in metropolitan Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Tayyebi, Amin; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization has increased heat in the urban environment, with many consequences for human health and well-being. Managing climate change in part through increasing vegetation is desired by many cities to mitigate current and future heat related issues. However, little information is available on what influences the current effectiveness and availability of vegetation for local cooling. In this study, we identified the variation in the interacting relationships among vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index), socioeconomic status (neighborhood income), elevation and land surface temperature (LST) to identify how vegetation based surface cooling services change throughout the pronounced coastal to desert climate gradient of the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan region, a megacity of >18 million residents. A key challenge for understanding variation in vegetation as a climate change adaptation tool spanning neighborhood to megacity scales is developing new "big data" analytical tools. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among socio-economic status data obtained from government census data, elevation and new LST and vegetation data obtained from an airborne imaging campaign conducted in 2013 for the urban and suburban areas across a series of fifteen climate zones. Vegetation systematically increased in cooling effectiveness from 6.06 to 31.77 degrees with increasing distance from the coast. Vegetation and neighborhood income were positively correlated throughout all climate zones with a peak in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of the interaction between these two relationships, we also found that higher income neighborhoods were cooler and that this effect peaked at about 30km from the coast. These results show the availability and effectiveness of vegetation on the local climate varies tremendously throughout the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. Further, using the more inland climate

  16. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near-infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space- and time-resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high-sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer-tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39 ± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-61% larger than the

  17. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space and time resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer : tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-6% larger than the

  18. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    Potentially destructive earthquakes are inevitable in the Los Angeles region of California, but hazards prediction can provide a basis for reducing damage and loss. This volume identifies the principal geologically controlled earthquake hazards of the region (surface faulting, strong shaking, ground failure, and tsunamis), summarizes methods for characterizing their extent and severity, and suggests opportunities for their reduction. Two systems of active faults generate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: northwest-trending, chiefly horizontal-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, and west-trending, chiefly vertical-slip faults, such as those of the Transverse Ranges. Faults in these two systems have produced more than 40 damaging earthquakes since 1800. Ninety-five faults have slipped in late Quaternary time (approximately the past 750,000 yr) and are judged capable of generating future moderate to large earthquakes and displacing the ground surface. Average rates of late Quaternary slip or separation along these faults provide an index of their relative activity. The San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have slip rates measured in tens of millimeters per year, but most other faults have rates of about 1 mm/yr or less. Intermediate rates of as much as 6 mm/yr characterize a belt of Transverse Ranges faults that extends from near Santa Barbara to near San Bernardino. The dimensions of late Quaternary faults provide a basis for estimating the maximum sizes of likely future earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: moment magnitude .(M) 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the other northwest-trending elements of that fault system, and M 7.5 for the Transverse Ranges faults. Geologic and seismologic evidence along these faults, however, suggests that, for planning and designing noncritical facilities, appropriate sizes would be M 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the San Jacinto, M 6.5 for other northwest-trending faults, and M 6.5 to 7 for the Transverse Ranges faults. The

  19. Initial Results from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project: Exploring Spatial and Temporal Variability of the In Situ CO2 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Feng, S.; Kim, J.; Salameh, P.; Sloop, C.; Rao, P.; Hopkins, F. M.; Yadav, V.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Miller, J. B.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Megacities Carbon Project (megacities.jpl.nasa.gov) is a multi-national, multi-institution project aimed at quantifying multi-year carbon emissions trends from large urban areas. The Los Angeles Megacity greenhouse gas observation network includes fifteen surface in situ sites and was designed to capture spatial and temporal variability in carbon emissions across the South Coast Air Basin. The surface sites include a combination of towers and rooftops equipped with laser absorption spectrometers measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), with methane and carbon monoxide measurement capability at a subset of the sites. In this study, we report intial results from January-April 2015 collected at four tower sites: two "urban" sites, which predominantly exhibit urban CO2 enhancements, and two "background" sites, which are primarily influenced by unpolluted maritime or continental air masses and reflect local background CO2 levels. During January-April 2015, hourly-averaged in situ measurements ranged from roughly 395-650 ppm CO2, with the urban sites reflecting systematically higher CO2 levels compared to the background sites. The average CO2 enhancement observed at midday (12-4pm PST) ranged from 15-23 ppm CO2 excess at the urban sites, Compton and Granada Hills. The tower measurements also show diurnal, day of week, and monthly variability. Overall, the results from the in situ network are consistent with prior studies that utilized ground-based and space-based remote sensing data to demonstrate that the "urban CO2 dome" hypothesis applies to Los Angeles. The continuous measurement capability provided by the in situ network also highlights the fact that atmospheric CO2 enhancements vary in both space and time and are not uniform throughout the South Coast Air Basin. Future work will involve sectoral attribution of the emissions sources contributing to the urban CO2 enhancements using the Hestia high-resolution fossil fuel carbon emissions inventory. A forward model

  20. Near-surface location, geometry, and velocities of the Santa Monica Fault Zone, Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Okaya, D.; Rymer, M.J.; Bawden, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction imaging, combined with existing borehole, earthquake, and paleoseismic trenching data, suggest that the Santa Monica fault zone in Los Angeles consists of multiple strands from several kilometers depth to the near surface. We interpret our seismic data as showing two shallow-depth low-angle fault strands and multiple near-vertical (???85??) faults in the upper 100 m. One of the low-angle faults dips northward at about 28?? and approaches the surface at the base of a topographic scarp on the grounds of the Wadsworth VA Hospital (WVAH). The other principal low-angle fault dips northward at about 20?? and projects toward the surface about 200 m south of the topographic scarp, near the northernmost areas of the Los Angeles Basin that experienced strong shaking during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The 20?? north-dipping low-angle fault is also apparent on a previously published seismic-reflection image by Pratt et al. (1998) and appears to extend northward to at least Wilshire Boulevard, where the fault may be about 450 m below the surface. Slip rates determined at the WVAH site could be significantly underestimated if it is assumed that slip occurs only on a single strand of the Santa Monica fault or if it is assumed that the near-surface faults dip at angles greater than 20-28??. At the WVAH, tomographic velocity modeling shows a significant decrease in velocity across near-surface strands of the Santa Monica fault. P-wave velocities range from about 500 m/sec at the surface to about 4500 m/sec within the upper 50 m on the north side of the fault zone at WVAH, but maximum measured velocities on the south side of the low-angle fault zone at WVAH are about 3500 m/sec. These refraction velocities compare favorably with velocities measured in nearby boreholes by Gibbs et al. (2000). This study illustrates the utility of com- bined seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction methods, which allow more accurate

  1. LAPTAG: Los Angeles Physics Teachers Alliance Group and the UCLA Basic Plasma User Facility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter

    2001-10-01

    LAPTAG was founded in 1993 during a meeting sponsored by the APS, which encouraged high schools and Universities to form alliances. There are currently about twenty high schools, several community colleges and two Universities (UCLA and USC) involved. At first LAPTAG organized tours of laboratories at UCLA, USC, JPL, General Atomics and the Mt. Wilson Observatory and had meetings in which issues on curricula were discussed. It became obvious after awhile that in order for the group to last that projects were necessary. An early project involved having the high school faculty and students create Websites for most of the schools. This was before most the schools could afford Internet connections and Web authoring tools did not exist. Then with funding from the UC Office of the President, a seismology project was initiated and ten schools received seismometers. There were lectures by geologists and staff members of the Southern California Earthquake center; results were reported on the Web. In the spring of 1999 LAPTAG gave seven posters at the Condensed Matter APS meeting in Los Angeles. A web based astronomy course was created and high school students controlled the Mount Wilson telescope remotely and studied a variable star. Our latest project, funded by the Department of Energy resulted in the construction of a plasma lab dedicated to LAPTAG. The lab has equipment that is used by practicing plasma physicists (tone-burst generators, digital scopes, digital data acquisition and computerized probe drives) as well as software (LabView, PVwave). The high school students and teachers built the machine and all the associated diagnostics. Examples of the experiments will be given, however it is not a cookbook lab. As new experiments are introduced the same difficulties we all face must be overcome; the students take part in this. The LAPD laboratory is now a National User Facility and LAPTAG is a key component of its outreach program. We have met with the director of

  2. Does Preconception Health Differ by Nativity?: Findings from the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shin M.; Wakeel, Fathima; Nazinyan, Yeghishe; Sun, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare certain preconception health (PCH) behaviors and conditions among US-born (USB) and foreign-born (FB) mothers in Los Angeles County (LAC), regardless of race/ethnicity, and to determine if any identified differences vary among Asian/Pacific Islanders (API’s) and Hispanics. Methods Data are from the 2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (n=6,252). PCH behaviors included tobacco use, multivitamin use, unintended pregnancy, and contraception use. PCH conditions comprised being overweight/obese, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, gum disease, and anemia. The relationship between nativity and each PCH behavior/ condition was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Results USB women were more likely than FB women to smoke (AOR=2.12, 95% CI=1.49–3.00), be overweight/obese (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.30–1.90), and have asthma (AOR=2.04, 95% CI=1.35–3.09) prior to pregnancy. They were less likely than FB women to use contraception before pregnancy (AOR=0.59, 95% CI=0.49–0.72). USB Hispanics and API’s were more likely than their FB counterparts to be overweight/obese (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.23–2.01 and AOR=2.37, 95% CI=1.58–3.56, respectively) and less likely to use contraception (AOR=0.58, 95% CI=0.45–0.74 and AOR= 0.46, 95% CI=0.30–0.71, respectively). USB Hispanic mothers were more likely than their FB counterparts to smoke (AOR=2.47, 95% CI=1.46–4.17), not take multivitamins (AOR=1.30, 95% CI=1.02–1.66), and have asthma (AOR=2.35, 95% CI=1.32–4.21) before pregnancy. Conclusions US nativity is linked to negative PCH among LAC women, with many of these associations persisting among Hispanics and API’s. As PCH profoundly impacts maternal and child health across the lifecourse, culturally-appropriate interventions that maintain positive behaviors among FB reproductive-aged women and encourage positive behaviors among USB women should be pursued. PMID:26728899

  3. Repeated laboratory ozone exposures of volunteer Los Angeles residents: an apparent seasonal variation in response

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.; Valencia, L.M.; Little, D.E.; Hackney, J.D.

    1988-12-01

    This study was intended to help explain individual differences in susceptibility to irritant effects of ozone (O3), by determining whether prior ambient O3 exposures and/or recent acute respiratory illness modified response to laboratory O3 exposures. Response was measured in terms of lung function changes and irritant symptoms. Initially, 59 adult volunteer Los Angeles area residents underwent screening exposures in spring, before the season of frequent high ambient O3 levels. Unusually responsive and nonresponsive individuals (N = 12 and 13 respectively) underwent followup exposures in autumn (late in the high-O3 season) and in winter (low-O3 season). All exposures were to 0.18 ppm O3 for 2 hr with intermittent heavy exercise at 31 degrees C and 35% relative humidity. Nonresponders tended to remain nonresponsive throughout. In fall, responders had lost much of their reactivity, as if they had adapted to summer ambient O3 exposures. They did not regain reactivity by winter. Clinical laboratory findings suggestive of acute respiratory illness did not appear to correlate with O3 response. Eight responders and 9 nonresponders underwent another followup exposure in spring, about 1 yr after screening. By that time most responders had regained their reactivity; individual function changes were significantly correlated with changes 1 yr earlier. These results suggest that response to O3 is a persistent individual characteristic, but can be modified by repeated ambient exposures.

  4. Varicella hospitalizations in Los Angeles during the varicella vaccination era, 2003-2011: are they preventable?

    PubMed

    Agopian, Anya; Lopez, Adriana; Wilson, Dulmini; Peralta, Vi; El Amin, Alvin Nelson; Bialek, Stephanie

    2014-09-15

    Characteristics of varicella-related hospitalizations in the mature varicella vaccination era, including the proportion vaccinated and the severity of disease, are not well described. We present the vaccination status, severity and reasons for hospitalization of the hospitalized varicella cases reported to the Los Angeles County Health Department from 2003 to 2011, the period which includes the last 4 years of the mature one-dose program and the first 5 years after introduction of the routine two-dose program. A total of 158 hospitalized varicella cases were reported overall, of which 52.5% were potentially preventable and eligible for vaccination, 41.8% were not eligible for vaccination, and 5.7% were vaccinated. Most hospitalizations (72.2%) occurred among healthy persons, 54.4% occurred among persons ≥20 years of age, and 3.8% of hospitalizations resulted in death. Our data suggest that as many as half of the hospitalized varicella cases, including half of the deaths, may have been preventable given that they occurred in persons who were eligible for vaccination. More complete implementation of the routine varicella vaccination program could further reduce the disease burden of severe varicella.

  5. Availability of Tobacco and Alcohol Products in Los Angeles Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  6. Speed and Deceleration Trials of U.S.S. Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De France, S J; Burgess, C P

    1930-01-01

    The trials reported in this report were instigated by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department for the purpose of determining accurately the speed and resistance of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" with and without water recovery apparatus, and to clear up the apparent discrepancies between the speed attained in service and in the original trials in Germany. The trials proved very conclusively that the water recovery apparatus increases the resistance about 20 per cent, which is serious, and shows the importance of developing a type of recovery having less resistance. Between the American and the German speed trials without water recovery there remains an unexplained discrepancy of nearly 6 per cent in speed at a given rate of engine revolutions. Warping of the propeller blades and small cumulative errors of observation seem the most probable causes of the discrepancy. It was found that the customary resistance coefficients C, are 0.0242 and 0.0293 without and with the water recovery apparatus, respectively. The corresponding values of the propulsive coefficient K, are 56.7 and 44.6. If there is an error in these figures, it is probably in a slight overestimate of C, and an underestimate of K. The maximum errors are almost certainly less than 5 per cent. No scale effect was detected indicating variation of C with respect to velocity (author)

  7. Nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents from reclaimed water in groundwater, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Barber, L.B.; Schroeder, R.A.; Anders, R.; Davisson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents in reclaimed water (tertiary-treated municipal wastewater) before, during, and after recharge into groundwater at the Montebello Forebay in Los Angeles County, CA, was the focus of this study. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water from this site is primarily a mixture of aromatic sulfonates from anionic surfactant degradation, N-acetyl amino sugars and proteins from bacterial activity, and natural fulvic acid, whereas DOM from native groundwaters in the aquifer to which reclaimed water was recharged consists of natural fulvic acids. The hydrophilic neutral N-acetyl amino sugars that constitute 40% of the DOM in reclaimed water are removed during the first 3 m of vertical infiltration in the recharge basin. Groundwater age dating with 3H and 3He isotopes, and determinations of organic and inorganic C isotopes, enabled clear differentiation of recent recharged water from older native groundwater. Phenol structures in natural fulvic acids in DOM isolated from groundwater produced significant trihalomethanes (THM) and total organic halogen (TOX) yields upon chlorination, and these structures also were responsible for the enhanced SUVA and specific fluorescence characteristics relative to DOM in reclaimed water. Aromatic sulfonates and fulvic acids in reclaimed water DOM produced minimal THM and TOX yields.

  8. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  9. Development of Multi-Disciplinary Finite Element Method Analysis Courses at California State University, Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, John; Wu, Chivey

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Partnership Awards Grant to California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA) has two primary goals that help to achieve NASA objectives. The overall objectives of the NASA Partnership Awards are to create opportunities for joint University NASA/Government sponsored research and related activities. One of the goals of the grant is to have university faculty researchers participate and contribute to the development of NASA technology that supports NASA goals for research and development (R&D) in Aeronautics and Astronautics. The other goal is technology transfer in the other direction, where NASA developed technology is made available to the general public and more specifically, targeted to industries that can profit from utilization of government developed technology. This years NASA Dryden Partnership Awards grant to CSULA entitled, "Computer Simulation of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Systems", has two major tasks that satisfy overall NASA objectives. The first task conducts basic and applied research that contributes to technology development at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The second part of the grant provides for dissemination of NASA developed technology, by using the teaching environment created in the CSULA classroom. The second task and how this is accomplished is the topic of this paper. The NASA STARS (Structural Analysis Routines) computer simulation program is used at the Dryden center to support flight testing of high-performance experimental aircraft and to conduct research and development of new and advanced Aerospace technology.

  10. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration at the Anheuser-Busch Los Angeles brewery

    SciTech Connect

    Banister, R.M.; Corea, V.A.; Sorensen, J.C.; Duncan, J.M.; Rudawitz, L.; Verdes, R.

    1980-02-01

    The results of a feasibility study undertaken in support of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) goal to develop fuel cell power plants for industrial cogeneration are described. Use of a single 4.5 MW fuel cell power plant like that manufactured by United Technologies Corporation (UTC) and currently being constructed on the Consolidated Edison of New York System was examined. The technical feasibility of using such a plant in a cogeneration mode at the Anheuser-Busch, Los Angeles brewery was affirmed by the study. Break-even capital costs for UTC supplied equipment were calculated for various conditions. Based upon the assumption that UTC supplied equipment could be provided for the $350 to $400/kW projected for first generation fuel cells, the economic feasibility of fuel cell cogeneration was demonstrated for nearly all assumed conditions. The most economical case was found to be a municipal utility owned, base loaded power plant where economic credit is taken for reduced environmental emissions. Acceptable fuels were evaluated for their availability, and the fuels identified for use were natural gas with propane as a backup. Phosphoric acid is the selected electrolyte. The Demonstration Program Plan is described. (WHK)

  11. Emissions of Methane from the Los Angeles Basin and Comparisons to Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Daube, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; Kofler, J.; Kort, E. A.; Lang, P.; Masarie, K.; McKeen, S. A.; Novelli, P. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Santoni, G. W.; Trainer, M.; Vay, S. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Xiang, B.; Parrish, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne measurements of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were made aboard the NOAA P-3 during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field campaign based out of Ontario, California in May and June, 2010. Additionally, measurements of these three trace gas species were made twice daily at the Mount Wilson Observatory. The emission ratio of CH4/CO from observations in the Los Angeles (L.A.) basin was higher than expected from inventories, consistent with past published works (Hsu et al., 2009; Wunch et al., 2009). We examine emission ratios of CH4/CO, CH4/CO2, and CO/CO2 over time, and conclude that emissions of CO in the L.A. basin are decreasing faster than emissions of CH4. CH4 emissions relative to CO2 are decreasing, as well. We further examine CH4 emissions from point sources in the L.A. basin and compare these emissions to point source inventories of the California Air Resources Board.

  12. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field. PMID:24149214

  13. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  14. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  15. Black/immigrant competition re-assessed: new evidence from Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, R

    1997-01-01

    Findings are presented from a survey of employers conducted to assess the impact of immigration and employer practices upon the chances of Blacks finding employment in Los Angeles. The highest ranking person involved in the hiring process at each of 44 restaurants, 46 printers, 41 hotels, and 39 furniture manufacturers was interviewed. The hiring of new employees drawn from the network of current employees seems to have the dual function of bringing immigrant communities into the workplace, while detaching vacancies from the open market, thereby reducing the number of employment opportunities for Blacks. Employers also perceived immigrants to be far more desirable employees than Blacks, partly because they believe that immigrants will work more productively. Immigrants are also seen as the more tractable laborers. Any managerial propensity to favor immigrants over Blacks will probably be reinforced by the attitudes of the mainly Latino work force, for placing a Black worker in a mainly Latino work crew may frustrate productivity given the animosity between the two ethnic groups. Blacks also appear to opt out of the low-level labor market in response to rising expectations, on the one hand, and the anticipation of encountering employment difficulties on the other.

  16. Flight Tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles. Part I : Full Scale Pressure Distribution Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De France, S J

    1930-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions. The results of the pressure measurements on the hull indicate that the forces on the forebody of an airship are relatively small. The tail surface measurements show conclusively that the forces caused by gusts are much greater than those caused by horizontal maneuvers. In this investigation the tail surface loadings caused by gusts closely approached the designed loads of the tail structure. The turning and drag characteristics will be reported in separate reports.

  17. Hurdles or walls? Nativity, citizenship, legal status and Latino homeownership in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Eileen Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Homeownership is directly and indirectly linked with many positive child, adult, and community-level outcomes. Prior research offers strong evidence that nativity and immigrants' citizenship status shapes U.S. homeownership, but relatively little work has explored how immigrants' legal status is connected with homeownership. This study draws from locational attainment and classic assimilation theories to develop hypotheses about sources of intra-Latino heterogeneity in homeownership. Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data are used to contrast four distinct groups of Latinos: U.S. born natives, naturalized citizens, authorized non-citizens, and unauthorized non-citizens. Logistic regression results indicate baseline and residual variation in Latino homeownership based on immigrant citizenship and legal status. Of these, unauthorized non-citizens are the least likely to own their home. The results provide support for all three theoretical models, particularly the place stratification perspective. The results also point to the need for more housing studies that jointly examine citizenship and legal status.

  18. Protocols for Late Maxillary Protraction in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Stephen L-K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the protocols used at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) to protract the maxilla during early adolescence. It is a modification of techniques introduced by Eric Liou with his Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (ALT-RAMEC) technique. The main differences between the CHLA protocol and previous maxillary protraction protocols are the age the protraction is attempted, the sutural loosening by alternating weekly expansion with constriction and the use of Class III elastics to support and redirect the protraction by nightly facemask wear. The CHLA protocol entirely depends on patient compliance and must be carefully taught and monitored. In a cooperative patient, the technique can correct a Class III malocclusion that previously would have been treated with LeFort 1 maxillary advancement surgery. Thus, it is not appropriate for patients requiring 2 jaw surgeries to correct mandibular prognathism, occlusal cants or facial asymmetry. The maxillary protraction appears to work by a combination of skeletal advancement, dental compensation and rotation of the occlusal planes. Microscrew/microimplant/temporary anchorage devices have been used with these maxillary protraction protocols to assist in expanding the maxilla, increasing skeletal anchorage during protraction, limiting dental compensations and reducing skeletal relapse. PMID:21765629

  19. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  20. Flight Tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles. Part II : Stress and Strength Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, C P

    1930-01-01

    The tests described in this report furnished data on the actual aerodynamic forces, and the resulting stresses and bending moments in the hull of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" during as severe still-air maneuvers as the airship would normally be subjected to, and in straight flight during as rough air as is likely to occur in service, short of squall or storm conditions. The maximum stresses were found to be within the limits provided for in accepted practice in airship design. Normal flight in rough air was shown to produce forces and stresses about twice as great as the most severe still-air maneuvers. No light was thrown upon the forces which might occur in extreme or exceptional conditions, such as the storm which destroyed the "Shenandoah". The transverse aerodynamic forces on the hull proper were found to be small and irregular. Owing to the necessity of conserving helium, it was impossible to fly the airship in a condition of large excess of buoyancy or weight in order to determine the air pressure distribution at a fixed angle of pitch. However, there is every reason to believe that in that condition the forces on the actual airship are as close to the wind-tunnel results as can be determined by present type of pressure measuring apparatus. It is considered that most important data obtained are the coefficients of tail-surface forces and hull-bending moments. These are tabulated in this report.